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A compilation of book review:

1. Bottom of the pyramid

2. Handbook of ethics

3. Cyber-ethics

By:

Dee, Morgan Jay T.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share


Alike 3.0 Philippines License.
TableofContents:

The bottom of the pyramid


- Chapter 1 – The Market at the bottom of the pyramid

- Chapter 2 – Products and services for the BOP

- Chapter 3 – BOP: A global opportunity

- Chapter 4 – The ecosystem for wealth creation

- Chapter 5 – Reducing Corruption: Transaction governance capacity

- Chapter 6 – Development as social transformation

The handbook of computer and information technology


- Chapter 1 – Foundations of information ethics by Luciano Floridi

- Chapter 2 - Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics by TERRELL WARD
BYNUM

- Chapter 3 - Moral Methodology and Information Technology by JEROEN VAN DEN HOVEN

- Chapter 4 – Value Sensitive

- Chapter 5 – Personality-based, rule-utilitarian, and Lockean justifications of intellectual property.

- Chapter 6 – Informational privacy: Concepts, theories, and controversies.

- Chapter 7 – Online Anonymity

- Chapter 8 - Ethical issues involving computer security: hacking, hacktivism, and counterhacking.
By: KENNETH EINAR HIMMA

- Chapter 9 – Information ethics and the library profession by KAY MATHIESEN and DON FALLIS

- Chapter 10 – Ethical interest in free and open source software by: FRANCES S. GRODZINSKY
and MARTY J. WOLF

- Chapter 11 – Internet research ethics: The field and its critical issues by: ELIZABETH A.
BUCHANAN and CHARLES ESS

- Chapter 12 – Health information technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science and uncertainty

- Chapter 13 – Ethical issues of information and business


- Chapter 14 – Responsibilities for information on the internet

- Chapter 15 - Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation

- Chapter 16 - Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues

- Chapter 17 – The ethics of cyber conflict

- Chapter 18 - A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection

- Chapter 19 - Regulation and Governance of the Internet

- Chapter 20 – Information overload

- Chapter 21 – Email Spam

- Chapter 22 - The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If

- Chapter 23 - Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing

- Chapter 24 - Censorship and Access to Expression

- Chapter 25 - The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics

- Chapter 26 - The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future

- Chapter 27 - Intercultural Information Ethics

Cyber-ethics

Chapter 1

- Ethics and information revolution – Terrell Ward Bynum

- Ethics On-line – Deborah G. Johnson

- Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in computer ethics – James H. Moor

- Disclosive Computer ethics – Philip Brey

- Gender and computer ethics – Alison Adam

- Is the global information infrastructure a democratic technology? - Deborah G. Johnson

- Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and theories to IT contexts: Some key problems and
challenges
- Just consequentialism and computing– James H. Moor

Chapter 2

- The internet as public space: concepts, issues and implications in public policy – Jean Camp and
Y.T Chien

- The laws of cyberspace – Larry Lessig

- Of black holes and decentralized law-making in cyberspace – David G. Post

- Fahrenheit 451.2: is cyberspace burning?

- Filtering the internet in the USA: free speech denied – Richard S. Rosenberg

- Censorship the internet, and the child pornography law of 1996: a critique – Jacques N. Catudal

- PICS: Internet access controls without censorship – Paul Resnick and James Miller

- Internet service providers and defamation: New standards of liability – Richard A. Spinello

Chapter 3

- Digital millennium copyright act

- Note to the DeCSS trial

- A politics of intellectual property: environmentalism for the net? – James Boyle

- Intellectual property, information and the common good – Michael C. McFarland SJ

- Is copyright ethical? An examination of the theories, laws and practices regarding the private
ownership of intellectual work in the United States – Shelly Warwick

- On the web, plagiarism matters more than copyright piracy – John W. Snapper

- An ethical evaluation of web site linking – Richard A. Spinello

- The cathedral and the bazaar – Eric Raymond

Chapter 4

- Towards a theory of privacy for the information age – James H. Moor

- The structure of rights in directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the
processing of personal data and the free movement of such data

- Privacy protection, control of information, and privacy-enhancing technologies – Herman T.


Tavani and James H. Moor
- Toward an approach to privacy in public: Challenges of information technology – Helen
Nissenbaum

- KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness – Anton H. Vedder

Data Mining and Privacy – Joseph J. Fulda

Workplace surveillance, privacy and distributive justice – Lucas D. Introna

- Privacy and varieties of informational wrongdoing – Jeroen van den Hoven

Chapter 5

- Defining the boundaries of computer crime – Herman T. Tavani

- Terrorism or civil disobedience: toward a hacktivist ethic

- Web security and privacy: An American perspective – L. Jean Camp

- The meaning of Anonymity in an information age – Helen Nissenbaum

- Double encryption of anonymized electronic of anonymized electronic data interchange

- Written on the body: Biometrics and identity – Irma van der Ploeg

Chapter 6

- Ethical considerations for the information professions – Elizabeth A. Buchanan

- Software engineering code of ethics: approved – Don Gotterbarn, Keith Miller, Simon Rogerson

- No, PAPA: Why incomplete code of ethics are worse than none at all - N. Ben Fairweather

- Subsumption Ethics – David H. Gleason

- Ethical issues in business computing – Duncan Langford

- The practitioner from within: Revisiting the virtues – Frances S. Grodzinsky


Chapter 1 – The Market at the bottom of the pyramid

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-Eradicating-


Publishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742161&sr=1-1

Quote:

What I expect to learn: to learn more about the market at the bottom of the pyramid.

Chapter review:

The Market at the bottom of the pyramid is the distribution of wealth and the capacity to generate
incomes in the world can be captured in the form of an economic pyramid. The pyramid is divided into 3
parts the top most is the class A, the middle part is the class B & C and the bottom is the class D.

The market at the bottom of pyramid has strength to innovative approaches; they tend to create
opportunities for the poor by offering them choices and encouraging self-esteem. Some of the basic
assumptions of large firms and multinational corporations to the poor is that they may undermined the
efforts of the poor to build their livelihoods, the greatest harm they might have done to the poor is to
ignore them altogether. Second, The BOP as a market provides a new growth opportunity for the private
sector and a forum for innovations. Third, the BOP markets must become an integral part of the work of
the private sector.

The power of Dominant logic is we all have our own ideology which we perceive the world. For
me It is not bad to have our own idea about something but sometimes if our idea becomes too much then
that is the time when people will have no teamwork because of conflict of ideas. Example of this is the
way we see how the Philippines will not change but if we always think of it like that then it will not really
change.

The nature of the BOP market has many characteristics.There is money at the BOP. The
dominant assumption is that the poor have no purchasing power and therefore do not represent a viable
market. This means that many people thinks that the poor have no money to buy anything because they
are poor but we are mistaken with that notion because by virtue of their numbers, the poor represent a
significant latent purchasing power that must be unlocked.

Access to BOP markets. The dominant assumption is that distribution access to the BOP markets
is very difficult and therefore represents a major implement for the participation of large firms and MNG’s.
This means that with the BOP market is having a hard time to distribution access to the people in the
market that’s why they need help from the large firms.

The BOP markets are brand conscious. The dominant assumption is that the poor are not brand-
conscious. On the contrary, the poor are very brand conscious. They are also extremely value-conscious
by necessity. This means that not only the rich people are brand conscious the poor is also brand
conscious because they want the best quality of their money that’s why they are brand conscious. I know
that with nice brands comes nice quality and I know that it is the same what the people thinks.

The BOP market is connected. Contrary to the popular view, BOP consumers are getting
connected and networked. They are rapidly exploited the benefits of information networks. This means
that nowadays many people have internet access that’s why the BOP market is connected to people from
all over the country.
BOP consumers accept advanced technology readily. Contrary to the popular belief, the BOP
consumers accept advanced technology readily. This means that when it comes to technology people will
accept it because they know that it will make their life easier or it will help their life to do things the easy
way.

The market development imperative involves both the consumer and the private sector firm.
Create the capacity to consume. To convert the BOP into a consumer market, we have to create the
capacity to consume. Cash-poor and with a low level of income, the BOP consumer has to be accessed
differently.

The need for new goods and services. The involvement of the private sector at the BOP can
provide opportunities for the development of new products and services.

Dignity and choice. When the poor are converted into consumers, they get more than access to
products and services. They acquire the dignity of attention and choices from the private sector that were
previously reserved for the middle-class and rich.

Trust is a prerequisite. Both sides- the large firms and the BOP consumers- have traditionally not
trusted each other. The mistrust runs deep. However, private-sector firms approaching the BOP market
must focus on building trust between themselves and the consumers.

Benefits of the private sector threatens the poor as consumers as well as the poverty alleviation
process that will result as businesses focus on the BOP.

Integrative questions:

1. What is the market at the BOP?

2. What are the benefits of the private sector?

3. What is a BOP?

4. What is the market development imperative?

5. What does it mean dignity and choice?

What I learned: I understood the market at the bottom of the pyramid.


Chapter 2 – Products and services for the BOP

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-Eradicating-


Publishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742161&sr=1-1

Quote:

What I expect to learn: To know more about the Products and services for the BOP market.

To know and understand about the 12 principles of innovation for BOP markets.

Chapter review:

The BOP as a market will challenge the dominant logic of MNC managers (the beliefs and values
that managers serving the developed markets have been socialized with). This shift in business
economics is the first surprise to most managers. These challenges are not isolated conditions
involvement in BOP markets will challenge assumptions that managers in MNCs have developed over a
long period of time. A new Philosophy of product development and innovation that reflects the realities of
BOP markets will be needed.

Twelve principles of innovation for BOP markets

1.) Price performance addressing the market opportunity at the BOP requires that we start with a
radically new understanding of the price performance relationship compared to that currently
employed in developed markets. This is not about lowering prices. It is about altering the price-
performance envelope. Price is an important part of the basis for growth in BOP markets.

2.) Innovation: Hybrids – The BOP market opportunity cannot be satisfied by watered-down versions of
traditional technology solutions from the developed markets. The BOP markets can and must be
addressed by the most advanced technology creatively combined with existing (and evolving)
infrastructure.

3.) Scale of operations – It is easy to succeed in a limited experiment, but the market needs of 4 to 5
billion people suggest that the experiments must be commercially scalable.

4.) Sustainable development: eco-friendly – The poor as a market are 5 billion strong. This means that
solutions that we develop cannot be based on the same patterns of resource use that we expect to
use in developed countries. Solutions must be sustainable and ecologically friendly.

5.) Identifying functionality: Is the BOP different from developed markets? – Recognizing that the
functionality required in products or services in the BOP market might be different from that available
in that developed markets is a critical starting point. In fact, developers must start from this
perspective and look for anomalies from their prior expectations based on their experiences with
developed markets.

6.) Process innovation - A significant opportunity for innovation in BOP markets centers around
redefining the process to suit the infrastructure. Process innovation is a critical step in marketing
products and services affordable for the poor. How to deliver is a important as what to deliver.
7.) Deskilling of work – In most BOP markets there is a shortage of talent. Work must, therefore, be
deskilled.

8.) Education of Customers – Innovation in BOP markets requires significant investment in educating
customers on the appropriate use and the benefits of specific products and services. Given the poor
infrastructure for customer access, innovation in the educational process is vital.

9.) Designing for Hostile Infrastructure – The BOP markets exists in a hostile infrastructure. Design of
products and services must take this into account.

10.) Interfaces – The design of the interface must be carefully thought through. Most of the customers in
BOP markets are first time users of products and services and the learning curve cannot be long or
arduous.

11.) Distribution: Accessing the customer – Distribution systems that reach the BOP are critical for
developing this market. Innovations in distribution are as critical as product and process innovations.

12.) BOP markets essentially allow us to challenge the conventional wisdom in delivery of products and
services. – By its very nature, success in BOP markets will break existing paradigms.

Integrative questions

1. What are the 12 principles of innovation for BOP markets?

2. What is the product and services for the BOP?

3. What does BOP market mean to people?

4. What does it mean as education of customers?

5. What does it mean as process innovation?

What I learned: The 12 principles of innovation for BOP markets.

Products and services for the BOP.


Chapter 3 – BOP: A global opportunity

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-Eradicating-


Publishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742161&sr=1-1

Quote:

What I expect to learn: To know and understand what is the BOP global opportunity.

Chapter review:

Large firms can create products and services that are ideally suited for the BOP markets.
Although there are opportunities for growth in BOP markets, are these opportunities for growth in BOP
markets, are these opportunities attractive enough for large firms to go through the changes that are
required in their internal systems and processes? We can identify four distinct sources of opportunity for a
large firm that invests the time and energy to understand and cater to the BOP markets:

1.) Some BOP markets are large and attractive as stand-alone entities.

2.) Many local innovations can be leveraged across other BOP markets, creating a global
opportunity for local innovations.

3.) Some innovations from the BOP markets will find applications in developed markets.

4.) Lessons from the BOP markets can influence the management practices of global firms.

Engaging the BOP – There are two ways in which large firms tend to engage the BOP markets.
The traditional approach of many MNCs is to start from the business models honed in the developed
markets - the top of the pyramid and their zone of comfort. This approach to the BOP market inevitably
results in fine-tuning current products and services and management practices. There is growing
evidence that this approach is a recipe for failure. The quality, efficacy, potency, and usability of solutions
developed for the BOP markets are very attractive for the top of the pyramid.

Local growth opportunities – Some of the local BOP markets are very large. Large population
base is one indicator of the size of the market opportunity at the BOP, not necessarily the per-capita
income. Needless to say, this growth was not all derived from the very poor. There are a lot of emerging
“middle” –class customers here, but most of them earn less than $1,500 per capita.

Learning to grow – BOP markets can collapse the time frames taken for products, technologies,
and concepts to diffuse in the system. Many of the drivers of change and market growth- deregulation,
involvement of the private sector in BOP markets, digitization, ubiquitous connectivity and the attendant
change in the aspirations of people, favorable demographics and access to credit- are simultaneously
present in BOP markets.
Integrative question:

1. What is a global opportunity?

2. What does in meant by engaging the BOP?

3. What does it mean by learning to grow?

4. What are the attractive stand-alone entities?

5. What does it mean by local growth opportunities?

What I learned: The BOP global opportunity


Chapter 4 – The ecosystem for wealth creation

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-Eradicating-


Publishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742161&sr=1-1

Quote:

What I expect to learn: What is the meaning of the ecosystem for wealth creation?

To understand about the ecosystem for wealth creation.

Chapter review:

There have been few attempts to focus on the symbiotic nature of the relationships between
various private sector and social institutional players that can lead to a rapid development of markets at
the BOP. The thinking behind poverty alleviation and economic development. This thinking has influenced
the pattern of private-sector involvement in development in many countries. The focus of public policy on
the private sector as a possible instrument of poverty reduction is of recent vintage.

Market-oriented ecosystem – A market based ecosystem is a framework that allows private


sector and social actors, often with different traditions and motivations, and of different sizes and areas of
influence, to act together and create wealth in a symbiotic relationship.

Ecosystems for a developing country – The competitive conditions, the availability of new
technologies, the nature of resource endowments, the availability of new technologies, the nature of
resource endowments, and the educational infrastructure are vastly different.

Learning the sanctity of contracts – Underpinning this ecosystem is education across all levels.
Building governance capabilities among the poor – There is a third phase of building transaction
governance capacity. This entails the capacity of self-governance.

1.) Microsavings must precede microlending. BOP consumers must learn to save and there were
no institutions to support microsavings.

2.) BOP consumers must start trusting themselves. They must be actively involved in solving
their problems. Outside help can go only so far.

3.) There is no dearth of latent leaders in the villages. Given the opportunity they will emerge and
will influence the start of a transparent and commercially viable system.

Integrative questions:

1. What does it mean by symbiotic nature?

2. What are the three phase of building transaction?

3. What is a market oriented ecosystem?

4. What does it mean by sanctity of contracts?

5. What is the ecosystem for developing a country do?

What I learned: The meaning of the ecosystem for wealth creation.


Chapter 5 – Reducing Corruption: Transaction governance capacity

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-Eradicating-


Publishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742161&sr=1-1

Quote:

What I expect to learn: How can we reduce corruption: transaction governance capacity.

To understand about reducing corruption: transaction governance capacity.

Chapter review:

Private sectors can be a major facilitator of poverty alleviation through the creation of markets at
the BOP. Although managers might be convinced about the opportunity, it is likely that there are lingering
doubts about the ability of large firms to operate in these markets. The primary source of this concern is
corruption. In many cases, the impact of micro regulations and local customs that are opaque to MNC
managers may be interpreted as corruption.

Are the poor poor? Assumptions have been at the core of the thinking on poverty reduction and
developmental assistance during the past 30 years.

First, poor countries are poor because they lack resources. Aid was, therefore, seen as a
substitute for locally generated resources.

Second, aid from rich countries to the governments of the poor countries for specific projects
would reduce poverty.

Third investments in education and health care might have the largest multipliers per dollar of
investment in economic development. Therefore, aid must be skewed to these sectors.

The record of aid and loans from the various donor countries and the World Bank, International
monetary fund, and other institutions is at best mixed. The development community is paying attention to
the role of the private sector in building markets.

Fundamental to the evolution of capital markets and a vibrant private sector is the need for a
transparent market for capital, land, labor, commodities, and knowledge. Transparency results from
widely understood and clearly enforced rules. Transactions involving these rules must be clear and
unambiguous. Ownership and the transfer of ownership must be enforced.
Integrative question:

1. What is it with a private sector?

2. What does poverty reduction and development assistance do during the past 30 years?

3. What is a MNC?

4. What did the various donor countries donate to the world bank?

5. What does it mean by poor poor?

Lessons learned:

I learned Reducing Corruption: Transaction governance capacity


Chapter 6 – Development as social transformation

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-Eradicating-


Publishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742161&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: To understand and know more about the development of social transformation

Chapter review:

There are 3 transitions in our thinking. First, the demonstration that the BOP- the poor-can be a
market. Second, once we accept the BOP, as a market, the only way to serve the market is to innovate.
The BOP demands a range of innovations in products and services, business models, and management
processes. Third, these innovations must be accompanied by increased TGC, making the government
accountable to the citizens and making it accessible and transparent. Some theorists suggest that it is
more useful to view privacy in terms of an interest rather than as a right. One of the control theory’s
principal insights is in recognizing the role that individual choice plays in privacy theory. Second, the
control theory is not clear with regard to the kind of personal information over which one can expect to
have control. We have seen that neither the control nor the restricted access theories provide an
adequate account of informational privacy. Yet each theory has something important to say with respect
to the question of why privacy protection regarding personal information is important. Privacy protects the
interest individuals have in “sustaining a personal space, free from interference by other people and
organizations.” An interests-based conception of privacy have suggested that privacy protection schemes
can simply be stipulated (as a procedural matter) as opposed to having to be grounded in the kinds of
philosophical and legal theories needed to justify rights.

Integrative questions:
1. What are the 3 transitions of our thinking?

2. What is a privacy theory?

3. What is TGC?

4. What does BOP demand?

5. What is an informational privacy?

Lessons learned: I understood the development as social transformation


The handbook of information and computer ethics

Chapter 1 – Foundations of information ethics by Luciano Floridi

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

What I expect to learn: To know what are the foundations of information ethics, To fully understand the
meaning of information ethics

Chapter review: We are called the information society because of the pivotal role played by intellectual,
intangible assets, information-intensive services and public sectors. As a social organization and way of
life, the information society has been made possible by a cluster of information and communication
technologies (ICT) infrastructures. The information society has already posed fundamental ethical
problems, whose complexity and global dimensions are rapidly growing and evolving. Information Ethics
has been claimed to be the study of moral issues arising from one or another of the three distinct“
information arrows” in the RPT model.

The first stage: IE as an ethics of informational resources was used as a general label to discuss
issues regarding information (or data) confidentiality, reliability, quality, and usage. Not surprisingly, the
disciplines involved were initially library and information science and business and management studies.
Information as a resource should be managed efficiently, effectively, and fairly. “Ethical intellectualism”

analyzes evil and morally wrong behavior as the outcome of deficient information. Information Ethics may
be described as the study of the moral issues arising from “the triple A”: availability, accessibility, and
accuracy of informational resources, independently of their format, kind, and physical support.
The second stage: IE as an ethics of informational products Thus, IE, understood as Information
as- a-Product Ethics, will cover moral issues arising, for example, in the context of accountability, liability,
libel legislation, testimony, plagiarism, advertising, propaganda, misinformation, and more generally of
pragmatic rules of communication_a la Grice. It is hard to identify researchers who uniquely support this
specific interpretation of IE, asworks on Information-as-Product Ethics tend to be inclusive, that is, they
tend to build on the first understanding of IE as an ethics of informational resources and add to it a new
layer of concerns for informational products as well.
The third stage: IE as an ethics of the informational environment The emergence of the
information society has further expanded the scope of IE. The more people have become accustomed to
living and working immersed within digital environments, the easier it has become to unveil new ethical
issues involving informational realities. Hacking, understood as the unauthorized access to a (usually
computerized) information system, is another good example because it shows quite clearly the change in
perspective.
The fourth stage: Information ethics as a macroethics The fourth interpretation of IE, as a
macroethics, may be quickly summarized thus: IE is a patient-oriented, ontocentric, ecological
macroethics (Floridi and Sanders, 1999). These are technical expressions that can be intuitively
explained by comparing IE to other environmental approaches.
The responsibilities of human agents Humans are special moral agents. Like demiurges, we have
“ecopoietic” responsibilities toward the whole infosphere. So Information Ethics is an ethics addressed not
just to “users” of the world but also to producers, who are “divinely” responsible for its creation and well-
being. It is an ethics of creative stewardship (Floridi, 2002, 2003; Floridi and Sanders, 2005). The term
“ecopoiesis” refers to the morally informed construction of the environment, based on an ecologically
oriented perspective.
Integrative questions:

1. What is a RPT model?

2. What does it mean by ontocentric?

3. What is an ICT?

4. What does it mean by ecologically oriented perspective?

5. What is macroethics?

Lessons learned: I understood the information ethics and I also know what the foundation of information
ethics is.
Chapter 2 - Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics by TERRELL WARD BYNUM

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: To know and understand the milestones in the history of information and computer
ethics

Chapter review:

The Human Use of Human Beings, explored the likely impacts of information technologies upon
central human values, such as life, health, happiness, security, freedom, knowledge, opportunities, and
abilities. Even in today’s “Internet age” and the search for “global information ethics,” the concepts and
procedures that Wiener employed can be used to identify, analyze, and resolve social and ethical
problems associated with information technologies of all kinds. Wiener based his foundation for
information ethics upon a cybernetic view of human nature and of society, which leads readily to an
ethically suggestive account of the purpose of a human life. From this, he identified “great principles of
justice” that every society should follow, and he employed a practical strategy for analyzing and resolving
information ethics issues wherever they might occur. Wiener’s understanding of human nature
presupposed a metaphysical account of the universe that considered the world and all the entities within
it, including humans, as combinations of two fundamental things: matter-energy and information. Today
we would say that, according to Wiener, humans are “information objects” whose personal identity and
intellectual capacities are dependent upon persisting patterns of information and information processing
within the body, rather than on specific bits of matter-energy. Wiener’s view of the purpose of a human life
led him to adopt what he called “great principles of justice” upon which a society should be built—
principles that, he believed, would maximize a person’s ability to flourish through variety and flexibility of
human action.
THE PRINCIPLE OF FREEDOM—Justice requires “the liberty of each human being to develop in his
freedom the full measure of the human possibilities embodied in him.”
THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY—Justice requires “the equality by which what is just for A and B remains
just when the positions of A and B are interchanged.”
THE PRINCIPLE OF BENEVOLENCE—Justice requires “a good will between man and man that knows
no limits short of those of humanity itself.”

Integrative Questions:

1. What is the principle of freedom?

2. What is the principle of equality?

3. What is the principle of benevolence?

4. What are the two fundamental things considered as the universe entities?

5. What is Weiner’s understanding of human nature?

Lessons learned: I understood the milestones in the history of information and computer ethics, the
principle of freedom, the principle of equality, the principle of benevolence
Chapter 3 - Moral Methodology and Information Technology by JEROEN VAN DEN HOVEN

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote: “the very possibility of moral thought and judgment depends on the provision of a suitable supply
of moral principles.”

Learning expectation: To understand the definition of moral methodology and also understand what is
information technology.

Chapter review:

Computer ethics is a form of applied or practical ethics. It studies the moral questions that are
associated with the development, application, and use of computers and computer science. Computer
ethics is a form of applied or practical ethics. It studies the moral questions that are associated with the
development, application, and use of computers and computer science. Information has special
properties that make it difficult to accommodate it in conceptual frameworks concerned with tangible,
material goods—their production, distribution, and use. Ethics focus on questions concerning the
meaning of ethical terms, such as “good” and “ought,” and on the cognitive content and truth of moral
propositions containing them. There are special or applied ethics named after itself like library ethics,
sports ethics and business ethics. The simplest way to be a generalist is to think that there are fairly
accurate general moral rules or principles that may be captured and codified. Important criticism comes
from Elizabeth Anscombe. Rule-based approaches are all vulnerable to the problem of acting under a
description: “An act-token will fall under many possible principles of action. Particularists in ethics oppose
the search for universally valid moral rules. “The possibility of moral thought and judgment does not
depend on the provision of a suitable supply of moral principles.” Persons engaged in moral thinking,
deliberation, and decision-making typically discuss individual cases. Important objections to particularism
The first is that theory and thinking in terms of moral principles and rules seems to be part of our moral
practices. Trying to find general principles to match one’s judgments and intuitions in a particular case to
extend them to other cases, or to explain them to others, seems a natural thing to do and is simply part
and parcel of moral life, especially in the public policy and political arena.

Integrative questions:

1. What is computer ethics?

2. What does it mean by a particularists?

3. What does ethics focus on?

4. What is the simplest way to be a generalist?

5. Who is Elizabeth Anscombe?

Lessons learned: I understood both information technology and methodology.


Chapter 4 – Value Sensitive

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: To fully understand the meaning of value sensitive in IT and what does it to.

Chapter review:

Value Sensitive Design is a theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that
accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process.
First of all we want to know what value is. Value refers simply to the economic worth of an object, what a
person or group of people consider important in life. In this sense, people find many things of value, both
lofty and mundane: their children, friendship, morning tea, education, art, a walk in the woods, nice
manners, good science, a wise leader, and clean air. Computer Ethics advances our understanding of
key values that lie at the intersection of computer technology and human lives Social Informatics has
been successful in providing socio-technical analyses of deployed technologies. Computer-Supported
Cooperative Work has been successful in the design of new technologies to help people collaborate
effectively in the workplace. Value Sensitive Design builds on an iterative methodology that integrates
conceptual, empirical, and technical investigations. There are 3 types of investigation the first one is
conceptual investigation. Careful working conceptualizations of specific values clarify fundamental issues
raised by the project at hand, and provide a basis for comparing results across research teams. Trust in
Cyberspace (Schneider, 1999), adopted the terms “trust” and “trustworthy” to describe systems that
perform as expected along the dimensions of correctness, security, reliability, safety, and survivability.
The second is empirical investigations are also often needed to evaluate the success of a particular
design. Empirical investigations can be applied to any human activity that can be observed, measured, or
documented. The third one is technical investigations focus on how existing technological properties and
underlying mechanisms support or hinder human values.

Integrative questions:

1. What is a value sensitive design?

2. What has been successful in providing socio-technical analyses?

3. What is an empirical investigation?

4. What are the three types of investigation?

5. What is socio informatics?

Lessons learned: Value sensitive design is the grounded approach to the design of technology that
accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process.
Chapter 5 – Personality-based, rule-utilitarian, and Lockean justifications of intellectual property.

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: To know and understand what is personality-based, rule- utilitarian and Lockean
justifications of intellectual property.

Chapter review:

First of all we want to know what intellectual property is generally it is characterized as


nonphysical property that is the product of cognitive processes and whose value is based upon some
idea or collection. Typically, rights do not surround the abstract nonphysical entity, or res, of intellectual
property, rather, intellectual property rights surround the control of physical manifestations or expressions.
Systems of intellectual property protect rights to ideas by protecting rights to produce and control physical
embodiments of those ideas. Copyright protection extends to original works of authorship fixed in any
tangible medium of expression. The five rights are the right to reproduce the work, the right to adapt it or
derive other works from it, the right to distribute copies of the work, the right to display the work publicly,
and the right to perform it publicly. All five rights lapse after the lifetime of the author plus 70 years—or in
the case of works for hire, the term is set at 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation,
whichever comes first. Patents yield the strongest form of protection, in that a 20 years exclusive
monopoly is granted over any expression or implementation of the protected work. The bundle of rights
conferred on patents owners are the right to make, the right to use, the right to sell, and the right to
authorize others to sell the patented item. Property rights are important in two ways according to this
view. First, by controlling and manipulating objects, both tangible and intangible, our will takes form in the
world and we obtain a measure of freedom. Second, in some cases, our personality becomes infused
with an object—moral claims to control feelings, character traits, and experiences may be expanded to
intangible works. The problems of justification of intellectual property have four problems. First, it is not
clear that we own our feelings, character traits, and experiences. Second, even if it could be established
that individuals own or have moral claims to their personality it does not automatically follow that such
claims are expanded when personalities become infused in tangible or intangible works. Third, assuming
that moral claims to personality could be expanded to tangible or intangible items we would still need an
argument justifying property rights. Finally, there are many intellectual innovations in which there is no
evidence of the creator.s personality. One alternative to granting patent rights to inventors as incentive is
government support of intellectual labour. This would result in government funded research projects, with
the results immediately becoming public property.

Integrative questions:

1. What is generally characterized as a nonphysical property?

2. What are the bundles of rights?

3. What are the four problems of intellectual property?

4. What is the strongest form of protection?

5. What are the alternative in granting patent rights?

Lessons learned: I understood the personality-based, rule- utilitarian and Lockean justifications of
intellectual property.
Chapter 6 – Informational privacy: Concepts, theories, and controversies.

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1
Learning expectation: What is informational privacy: concepts, theories and controversies?

Chapter review:

Privacy is representing two different kinds of interests that individuals have: (i) avoiding
disclosure of personal matters (i.e., information) and (ii) independence in making certain kinds of
important decisions. Some theorists suggest that it is more useful to view privacy in terms of an interest
rather than as a right. However, many who support an interest-based conception of privacy also note that
privacy interests must be balanced against many other, often competing, interests. Privacy protects the
interest individuals have in “sustaining a personal space, free from interference by other people and
organizations.” An interests-based conception of privacy have suggested that privacy protection schemes
can simply be stipulated (as a procedural matter) as opposed to having to be grounded in the kinds of
philosophical and legal theories needed to justify rights. There are four distinct kinds of privacy: “physical
privacy” as the freedom a person enjoys from sensory intrusion, which is “achieved thanks to restrictions
on others, ability to have bodily interactions with (that person).” Informational privacy is “freedom from
epistemic interference” that is achieved when there is a restriction on “facts” about someone that are
“unknown.” Informational privacy concerns can affect personal data that is both stored in and
communicated between electronic databases (database privacy) and personal information communicated
between parties using e-mail, telephony, and wireless communication devices. The control theory, say
that one’s having privacy is directly linked to one’s having control over information about oneself. One of
the control theory’s principal insights is in recognizing the role that individual choice plays in privacy
theory. Second, the control theory is not clear with regard to the kind of personal information over which
one can expect to have control. We have seen that neither the control nor the restricted access theories
provide an adequate account of informational privacy. Yet each theory has something important to say
with respect to the question of why privacy protection regarding personal information is important.

Integrative question:

1. What are the two different kinds that privacy is representing?

2. What is an interest-based conception of privacy?

3. What can informational privacy affect?

4. What is a control theory?

5. What is database privacy?

Lessons learned: The concept of privacy, Unitary, Derivative, and Cluster Definitions of Privacy, Interest-
Based Conceptions Versus Rights-Based Conceptions of Privacy, FOUR DISTINCT KINDS OF
PRIVACY: PHYSICAL/ACCESSIBILITY, DECISIONAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL/MENTAL, AND
INFORMATIONAL PRIVACY.
Chapter 7 – Online Anonymity

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: To know and understand online anonymity

Chapter review:

Anonymity maybe deliberately sought or something that occurs spontaneously from the sheer
complexity of modern life. There are two ideas at work here. One is the thought that anonymity could be
the byproduct of sheer size as when one is among a throng of people who don’t know one another. The
other is the thought that anonymity could be the byproduct of complex social organization, where society
is organized such that one’s social locations are dispersed and not necessarily connected with one
another. The Internet as a social environment may be of concern in so far as it has the capacity to
increase the scope of natural or spontaneous anonymity as a by-product of or endemic to the nature of
online communicative relations. With the development of modern information technologies, there seems
to be an increase in the ease with which anonymity may be assumed and, at the same time, an increase
in the ease with which it may be undermined. As a new social environment, the Internet may offer new
ways of self-identification, expression, and interaction with identifiable others. The concept of anonymity
has sometimes been taken to mean “un-name-ability” or “namelessness,” but that is somewhat too
narrow a definition. Anonymity presupposes social or communicative relations. In other words, it is
relative to social contexts in which one has the capacity to act, affect or be affected by others, or in which
the knowledge or lack of knowledge of who a person is is relevant to their acting, affecting, or being
affected by others. This approach to anonymity presupposes a model of a person (or a group of persons)
as a unique combination of interrelated traits; each trait is a position in a network of relations, or, “order.”
computer-mediated or online communication may encourage the impression that one is anonymous, even
though one’s activities may be relatively easily coordinated, leading to identifiability by marketers,
researchers, government officials, and so on. One problem here is not with anonymity itself, but that
anonymity is not in fact the case when it is presumed to be present. Anonymity and contribution bias in
computer-mediated communications for group brainstorming, anonymity can contribute to decreased
evaluation apprehension, conformance pressure and domination and status competition, and increased
private self-awareness, all of which can lead to increased exploration of alternatives and surfacing of
assumptions. Anonymity can also, however, lead to loafing, disinhibition, deindividuation32 and contribute
to decreased effectiveness and satisfaction.

Integrative questions:
1. What is anonymity?
2. What is the concept of anonymity?
3. What are the anonymity and ethical issues in information technology?
4. What does the approach to anonymity presupposes?
5. What does the internet offer as a new social environment?

Lessons learned: ANONYMITY AS A FEATURE OF COMPLEX SOCIAL STRUCTURES, THE


CONCEPT OF ANONYMITY, ANONYMITY AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
Chapter 8 - Ethical issues involving computer security: hacking, hacktivism, and counterhacking. By:
KENNETH EINAR HIMMA

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: to know and understand about ethical issues involving computer security: hacking,
hacktivism, and counterhacking.

Chapter review:

First of all we know that hacking is a bad thing to do. First, assuming that hacking is a species of
trespass, it doesn’t follow that all hacking is wrong because not all trespasses are wrong. Second, and
more importantly, it is not clear that the concept of trespass properly applies to digital intrusions. Even so,
it seems clear that digital intrusions impinge upon legitimate interests of computer users. The burden
rests on the hacker to show that a particular intrusion is morally permissible. This will involve showing that
any legitimate property or privacy interests are outweighed, as an ethical matter, by interests that can be
secured only by committing the intrusion. Intrusions intended to cause harm out of malice are generally
wrong. Although it is sometimes permissible to inflict harm on another person when necessary to secure
a greater good, a malicious intention does not seek a greater good. Social benefits of Benign intrusions is
by gaining insight into the operations of existing networks, hackers develop knowledge that can be used
to improve those networks. Second, the break-ins themselves call attention to security flaws that can be
exploited by malicious hackers or, worse, terrorists. These social benefits can be achieved without
infringing upon any moral rights. For example, hackers can develop these techniques and technologies in
settings where the consent of all parties has been obtained. The property and privacy rights computer
owners have in their machines can justifiably be infringed by an unauthorized intrusion only if required to
secure some more important right that outweighs those privacy and property rights.

Integrative questions:

1. What is the prima facie case against hacking?

2. What is a hacktivism?

3. Is hacking a bad thing to do?

4. What are the property and privacy rights of computer owners?

5. What can an intrusion do to your system?

Lessons learned: THE PRIMA FACIE CASE AGAINST HACKING, OVERCOMING THE PRIMA FACIE
CASE: HACKING MOTIVATED BY BENIGN PURPOSES, HACKTIVISM: HACKING AS POLITICALLY
MOTIVATED ACTIVISM AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
Chapter 9 – Information ethics and the library profession by KAY MATHIESEN and DON FALLIS

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand Information ethics and the library profession

Chapter review:

The core values of the librarian profession in America have their own list of core values: “access,
confidentiality/privacy, democracy, diversity, education and lifelong learning, intellectual freedom,
preservation, the public good, professionalism, service, and social responsibility.” There are some
problems with those approaches because some have conflicts with each other. Shiyali Ramamrita
Ranganathan has his own famous five laws of library science (1931). 1.) Books are for use - the goal of
the librarian should be to make sure that book and other information resources are actually accessed and
read. Ranganathan appeals to the first law as a grounding principle for accessibility 2.) Every person his
or her book - We will also do what we can to promote people knowing about and using the books and
information sources that are available. 3.) Every book its reader - If there are barriers between a user and
the information—if it is too difficult or takes too long to access the information—then persons will be less
likely to get the information they need and they most certainly will be likely to get lower quality
information. 4.) Save the time of the reader - People do not typically just want or need any old
information; they need and want quality information, for example, information that is on topic,
comprehensible, current, interesting, accurate, and well-written. 5.) The library is a growing organism –
this means that many people are visiting the library to get some information they need. Selection, bias
and neutrality “Selection—filtering, to use Ortega’s word—far from being an ethical transgression. . .is
(and always has been) the core service; indeed, the greatest ethical transgression the library could ever
commit would be to avoid selection—that is, not to prescribe”. Librarians can avoid bias in selection by
simply remaining neutral between different points of view. Being neutral in making selection decision
means selection must be distinct from mere non judgment. Classification and labeling needs to be done
in libraries by their very nature shape the ways in which we access information. If they did not do this,
they would have little use. Children’s access to information is protecting children from certain sorts of
speech extends to libraries. “Libraries are supposed to be places where children learn, where they are
protected, where responsible adults offer reasonable guidance”.

Integrative questions:
1. What are the core values of a librarian?
2. Who is Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan?
3. What are Ranganathan’s famous five laws of library science?
4. Why does classification and labeling needs to be done in libraries?
5. What is the place where children is supposed to learn?

Lessons learned: The core value of the library profession, selection, bias, and neutrality, classification
and labeling, children’s access to information
Chapter 10 – Ethical interest in free and open source software by: FRANCES S. GRODZINSKY and
MARTY J. WOLF

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote: “All intellectual property rights are just licenses granted by society because it was thought . . . that
society as a whole would benefit by granting them”

Learning expectation: to know and understand Ethical interest in free and open source software

Chapter review:

Free and open source software means software which is liberally licensed to grant the right of
users to study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. This approach
has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognized
by both individuals and corporate players. In the Manifesto, he deals with some of the early objections to
free software. The first objection centers on programmers being rewarded for their creativity. He makes a
distinction between deserving a reward and asking for a reward. He states that “if anything deserves a
reward, it is social contribution,” and that “there is nothing wrong with wanting pay for work” (Stallman,
1985). “The means of charging for software customary in the field of software today are based on
destruction” (Stallman, 1985). “Extracting money from users of a program by restricting their use of it is
destructive because the restrictions reduce the amount and the ways that the program can be used. This
reduces the amount of wealth that humanity derives from the program” (Stallman, 1985).The Manifesto is
that a programmer has a right to control the results of his/her creative endeavor. Software licenses, users
of software are typically restricted from making copies for others and making modifications to the software
to meet their own needs. A potential software user, though, needs to weigh the difficulties faced without
the software against the difficulties faced when the software is used. four freedoms that are essential for
free software. (1) Freedom to run the program, for any purpose. (2) Freedom to study how the program
works, and adapt it to your needs. (3) Freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.
(4) Freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole
community benefits.

Integrative questions:
1. What is FS?
2. What is OSS?
3. What are the distinction between FS and OSS?
4. What are the critiques of FS and OSS?
5. What are the rights of FS and OSS?

Lessons learned: distinction between FS and OSS, critiques of FS and OSS


Chapter 11 – Internet research ethics: The field and its critical issues by: ELIZABETH A. BUCHANAN and
CHARLES ESS

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand Internet research ethics: The field and its critical issues

Chapter review:

Internet research ethics (IRE) is an emerging multi- and interdisciplinary field that systematically
studies the ethical implications that arise from the use of the Internet as a space or locale of, and/or tool
for, research. IRE builds on the research ethics traditions developed for medical, humanistic, and social
science research; this means in turn that a central challenge for IRE is to develop guidelines for ethical
research that aim toward objective, universally recognized norms, while simultaneously incorporating
important disciplinary differences in research ethics—a challenge frequently met in IRE through pluralistic
approaches that conjoin shared norms alongside such irreducible differences. the AoIR ethics committee
sought insight and guidance from three sources: (1) professional ethics, including codes for computer-
related professions, such as the Association for Computing Machinery (1992); (2) ethical codes in the
social sciences and the humanities, where our colleagues in the humanities insisted on understanding
human beings online as amateur artists or authors who are producing a work that usually needs only
copyright protection, in contrast with the social science view of human beings online as “subjects” to be
protected in keeping with the standard human subjects protections of anonymity, informed consent, and
so on (Bruckman, 2002); and (3) the growing body of information and computing ethics (ICE), (Ess, 2006;
Floridi, 2003). IRE issues are usually intertwined and consequently more complex. AoIR guidelines
continue to find use in diverse research projects and institutional settings, both in the English-speaking
world and beyond, this diffusion suggests that an international consensus regarding online research
ethics may well be possible.

Integrative questions:
1. What is IRE?
2. What is AoIR?
3. What are the three sources of AoIR ethics committee?
4. What does IRE issue?
5. What is ACM?

Lessons learned: I understood and learned Internet research ethics: The field and its critical issues
Chapter 12 – Health information technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science and uncertainty

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand Health information technology: Challenges in Ethics,
Science and uncertainty

Chapter review:

Many people have a misunderstanding of what ethics means. Ethics is a branch of philosophy,
has the task of studying morality, or (generally) public accounts of the rightness or wrongness of actions.
Applied or professional ethics is the analysis of moral issues that arise in, well, the professions. The use
of computers or, more generally, information technology in the health professions is indeed a rich source
of ethical issues and challenges. Privacy and confidentiality use of decision support systems and
development of personal health records. The demands of privacy are intuitively straightforward and the
consequences of its violation obvious. Without a credible promise that privacy and confidentiality will be
safeguarded, the task of fostering trust is frustrated. There are many reasons to believe that public
distrust imperils the growth or expansion of electronic medical records. So, without trust—newly imperiled
by the belief that computers might constitute new threats to confidentiality—the expansion of health
information technology is in jeopardy. Privacy is, most generally, the right entitlement or reasonable
expectation people have that they are and will be secure from intrusion. It is the same with confidentiality.
The use of computers in health care provides a solid example of the utility of applied or practical ethics to
address challenges raised by the growth of technology. Inappropriate use of computers to obtain
confidential information is best reduced by an ensemble of three approaches: institutional policies and
federal and state legislation, thoughtful security precautions (including audit trails, for instance), and
education about the moral foundations of privacy and confidentiality

Integrative questions:

1. What is health information technology?

2. What are the challenges of ethics?

3. What is science and uncertainty?

4. What are the demands that are intuitively straight forward?

5. What are the use of computers in health care?

Lessons learned: I understood Health information technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science and
uncertainty
Chapter 13 – Ethical issues of information and business

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: To know and understand Ethical issues of information and business

Chapter review:

Information and Communications Technology are central to the way we interact with information
and also to the way we organize business. To address the ethics of business and information, we thus
need to keep in mind questions of technology. We need to consider other disciplines such as computer
sciences, software engineering, information systems, and their subspecialties. The concepts of
businesses have a large influence on how we live our individual lives and also on how society is
regulated. Businesses are social facts, but they are also the objects of theoretical and academic attention.
The two levels of observation of business and economic activity are the micro- and macrolevels. Business
ethics means immoral behavior of individual market participants. Moral norms are important for the
functioning of an economic system. At the same time, ethics as the theory of morality plays an important
role in justifying the economic system and thus allowing economic agents to feel legitimated in acting
within the system. Personal property is accepted, market mechanisms can easily gain a measure of
legitimacy. Markets and free exchange of property can also be justified from a perspective of justice and
fairness. The academic discipline of business ethics is now well established in most business schools and
recognized as an important part of business studies and research. On the macrolevel, business ethicists
consider the question of how an economic system can be justified. Macrolevel issues are thus of
relevance to business ethics and constitute an important part of the theoretical development of the field,
many observers view the microlevel analysis of activities of individuals and organizations as the heart of
business ethics.

Integrative questions:
1. What are the ethical issues of information and business?
2. What is the relevance of business ethicists to business ethics?
3. What are the academic disciplines of business ethics?
4. What are the two levels of observation of business and economic activity?
5. Why is moral norms important?

Lessons learned:I understood Ethical issues of information and business


Chapter 14 – Responsibilities for information on the internet

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: to know and understand Responsibilities for information on the internet

Chapter review:

People should have their own responsibility in putting their own information in the internet
because any people in the world can see what you post or what you do. Retrospective responsibility is an
equivalent of accountability. The latter refers to duties and obligations that can be imposed upon agents.
Having prospective responsibilities is equivalent to having duties and obligations or being bound by these.
Moral responsibility of an agent in the primarily retrospective sense, one has to make sure that three
conditions apply. First, there should be a causal relationship of some kind between the agent and the
action or the consequences of the action. This relationship can be direct or indirect, substantial or
additional. The relationship need not be the one that can be framed in terms of a sufficient condition or
even of a necessary condition as long as it contributes in one way or another to the effect. Second, the
action or its consequences should be performed or produced intentionally. The third condition for
responsibility leads us back to the relationship between retrospective and prospective responsibility. It
should be possible to give a moral qualification of the action or its consequences. There must be some
kind of moral principle or value consideration that is applicable to the action or its consequences. The
connection between prospective responsibility and retrospective responsibility is not only a motivational
one; understanding the prospective responsibility involved also focuses our attention on the relevant
aspects of a situation when we are deciding whether the first and the second condition of retrospective
responsibility have been satisfied. ISPs would better fit in with consequentialist moral theories. Problems
of reliability are strictly speaking in two general types: 1.) People lack the necessary expertise to assess
information on the basis of content criteria, and they also lack the necessary expertise to assess
information on the basis of pedigree criteria. 2.) People lack the expertise to assess information on the
basis of content criteria, and it is impossible for them to test the information with the help of pedigree
criteria.

Integrative questions:

1. What are the responsibilities of information in the internet?

2. What are the problems of reliability?

3. What are the retrospective responsibilities?

4. What is moral responsibility?

5. What are the consequentialist moral theory?

Lessons learned:I understood Responsibilities for information on the internet


Chapter 15 - Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: to know and understand Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation

Chapter review:

Virtual reality are technologies simulated three-dimensional (3D) environments displayed in


surround stereoscopic vision on the head-mounted display. The user could navigate and interact with
simulated environments through the datasuit and dataglove, items that tracked the positions and motions
of body parts and allowed the computer to modify its output depending on the recorded positions. A
virtual world is a description of a collection of objects in a space and rules and relationships governing
these objects. In virtual reality systems, such virtual worlds are generated by a computer. Immersion is
the sensation of being present in an environment, rather than just observing an environment from the
outside. Sensory feedback is the selective provision of sensory data about the environment based on
user input. Interactivity is the responsiveness of the virtual world to user actions. It includes the ability to
navigate virtual worlds and to interact with objects, characters, and places. These four elements can be
realized to a greater or lesser degree with a computer, and that is why there are both broad and narrow
definitions of virtual reality. These four elements can be realized to a greater or lesser degree with a
computer, and that is why there are both broad and narrow definitions of virtual reality .A narrow definition
would only define fully immersive and fully interactive virtual environments as VR. Computer Simulation is
a computer program that contains a model of a particular (actual or theoretical) system. Computer
simulation is also the name of the discipline in which such models are designed, executed, and analyzed.
The difference of virtual reality and computer simulation is that computer simulation is not interactive.

Integrative questions:
1. What is virtual reality?
2. What are the four elements that can be realized as a greater or lesser degree with a computer?
3. What is a computer simulation?
4. What is the virtual reality system?
5. What are the virtual worlds generated?

Lessons learned: I understood and learned from Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation
Chapter 16 - Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: to know and understand Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues

Chapter review:

The concept of information of Shannon’s theory was exclusively a physical-mathematical theory


of signs. In other words, mathematical information theory studies only the quantity of information in a
physical system. The quantity of information in a system can be understood roughly as the amount of
order in that system, or the inverse of the entropy (disorder) that all closed physical systems accumulate
over time. The word information has two different aspects data organization and command. Information is
seen as true propositional content this means that it can “resolve uncertainty in the objective sense of
uncertainty”. Genetic information was defined as “the precise determination of sequence, either of bases
in the nucleic acid and or of amino acid residues in the protein”. The idea of “genetic information” is that
genes containing an amount of information (the so-called TACG amino acids sequence) and able to build
a human being up is today a seldom challenged triviality. The “Central Dogma”, as originally formulated
by Crick, is a negative hypothesis, which states that information cannot flow downward from protein to
DNA. Genetic information would be, therefore, information about the very essence of a person, whereas
other nongenetic information would be only about accidental attributes. Ethical problems of genetic
information led to calls for a genetic privacy law all over the world because of the frequent genetic
information disputes arising between individuals. However, there may be many reasons, rational and
irrational, why individuals will not want to share the results of their genetic diagnosis. It is this situation
that has, at least in part, given rise to the question of whether individuals should have the right to know
the results of a third party genetic test to make significant future life decisions for them.

Integrative questions:
1. What is the concept of information in Shannon’s theory?
2. What is TACG?
3. What are the ethical problems of genetic information?
4. What is a genetic privacy law?
5. What are the examples of genetic information?

Lessons learned: I understood Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues


Chapter 17 – The ethics of cyber conflict

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Learning expectation: to know and understand The ethics of cyber conflict

Chapter review:

The law of international conflict consists of two parts: jus ad bellum, or the law of conflict
management, and jus in bello, or the law of war. Both are about ethical principles as much as they are
about “law,” and indeed, international law does not carry the same weight as domestic law. Under
international law, states, as sovereign entities, assume international legal obligations only by affirmatively
agreeing to them. Under domestic laws, the citizens of a country are vulnerable to prosecution for
violating any laws, regardless of whether they agree with them, and regardless of whether the laws are
even just. The law of conflict management is primarily concerned with the application of force, particularly
armed force. When does a cyber attack constitute the use of force? Not all cyber attacks are equal. The
impact of a cyber attack that denies access to a news Web site for 1 hour would be relatively minor
compared to one that interferes with air traffic control and causes planes to crash.
The Law of Information Conflict. Severity- This refers to people killed or wounded and property damage.
Immediacy- This is the time it takes for the consequences of an operation to take effect. Directness This
is the relationship between an operation and its effects. Invasiveness- This refers to whether an operation
involved crossing borders into the target country. Measurability This is the ability to measure the effects of
an operation. Presumptive Legitimacy- This refers to whether an operation is considered legitimate within
the international community. Responsibility- This refers to the degree to which the consequence of an
action can be attributed to a state as opposed to other actors.
The jus in bello specifies principles governing how that force may be applied during armed
conflict. Distinction of Combatants from Noncombatants. Only members of a nations regular armed forces
may use force, and they must distinguish themselves and not hide behind civilians or civilian property.
Military Necessity- Targets of attack should make a direct contribution to the war effort or produce a
military advantage. Proportionality- When attacking a lawful military target, collateral damage to
noncombatants and civilian property should be proportionate to military advantage likely to be achieved.
Indiscriminate Weapons- Weapons that cannot be directed with any precision, such as bacteriological
weapons, should be avoided. Superfluous Injury- Weapons that cause catastrophic and untreatable
injuries should not be used. Perfidy- Protected symbols should not be used to immunize military targets
from attack, nor should one feign surrender or issue false reports of cease fires. Neutrality- Nations are
entitled to immunity from attack if they do not assist either side; otherwise, they become legitimate
targets.

Integrative questions:
1. What is ethics of cyber conflict?
2. What are the two parts of international law of conflict?
3. What is the distinction of combatants and NonCombatants?
4. What is the law of information conflict?
5. What is presumptive legitimacy?

Lessons learned: I understood the ethics of cyber conflict


Chapter 18 - A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection

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Learning expectation: to know and understand A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment

Chapter review:

Risk management generally consists of an iterative series of steps. The context referred to in the
top box—the context in which the project is being developed—includes the organizational structure and
its competitive and political position as well as its risk management structure. The risk identification
process identifies potential negative impact on the project and its stakeholders. The types of risk identified
generally include those that have the potential to negatively affect project development. The top ten
software risks are “personnel shortfalls, unrealistic schedules and budgets, developing the wrong
functions, developing the wrong user interfaces, gold-plating, continuing stream of requirements changes,
shortfalls in externally performed tasks, shortfalls in externally-furnished components, real-time
performance shortfalls, and straining computer science capabilities.” The risk analysis process divides the
identified risks by their severity and the likelihood that they will occur, producing a given level of risk. The
analysis of the risk severity is put in either qualitative or quantitative terms. Ethical risk is a developed
software that are all those who are affected by it even though they are not directly related to the use of
the system. These systems may have been a success in terms of being developed within budget and
delivered on schedule, but they were a failure because they failed to take into account the conditions in
which they were used. There are two interrelated factors related to the system, first of these is that limiting
the consideration of system stakeholders to just the customer/client, software developer, and those who
have a financial stake in the system ignores the needs of other relevant stakeholders. A second factor is
limiting the scope of software risk analysis just to the technical and cost issues. The negative effects that
need to be addressed in risk analysis include both overt harm and the denial or reduction of goods.

Integrative questions:
1. What is a Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment?
2. What are the ethical risks of developed software?
3. What is risk management?
4. What is the risk identification process?
5. What are the risk analysis process?

Lessons learned: I understood and learned from A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment
Chapter 19 - Regulation and Governance of the Internet

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Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: to know and understand the Regulation and Governance of the Internet

Chapter review:

Regulation and governance of the internet is like the regulation and governance of our country.
Internet governance is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil
society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and
programs that shape the evolution and use of the Internet (WGIG, 2005). Regulation technical issues-
Content regulation is not possible in any practical sense (NetAlert, 2006). Various strategies are available
for blocking Internet content. Web pages and ftp files can be blocked by Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
with the use of proxy servers. Different countries differ radically in terms of their position with respect to
Internet content regulation. This is a nice internet content regulation so that the people will learn and not
watch pornography for example because it can destroy their mind. Individual countries, or political entities
within countries, apart from blocking, can also control content through legislation, and this can be
relatively effective in certain circumstances despite the fact that the Internet crosses national borders. For
many people it is hard to accept that the country they live in has an internet content regulation because
not all of the people are in favor in doing that that’s why some hack the system to unblock are particular
site that they like to visit. There are grounds for content regulation of the media in general, and this is
fairly widely accepted. Internet can roughly be grouped into three areas; pornography, hate language, and
information to aid harmful activities. Many parents like to prohibit their child from watching pornography
because it can destroy their behavior/attitude and also their minds. When it comes to languages there are
many hate languages in the internet that’s why it is again being prohibited by the country or the parents
because they want their people/son to be educated and not grow up with those foul words. In the internet
it can also teach people how to make bombs or any harmful activities that’s why it is bad to let people be
to exposed with the internet.

Integrative questions:
1. What is the regulation and governance of the internet?
2. What is W\GIG?
3. What are the grounds for content regulation?
4. Why does different country differ from their positions with respect to internet content regulation?
5. Why is content regulation nice?

Lessons learned: I understood the Regulation and Governance of the Internet


Chapter 20 – Information overload

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Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: to know and understand Information overload

Chapter review:

First of all we want to know what the definition of information overload is because in the
classroom we can hear that especially when the professor is teaching so many lessons that the students
can’t understand anymore. This is the definition of information overload- exposure to or provision of too
much information; a problematic situation or state of mental stress arising from this. Another definition of
information overload refers to the state of having too much information to make a decision or remain
informed about a topic. The conception of human information processing has three stage models
consisting of reception, processing, and action. In the first stage, information is received in some manner;
it is a system input. Second stage, the person processes these inputs cognitively to absorb, interpret, and
understand. Third stage, the person takes some action in response. For me as a student I think that
information overload is true because sometimes even if you still like to listen to the professor your mind
and your ears will give up. You will not remember the things the professor teaches because you feel that
the teachings or the information in your head is already full. Consequences of information overload is the
failure to complete the task at hand, or to complete it well. Information overload may have consequences
not only for the task but for the wellbeing of the person performing it, who may experience a diminished
sense of accomplishment and a heightened degree of stress. When people always consider to have
information overload then he/she can’t accomplish anything because he/she can’t absorb any information.

Integrative questions:
1. What does it mean to you by information overload?
2. What are the three stage models of information overload?
3. What are the consequences of information overload?
4. Who can have information overload?
5. Why can’t we accomplish any task if we have information overload?

Lessons learned: I understood Information overload


Chapter 21 – Email Spam

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: to know and understand Email Spam

Chapter review:

Some emphasize spam as the importance of “consent”; others require the emails to be
commercial in nature. An email that is from an unsolicited, commercial, bulk emailing, often considered
spam, may provide a receiver with just the information that he/she does want. Content of the email can be
an advertisement, disguised virus and many more. Intent of the sender if the email is a virus then both
emails would affect the system the same way but the originator/sender would be different in two ways.
Consequences of the receiver influence the receiver’s classification of an email. Emails that lure the
receiver into revealing personal and financial information, “phishing attacks,” and damaging virus attacks
can have devastating effects. The more detrimental the consequences of an email, the more likely it is
that the receiver will label the email as spam. Consent of the receiver means if the receiver has given the
sender explicit consent for the sender’s emails, the receiver is less likely to consider the emails spam.
The word “unsolicited” is often used in describing spam, and that term suggests a lack of consent. The
relationship between the sender and the receiver of an email affects the receiver’s classification of the
email. The relationship may be personal, professional, or commercial; the “relationship” might be based
on a shared interest or on a desire to make a transaction; and the relationship can be positive or
negative. A close, positive, personal relationship between the sender and the receiver tends to improve
the receiver’s attitude toward the email. There are three part division of policies in ethical antispam
measures the first one is some that virtually everyone would impartially accept as an ethical public policy.
The second is some that virtually nobody would accept as an ethical public policy. The third is some
about which there is disagreement as to whether they should be accepted as ethical public policy.

Integrative questions:
1. What is email spam?
2. What are the consequences of the receiver when they get a spam?
3. What are the contents of an email spam?
4. What are the three part divisions of policies in ethical anti-spam?
5. What is the classification of an email?

Lessons learned: I understood Email Spam


Chapter 22 - The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Learning expectation: To know and understand The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If

Chapter review:

When we hear the word plagiarism it means not stating the source of this understood information
gathered from other people. The concept of plagiarism is improperly incorporates existing work either
without authorization or without documentation, or both. There are a wide variety of situations where it
seems acceptable to repeat prior expressions while ignoring a possible attribution and making no attempt
to seek permission from a putative source. It is hard to plagiarize someone’s work especially when it is
school works or even at work because you can be fired or you can be kicked out from school that’s why
we should always state our references/sources to prevent plagiarism. As a student I have no idea what
plagiarism is until I went to college. When I heard about what plagiarism is I got scared because I
remembered that when I was in high school there is no such word as plagiarism in our school that’s why
there are many students who just copy paste their assignments. As I grow up I knew how important it is to
state or site the references/information you’ve gathered. Lack of authorization Since most legal disputes
over plagiarism concern cases of unauthorized copying that infringe a copyright, it is no surprise that this
form of plagiarism has received the most attention in books, articles, and the press. Copyright law (and
intellectual property law in general, including patents and trade secrets) is justified in the Anglo-American
tradition as a legal tool for encouraging progress in science and technology (and the arts).

Integrative questions:
1. What is Plagiarism?
2. What is the concept of plagiarism?
3. Why should we know plagiarism?
4. What will be the effect of plagiarism to us?
5. Why is it hard to plagiarize someone’s work?

Lessons learned: I understood The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If


Chapter 23 - Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of
Online File Sharing

Chapter review:

P2P or peer to peer networks is software that enables computer users to share digital files over a
network. It can also be defined as P2P network as the one in which “two or more computers share [files]
without requiring a separate server computer or server software” (Cope, 2002). The P2P network has the
potential to be a more reliable information distribution system. The “purest” P2P architecture is flat and
nonhierarchical. P2P software programs are usually free and easy to install. Once they are installed, a
user can prompt his or her personal computer to ask other PCs in a peer-to-peer network if they have a
certain digital file. Sharing or theft I think that this means a lot of things for example the music that we
used to download in the internet can be called as theft and at the same time we are sharing the things we
have downloaded. There is nothing wrong with the use of P2P networks for sharing copyrighted material.
Secondary liabilities have two doctrines in current copyright law. First, contributory infringement pertains
to “one who, with knowledge of the infringing activity, induces, causes, or materially contributes to the
infringing conduct” Second, “one may be vicariously liable if he has the right and ability to supervise the
infringing activity and also has a direct financial interest in such activities”. We can identify two salient
moral issues, one at the “macro” level and the other at a more “micro” level of the individual moral agent.
First, can secondary liability law itself be normatively justified in social welfare terms? Second, how can
we understand indirect copyright liability from a strictly moral viewpoint? Given the enormous difficulties of
enforcing copyright protection by pursuing direct infringers and the threats posed to content providers by
dynamic technologies such as P2P software, the need for this liability seems indisputable. Intermediaries
are “highly visible,” and a single lawsuit can deter the actions of many egregious infringers, provided that
the intermediary has contributed “in some palpable way to the creation of unlicensed private copies”

Integrative questions:
1. What is a P2P?
2. What does a p2p network do?
3. Why is it difficult to enforce copyright protection?
4. What does it mean to by P2P architecture is flat and nonhierarchical?
5. What are the examples of p2p software’s?

Lessons learned: I understood Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing
Chapter 24 - Censorship and Access to Expression

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Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand Censorship and Access to Expression

Chapter review:

Censorship limits access to an expression, either by deterring the speaker from speaking or the
hearer from receiving such speech. Anything that may be composed by one person and communicated to
another. Given that censorship limits access to expression, it is important to have clearly before us why
access to expressions is valuable. Cohen links our concern with freedom of speech to three fundamental
interests: (1) the interest in expression, (2) the interest in deliberation, and (3) the interest in information.
Cohen defines the interest in expression as “a direct interest in articulating thoughts, attitudes, and
feelings on matters of personal or broader human concern and perhaps through that articulation
influencing the thought and conduct of others”. There are a number of ways in which access to
expression supports this interest in expressing. First, as Cohen notes, most acts of
expression are acts of communication to others. By promoting access to information, we are enabling the
success of such expressive acts by connecting, for instance, the writer with the reader. Second, to
engage in acts of expression, people need a rich information culture that will allow them to develop their
ideas and learn how to communicate them effectively. The deliberative interest concerns our ability to
revise and gain a deeper understanding of our individual and collectively held beliefs and commitments.
This requires access to expressions of others, because of “the familiar fact that reflection on matters of
human concern cannot be pursued in isolation. The “informational interest” is the “fundamental interest in
securing reliable information about the conditions required for pursuing one’s aims and aspirations”
Without access to such information, individuals and groups will be unable to effectively carry out their
aims. Censorship is defined as limiting access to content, either by deterring the speaker from speaking
or the hearer from receiving the speech. Or, more informally, it is to interfere with acts of communication
between consenting adults.

Integrative questions:
1. What is censorship?
2. How does Cohen define the interest in expression?
3. What are the numbers of ways in which to expression support?
4. What requires the access to expression of others?
5. How can we promote access to information?

Lessons learned: I understood Censorship and Access to Expression


Chapter 25 - The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics

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Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics

Chapter review:

The gender agenda in computer ethics is looking for differences in men’s and women’s ethical
decision making with respect to computer ethics problems. It also belongs to a particular genre of
research strongly representative of the business and management literature, a style of research that
perpetuates its approach without substantial inroads from other types of research. I think the research
about this gender agenda is to know who uses the computer most of the time. Is it male or female? There
are two research methodologies the first one is quantitative approaches map onto what might be termed
the “positivist” paradigm, which assumes an objective world that is amenable to measurement. The
second is qualitative approaches are used under the positivist banner, they are more often associated
with an interpretivist or constructivist approach, which looks to the research subjects. interpretations of
their world and which sees knowledge as being socially constructed. Ethical behavior may be in the form
of a well-defined judgment as to whether a discrete act is ethical or not. In this research, gender is treated
as a unitary, unanalyzed variable. Apart from any other reason this tends toward essentialism, that is, the
assumption that men and women have essential, fixed, natural, and even possibly biological,
characteristics. Empirical research on gender and computer ethics is substantially under theorized both in
terms of gender and in terms of moral behavior in regard to computer ethics issues. Feminist ethics
relates tenuously to social and philosophical studies of technology. Feminist ethics has concentrated on
women’s role as carers, with the result that the “ethics of care” has emerged as a largely feminist ethical
theory. It is not easy to see how care ethics could be brought to bear on technology.

Integrative questions:
1. What does empirical research on gender and computer ethics show?
2. What is the gender agenda in Computer ethics?
3. What is a feminist ethics?
4. What are the two research methodologies?
5. What is the paradigm of a positivist?

Lessons learned: I understood The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics


Chapter 26 - The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future

Chapter review:

First of all we want to know what Digital divide means is not any one particular gap between rich
and poor, local and global, but rather includes a variety of gaps believed to bear on the world’s
inequitable distribution of resources. A comparative lack of meaningful access to information
communication technologies (ICTs); a gap in having the skills needed to use these resources; a gap
between rich and poor in their ability to access information needed to compete in a global economy; and
a gap in education that translates into a gap in abilities to process and absorb information. Global and
local poverty are problems of many dimensions that are extremely difficult to solve, but rather that the
moral importance of the digital divide as a problem that needs to be addressed is linked to inequalities
between the rich and the poor—and especially wealthy nations and nations in absolute poverty. To
eliminate the digital divide is grounded in the idea that nations and people with far more than they need to
satisfy basic needs have a moral obligation to redistribute some of their wealth, at the very least, to
nations and people in life-threatening or absolute poverty. It is noncontroversial that it is morally good for
affluent persons or nations to help impoverished persons or nations, but there is considerable
disagreement about whether affluent persons and nations are morally obligated to help alleviate the
effects of absolute poverty. The bibliography of empirical studies relating to it is so vast, that “digital divide
skeptics” would face real trouble trying to persuade us that the whole matter should not attract this kind of
attention; it is only a “topic du jour,”3 a delusion,4 a myth,5 a costly mistake,6 or (worse) it constitutes a
plain sham.

Integrative questions:
1. What is digital divide?
2. What is ICT?
3. What are the empirical studies according to vast?
4. What is a comparative lack?
5. How can we resolve the gap ?

Lessons learned: I understood the Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future
Chapter 27 - Intercultural Information Ethics

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-Computer-


Ethics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239742981&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand Intercultural Information Ethics

Chapter review:

Intercultural Information Ethics (IIE) a narrowsense it focuses on the impact of information and
communication technology (ICT) on different cultures as well as on how specific issues are understood
from different cultural traditions. In a broad sense IIE deals with intercultural issues raised not only by ICT,
but also by other media as well, allowing a large historical comparative view. Moral cognitivism concerns
the following alternatives: (1) Morality is objective in the sense of being true or false in virtue of mind
independent facts about the world—and not in virtue of what cultures or individuals think about them (i.e.,
moral objectivism); (2) Normative moral relativism (or conventionalism or intersubjectivism) that claims
morality is manufactured by the beliefs and practices of cultures (i.e., moral claims are true in a culture
only if accepted, believed, or practiced by some sufficiently large majority of the culture); and (3)
Normative moral subjectivism that claims morality is manufactured by the beliefs and practices of
individuals (i.e., moral claims are true for a person only if accepted by that person). IIE is an emerging
discipline. IIE not only deals with the question of the impact of ICT on local cultures but explores also how
specific ICT issues or, more generally, media issues can be analyzed from different IIE perspectives. IIE
has a critical task to achieve when it compares information moralities. One important issue in this regard
is the question of the universality of values versus the locality of cultures and vice versa that is related to
the problem of their homogenization or hybridization as well as the question of the relation between
cognition and moods and the corresponding (un-) successful interplay between information cultures.

Integrative questions:
1. What is IIE?
2. What are the alternative concerns about moral cognitivism?
3. What are the ICT issues?
4. What is ICT?
5. What is subjectivism?

Lessons learned: I understood Intercultural Information Ethics


Cyber-ethics

Chapter 1

Ethics and information revolution – Terrell Ward Bynum

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-Contemporary-


Prometheus/dp/1573927902/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239746371&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: To know and understand Ethics and information revolution

Chapter review:

The information revolution has helped many people in their lives these days. Without information
many people will still have a hard time contacting each other. For example: We are in at a party then our
parents is worried about us and wants to contact us they will have a hard time contacting us because
there is no mobile phones or any information technology. The growing information revolution therefore is
not “merely technological” – it is fundamentally social and ethical. Information technology can be found
anywhere right now all over the world like mobile phones, airports, medical clinics, shops, banks and
many more. According to Krystna Gorniak-Kocikowska “Computer does not know borders. Computer
networks, unlike mass media, have a truly global character”. The information revolution may affect all
parts of the earth more quickly than people now believe. Computers in the workplace can almost perform
any task. Computers are often far more efficient than humans in performing many tasks. Computer
security includes privacy and confidentiality of data, integrity, unimpaired service, consistency, controlling
access to resources. Software ownership have three different types of ownership first one is one can own
the aspects of a program. A patent provides an exclusive monopoly on the use of the patented item, so
the owner of an algorithm can deny others use of the mathematical formulas that are part of an algorithm.
Running a preliminary patent search to make sure that your new program does not violate anyone’s
software patent is a costly and time consuming process. Professional responsibility will be aware of
possible conflicts of interest and try to avoid them.

Integrative questions:

1. What is an information revolution?

2. What does a patent provide?

3. What are the different types of ownership?

4. What is a professional responsibility?

5. What is a preliminary patent?

Lessons learned: I understood Ethics and information revolution


Ethics On-line – Deborah G. Johnson

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-Contemporary-


Prometheus/dp/1573927902/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239746371&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand On-line

Chapter review:

There are special characteristics of communication in networks making it different from face-to-
face communication and other forms of technology-mediated communication such as telephone, fax, and
mass media. Scope can be an action a communication or transfer of information in a network can have
much greater power than an action.

One way that scope or power has moral implications is that we generally expect those engaged in
powerful activities to take greater care. Anonymity has two parts there is an off-line anonymity and on-line
anonymity. The off-line anonymity is requires effort on the part of the individual seeking anonymity. On-
line anonymity is often the natural state at least it is in those environments where an individual is given a
generic user ID. Reproducibility information can be reproduced on-line without loss of value and in such a
way that the originator or holder of the information would not notice. Another aspect of reproducibility is
that activities in an electronic network can be recorded and observed. Reproducibility is related to both
scope and anonymity. Reproducibility creates the possibility of permanence or at least endurance of
information. Anonymity is nevertheless problematic in networks for at least 3 related reasons:

1.) makes the process of identifying and catching criminals more difficult.

2.) Frees individual to behave in undesirable and harmful ways.

3.) The lack of integrity of on-line information.

Diminished trust means that one cannot put one’s trust in information and individuals on-line.
Variety can prevail as long as those who communicate on-line understand that the rules of various modes
of electronic exchange vary.

Integrative question:

1. What are the special characteristics of communication ?

2. What is a reproducibility information mean?

3. What is related to reproducibility?

4. What is the least anonymity problems with network?

5. What is diminished trust?

Lessons learned: I understood On-line


Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in computer ethics – James H. Moor

Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Social-Computer-Contemporary-


Prometheus/dp/1573927902/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239746371&sr=1-1

Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in computer ethics

Chapter review:

Searching for ethics in the Global village – The prospects of a global village in which everyone on
the planet is connected to everyone else with regard to computing power and communication is
breathtaking. Almost everyone would agree that computing is having a significant if not a revolutionary
impact on the world, and that ethical issue about applications of this surging technology should be raised.
Logical malleability and informational enrichment – Computers are informationally enriching because of
their logical malleability.

Computers can be modified to enhance capabilities and improve overall performance even
further. Computer becomes an essential part of the methodology of doing the job or performing the
activity. The special nature of computer ethics, Computer ethics has two parts the analysis of the nature
and the social impact of computer technology and the corresponding formulation and justification of
policies for the ethical use of such technology. Computers are logical malleable, they will continue to be
applied in unpredictable and novel ways generating numerous policy vacuums for the foreseeable future.
Property is logical malleability which explains the ongoing wave of revolution and generation of ethical
problems.

The unique about computer ethics is computing technology itself. Computer ethics is different as
a field of ethics is the scope, depth and novelty of ethical situations for which conceptual revisions and
policy adjustments are required. Ethical responsibility begins by taking the ethical point of view. We must
respect others and their core values. If we can avoid policies that result in significant harm to others, that
would be a good beginning toward responsible ethical conduct.

Integrative question:

1. What is unique about computer ethics?

2. What can be modified?

3. What is an ethical responsibility?

4. What are the two parts of computer ethics?

5. What is the special nature of computer ethics?

Lessons learned: I understood Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in computer ethics


Disclosive Computer ethics – Philip Brey

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Learning expectation: To know and understand Disclosive Computer ethics

Chapter review:

Mainstream computer ethics is a particular model of applied ethics that maybe called the
standard model, because it is used in the vast majority of work in applied ethics. The model of applied
ethics usually proceeds in three steps. First an individual or collective practice is outlined that has been
the topic of moral controversy. Second is an attempt usually made to clarify and situate the practice,
through conceptual analysis and fact-finding. Third is a deliberative process with arguments for and
against particular principles or their applicability to the case.

Mainstream computer ethics have three features first, mainstream computer ethics focuses on
existing moral controversies. Second, its focus on practices. It aims to evaluate and devise policies for
these practices. Third it focuses on the computer technology. Mainstream computer ethics limits itself to
the analysis of morally controversial practices for which a policy vacuum currently exists. Computer-
related practices may be morally opaque for two reasons because they are unknown or because they
have a false appearance of moral neutrality.

Disclosive studies in computer ethics are hence studies concerned with disclosing and evaluating
embedded normativity in computer systems, applications and practices. It’s major contribution to
computer ethics is not so much found in the development or application of ethical theory, but rather in the
description of computer technology and related practices in a way that reveals their moral importance.

Key values as departure points for analysis –

1.) Justice – society should not promote the unfair distribution of very basic social goods.

2.) Autonomy – Individual autonomy is commonly taken to mean that individuals have a number of rights
to individual freedoms.

3.) Democracy – is rule by the people and implies that a democratic society or organization has
procedures for political decision making.

4.) Privacy – in relation to computer technology means the freedom granted to individuals to control their
exposure to others.
Integrative question:

1. What is a disclosive study?

2. What is its major contribution to computer ethics?

3. What are the key values as departure points

4. What is a mainstream computer ethics?

5. What is the three features of mainstream?

Lessons learned: I understood Disclosive Computer ethics


Gender and computer ethics – Alison Adam

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Learning expectation: to know and understand Gender and computer ethics

Chapter review:

There are two main strands in gender and computer ethics the first can be viewed as a spillover
from information systems and computing research on barriers and pipelines which tends to see the
gender and ICT problem as one of women’s access to ICT’s and their continuing low representation in
computing all the way through the educational process through the world of work. . Computer-related
practices may be morally opaque for two reasons because they are unknown or because they have a
false appearance of moral neutrality. Disclosive studies in computer ethics are hence studies concerned
with disclosing and evaluating embedded normativity in computer systems, applications and practices.
The other strand in research of research on gender and computer ethics focuses on concerns more
central to computer ethics as a whole. Decision making in relation to computer technologies takes place
within the workplace, therefore gender studies within business ethics and information systems are
relevant even if ICT’s as such are not the main focus. Gender either definitely does or definitely does not
make a material difference to moral reasoning relating to the use of computers somehow misses the
point. Feminist ethics has two major roles. The first is to challenge the traditional ethical canon; the
second is to develop theoretical ideas.

Integrative questions:

1. What are the two main strands in gender and computer ethics?

2. What is disclosive studies in computer ethics?

3. Why is gender related to computer ethics?

4. What is a computer related practices?

5. What is a moral reasoning?

Lessons learned: I understood Gender and computer ethics


Is the global information infrastructure a democratic technology? - Deborah G. Johnson

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Learning expectation: To know and understand what is the global information infrastructure a democratic
technology?

Chapter review:

Technology and values in my understanding says that when we will be using a technology we
should use it in a particular purpose. My own example of this is a car we should not use a car to holdup
people or hit people intentionally but we will be using a car for its real purpose. The presumption about
science was that it is objective and that it progresses in a natural or evolution. The same would be said
about technology, it was understood to have a natural order for development that was thought to be
somewhat independent of social forces.

These presumptions are now been rejected by most scholars in the field of science and
technologies studies (STS). The two tenets of STS include the claim that values shape technologies and
technologies shape values. Values Embedded in technologies Winner distinguishes two views first is the
view that values are inherent to technology. The second view according to which “a given kind of
technology is strongly compatible with, but does not strictly require, social and political relationships of
particular stripes”.

The summarization of winners view is that technologies embody values insofar as they have
properties that are linked to social relationships, in particular relationships involving power and authority.
Technologies may do this in one of two ways either by having intractable properties that require particular
types of social relationships involving power and authority or by having flexible properties compatible with
diverse patterns of social organization and authority.

Values embedded in the global information infrastructure

1.) The moral/metaphysical meaning of embedded values.

2.) The support meaning of embedded values.

3.) The material meaning of embedded values.

4.) The expressive meaning of embedded values.


Integrative question:

1. What are the values embedded in global information infrastructure?

2. What is STS?

3. What does value embedded mean?

4. What is the summarization of winners?

5. What is a flexible property?

Lessons learned: I understood the global information infrastructure a democratic technology


Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and theories to IT contexts: Some key problems and challenges

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Learning expectation: to know and understand how to apply ethical and moral concepts and theories to IT
contexts.

Chapter review:

If we want to apply ethical and moral concepts and theories to IT contexts, three conditions are to
be met; 1. We must know to what kind of questions such concepts and theories must be applied, and to
what they cannot.2. We must know the limitations of specific concepts and theories 3. We must have
sufficiently detailed knowledge of the domain to which we want to apply them. Ideal rules may work
differently in practice. That is it may be the case such that such a rule will give rise to gliding scales.
Recently there has been a revival of virtue ethics. It considers the search for analytical rules as fruitless,
and turns to narratives and virtues as the place where ethics resides. Ethics, there are reasons to believe
that they are not likely to be a primary source for answers to questions concerning IT. First, their success
depends upon the value of long time traditions; in the case of new technologies, that is precisely what we
do not have. Second, concepts like virtue tend towards an ethic of the “Uberich” rather than a minimal
ethics. Third, without more analytical tools, we might remain imperceptibly stuck in the complex
interdependencies of modern life, unable to break the spell of imperatives that seem to impose
themselves on us. In modern society, chains between actions and consequences, as well as meditating
institutional arrangements, have become so complicated that they do not allow a direct and simple view
on decision making. Not only has it become difficult to tell right from wrong, it may even be hard to tell by
whom exactly certain decisions are made.

Integrative questions:

1. What are the three conditions when we want to apply ethical and moral concepts and theories of
IT?

2. What is Uberich?

3. What are the primary sources for answers to questions concerning IT?

4. What are the analytical tools?

5. Why it is difficult to tell what is right from wrong?

Lessons learned: I understood the connecting ethics and social context, computer ethics and the role of
experts.
Just consequentialism and computing– James H. Moor

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Learning expectation: to know and understand just consequentialism

Chapter review:

Consequences evaluate the benefits and harms. Human beings have a common nature. Humans
have similar kinds of values, example: what kinds of things they consider to be goods and what kinds of
things they consider to be evils. In general the core goods include life, happiness, and autonomy and the
core evils include death, unhappiness and lack of autonomy. No matter what goals human seek they
need ability, security, knowledge, freedom, opportunity and resources in order to accomplish their
projects. These are the kinds of goods that permit each of us to do whatever we want to. Humans are not
necessarily concerned about the lives, happiness, and autonomy of others but they are concerned about
their own. To be ethical one must not inflict unjustified harm on others. To take the ethical point of view is
to be concerned for others at least to the extent that one tries to avoid harming them. From an ethical
point of view we seek computing policies that at least protect if not promote human flourishing. Another
way to make this point is to regard the core goods as marking fundamental human rights. The principle of
justice the protection of fundamental human rights should guide us in shaping ethical policies for using
computer technology. When evaluating policies for computing we need to evaluate the consequences of
the proposed policies. We know what the core goods and evils are and we want to protect human rights.
We should develop computing policies in such a way that they are above all just. Then we can make the
policies as good as reasonably possible.

Integrative questions:

1. What evaluate the benefits and harms?

2. What are the similar kinds of value that humans have?

3. What must not inflict unjustified harm on others?

4. What is the principle of justice?

5. What do we need to evaluate when computing for policies?

Lessons learned: I understood consequntialism constrained by justice, the good as the enemy of the just.
Chapter 2

The internet as public space: concepts, issues and implications in public policy – Jean Camp and Y.T
Chien

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Learning expectation: to know and understand the internet as public space: concepts, issues and
implications in public policy

Chapter review:

The internet’s role in society is rapidly moving from a pure academic interest into the public
domain. When it comes to characterizing cyberspace is the way we look at the public services that are
being created with the internet. Media types have an advantage in drawing an analogy. There are four
traditional media types: publisher, distributor, broadcast and common carrier. It is easy to distinguish
these media types in daily life off the internet. The internet on the other hand can be all of the media types
or more and sometimes none of the above in the exclusive sense. These technical terms are meaningful
in that they describe the basic functions of the internet to provide transimission and to distribute user
generated data. No one entity owns the internet and also who connect can create content. On the internet
anyone can be a publisher at the same time the method of publication can make the person a
broadcaster as well. A webpage is one such publication. Digital information is subject to analysis with far
greater ease than analog information. There are evolutionary changes in media types that preceded the
internet as a new entity. Surfing the internet as a public domain is relatively new phenomenon, but clearly
also needs a similar set of civic rules, intuitive or formal, governing it’s wide ranging information-based
activities. Several concepts about the internet as a public space come to mind when we look at its digital
characteristics. Each of these spaces has implicit, physical definitions of permeability or exclusivity.
Physical space and some electronic spaces, offer exclusivity. Uses of internet as public space in digital
libraries, universities, hospitals, international market places, schools, the digital stump, the marketplace.

Integrative questions:

1. What is the role of internet in the society?

2. What are the four traditional media types?

3. What is digital information?

4. What are the several concepts about the internet?

5. What does it mean by media types have an advantage in drawing an analogy?

Lessons learned:

I understood the internet as public space: concepts, issues and implications in public policy.
The laws of cyberspace – Larry Lessig

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Learning expectation: to know and understand the laws of cyberspace

Chapter review:

Where ever we are we should follow the law of that country because we don’t know how they
punish people when we don’t follow that’s why we should train ourself to follow our own law before other
countries law. We know that even if the people are not following the law we should not copy them but
rather show them a good example why they should not break the law. Law is just one of the four
constraints. Law regulates by sanctions imposed ex post. Law is the prominent of regulators. Social
norms are a second. They also regulate social norms understandings or expectations about how I ought
to behave, enforced not through some centralized norm enforcer, but rather through the understandings
and expectations of just about everyone within a particular community. The market is a third constraint, it
regulates by price. The market limits the amount that can be spend and finally there is the constraint of
what some might call nature, This is the constraint of the world. To understand a regulation we must
understand the sum of these four constraints operating together. Any one alone cannot represent the
effect of the four together. Cyberspace is unavoidable and yet cyberspace is unregulable. Cyberspace is
different even if we assume that the same laws apply to cyber space as to real space and even if we
assume that the constraints of norms and the market are carried over as well, even so there remains a
critical difference between the two spaces.

Integrative questions:

1. Why should we follow the law of the country?

2. What is the law of cyberspace?

3. What are the three constraints?

4. What regulates by sanctions imposed ex post?

5. What is unavoidable ?

Lessons learned: I understood the laws of cyberspace.


Of black holes and decentralized law-making in cyberspace – David G. Post

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Learning expectation: to know and understand the black holes and decentralized law making in
cyberspace

Chapter review:

There are people who spend their time thinking about law and policy in cyberspace, a rather
interesting debate taking place. It reflects a conflict between competing visions of order and disorder in
social systems. This is by no means a new debate but it takes on a new shape in rather special
conditions of cyberspace or so at least. There is the explanation of professor field the question to it is
there is a problem the proliferation of unsolicited mass e-mailing operations we might agree a serious or
at least a non-trivial one. At just the moment that e-mail has become an indispensable form of
communication of incalculable commercial and non commercial importance for a substantial and ever
growing segment the world community its value is being undermined by a barrage of unwanted and
unsolicited communications. The important role played by informal systems of decentralized consensus
based social control in shaping human social behavior. It is becoming increasingly clear that systems of
rules and sanctions created and administered without reliance on state authority and outside of any
formal state managed process norms are powerful determinants of behavior in many contexts. Conditions
in cyberspace do seem to create new opportunities for voluntary normative regimes of this kind. Not
surprisingly conflicts between formal and informal centralized and decentralized rule making processes
are at the heart of many of the important and challenging cyberspace policy debates. Before the internet
became such a big deal responsibility for operating the machines and the databases on those machines
which correctly route internet messages fell to the internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA).

Integrative questions:

1. What is IANA?

2. What does it mean by black holes and decentralized law making in cyberspace?

3. What is the important role played by informational systems?

4. What is the big responsibility of the internet?

5. What is the conflict between competing visions of order and disorder?

Lessons learned: I understood the black holes and decentralized law-making in cyberspace
Fahrenheit 451.2: is cyberspace burning?

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Learning expectation: to know and understand Fahrenheit 451.2: is cyberspace burning?

Chapter review:

The first amendment was the nature of the internet itself and the quality of speech on the internet.
Even more ominous is the fact that the various schemes for rating and blocking taken together, could
create a black cloud of private voluntary censorship that is every bit as threatening as the CDA itself to
what the supreme court called the most participatory form of mass speech yet developed. The primary
responsibility for determining what speech to access should remain with the individual internet user;
defaults setting on free speech, buyers beware, no government coercion or censorship, libraries are free
speech zones. Six reasons why self rating schemes are wrong for the internet. Reason no.1 is self rating
schemes will cause controversial speech to be censored; reason no.2 Self rating is burdensome,
unwieldy and costly; reason no.3 conversation can’t be rated; reason no.4 self-rating will create fortress
America on the internet. Reason no. 5 self-ratings will only encourage, not prevent, government
regulation. Reason no.6 Self-ratings will turn the internet into a homogenized medium dominated by
commercial speakers. Third party ratings systems designed to work in tandem with PICS labeling have
been held out by some as the answer to the free speech problems posed by self-rating schemes.
Libraries have traditionally promoted free speech values by providing the free books and information
resources to people regardless of their age or income. Libraries can and should take other actions that
are more productive of online free speech principles. First, libraries can publicize and provide links to a
particular sites that have been recommended for children. Second, to avoid unwanted viewing by
passerby, libraries can install internet access terminals in ways that minimize public view, Third, libraries
can impose content-neutral the limits on internet use.

Integrative questions:

1. What is the first amendment all about?

2. What are the six reasons why self rating schemes are wrong for the internet?

3. What is CDA?

4. What is the primary responsibility for determining what speech to access?

5. Why should libraries be the one to take action that are more productive for online speech?

Lessons learned: Fahrenheit 451.2: is cyberspace burning


Filtering the internet in the USA: free speech denied – Richard S. Rosenberg

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Learning expectation: to know and understand filtering the internet in the USA: free speech denied

Chapter review:

Filtering or blocking software can be taken to be a mechanism used to restrict access to internet
content, based on an internal database of the product or, restrict access to internet content through a
database maintained external to the product itself or, restrict access to internet content to certain ratings
assigned to host sites by a third party or, restrict access to internet content by scanning content based on
a keyword phrase, or text string or, restrict access to internet content based on the source of the
information. The basic concern is that the features for blocking or restricting access are determined on
the basis of criteria unavailable to the user. The national coalition against censorship characterizes the
problems associated with such programs as follows: Oversimplification, Overbreadth, Feasibility,
Subjectivity, Full-disclosure, security. On constitutional grounds libraries must not restrict access to
protected speech. It may be possible for other libraries to avoid a similar fate by designating a limited
number of computers for the exclusive use of children in their internet activities. Librarians and filtering
programs two relevant points are included as the CLA encourages libraries: to incorporate internet use
principles into overall policies on access to library resources, including time, place and manner
restrictions on internet use and user behavior policies and to educate their publics about intellectual
freedom principles and the role of libraries in facilitating access to resources in various forms of media
including the interest. The US national commission on libraries and information science feels strongly that
the governing body of every school and public library in order to meet its trustee responsibilities, should
establish, formally approve and periodically review a written acceptable use policy statement on internet
access.

Integrative questions:

1. What can be taken to be a mechanism used to restrict access to internet content?

2. What are the basic concerns in the internet?

3. What does the national coalition against censorship characterizes?

4. What are the two relevant points included as the CLA?

5. What is filtering and blocking software?

Lessons learned: I understood the examples of problems with blocking and filtering programs and the
library filtering programs.
Censorship the internet, and the child pornography law of 1996: a critique – Jacques N. Catudal

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Learning expectation: to know and understand what is Censorship the internet, and the child
pornography law of 1996: a critique

Chapter review:

First of all there are two forms of censorship the first one is censorship by suppression and the
other one is censorship by deference. Both forms of censorship presuppose that some authorized person
or group of persons 1. Has judged some text to be objectionable on moral, political, or other grounds and
2. Banned the text. The difference in the forms of censorship bears on effecting the prohibition.
Censorship by suppression effects the prohibition by preventing the objectionable material itself from
being revealed, published or circulated; it may do this by blocking the material, by removing the material
to inaccessible archives or by destroying the material. Censorship by deterrence does not prevent
material from being published; indeed material may be quite available to all. The prohibition is rather
affected by threats of arrest, prosecution, conviction, and punishment, usually severe punishment against
those who would make objectionable material available and against those who would acquire it.
Violations of the censorship decree may or may not actually lead to arrest, prosecution, sentencing or any
degree of personal ruin; The topic of internet censorship or more specifically of prohibitions against
acquiring or using certain words or pictures against expressing certain ideas deemed morally, politically,
or otherwise objectionable, in email, websites, ftp sites, and many more. The child pornography
prevention act of 1996 the act makes it a crime to knowingly send, receive, distribute, reproduce, sell or
possess with intent to sell by any means including computer, any child pornography and makes it a crime
to possess more than three child pornographic images. The definition of child pornography is any visual
depiction, including photograph film, video, picture, or computer or computer-generated image or picture
whether made or produced by electronic, mechanical, or other means of sexually explicit conduct.

Integrative questions:

1. What is the meaning of child pornography?

2. What are the two forms of censorship?

3. What are the difference forms of censorship?

4. What is the child pornography prevention act of 1996?

5. What is the meaning of censorship by suppression and censorship by deterrence?

Lessons learned: I understood the censorship the internet, and the child pornography law of 1996
PICS: Internet access controls without censorship – Paul Resnick and James Miller

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Learning expectation: To know and understand PICS: Internet access controls without censorship

Chapter review:

Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) establishes internet conventions for label formats
and distribution method while dictating neither a labeling vocabulary nor who should pay attention to
which labels. There are three factors which can block inappropriate material: 1. the supervisor, 2. The
recipient, 3. The context. Computer software can implement access controls that take into account all
these factors. PICS provide a common format for labels so that any PICS complaint selection software
can process any PICS complaint label. PICS labels describe content on one or more dimensions. It is the
selection of software not the labels themselves that determine whether access will be permitted or
prohibited. When publishers are unwillingly to participate or can’t be trusted to participate honesty
independent organizations can provide third party labels. There are two PICS specification documents.
The important components are: syntax for describing a rating service, syntax for labels, an embedding of
labels, an extension of the http protocol, and query syntax for an online database. A tour of the ECS
specifications has four technical features: the first is the machine is readable service description is a
source that other computer programs can use for automatically generating interfaces that present the
service to users. Second, a rating service can provide variants of its service description tailored to
different languages and cultures. Third, we have used URL’s wherever universally distinct identifiers are
required. PICS compatible software can implement selective blocking in various ways. One possibility is
to build it into the browser on each computer. A second method is to perform this operation as part of
each computer’s network protocol stack. Third possibility is to perform the operation somewhere in the
network.

Integrative questions:

1. What is PICS?

2. What are the four technical features of PICS?

3. What are the two PICS specification documents?

4. What are the three factors which can block inappropriate material?

5. What does it mean by Internet access controls without censorship?

Lessons learned: I understood what is PICS,flexible blocking.


Internet service providers and defamation: New standards of liability – Richard A. Spinello

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Learning expectation: to know and understand Internet service providers and defamation: New standards
of liability.

Chapter review:

Internet Service Providers liability for defamation in the realm of cyberspace. The internet has
been hailed for promoting uninhibited speech, there must be some limits on that speech even in
cyberspace. One such limit is defamatory statements. Defamation is defined as communication that
harms the reputation of another and lowers that person’s esteem in the eyes of the community. It can
take two forms: libel refers to written or printed defamation and slander refers to oral defamation. There
are different standards of liability for distributing defamatory information depending upon the role one
plays in the process. According to the standard of distributor liability, a distributor is not liable unless it
knows or has reason to know of the defamatory content. Distributors clearly do not exercise editorial
control over the materials that they sell and therefore cannot be held to the same standard as a publisher.
Internet service providers provide their customers with access to the internet for a monthly fee or an
hourly rate. Is an ISP best categorized as a publisher, a distributor, or perhaps even a common carrier? If
an ISP is considered as a publisher it would be liable for defamatory content in the same way that
newspapers and other media are held liable for the contents of the stories they publish. If an ISP were
classified as a distributor there would be some liability but only if it were informed of defamatory material
and failed to remove it in a timely manner. And finally if an ISP were to be held to the standard of a
common carrier, it would not be liable unless it knew of the defamatory message before it was transmitted
and did nothing to stop that transmission.

Integrative questions:

1. What is an internet service provider?

2. What has been hailed for promoting uninhibited speech?

3. What is the standard of distributor liability?

4. What is the best category for ISP?

5. Who does not exercise editorial control?

Lessons learned: I understood Internet service providers and defamation: New standards of liability.
Chapter 3

Digital millennium copyright act

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Learning expectation: to know and understand the digital millennium copyright act

Chapter review:

Violations regarding circumvention of technological measures. 1. No person should circumvent a


technological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title. The prohibition
contained in the preceding sentence shall take effect at the end of the 2 year period beginning on the
date of the enactment. 2. The prohibition shall not apply to persons who are users of a copyrighted work
which in a particular class of works, if such persons are, or are likely to be in the succeeding 3 year period
nd rd
adversely affected by virtue of such prohibition. 3. During the 2 year and succeeding 3 year period the
librarian of congress upon the recommendations of the register of copyrights, who shall consult with the
assistant secretary for communications and information of the department of commerce and report and
comment on his or her views in making such recommendations. In conducting such rulemaking the
librarian shall examine the availability for use of copyright works, the availability for use of works for non-
profit archival, preservation and educational purposes, the impact that the prohibition on the
circumvention of technological measures applied to copyrighted works has on criticisms, comment, news
reporting, teaching, scholarship or research, the effect of circumvention of technological measures on the
market for or value of copyrighted works and, such other factors as the librarian considers appropriate.
Integrity of copyright management information: false copyright management information, removal or
alteration of copyright management information, definition. Online copyright infringement liability
information: material online, system caching, information residing on systems or networks at direction of
users, information location tools, limitation on liability of nonprofit educational institutions, replacement of
removed or disabled material and limitation on other liability, conditions for eligibility.

Integrative questions:

1. What are the violations regarding circumvention of technological measures?

2. What is the prohibition contained in the preceding sentence?

3. What is the online copyright infringement liability information?

4. What are the copyright integrity of management information?

5. How can you go about copyright infringement?

Lessons learned: I understood Digital millennium copyright act


Note to the DeCSS trial

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Learning expectation: to know and understand the Note to the DeCSS trial

Chapter review:

The first trial is the well publicized dispute involving websites such as Napster and Gnutella which
allow users to swap mp3 music files. The second cased involved a decryption program known as DeCSS.
The DeCSS trial has tested the scope and constitutionality of the anti- circumvention provision included in
section 1201 of the digital millennium copyright act DCMA. The questions triggered by this case go to the
heart of the debate about intellectual property protection on the internet. This is a case of theft the posting
of the de-encryption formula is no different from making and then distributing unauthorized keys to a
department store. The suit contends that DeCSS is little more than a piracy tool that will be used to
produce decrypted copies of DVD movies for distribution over the internet. The defense team received
considerable support within certain segments of the academic community. The brief also presented
arguments supporting the defense view of DeCSS fits within the reverse enlightenment exception of the
anti-circumvention provision. DeCSS is a tool for promoting interoperability between computer programs.
Interoperability is defined as the exchange of information between two programs one of which must be an
independently created piece of software. Finally the defense team argued that computer code itself is a
form of expression free speech that deserves full first amendment protection.

Integrative questions:

1. What is DeCSS?

2. What is the trial of DeCSS?

3. What is the defense view of DeCSS?

4. What is the meaning of DCMA?

5. What did the defense team argued?

Lessons learned: I understood the note to the DeCSS trial


A politics of intellectual property: environmentalism for the net? – James Boyle

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Learning expectation: to know and understand a politics of intellectual property: environmentalism for the
net

Chapter review:

Code is code the logic of the information relation beyond the claim that information society exists,
however there is surprisingly little theoretical work. Cyberpunk is built on the extrapolation of two principal
technologies, computers and the web on the one hand, and genetic engineering on the other. Cyberpunk
themes is that the information age means the homologisation of all forms of information – whether
genetic, electronic, or demographic. Intellectual property is the legal form of the information age. Our
intellectual property regime will be contentious in distributional, ideological, and efficiency terms. We don’t
have such politics because one reason is that with a few exceptions, the mass media coverage of the
information age has been focused firmly on cyber –porn and its potential censorship. The digital world
gives new salience to private censorship – the control by intellectual property holders of distribution of
and access to information. The economic analysis of information is beset by internal contradiction and
uncertainty; information is both a component of the perfect market and a good that must be produced
within that market. Former characterization, information is supposed to move towards perfection. Under
the latter characterization, information must be commodified so as to give its producers an incentive to
produce. There is a fundamental conflict between the efficiency with which markets spread information
and the incentives to acquire information. Intentions in an intellectual property system have two vertical
sets. Each set is not a list of corollaries indeed they are sometimes internally contradictory. Intellectual
property should protect investment and labor.

Integrative questions:

1. What does it mean by code is code the logic of the information relation?

2. What is the former characterization of information?

3. What is the coverage of the information age?

4. What are the two vertical sets of intellectual property?

5. What is homologisation?

Lessons learned: I understood a politics of intellectual property: environmentalism for the net.
Intellectual property, information and the common good – Michael C. McFarland SJ

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Leaning expectation: to know and understand Intellectual property, information and the common good

Chapter review:

Property usually refers to tangible assets over which someone has or claims control. It originally
meant by land. Now it could also refer to mobile phones, cars, television and many more all these cases
the property claim is of control of the physical entity. Intellectual property is different because its object is
something intangible although it usually has tangible expression. Intellectual property has always been
closely tied to technology. Technology arises from intellectual property in the form of new inventions. But
technology also supports intellectual property in the form of new inventions. But technology also supports
intellectual property by providing new more powerful and more efficient ways of creating and
disseminating writing, musical composition, visual are and so on. The philosophical justification for
intellectual property gives two basic justifications for intellectual property rights. The first is the Lockean
justification is often called the labor theory of property. A person acquires property rights to something by
investing labor in it. The labor theory is often used today implicitly at least to justify claims to intellectual
property rights. Another theory is called Hegelian or personality theory of intellectual property. The
personality theory does figure in some current claims to intellectual property. The purpose of the copyright
is not so that he can sell it and be compensated for his labor since he does not believe software should
be sold, but to prevent others from selling it. The labor theory and the personality theory give a credible
justification for at least some claims to intellectual property rights.

Integrative questions:

1. What does property usually refer to?

2. What are the two basic classifications of intellectual property?

3. What is a labor theory?

4. What is a intellectual property?

5. What is the Lockean justification?

Lessons learned: I understood Intellectual property, information and the common good
Is copyright ethical? An examination of the theories, laws and practices regarding the private ownership
of intellectual work in the United States – Shelly Warwick

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Learning expectation: to know and understand if copyright is ethical, examination of the theories, laws
and practices regarding the private ownership of intellectual work in the United States

Chapter review:

The rights theories have two kinds those based on some perceived intrinsic quality (natural right
theories) or on some value that a society wishes to achieve (utilitarian theories). Rights cannot be
discussed without considering the topic of political morality, which may be based on rights, duty or goals.
The concept of rights is needed in a political theory only when some decision that injures some people
finds prima-facie support in the claim that it will make the community as a whole better off. In the modern
view of rights is that they are created by law and stem from no natural source. Cohen defines property
rights as the relationship between individuals in reference to things. There are four approaches to the
development of private property: 1. Occupation, 2. Labor, 3. Personality, 4. Economic. Property rights are
defined as rights that specify how persons may be benefited and harmed and who must pay to modify the
actions taken by various persons that are put forth as a means of achieving a greater internalization of
externalities or a means of bringing new factors into the equation and as they arise along with the emerge
of new benefits or harmful effects. Intellectual property rights is defined that which is covered by patent,
copyright or trademarks. Two views dominant copyright theory. The first approach views copyright as a
natural right either based on labor, or personality. The second approach treats copyright as a state to
policy to achieve a set of goals. The ethics of copyright can be approached in two ways. 1. Every creator
stands on the shoulders of giants. 2. Individual is entitled to what he or she creates.

Integrative questions:

1. What are the two views of dominant copy right?

2. What are the two kinds of right theory?

3. What are the four approaches of the development of private property?

4. What is the difference between economic property and property rights?

5. What is a property right?

Lessons learned: I understood the laws and practices regarding the private ownership of intellectual
work in the United States
On the web, plagiarism matters more than copyright piracy – John W. Snapper

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Learning expectation: to know and understand plagiarism matters more than copyright piracy

Chapter review:

Piracy is the infringement of a copyright, and plagiarism is the failure to give credit. The
increasing use of web-based electronic publication has created new contexts for both piracy and
plagiarism. Copyright is now defined in statutory law. International copyright law has an explicit basis in
international agreements. If we don’t like some features of the law then we know how to go about revising
the law than plagiarism it is more difficult. Plagiarism remains a notion with no generally recognized body
of classical examples. The harm in plagiarism is the author who receives no credit but it is hard to see
what harm that author may have suffered. Unless there is also copyright infringement, an author a few
legal grounds for claiming economic loss for a plagiarized use of his work. If this analysis of the harm of
plagiarism is correct then it would appear that the web heightens the need for protections against
plagiarism. A focus on the rights of the producer rather than the expectations of the reader is what
distinguishes piracy from plagiarism in the sense of the present paper. The study of copyrights on the
web is almost an industry with a steady stream to excellent law review. Hard-based publication to web-
based publication creates a new economic environment in which slightly weakened copyright protections
can still provide an adequate economic incentive for the publication industry. First, the majority of legal
scholars propose strengthened rather than weakened, intellectual property protections for electronic
publication. Second, the cost of publication to the point that most copyright protections were no longer
needed to encourage publication. Third, most complex policies, copyright policy has a myriad of social
utilities.

Integrative questions:

1. What is piracy infringement?

2. Why is plagiarism more difficult rather than copyright?

3. How is piracy and copyright defined?

4. What are the harm in plagiarism?

5. What is the study of copyrights?

Lessons learned: I understood the web, plagiarism matters more than copyright piracy
An ethical evaluation of web site linking – Richard A. Spinello

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Learning expectation: to know and understand ethical evaluation of web site linking

Chapter review:

A website refers to a combination of text, graphics or media content that has been put into an
area of the internet known as the World Wide Web. Each website has a unique address or URL
(Universal Resource Linking). A website typically consists of multiple pages that are organized and
controlled from a beginning or home page. A logical website is stored on such a physical server that may
be owned and controlled by someone else, such as an internet service provider. There are two types of
links: an HREF links that instructs the browser to locate another web site and provide its contents for the
user, and an IMG or image link. An image link instructs a browser to enhance the text on the user’s web
page with an image contained in a separate file usually located at a completely different web site. A link is
merely a short line of HTML code. The value and social benefits of linking are manifold and beyond
dispute. They are an indispensable tool for search engines that allow users to search for products across
a variety of web site databases. Linking is the essence of World Wide Web, and there is little doubt that
legal or technological constraints on linking would have substantial negative ramifications for the web.
Website can be classified as a private property. There are three theories that one encounters in the
traditional literature about intellectual property and each of them as has a convenient label: 1.
Utilitarianism, 2. The lockean or labor-desert theory, 3. The personality theory. The utilitarian approach
assumes that the utility principle, sometimes expressed as the greatest good or the greatest number
should be the basis for determining property entitlements. The second approach sometimes referred to as
the labor desert theory. Is based on the premise that the person who works upon common or unowned
resources has a right to the fruits of his/her labor. The third and final approach is that property rights are
essential for proper personal expression.

Integrative questions:

1. What is a website?

2. What is the meaning of URL?

3. What is the lockean or labor desert theory?

4. What are the three theories that encounters in the traditional literature?

5. What is HREF?

Lessons learned: I understood an ethical evaluation of web site linking.


The cathedral and the bazaar – Eric Raymond

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Learning expectation: to know and understand the cathedral and the bazaar

Chapter review:

Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer’s personal itch. In my


understanding this means that when people start doing things they start from scratch and no one became
easily successful in the things they are doing. It is like trial and error. That’s why when we will make a
program we should not put in mind that it will successfully work the first time we try it. Good programmers
know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite. In my understanding this means that when you are
a good programmer you don’t need to look for any references anymore you will just get the concept f how
the program works and great one’s doesn’t throw their code away after use but they still reuse it because
some of the existing codes can be used again. Plan to throw one way this means that programs are just
like our clothes when we will not use it anymore we should give it away or throw it so that there would be
a vacant space in the computer. If you have the right attitude interesting problems will find you. In my
understanding this means that when you handle your problems the right way then people will find you
because you know how to handle things smoothly. When you lose interest in a program, your last duty to
it is to hand off to a competent successor. In my understanding is that when you give up in making the
program work then don’t just throw the codes away but pass it to a person who can finish it or handle the
problem. Treating your users as co-developers is your least-hassle route to rapid code improvement and
effective debugging. In my understanding this means that treating our users as co-developers because
the program that we build is going to be used by users and they are the one who will tell us the problems
or bugs that they encounter when using the program. Release early, release often and listen to your
customers this is a good practice that we should take in mind because the programs that we build have
bugs and we should always make update so that the users will not get angry about the program. Given a
large enough beta tester and co-developer base, almost every problem will be characterized quickly and
the fix obvious to someone. This is true because when you have a lot of beta tester in your program they
can easily fix the problems that they encounter.

Integrative questions:

1. What is the meaning of the cathedral and the bazaar?

2. Why should users be treated like co-developers?

3. What will you do when you lose interest in a program?

4. Why do we need to release early, release often?

5. What does it mean by plan to throw one away?

Lessons learned: I understood the cathedral and the bazaar.


Chapter 4

Towards a theory of privacy for the information age – James H. Moor

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Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand the theory of privacy for the information age

Chapter review:

Greased data makes information so easy to access that it can be used again and again.
Computers now have big storage of data’s that’s why people should not worry about anything anymore
because they can put all their information or the things they do in the computer and if they forgot an
information or something they did they can easily access the computer and see it there. But of course
they should put privacy in their computer because if they don’t then people can hack or get their
information. Two standard ways of justifying privacy instrumental values are those values that are good
because they lead to something else that is good. Intrinsic values are values that are good in themselves.
Instrumental values are good as means, Intrinsic values are good as ends. Privacy offers us protection
against harm.

Core values are the values that all normal humans and cultures need for survival. Although
privacy is not a core value per se, it is the expression of a core value, viz the value of security. Without
protection, species and cultures don’t survive and flourish. The nature of privacy the term privacy is
sometimes used to designate a situation in which people are protected from intrusion or observation by
natural or physical circumstances. Setting and adjusting policies for private situations in formulating
policies we should try to minimize excess harm and risk. There are three principles the publicity principle
– rules and conditions governing private situations should be clear and known to the persons affected
them.

The justification of exceptions principle: a breach of a private situation is justified if and only there
is a great likelihood that the harm caused by the disclosure will be so much less than the harm prevented
that an impartial person would permit breach in this and in morally similar situations, The adjustment
principle – if special circumstances justify a change in the parameters of a private situation, then the
alteration should become an explicit and public part of the rules and conditions governing the private
situation.
Integrative questions:

1 what are the two standard ways of justifying privacy?

2 What is the justification of exceptions?

3 What does privacy offer us?

4 What is grounding privacy?

5 What is the nature of privacy?

Lessons learned: Grounding privacy

The nature of privacy

Setting and adjusting policies for private situations


The structure of rights in directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the
processing of personal data and the free movement of such data

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Learning expectation: To know and understand the structure of rights in directive 95/46/EC on the
protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such
data.

Chapter review:

The data subject’s right to access and to object. The directive gives the individual a general right
to access and to correct information about himself. Furthermore, data subjects are given the right to
object to the processing of data for certain purposes. The reprocessing of personal data is stressed that
all personal data “must be collected for specified, explicit and legitimate purposes and not further
processed in a way that is incompatible with those purposes.”

Using personal data for a different purpose – processing of data in a way that is not
incompatible with the purpose for which it was collected is a difficult one to interpret. Firstly
incompatibility can’t mean logical consistency. Secondly incompatible can’t mean that the purposes are
practically inconsistent. Thirdly incompatible can’t simply mean that the two purposes are different.
Privacy as restricted access means that privacy is a limitation of other’s access to the individual.” A
general problem with the restricted access view is that it is difficult to see how it draws the distinction
between private and public situations. A second limitation of the restricted access view is that every
case of dissemination of information about oneself must be counted as a loss of privacy, since one
makes oneself more accessible to others. Privacy as control is just as simple as that of the restricted
access amount.

Channels for the flow of personal information the relationship between privacy and data
protection in the directive – the directive has a certain view on the relationship between its own norms
pertaining to data protection and the right to privacy. Channels for the flow of personal information-
different channels are characterized by different sets of restrictions . There can be restrictions on the
audience that has access to the channel, and restrictions on the type of information that is allowed to
flow in the channel.
Integrative question:

1 What is a channel?

2 What is the difference of personal data?

3 Can there be a restriction in the access of an audience?

4 Is personal information having a data protection?

5 What is the limitation of access?

Lessons learned: The directive on the question of further processing of personal data

Data protection and the philosophy of privacy

Channels for the flow of personal information


Privacy protection, control of information, and privacy-enhancing technologies – Herman T. Tavani and
James H. Moor

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Quote:

Learning expectation: To understand and know what is privacy protection, control of information, and
privacy-enhancing technologies

Chapter review:

Privacy is an important part of our life without privacy we will have a hard time living our ordinary
life for example an artist also needs privacy even if they are always shown on television. If they don’t
have privacy they will really have a hard time living their life. Control of personal information is extremely
important as of course is privacy. The concept of privacy itself is best defined in terms of restricted
access, not control.

Privacy is fundamentally about protection from intrusion and information gathering by others.
Privacy and control fit together naturally just not in the way people often state. We can have control but
no privacy and privacy with no control. We should aim to have both control and privacy. A fundamental
problem about defining the concept of privacy in terms of individual control of information is that it greatly
reduces what can be private. Normative privacy should be distinguished into two parts natural or
descriptive privacy.

Natural privacy means the right to privacy while descriptive privacy means privacy that exists as a
matter of fact. Restricted access model provides a framework for discussing privacy on the internet in a
way in which a control theory of privacy is not. Private situation is necessary to define who has access to
what under which circumstances. These restrictions bar most people from gaining access and possibly
nobody can see all of the records. These restrictions in access also often for bid revelation of private
matters to others by those who do not have access.

A straightforward justification for having privacy is the protection it affords us to plan our lives, to
decide what benefits we wish to seek and what harms we wish to avoid. Privacy enhancing technologies
or PET is a technical and organizational concepts that aim at protecting personal identity.
Integrative question:

1. What is a natural privacy?

2. Is privacy important in our life? Why?

3. What is a restricted access model?

4. What is a straightforward justification?

5. What can a privacy do?

Lessons learned: The theory of privacy

Privacy enhancing technologies (PET)


Toward an approach to privacy in public: Challenges of information technology – Helen Nissenbaum

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Quote: “Intimacy simply could not exist unless people had the opportunity for privacy. Excluding outsiders
and resenting their uninvited intrusions are essential parts of having an intimate relationship.”

Learning expectation: To know and understand what is toward an approach to privacy in public:
Challenges of information technology.

Chapter review:

Influential approaches to privacy emphasize the role of privacy in safe guarding personal or
intimate realm where people may escape the prying and interference of others. There are two realms one
is the private realm which is contrasted with a public realm. Private realm is delimited by physical
boundaries. Privacy is worthy of safeguarding these approaches argue, because intimacy is important,
privacy is worth protecting because we have value the sanctity of a personal realm. Privacy functions to
protect the integrity of a private or intimate realm spans scholarly work in many disciples, including legal,
political and philosophical discussions of privacy.

Privacy provides “the necessary context for relationships which we would hardly be human if we
had to do without – the relationships of love, friendship and trust.” Two misleading assumptions the first
one is erroneous assumption: there is realm of public information about persons to which no privacy
norms apply. This assumption holds that there is a category of information about persons that is perfectly
public which is up for grabs for anyone with an interest in and use for it. The second one is erroneous
assumption:

An aggregation of information does not violate privacy if its parts taken individually, do not. This
assumption plays an important role in defending a position that databases of nonsensitive information are
nonsensitive. When bits of information are aggregated, compiled, and assembled they can be invasive of
privacy even if when taken individually they are not. The capacity to manipulate information in these ways
may have significant bearing on the humans are who are its subjects.

Integrative Question:

1. Does an aggregation violate information privacy?

2. What are the influential approaches to privacy?

3. What are the two misleading assumptions?

4. What are the privacy functions?

5. What is a philosophical privacy?

Lessons learned: Privacy and personal realm background

Violating privacy in public

Two misleading assumptions


KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness – Anton H. Vedder

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Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness

Chapter review:

Personal data is often considered to be the exclusive kind of data kind of data eligible for
protection by privacy law and privacy norms. Personal data is commonly defined as data and information
relating to an identified or identifiable person. First is personal data should only be collected for specified,
explicit, legitimate purposes and should not be further processed in a way incompatible with these
purposes. Secondly some principles apply for a legitimizing personal data processing. Thirdly, the data
subject has some specific rights with regard to “his or her” personal data. Social consequences, this
consequence of KDD using or producing personal data in the broad sense may at first sight seem rather
innocent. It loses, however, much of its appearance where the information contained in the profile of is of
a sensitive nature. Categorical privacy is strongly connected with individual privacy. The value that
oppose infringements of individual privacy equally oppose infringements of categorical privacy.
Categorical privacy has its point in respecting and protecting the individual rather than in respecting and
protecting the group to which the individual belongs. The conception of categorical privacy is just like
many current conceptions of individual privacy – builds on a conventionally predefined conception of the
personal sphere. To protect individuals against possible negative consequences of the use of group
profiles is by careful assessment of the ways in which the profiles are in fact used and can be used. The
notion of privacy is still overwhelmingly dominant in the legal and moral conceptual frameworks of those
working in the fields of information technology and the law and information technology and public policy.

Integrative Question:

1. What is KDD?

2. What are the social sequences of KDD?

3. What is a categorical privacy?

4. What is a personal data?

5. What is the concepcion of categorical privacy?

Lessons learned: Personal data, law and ethics

Social consequences

Categorial privacy

Solutions
Data Mining and Privacy – Joseph J. Fulda

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Quote:

Learning expectation: To know and understand Data Mining and Privacy.

Chapter review:

Concomitant parts of the knowledge discovery process may classify data into preexisting
categories, cluster data by mapping them into categories created during data analysis and determined by
the data, provide a summary of the data, which is useful in a sense that the raw data are not, describe
dependencies between variables, find links between data fields, use regression to predict future values of
data and model sequential patterns in the data that may indicate revealing trends? Data mining is easily
accomplished when the data are highly structured and available in many different forms at many different
levels in what are known as data warehouses. The data warehouse contains integrated data- allowing
data to be compared and contrasted, both detailed and summarized data- certain patterns can be
detected only by examining data, historical data- which if mined can yield cyclic and seasonal activity as
well as long terms trends and metadata- which provides the context of the data. Traditional computer –
science terms, data is uninterpreted while knowledge has a semantics that gives it meaning. The process
in Privacy is invaded when means are used that bypass the subject’s consent as manifested by the
subject’s observable behavior, reasonably interpreted. Computers could be used to infer individuals life-
styles, habits, whereabouts, and associations from data collected in ordinary consumer transactions can
have a “chilling effect”, causing people to alter their observable activities while answering the need for
organizations to devise more pervasive, efficient, and interlinked computerized record-keeping systems,
so that everything from consumer credit to social services is not abused.

Integrative questions:

1. What is a data mining?

2. What are the preexisting categories of concomitant parts?

3. What does a data warehouse contain?

4. What is a chilling effect?

5. Can a computer be used to infer individuals?

Lessons learned: Knowledge discovery and data mining, the issue and analysis
Workplace surveillance, privacy and distributive justice – Lucas D. Introna

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Quote:

Learning expectation: to know and understand Workplace surveillance, privacy and distributive justice

Chapter review:

Privacy according to Posner creates opportunities for hiding information that could render many
social interactions “fraudulent”. Surveillance in general is the fundamental flaw of the modernity’s belief in
surveillance as a neutral gaze, as a sound basis for certainty. Surveillance can only fulfill its role as
guarantor of certainty if it is complete and comprehensive –in short, omnipresent- and if it can be done
from a vantage point where all things are of equal or no value – which is impossible. Privacy secures
autonomy, creates social capital for intimacy, and forms the basis of structuring many diverse social
relations.

Surveillance subjecting all individuals in the institution to reasonable scrutiny and judgment.
Distribute the rights to privacy of the individual and right of transparency of the collective in a way that
would be seen to be fair to all concerned. There are two perspective first is individual perspective there
are no such things as neutral or objective judgements. Every judgement implies interest. In the context of
typical organizational settings, the employee is normally in a disadvantaged position – in a relation of
severe power asymmetry. Thus it is not possible for the individual as an individual, to bargain for and
ensure the fair use of data once it is captured. If data about themselves and their activities are captured it
is in their interest to have maximum control over it.

The perspective of an collective without capturing of complete and comprehensive information


about the relevant activities of the individual, resources cannot be efficiently and effectively allocated and
control over the use of these resources cannot be maintained. Self interested individuals would not
always tend to use resources allocated by the collective. In fact they may use it completely for their own
purposes. The collective needs to use data collected to coordinate and control the activities of the
individuals for the good of the collective.

Integrative question:

1. What is a perspective of a collective?

2. What does privacy mean according to Posner?

3. What does fraudulent mean?

4. What does every judgement imply?

5. What is a asymmetry?

Lessons learned: Resisting workplace surveillance, privacy as matter of justice, privacy, surveillance and
distributive justice
Privacy and varieties of informational wrongdoing – Jeroen van den Hoven

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Learning expectation: to understand Privacy and varieties of informational wrongdoing

Chapter review:

Panoptic technologies ranging from active badges intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS),
Closed circuit televisions (CCTV), and data-base mining techniques encourage government agencies,
public administrators, and business firms to pursue the communication dream of perfect free
riderlessness. Public goods problem is that it contributes to the initial plausibility of their aspirations. The
problems can be characterized as free rider problems law enforcement, tax collection, implementation of
environmental policy. A free rider problem means it is a situation where a number of persons contribute to
the production and maintenance of a public good where each person has individually has an incentive to
profit from the public good without making the necessary contribution to its production or maintenance.
Information based harm personal information is used to inflict harm or a cause serious disadvantage to
individuals does not necessarily make such uses violations of a moral right to privacy. Informational
inequality this moral reason is concerned with equality and fairness. One reason for this development is
that people welcome the benefits that information technology can give them in exchange for the use of
their personal data. Information injustice this is concerned with justice. Michael Walzer has pointed out
that “there is no set of basic goods across all moral and material worlds, or they would have to be so
abstract that they would be of little use in thinking about particular distributions”. Sphere of success
captures an important aspect of what people find threatening and problematic about information
technology. Encroachment on moral autonomies example is the capacity to shape our own moral
biographies to reflect on our moral careers to evaluate and identify with our own moral choices without
the critical gaze.

Integrative question:

1. What is a panoptic technology?

2. What does a free rider problem mean?

3. What did Michael Walzer pointed out?

4. What is an Encroachment?

5. What is the problem of public goods?

Lessons learned: Panoptic technologies and the public good, Information based harm, Informational
inequality, informational injustice, spheres of access, encroachment on moral autonomy
Chapter 5

Defining the boundaries of computer crime – Herman T. Tavani

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Learning expectation: to know and understand Defining the boundaries of computer crime

Chapter review:

Computer crime is necessary or even useful, it is important to consider briefly some background
issues and discussions involving crime and computer technology that can inform the current debate.
Category of computer crime can be advanced from at least three different perspectives: legal, moral, and
informational or descriptive. Computer crime might be viewed as a useful category for prosecuting certain
kinds of crimes. One view of having a descriptive category of computer crime is worthwhile. James Moor’s
respect to certain conceptual confusions that have arisen because of the development and use of
computer technology. Moor’s model regarding the process of identifying a conceptual vacuum that arise
because of the use of computer technology in general to identify some of the specific confusions that
emerge because of criminal activities made possible by computer technology. Three types of computer
crime: Software piracy – using computer technology to produce one or more unauthorized copies of
proprietary computer software or distribute unauthorized software or make copies of that software
available for distribution over a computer network. Electronic break-ins – using computer technology to
gain unauthorized access either to an individual or an organization’s computer system or to a password
protected website. Computer sabotage – disrupt the flow of electronic information access one or more
computer networks including the internet or destroy data resident in a computer or damage a computer
systems resources or both. Computer technology especially the internet has provided a new forum for
certain illegal activities like pornographies and many more. With these many people doesn’t care even if
they know that it is a crime because they are enjoying the things they are doing in the internet. As many
people says bad things are more easy to learn than good things.

Integrative questions:

1. How can you prevent computer crime?

2. What is electronic break-ins?

3. What is a computer sabotage?

4. What is Moor’s model regarding to?

5. Can a software privacy be prevented?

Lessons learned: legal moral and information/descriptive categories of computer crime, computer crime
as a descriptive category of crime, establishing clear and coherent criteria the three types of computer
crime.
Terrorism or civil disobedience: toward a hacktivist ethic

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Learning expectation: to understand what is Terrorism or civil disobedience: toward a hacktivist ethic

Chapter review:

First of all we want to know the meaning of an hacktivist. Hacktivist is a clandestine use of
computer hacking to help advance political causes. Before many people knows that when we say about
hacking it is an illegal act but now it has change the minds of many people. There are good and bad types
of hacking. Civil disobedience entails the peaceful breaking of unjust laws; it is a technique of resistance
and protest whose purpose is to achieve social or political change by drawing attention to problems and
influencing public opinion.

Symbolic acts of civil disobedience are accomplished by drawing attention to a problem indirectly.
The use of the computer as a tool of civil disobedience has been termed Electronic Civil Disobedience.
Electronic civil disobedience comes in many forms ranging from conservative acts such as sending email
and publishing websites to breaking into computer systems. The following are ethical justification for acts
considered civilly disobedient:

No damage done to person’s property, Non-violent, Not for personal profit, Ethical motivation, and
willingness to accept personal responsibility for outcome of actions. Hacktivism can be defined as an act
of electronic civil disobedience. Penalties for hacktivism are meted out with the same degree of force as
for hacking in general, regardless of the motivation for the hack or the political content of messages left at
hacked sites. Three principles of hackers access to computer, all information should be free, mistrust
authority. Hacktivist prioritize freedom of information and are suspicious of centralized control over or
private ownership of information.

Integrative questions:

1. What is a hacktivism?

2. What are the penalties for hactivism?

3. What are the symbolic acts of disobedience?

4. What are the forms of electronic civil disobedience?

5. What does a hacktivist prioritize?

Lessons learned: Electronic civil disobedience, hacktivism and electronic civil disobedience, hacktivism
and cyber-terrorism, toward a hacktivist ethic.
Web security and privacy: An American perspective – L. Jean Camp

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Learning expectation: to know and understand Web security and privacy: An American perspective

Chapter review:

There are confusions between security and privacy. Privacy requires security because without the
ability to control access and distribution of information, privacy cannot be protected. But security is not
privacy. Anonymity requires security and guarantees privacy but is neither. Security is often confused with
privacy because security is concerned with confidentiality. Security has three goals: integrity,
authentication, and confidentiality. Integrity means that information is not altered, what is received is
exactly what is sent; information is not altered during storage. Information has integrity during
transmission if the recipient can be certain that the information was not altered in transit. Authentication is
establishing user identity or other attributes of interest.

Authentication enables access control. With access control individual files or data files can have
different levels of access. Browsing information depends on the policies, practices, and physical
configuration of the user’s internet service. Information availability depends upon the type and version of
the customer’s browser. Browser software can send information on available helper applications to
servers. Helper applications offer probabilistic information about the consumer’s machine and even
interests. The American right to privacy has two sets of rights: right of autonomy and rights of seclusion.
The right of seclusion can be seen in the original definition of the right to privacy by Warren and Brandeis
as “the right to be let alone”.

The right to let alone has been defined into four kinds of privacy rights: intrusion upon seclusion,
appropriation of name and likeness, false light and public disclosure of private facts. Intrusion upon
seclusion is a violation of rights to seclusion. Appropriation of name and likeness is the use of person’s
name, reputation, or image without his or her consent. False light is the publication of information that is
misleading and thus shows an individual in a false light. Public disclosure of private facts is information
deemed as newsworthy can be printed even if it is a violation of privacy.

Integrative question:

1. What are the four kinds of right to let alone privacy?

2. What does an authentication enable?

3. What does Anonymity require?

4. What are the two sets of American privacy right?

5. What does right to let alone mean?

Lessons learned: browsing information, legal issues and societal implications


The meaning of Anonymity in an information age – Helen Nissenbaum

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Learning expectation: to know and understand the meaning of Anonymity in an information age

Chapter review:

The meaning of anonymity is conducting oneself without revealing one’s name. In my


understanding about anonymity in information age is that when people sign up to social network sites
they don’t give their real name but they use nickname or codenames so that people would not easily
identify their identity. The power of information technology to extract or infer identity from non-identifying
signs and information has been inventively applied by literary scholars to setting disputes and unraveling
mysteries of authorship.

The value of anonymity lies not in the capacity to be unnamed, but in the possibility of acting or
participating while remaining out of reach, remaining unreachable. In the computerized world the systems
of information that we currently have in place, namelessness by itself is no longer sufficient for protecting
what is at stake in anonymity. To further understand about anonymity in an information age requires an
appreciation of what it takes to be unreachable or out of grasp in a world where technologies of
knowledge and information are increasingly efficacious at reaching, grasping, and identifying. Two main
problems of anonymous data also anonymized: the first is as soon as data is sent electronically, the
senders identification is automatically added to the message. To anonymize the sender, an automatic
process of replacing this identification must be implemented. The second is to decrypt an encrypted
message, one must know the decryption key of the sender. However when the sender is anonymized, it is
impossible to select the right key. An automatic process of key-handling and decryption must also be
implemented.

Integrative question:

1. What does anonymity mean?

2. What is the value of anonymity?

3. What is the power of information technology?

4. What is an automatic process of key handling?

5. What does anonymity in an information age mean?

Lessons learned: the meaning of anonymity in an information age, methods and results
Double encryption of anonymized electronic of anonymized electronic data interchange

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Learning expectation: to know and understand the double encryption of anonymized electronic of
anonymized electronic data interchange

Chapter review:

GP or general practitioner plays an important role in the health care system. Most of the patients
have only one GP, who acts like a gateway for the health care system and who is informed that the
specialist and hospital colleagues about their treatments. Since the PC system needs many cases, we
prefer electronic data. This preference became a requirement for several reason: the collection of data is
much easier, the readability is a lot higher, and automatic selection becomes simpler. More important is
the change of data during input. In order to transmit data from the GP to the central database of IPCI,
they use the edifact standard for electronic messages. They developed the new carrier-message
MEDEUR in order to be able to put as much coded and as much structured data in the EPR into the
message. The randomized number is kept as a link to the patient in the GP system for two reasons. First
since the GP sends the messages monthly it contains only the data added in that month and we must
able to store the new data in the right patient record. Second, we want to allow the GP to go back to a
patient based on the random number of our research database. Once the data is in the central database
of IPCI, no one is allowed to have access, unless permission from the supervisory board is given. To
keep the GP a sender of anonymized data also anonymous we have to solve two main problems. As
soon as data are sent electronically the senders identification is automatically added to the message. To
anonymize the sender, an automatic process of replacing this identification must be implemented.

Integrative questions:

1. What is the important role of a GP in the health care system?

2. Why is randomized number kept as a link to the patient?

3. What does anonymized mean?

4. What is a EPR?

5. What are the two problems of anonymized data?

Lessons learned: I understood double encryption of anonymized electronic of anonymized electronic data
interchange
Written on the body: Biometrics and identity – Irma van der Ploeg

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Learning expectation: to know and understand the meaning of Written on the body: Biometrics and
identity

Chapter review:

Biometrics is the next big thing in information technology. That’s why when you combine
biometric and information technology comes biometric technology. Biometric technology involves the
collection with a sensoring device of digital representations of physical feature unique to an individual
example of this are fingerprint, retina, veins of the hand and many more. Biometrics appears not so
different from older and existing forms of establishing and verifying personal identity in the deliverance of
all kinds of social services and securing economic exchanges.

The legal aspect of biometrics is a distinction between determination of identity and verification of
identity while identity or real identification refers to a process involving investigation into a range of
personal data. The difference can be identification is a search for a one too many match with whereas
verification refers to a search one to one match. Van Kralingen made a distinction between determination
of identity and verification of identity. Determination of identity means it is a process involving
investigation into a range of personal data while verification is to involve merely the comparison of two
data in order to determine whether they belong to the same person. The difference is identification refers
to a search for a one to many match while verification is a search for a one to one match. Biometrics is
not just about identity check but also involves the generation and storage of digital representations of
unique physical features for the purpose of identifying that person within an information system.

Integrative questions:

1. What did Van Kralingen distinguish?

2. What is a biometric?

3. What is the legal aspect of biometrics?

4. Who is Van Kralingen?

5. What is the difference between identification and verification of identity?

Lessons learned: identifying biometric identity, virtual identities, questioning the biometric body
Chapter 6

Ethical considerations for the information professions – Elizabeth A. Buchanan

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Learning expectation: to know and understand Ethical considerations for the information professions

Chapter review:

Ethics is defined as the philosophical study of moral behavior, of moral decision making. The
difference between morality and ethics is morality is the sense of conscience and right and wrong that we
derive from upbringing while ethics is more structured and deliberative; Three major realms of ethics can
be identified: Descriptive – focusing on existing situations or conditions; normative – focusing on what
ought to be; and thirdly meta-ethics the logical analysis of moral language and the aim to make precise
the meaning of moral terms and clarify the moral arguments that are at stake. Codes of ethics are
understood as sets of best practices.

Professional ethics is professionals are experts in a field, which provides them an advantage over
the lay person and that professional work has the potential to impact either positively or negatively the
general at large. Johnson identified four channels through which professional codes of ethics should be
judged: obligations to society, obligations to employer, obligations to clients and obligations to colleagues
and organizations. As information professionals we have the ethical responsibility to uphold principles of
social, personal and organizational responsibility. Ethical codes of conduct provide guidelines and
frameworks but may more often than not fail to give us answers. The phase 1 is issue definition and
evaluation examples of the questions are: Are you confident of your competence in the issue?, Who are
the stakeholders or affected persons? How would you describe the situation to an outsider and an
insider? and many more. The second phase is action/inaction evaluation and implementation.

Integrative questions:

1. What is ethics?

2. What are the major issues?

3. What are the codes of ethics?

4. What is a professional ethics?

5. What does ethical code provide?

Lessons learned: Major issues, codes of ethics.


Software engineering code of ethics: approved – Don Gotterbarn, Keith Miller, Simon Rogerson

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Learning expectation: to understand Software engineering code of ethics: approved

Chapter review:

Software engineering now has its own codes. The changes made in the version 3.0 and 5.2 are
the eight principles were reordered to reflect the order in which software professionals should consider
their ethical obligations. Version 3.0 was for the principle of the product and the version 5.2 was for the
principle of the public. The code emphasizes the professional’s obligations to the public at large. In all
these judgments concern for the health, safety, and welfare of the public is primary that is the public
interest is central to this code. “The primary of well being and quality of life of the public in all decisions
related to software engineering is emphasized throughout the code.

The code contains a clause against using prejudices or bias in many decision making, it includes
specific language about the importance of ethical behavior during the maintenance phase of software
development. It reflects the amount of time a computer professional spends modifying and improving
existing software. The software engineering code of ethics purpose is to document the ethical and
professional responsibilities and obligations of software engineers. Codes is intended to educate and
inspire software engineers, it also informs the public about the responsibilities that are important to this
profession. The code is unique unlike others its code is intended as the code for a profession and is
distinctive in that it has been adopted by two international computing societies. Software engineers
adhere the eight principles: public, client and employer, product, judgment, management, profession,
colleagues, self.

Integrative question:

1. What is the software engineering code of ethics?

2. What are the changes made in version 3.0 and 5.2?

3. What does the code emphasize?

4. What does the code do?

5. What are the eight principles of software engineer?

Lessons learned: Software engineering code of ethics and professional practice (short and full version),
principles.
No, PAPA: Why incomplete code of ethics are worse than none at all - N. Ben Fairweather

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Learning expectation: to know and understand about PAPA: Why incomplete code of ethics are worse
than none at all

Chapter review:

The problem with PAPA’s formulation is the question of whether technology for use in weapons
systems ought to be developed. This is an ethical issue of the information age. The information age puts
new emphasis on some parts of many older moral questions. The moral issues surrounding the
development of weaponry are thus a few of the very many possible examples of how an older moral
question can take on a new light as technology changes. Weapons systems can be can be related to
information systems because inaccurate data or processing may cause the wrong target to be hit. Privacy
and accurancy of computer data and information are issues essentially unrelated to the environmental
impacts of computing.

The cost of software that respects legal intellectual property rights, being a significant portion of
the cost of computing tends to inhibit the increasing use of computers. Any moral code can be turned to
by someone feeling pressures to find a relatively easy way out of a morally tricky situation. It is important
for ethical debate to be structured and in some circumstances such debate will need the enunciation off
particular principles or guidelines for application in particular circumstances.

The problem is that PAPA has been picked up on by others in a way that may in turn lead some
people to believe consideration of privacy, accurancy, property, and access in sufficient moral
consideration in the field of information technology. Codes should make it clear what their area of
competence but in doing so it must also make it clear that moral issues outside its area of competence
are still moral issues and ones that may be greater importance than any covered in the code.

Integrative question:

1. What is the problem of PAPA?

2. What does people believe?

3. What are the moral issues surrounding the development of weaponry?

4. What is the cost of software?

5. What does the code do?

Lessons learned: the problem, incomplete moral codes


Subsumption Ethics – David H. Gleason

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Learning expectation: to know and understand Subsumption Ethics

Chapter review:

Subsumption ethics is the process by which decisions become incorporated into the operation of
information technology systems, and subsequentially forgotten. Subsumption in general is the process of
building larger components from smaller ones. The greek word ethos, from which ethics can be translated
as habit. Habit in general is a subsumption process. According to Aristotle subsumption and ethos is
closely related. Example of this is small design decisions lead to small elements within a system. These
small elements become subsumed into larger system components, and so on, until the full system
operates.

Systems ultimately operate according to many such decisions. The decisions become codified
into programming code and information content. Design decisions often have ethical components,
whether or not the designer is explicitly aware of them. The impact of IT is determined by the operation of
its subsumed objects, subsumed objects have a determinate moral value and the ethical impact of an IT
system is the responsibility of the people who designed, developed and use it. Organizational Policy
drivers IT development IT enables a function that was not possible before, a policy decisions is made to
proceed with the practice, engineers and manager seek ways to implement the policy data is transmitted
automatically to buyers at regular.

The process runs without user intervention. The policy becomes a subsumed object and it would
take work to discontinue the practice. The SO gets subscribed into other practices, such as the general
databases of the registry data purchasers. The process repeats. Information systems subsume design,
policy, and implementation decisions in programming code and content. Subsumed objects have
determinants moral value. Subsumed objects have a high invisibility factor. Subsumptive complexity
increases over time.

Integrative question:

1. What is a systems development?

2. What is an organization policy drives IT development?

3. What are the axioms of subsumption ethics?

4. What is an ethical framework?

5. What is an SO?

Lessons learned: systems development, organizational policy drives IT development, axioms of


subsumption ethics, ethical framework
Ethical issues in business computing – Duncan Langford

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Learning expectation: To know and understand the ethical issues in business computing.

Chapter review:

When we hear the word business computing the thing that comes in our mind is the expenses
use in the business. But according to Duncan Langford it means that it is by no means straightforward.
The business computing device system is now using computers not like before it is all manual once you
have lost a data then there would be a problem with the business or the process will be repeated from the
start not like computers you can save as many documents or things in the computer and also there is a
backup so that once you have lost the data you have still a backup in the computer. The actual material
processed by business systems all data entered and generated differs greatly.

This is particularly important as the nature of data held on company systems must affect the
uses to which it may ethically be put. There would be four possible levels of business computing. Level
one is including use of the computer- likely to be shared. At level one specially written software is
generally unknown- instead there is reliance on packaged commercial software. At level two if more than
one computer is owned, they may be used as individual machines or networked. Actual computer use will
depend on the type of business but typically companies cover most aspects of business activity. The
software is likely to be commercial packaged. At level three a business large enough to employ a
designated computer specialist who will be given the task of setting up and maintaining company
computer and lastly at level four there would be at least one team of computer specialist. Without specific
training or direction the actual users of company computers may also act as unethically, either because
they do not know or realize the consequences of their actions or because their use of company systems
is not adequately policed.

The task of business computing or a computer is used in business to solve problems. This means
that there would be less paper work and the system would be faster because it is already automated.
Computer system considerations falls into two distinct equally important categories the first one is the
nature of data – what is it, why was it collected, what uses are made of it, and so on. The second is less
visible category is frequently overlooked.
Integrative question:

1. What are the four possible levels of business computing?

2. What is the task of business computing?

3. Does a computer really help in a business?

4. What are the ethical issues in business computing?

5. What are the data considerations?

Lessons learned: Ethical issues in business computing

The four levels of business computing

The task of business computing

Data considerations
The practitioner from within: Revisiting the virtues – Frances S. Grodzinsky

Learning Expectation: To know and understand the practitioner from within: Revisiting the virtues

Chapter review:

Virtue ethics offers character forming theory that has been more successful with my students than
the action guiding theories of computer ethic texts. The focus is on being rather than doing it presents a
good heuristic or approach to the problem of moral agency. Virtue ethics offers a way of teaching self
reflection through. It is the learning to care about the self, others, the community, living the good life,
flourishing, and striving for moral excellence. The concept that we live a certain way and that our actions
grow out of the vision of who are too important to jettison. Thus there seems to be a justifiable reason to
hold onto the concepts of Aristotle. The cultivation of emotions as supports for duty and moral
anthropology. . The moral issues surrounding the development of weaponry are thus a few of the very
many possible examples of how an older moral question can take on a new light as technology changes.
The difference can be identification is a search for a one too many match with whereas verification refers
to a search one to one match. Van Kralingen made a distinction between determination of identity and
verification of identity.

Integrative question:

1. What is virtue ethics?

2. What is computer ethics?

3. What is the concept of Aristotle?

4. What is Jettison?

5. What does virtue ethics offer?

Lessons learned: I understood the practitioner from within: Revisiting the virtues