CALL

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INTRODUCTION TO THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION .Sc. B..D. WORSNOP.Mtthntn's ffijjnBQtnyhs an General Editor: B. L. Ph.

THERMIONIC VACUUM TUBES CHAPMAN. ARNOT. A. MERCURY ARCS THE COMMUTATOR MOTOR THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THEORY QUANTUM SPECTRA. G.. E. W. R. L. G. J. H. W.~TCS AN INTRODUCTION TO VECTOR ANALYSIS FOR PHYSICISTS AND ENGINEERS FLUORESCENCE AND PHOSPHORESCENCE LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS WAVE FILTERS . LE FLINT. J.. B. R. F.K. L. BRAILSFORD. C. TEMPLE.D. MARTIN LAMONT. W. THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY THE CONDUCTION OF ELECTRICITY THROUGH GASES DIPOLE MOMENTS HAGUE. F. F. TOLANSKY.S. C. F. W. ALTERNATING CURRENT MEASUREMENTS THE METHOD OF DIMENSIONS THERMODYNAMICS THE PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF WIRELESS THE M. V. WILLIS JACOB.METHUEN'S MONOGRAPHS ON PHYSICAL SUBJECTS General Editor: B. H. OWEN. K. S. Ph. McVITTIE.. T. J. PORTER. F. PORTER. R. SAS. F. SCHONLAND. C. B.. J. C. B. STONER. OATLEY. B. A. L. B. G. C. R. F. R. G. WORSNOP. FORMATION X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY ATOMIC SPECTRA THERMIONIC EMISSION ___. RATCLIFFE. D. and PIDDUCK.. H. SEECHING. F. H. L. FRASER. J. W. A. L. DINGLE. S. JOSEPHS. JACKSON. L. T. E. B. J.So. C. W. B.. R. STYLE. G. J. CHILDS. H. APPLETON. WILLIAMS. R. O. H. SUTHERLAND. TEAGO. and CHALKLIN. TEAGO. E. D. A. E. MANN. W. B. EMELEUS. L. JACKSON. SYSTEM OF ELECTRICAL UNITS ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY PHOTOELECTRIC CELLS MAGNETISM PHOTOCHEMISTRY INFRA-RED AND RAMAN SPECTRA . WHITE. J. FEVRE. ' MoCREA._HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSMISSION LINES _ HIGH VOLTAGE PHYSICS A INTRODUCTION TO THE LAPLACE TRANS- JAMES.. HIRSCHLAFF. W. HYPERFINE STRUCTURE IN LINE AND NUCLEAR SPIN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES X-RAYS APPLICATIONS OF INTERFEROMETRY . JAEGER. G. WAVE MECHANICS MOLECULAR BEAMS . J. W. J. JOHNSON. M. F. ELECTRON DIFFRACTION MAGNETIC MATERIALS THE EARTH'S MAGNETISM PHYSICAL CONSTANTS COLLISION PROCESSES IN GASES J. C._ SOMMER. HEAVISIDE'S ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES WAVE GUIDES RELATIVITY PHYSICS COSMOLOGICAL THEORY THE CYCLOTRON WIRELESS RECEIVERS _. K. KNUDSEN. W. WORSNOP.. JACKSON. G. and GILL. W. JONES.

An Introduction to the LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION With Engineering Applications by J. LTD.C. LECTURER IN MATHEMATICS IN TUB UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA WITH 31 DIAGRAMS METHUEN & CO. W.. JAEGER M.Sc.2 Hill II III! I Illll Illl nil . Strand. LONDON IIA Lib. F.A. D.P. C. Illill 36 Essex Street.lNST...

First published in 1949 CATALOGUE NO. 4045 /U PRINTED JN GREAT BRITAIN .

and thus on electric circuits with lumped constants. A mimeowas produced by the C. in 1945 edition graphed delivered to was seconded for circulation in Australia. and so before he starts he is entitled to . Of the many books available. tempted to go as far as possible using no mathematics beyond ordinary calculus. with answers. he must study it fully and carefully.S. There is an increasing demand for operational methods by engineers a knowledge of and physicists who but whose mathematical equipment is restricted to that of an ordinary engineering course. contains as little theory as possible largely a collection of worked examples illustrating the methods of solution of the various types of problem commonly arising a handful of problems. the use of the theory of functions of a complex variable is the reader : . into these matters must study this theory. while the newer ones require a knowledge of the theory of functions of a complex variable. Here I have atencounter transient problems. the book it is.R. . the older ones use " the rather suspect and certainly obscure operational methods ". but at the same time catering for who wishes to acquire the manipulative skill necessary to solve his own problems to this end. For problems on ordinary linear differential equations. and in the higher parts The engineer who wishes to go deeply of the subject. in fact. and some comparatively advanced mathematics. in circuit theory has been added to enable the reader to test his skill. in 1944. when the author to the Radiophysics Laboratory of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.I. and since quite sophisticated points in it do arise.PREFACE THIS book contains the substance of a course of lectures engineers and physicists at the National Standards Laboratory. Sydney. but it is needed for a complete study quite unnecessary of partial differential equations. .

and allows ^ complete mathematical discussion of the validity solutions. and easy to (i) : satisfy write . earlier chapters. and will enable the reader to follow published work on the subject. y*. Any notation should three conditions it must be short. was originally used by Le"vy can reintrodueed by Carslaw it is easy to write. It is to be understood that solutions obtained in this way are correct. I have therefore in Chapter IV discussed the Equations of the transmission ^ line from the point of view of the only . all using calculus this treatment covers the common. must be applicable to any symbols not be used in any other connection. and how useful the solutions will be.VI know what types of problem he will be able to solve. problems. The Laplace v . rarely occur in those fields where the Laplace transformation is most useful. (*) Jo of y(t) may be given briefly. The used here. but it has the disadvantage of " and . bar but is rather clumsy to write. in particular to capital and many A " star ". and be applied to any symbols. Laplace transform of the corresponding small letter but this may be most inconvenient since it is not applicable to many symbols. being employed in other senses. A much more merits of the form that of the question " (i) and of the "_ -multiplied fOO ept relative form v(t}dt . and that the algebra is the same as it would be if the complex variable were used the latter merely changes the point of view. these. y. is not much used in other conletters. y Greek nections notation. however. can be replaced by is y used by Millman. and ease of writing If preferred difficult it is a most important: desideratum. notation of all'would be to write a capital (ii) it . (iii) it should letter The simplest Y for the . of the reasons for the notation used here for the transform roo e-**y(t)dt .

I. . 1939). but the essential point is that form (2) gives an exact correspondence with the large body of work done by the older operational methods.S. 1940). Hill. Theorie und Anwendung der Laplace Transformation Transients in in (Springer. Wagner.(Wiley. This is referred to in the text as C.. Modern Operational Mathematics in Engineering (McGraw Doetsch. Complex Variable and Operational Calculus (Cambridge. 1942). Operational Methods in Applied Mathematics (Oxford. and the last three the form (a). Vol. and with corresponding work on the Fourier transform. Linear Systems. and J. Operational bridge. 1931). while (i) corresponds with the newer books. own minor REFERENCES following are recommended for further reading and are occasionally referred to below. . with most of the theoretical work. it is a pleasure to acknowledge the assistance given to me by many officers of the C. I Methods Mathematical Physics (Cam- McLachlan. Operatorenrechnung (Leipzig. 1944). The Carslaw and Jaeger. 1941). The first four use the form (i) of the Laplace transform. Jeffreys. in particular that of the Secretary in making available the drawings for the text-figures. Finally. They all use the complex variable. Churchill.R. 1937). Gardner and Barnes.PREFACE Both notations have their Vll advantages.

CONTENTS CHAPTER I. .. FUNDAMENTAL THEORY II. PAGE . . FURTHER THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS . .100 131 INDEX .. .. .. ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY . . PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS . i 26 III. 82 IV.

for the types of problem we are interested in. : . formation is a mathematical device which is useful for a if is specified for all function such solving problems positive values of the time. but. these are called a of as the solution of differential system equaexpressed o. and may be cally. The Laplace transform In this book we shall primarily be concerned with problems on the behaviour of 'dynamical or electrical systems which are started in a given way at some instant. and from this the solution itself is then easily found. we can (in the simple cases needed here) write down a related quantity called its conversely. For . The complex number whose . . it is easy to write down the Laplace transform of the solution.i) Jo where p (i. The importance of the method arises from the fact that.CHAPTER I FUNDAMENTAL THEORY i. tions with given initial values at the instant t Negative values of the time do not arise in either the specification of = The Laplace transthe problems or in their solution. the value of the function can be found from it. defined as y(p) = f*rf\ poo . o. a y(t) any positive * Of course p may be sufficiently large to make a of the theory.i) convergent. (i. t " initial value problems ". Mathematiwhich we take to be the zero of time. if the Laplace transform Laplace transform is known.i) number. positive it is little Laplace transform formed as in (i. We suppose y(f) to be a known function of t for values Then the Laplace transform y(p) of y(t] is of f> o. and " " is one of a number of integral transforms by multiplying a function of t by a chosen real part is (i. in the early parts more definite to think of p as a real nothing is lost by this restriction.example.i) is a number * sufficiently large to if make i the integral convergent.

we have 2i\p ia p + iaj p 2 + a* v JX Proceeding in this way. We 2* we must have p and y(p] is a function > them but usually shall write respectively. as remarked above.7) to (1. The simplest way of deriving function of t and p. This Table. For example. y using (1. but those of the Laplace transform which are proved below make it the moat suitable for the solution of initial value problems. of a We = eS - p where p must be greater than the Again. or quoting the results from known definite integrals. if a o.9) and (i. y for the Laplace transform of y.1). * If a is = a. it and t being understood that these. (1. p has to be greater than the real part of a.iai ).2 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION is p e 2t permissible. = of in just as y(f) is of t. if a |a| > . is another example.12). if y where a may be real or complex.io) p must be greater than* results of Table I are elementary integrals \a\.6). we can build up the Table I of Laplace transforms which contains all the -transforms needed in the first three chapters. which have been included because they arise cases of resonance. full in this way to shall occasionally write emphasize this dependence.12) a is real. All the except (i. In (1. if a is real and real part - a .2) = sin at = iat . are functions of p need first a collection of the Laplace transforms few common functions. and Theorems I to III below. and in (1.il) and in (1. Each integral transform has characteristic properties. but if y(t] Apart from this p is unrestricted. The Fourier transform (26. provide the whole of the theory needed in Chapters I and II.2) of a. o real. \a\ a. while in (1. < . and integrating with respect to t.(e ~e.

If we differentiate * as if a both sides of this with respect to were a variable. . it is employed in deducing new Laplace transforms from known ones. and this can usually be supplied when. as here. we get t * This technique of differentiating under the integral sign with respect to a parameter is a powerful weapon of pure mathematics naturally its use needs justification. .

If y(p) is the Laplace transform of and a is any number. N2 z s. Similarly from transform of !)!"(# Theorem I and e~vt cos at is (- + fl)' (1. same THEOREM I. e~ aty(t}dt = Jo \ er<*+*)ty (t)dt = y(p + a).4 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION is which Treating (1. 2 e~u sin at 2.7) that . a is O + *) + . The collection of transforms in Table I can be greatly extended by the use of the following Theorem. we see from.n). This transform will to found have the form be usually consists of writing M ' 2 (ail ( -*> where f(p] and g(p) g(t).8) it follows that the . I .5) that the transform of As an example Theorem. ' 2 and from Theorem .12).7) in the equivalent to (i. . This follows immediately. and (1. way gives (1.. method with constant of solving an ordinary linear differential equation coefficients and given initial conditions down an algebraic equation for the transform y(p] of the solution y(t}. . the transform of 5. since the Laplace transform + of e~ aty(t) f is V* . the degree off(p) being lower than that . then y(p a) is at Laplace transform of e~ y(t). To j^c? the function y(t) in which has a given Laplace transform. Jo of the use of this (1. (p + b) + a . real or complex. It will be seen 4 that the Laplace transformation. are polynomials in p which have no of common factor..

and use Theorem I and the Table. if FUNDAMENTAL y = p +2 . use of a more extensive table of transforms than that given here. but transforms not included in the tables at present available a case solid background of manipulative frequently arise. For example. from (1. if y If the = 2* p* 6 A> + y = z cos 2t +3 sm 2t.8). and in any skill is extremely useful. only y(p] Most For example. Notice that both numerator and denominator of y have to be expressed in terms of p -f. denominator of y is a general quadratic in p.a (in the case above. we have first to find its factors. t For the method of doing this in problems where they are not obvious see 12. finally write down the function of t corresponding each fraction using Table I. If the denominator of y is of higher degree than the second. p -\. It is shown at the possibly combined with Theorem I. This is done by looking up y(p) in the Table I of transforms. if # it P+7 follows P+7 I j> + i 6 from Theorem and the Table that -f- y = e~* cos it 3e~* sin 2Jf.i) before Theorem I is used. it follows from (1. we complete the square.6) that J y v ' - = e~ 2t .f then we express y partial fractions by the usual algebraic methods. Theorem II below may be used when it is applicable. Similarly. Alternatively.7) -f- and (1. * .THEORY 5 of the labour * of the solution consists of finding the y(t) corresponding to a y(p) given in this form. end of this secton that the y(t) found in this way is the has which function for transform. in and to The student is particularly advised to make himself skilful Labour can be saved by the in the processes of this section. .

we is always available. but the results can often be obtained more o in the quickly otherwise. y= The process of equating coefficients used above and the Table. and a fraction with a linear numerator corresponding to each quadratic factor (or squared linear factor) of the denominator. in (2.THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION Assume * Then Equating P+-IS* A(p coefficients z + 4^ + 8) + p(Bp + C) A+ . putting 1/8 identity (2. (2. Then i m coefficients Equating we find * It is shown in text-books on algebra that if we assume a fraction with a constant numerator corresponding to each linear factor of the denominator. we find - P-4 ~^j I (2-3) find Then from Theorem e~ 2i{cos 22 3 sin 2t}.2) of p^. For example. B. we shall always have just the right number of equations to determine the unknown constants in these fractions. y = (p + 4) . respectively. and so on. and we get the result (3. p. .3) obtained before. and the constant term. and C.2) we find A 1/8.2). if we put p Then. 8A = B i! Solving these for A. this becomes Bp = +C + A= = (4 p). we have = o.

FUNDAMENTAL THEORY Then.r' L ^fl . p.(P where a^ a z an are constants. Theorem applicable to many important cases where f(p) and g(p) are polynomials in p. which .8) is Theorem follow in the form taken by the present method.* Heaviside's Expansion . from of (2. . (2. THEOREM and if If y(p} = f(p)/g(p). .5) . . using the Table and Theorem 7 y There ~ I... by " * In Heaviside's form of notation. an \ - (24) . and the simplicity directly (2. . may be real or " ~ = Y L_ P(P ^I^.7) the function y(t) whose Laplace transform is y(p) is S-5?f\ eV (2-8) \ T ^ (2-9) (2. (P) ($ ^(P a z) . in which (in order to have an exact correspondence with the Heaviside notation) the Laplace transform is denned as p times the integral in (i.8) (2. an additional term appears arising from this extra factor. . complex but must all be different. . . . then .8) is lost. (2. and in the "^-multiplied the Laplace transformation. Since (2. we is %-* %te~* a simple general : + $ cos 2t get -^ sin 2i. %(p).7).10) respectively.i). . the degree off(p) being less than that of II.

. Using * (2. Example 4. this value in (2. This is a well-known result. . as in the problems of 1 6.6) we put y(p) into partial fractions by methods discussed earlier. has All of (2. g'(ar}=(ar -a^ . . (ar -0r-i)K-r+i) - (r-^)- (2. To derive (2. -. Gibson. below.6). Similar remarks apply to (2.1 1) gives (2.4) with respect the ordinary rule for differentiating a product gives to Putting p =a r in this.10) are useful (2. n) .6) is easily renaen*ar ) is bered by noticing that the coefficient of i/(p ar in f(p)lg(p). .9).8 1 appears that the essential content of Theorei"* (27) for putting? simply the formulae (3. it is .8) and (2.5).5) and (2.7) is simply another way of writing? this statement. edn. f(ar }-=^(ar -a^ (^-^-O^-flH-i) r = (r i. gives .8) is the more useful. .12) in (2.5) to (2.5) f(p}(g(p) into partial fractions in the case in which g(p) no repeated factors. To deduce p by we notice that differentiating (2.* fon~t for completeness we give a proof below. . a (1906). With regard to (^. using II (1. and then (2. Treatise on the Calculus. Cf. partial fraction formulae (2.6) are themselves very useful. 120.. tn^ ar ) of g(p] (p (2. and substituting (2.6). . as in the examples of this section It sometimes happens that g(p) has complicated factors.9) and (3. cf.5).6) gives (2.9) when g(p) has The & few simple factors. . by assuming Then Putting p = ar in this gives . omitting the facto** result of putting p . 2. it is usually better to use (2.10). which need not even be set out explicitly.

there is the quesof the notation for a complex number. here. If z is =x -f- iy a complex x the real number. and in this sense are described as the poles of y(p). modulus. . \s\ defined * by any two of \X(# SC 2 the angle sn = V cos = -' <j> tan ^ = *V shall call this angle the argument of x. we part of z. <j) . We *'This definition still leaves undetermined by 'an integral this does not matter in the applications made multiple of z-rr If desired. y the imaginary part of z. when it is called the Principal Value of arg x.1). - . are the values of p for which the function Finally. since they are the values of p for which g(p) is zero. precisely an g(p\ or w-ple) root a pole of order of g(p) = o. . (amp #). an n-ple zero of n of tion Secondly. and x the iy conjugate of z. The simplest case is that of (24) in which g(p) is a product of n different factors. can be restricted to the range it IT. In the more general case in which g(p] has n factors such as (p a^ a: is called a multiple (or more . g(P} The numbers a: 2 They may .. _ call The number may be by its represen ted on the Argand diagram of Fig. Firstly. an are the roots of the equation be spoken of as the zeros of g(p). i. they y(p] is infinite. suppose y(p) is given in the form (2. . and may also be specified (f> < FIG.FUNDAMENTAL THEORY 9 Before proceeding further it is desirable to settle some questions of terminology. also . written other names for it are the amplitude of s. i. <f> > < > . arg z or the phase of z.

if is = arg( + iy) = tanr ^/*). Example 5. T 5 \ ^ ^ = + tan-^/a). . (2. .- thus.. We now give some examples on the use of Theorem IIin the Ex AMPLE By (2. 1 3). 1 4-) The o the complex numbers (cf. and in problems such as Example below. This point is particularly important Tables of transforms. below). * < o\ oj we had written = tan~ (y/w) in (2-14) (and this if if TT . there might be an error of argument of as. 6 V y = Xp + iXP+ *)(P + . 1 <j> very frequently done). x> /. TT -. .-}. pitfall of some importance must be the definition of </> in (2-13) is equivalent to * 1 tft One mentioned .9).14) for each < ar+^V^+yy*. follows from (1.9). it frequently involve products or quotients of co numbers. 3) < and 3.6).10 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION With the notation. where numerical values of some parameters not specified and thus may be taken with either sign. ? l Or. any complex number x -\- may be where written in the form arg (x iy). = + (2. leading to an error in sign the final result. and the most rapid way of reducing suclrx expressions . * tan tangent a is defined as the angle between Jir and TT whose is x. TT .to a real form is by using (2. - = 1 -t:.6). using (2. 3.iy. importance of this in the present connection is when y(t) is found from y(p) by the use of (2.

i . The method used below for reducing such a pair of terms to real A = form will be found very convenient. of which only one need be written down. \ 17) /y Then writing * o give in (2.II EXAMPLE Using (2.in)(p +/* + in). regarded as a function ofp z we find . l6) This is a generalization of Example i. as functions ofp*. 2(^2 !)(2 + 4) *. a _|_ . and could be dealt with either by resolving into partial fractions with real denominators. y ' = a. Thus applying (2. i Thus y = -t 4 3 sin t -\ sin zt. 16) gives * yy . that is. y (P ~\~ p -\1 a 2 ~l~ 1 j fy[(P H~ *) ^ 2] (*' ^ (P + b)(p + n. on y.by + -|j & Conjugate) j (2. . by using one of the forms of Theorem II.9) the sum of a pair of conjugate roots of g(p} pair of conjugate terms. as was done in Example i. as above.9) to (2. . EXAMPLE 5.6) 4. or by resolving into partial fractions with linear complex denominators. 24 Problems on resistanceless circuits often lead to transforms which can be conveniently treated.

12 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION in and using (2.b) /> Theorem II covers the case * in which g(p} has no repeated factors . and f(p} a factor (p a). whereas a cursory inspection would suggest that it is not applicable and that (2. the term in e corresponding to this in Theorem II has zero coefficient. . i ) it : factors was stated that/() and g(p) were to have no common this is desirable but not essential. (MS) The 2 (p ( Z>) to each squared factor generalization is that. in fact. also. Theorem II may be stated in the form that. 01 I --2z -k ^ Conjugate J V J .. to each linear factor (p ator ofy(p) there corresponds a term <z r) of the denomin" fgf* in the solution. would give the correct result).17). and. With complicated expressions (such as those of 16) it would greatly increase the labour to separate out such a factor. if f(p) and g(p) at both _have the same factor (p a). we r (a * _ wV B r 2 re*(*+* l-#. .) e i = J 7 . for example.14) find the complex numbers in (2. . * In (3. it is not applicable to Examples 2 or 4 above.18) would have to be used (this. It is easy to generalize the theorem to the case of repeated factors. Theorem II could be applied after cancelling the factor (p a). . If g(p) contained a factor (p 2 a) . of the denominator ofy(p) there corresponds a term L i^e solution. and so the application of Theorem II gives the correct result.

19) and + leading to the same result as before. is . and includes also the useful result that if two functions y^t") and y z (f) are continuous except at a number of ordinary discontinuities (i. if two continuous . however. and there it is found that there are infinitely 'many such functions (differing by additive constants). Appendix I. As an example. the question of uniqueness must be dis- corresponds Given y(p) we have sometimes only a single function y(t). The actual theorem a great deal wider than that stated above. in which y __ ~ (P __ __ consider the problem of i Example 2 + Z *)*(P _ + 4)~(P + (2. they must have the same points of discontinuity and can differ only at these points. The same question arises in the integral calculus when we seek a function which has a given function for differential coefficient.i). been able to find a function y(t) which has y(p) for transform by looking up y(p) in the Table of transforms but there is so far no reason why the function of t found this way should be the only function which has y(p) for transform. that to a given transform y(p) there * For a proof see C. jumps in value). and J.FUNDAMENTAL THEORY each m-ple factor (p ofy(p) there corresponds a term to 13 And c) m of the denominator in #ze solution.2i)(p + aty Then by (2.18) i *Y(P . In the present case the matter is settled definitely by Lerch's Theorem* which states that. To a given function y(t) there corresponds a cussed. single transform y(p) defined by (i. It is not clear. and have the same Laplace transform.e.. " " Finally. above.

then the Laplace transform of -J J dt n P -y These parts. -100 (3.3) results follow To 6 prove (3. > . Some additional theorems III. -. Thus. THEOREM y(f). this is the continuous function which has y(p) for transform. . . ? Verge h wever lar S e '. (3. = t> o 2 ( . then the Laplace transform of dyjdt is py(p) y . as t-^.1) in If.. . if we find a continuous function y(t) from a given y(p). only is a and 2r ) is not continuous provided y(t] is it can only differ from zero at isolated points. \ // y(p) is the Laplace and y(t] is continuous f and tends to y as t-> o.. 3. n dny/dt n are continuous and dy/dF -> yr> i. t c01 Ve - T L t6 pla e transform s. . It follows also from Lerch's Theorem that.. ^ # is ch ^n.o. dyfdt is continuous and tends to y: as t-+ o> then the Laplace transform of is transform * of -^ p y(p\ -py z . esu not likS to fs us 1 . addition.dy dt = we have immediately by integration by dt t the concerned have Laplace ? f* functions of such as for which the - 10 . ( 3>2) Andifd y/dt r s 3 .^.. if k constant. ~ z>3> . and Such functions are pr blem to which the ra terms arise extra ^' is> S in value > at ]"* jUmP corresponding to these points. y(P) = then y(t) o. for example by the processes described above which use the Table of transforms. continuous and if y(t) p > k.yn_.1) r . -pyn^ . f o n .14 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION functions have the same Laplace transform they must be identical.

2). provided p is sufficiently large. then IV.FUNDAMENTAL THEORY since ye~ Fi ->y as 15 as t-^-o.3). the Laplace transform of y(t).7) and Theorem IV that the transform of f* 1 . and ye~ vt ~^-o have . example This simple result 4. If y(p) is the f Laplace transform i of f the transform of I Jo y(t'}dt' is -y(p). (3. The solution of ordinary with constant coefficients. we Repeating the process w times gives (3. a positive constant. of its use see 14. 57 is sin at dt = ~(i i Jo // y(p) is ^ cos at). to prove (3. P (3-4) For roo ft Jo" r T ft \ -too T r Jo e-^dt \y(f)dt'= \--e-v* L p Jo y(t')dt' \ Jo +- PJO <r**y(t)dt since the integrated part vanishes at both limits. linear differential equations . . THEOREM y(t). THEOREM V. then y ( is ) the transform of y(ajt).5) " For e-**y(ti>t)dt = is w Jo useful when it is desired to arrange For an the algebra of a problem in dimensionless form. The results of Theorems III and IV can often be used as a simple example it follows to obtain new transforms : from XP +*) and a) is 13 a f (1. Similarly.- oo.

. We yn ~i when = o.. and terms containing the initial conditions are added according to the rule : for for for Dy we D*y add y py + yi foTWy D^ ptyo+pfr+yt .1) and the given initial conditions. Dy. f(t) is The D = replaced by its transform f(p). by fry.1) where clt cn ... is to solve the differential equation (4.. which gives Or i}- (4-3) equation (4. r left-hand side. are constants.on the right-hand side.1) by e~^ and integrate with respect to oo. . or even which has no Laplace transform. on the y. . *The solution for a function whose Laplace transform is not known.3) is called the subsidiary equation corresponding to the differential equation (4.. This gives . It is formed from the differential r equation (4.. . /() is a given function 1 .. On the left-hand side of (4.2) we use Theorem ' the Laplace transform of /(*). . V*{Dy + cj)-*y + /(j>) is + cny} dt = /(#). p'-iy. . from o to J multiply (4. D"" ^ are to take the given values t yw y t - -.1) by replacing o. .+ y^. if. 24. can be obtained by the use of Theorem IX.l6 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION Writing D ny for dnyjdt n the problem . + y-^ + . of and j. .. which can be the III.2) where written down* from Table I and Theorem I for common types of function which usually occur. (4. .

FUNDAMENTAL THEORY
The

17

subsidiary equation (4.3) gives y(p), the transform To find y(t) from of the solution y(t) of the problem. methods of 2 are used. Since, by the uniquethe y(p), ness theorem of 2, only one continuous function y(t) corresponds to a given y(p), it follows that this will be the

unique solution of the problem.

EXAMPLE
with

i.

(D

y

= o, > o + = y Dy = y when =
2

1)3;

Q,

ly

t

o.

The

subsidiary equation

is

Thus

And
EXAMPLE
with
2.

(D
3>

= y cos -f y\ sin >o + 4D -f B)y = = o, Dy = when = o.
y
Q t
f.

2

i,

*

i,

t

Since the transform of

i

is

ifp, the subsidiary

equation

is

The
2, 2,

function

Ex. Ex.

i,

y corresponding to this has been found in and for a similar but more general case in
(D

5.

EXAMPLE
with

3.

+

2

i)

y
zero

sin zt,

t

y and Dy
subsidiary equation

when

t

> o, = o.

The

is

The
2,

function

3;

corresponding to this

y
i

has been found in

Ex.

2.

EXAMPLE
with
2

4.

(D
.y

2

+

n z )y
D^v

=
==

cos

/,

>
t

o,
o.

==

3/0,

^ 1; when

l8

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION
subsidiary equation is

The

Thus

y

=
=
5.

__+ ^+
t
2

+7Z

2 2
)

W

.

Using (i.n),

(1.7), (1.8), it
t

follows that

y
EXAMPLE
with

sm
(D

.

;rf

+

3>

cos nf

+
t *

v,

sin

+
y

i)y

=
0>

= y when
.

t*e-*,

> =

o,

o.

is

Using (1,5) and Theorem I, the transform of t ze-t 3 found to be 2/(p Thus the subsidiary equation is i)

+

2

(7TT?
2
,
.

y*

Then, using

(1.5)

and Theorem

I,

we

find

y
5.

= $t*e-*+ yop-4.
as in 4, using the transformation of the equations in turn, gives a equations, the subsidiary equations, the solutions. for

Simultaneous ordinary linear differential equations with
constant coefficients.

Here, proceeding procedure on each system of algebraic for the transforms of
it is

Suppose,

required to solve a system of n second order equations

example,

where the
T
'
'

i, 2, ., n, t> o, (5.1) given functions of t, and y r and r, take the values ur and w when o. r 7/1 Multiplying the equations (5.1) by -*, integrating with respect to t from o to oo, and using (3.1) and (7.2) gives the system of n subsidiary equations
. .

r=

/,(*) are
''

W> are to

Dy =

FUNDAMENTAL THEORY

in

+
j-i

K(M + w + M
)

S],

r

=
.

i,

...,.
<y n)

(5.2)

These have

ylt

.

.

.,

be solved for ylt yn are determined as in 2.
to

.

.,

an d then

EXAMPLE.

(D

2

+ z)x
tf
,

D^-h(D 2
to be solved with * =

= = D = y = Dy =

+

Dj/

2)3;

o

,

when

i

=

o.

The

subsidiary equations are

px
Solving

+ (p 2 + z)y =

!

.

we

find

I

2X
4) 3
i)

I

Thus

x

=

V+
+ ^(2

i

2

+ 4/
cos zt

4- &(2tf

cos

;?

i)

6.

Comparison with the ordinary method of solving differential equations, and with Heaviside's operational calculus.

The ordinary method of solving the
equation of order n, n =
<j>(D}y

linear differential

(D

+

cjD""

1

+

.

.

.

+ cn )y =/(*)>
.
.

(^

I

)

consists of ^finding

the complementary function

4**',
r-l
I

(6.2)

where Aj,
.
.

are arbitrary constants, and the <%, an are the roots of <j>(p) o (provided these are all ., function different, if they are not the complementary takes a slightly different form provided for by the theory)
. .

.,

An

=

. y can be -written down by (2. . .1). The same remark applies to simultaneous linear differential equations the greater the number and order of . " the initial conditions were zero. work by shorter . the Laplace transformation . Thus the .. .. it may not be possible to put /()/<() into partial fractions. we again discuss Heaviside usually considered only the case in which (6.1).3) is _ (6.3) we have to put the right-band . of <j)(p) o are needed thus these must be calculated in either method. < > * If /CO is not one of the simple functions dealt with hitherto. the subsidiary equation (4. part of y(t] derived from the term /(p) /</>(/>) of a particular integral of but it may differ from the particular integral found by the rules of the older theory by terms of the complementary function.1). . while with the older method of solution the n algebraic equations for the constants A n of (6. these.20 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION and adding to this a particular integral determined from This gives the general </>(D) and /() by certain rules.. .* and for this the roots a^ . To see the connection between the present method and Heaviside's operational method. (6. but when they have been found.3) is y = T7J(f(p} + terms involving the initial conditions}. Aj.. it is necessary to solve . A . which is zero for t o and unity for t o. The (6. if a^ an are all different. method is much for example. To find the solution satisfying given conditions. In the Laplace transformation method.8).2) still have to be solved. and unit f(t) was his function ". solution of initial (6. side into partial fractions. equations for the constants 1? n n algebraic A .3) To an determine^ from (6. the = . advantage of the Laplace transform method over the ordinary one increases enormously as the order of the equation to be solved increases. but the solution can always be found as in 24. the greater is the advantage of the Laplace trans- formation method.

I. . since the initial values be regarded as arbitrary constants some . and some A n The Laplace to determine the A 15 at x . in which differential equations have to be solved o with given initial conditions at t o. in a boundary value problem. . and method of solution..2) and both types. and the from at x the conditions can be determined / remainder function well to there will = . solution has to satisfy some conditions at the boundary at x the L The some older x boundary o. y n may ylt of these may be fixed by the conditions at x o. for times t " In other fields.4) all the denominator. On the left-hand side is replaced by p . = . . . say o /. applies equally (6. expression transform. and applies immediately to. as the sum of a complementary As remarked > = < < = a particular integral. boundary " in a differential which value problems arise. For this problem. such as the theory of elasticity. = . the Laplace transform of the solution is which is (6 s) ' and this differs from In (6. operator as a number as in the Laplace transformation method). this is regarded as an of (6.1).FUNDAMENTAL THEORY and is 21 represented by the symbol 1. equation x and the has to be solved in a region. corresponding Laplace the Laplace transformation procedure is designed for. some at x o.. transformation can still be used. is only by the extra factor p in cases the Heaviside operational the just in p times i.1) leads to t ' ' ' (6<4) the operational expression for the solution y. the " " of dynamics and electric circuit initial value problems theory. still be n conditions. The solution itself is then derived from (6.4) by Heaviside's expansion theorem which is similar in type to (2. since.8). (not D Thus (6.

the subsidiary is equation Thus mi The conditions y = Dy = o at x = ' I. x== for differentiation with respect to x. o. freely hinged L horizontally at the other end. we consider the deflection * of a uniform.6) = Writing to the y for the Laplace transform of y with respect present independent variable x. * This ticularly see 21 .. D 3. from the point of view method is well suited to problems of this type.6) with values o. D zy. with x This has to be solved D# = o at x I. uniformly loaded. 23 (1939). which. y^. and EID 4jy = to. . Gazette. Dy. Journ App. y = TAe justification of the solutions of 4. Phys. at x=. y3 of y. .22 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION As an example. and x We solve (6. the differWriting ential equation for the deflection is and clamped D where E.o. as unknown respectively. give 24EI 6 mr Thus and 7. beam of length origin.y. at the Z. parwith concentrated or variable loads. 14 (1943). 486. For other examples Jaeger. 5 /row pure-mathematical point of view. o at x o. . o < w are constants. regarding y^ and y 3 Iconstants to be determined from the conditions at x = DV= I. 62 Pipes. (6. x < = I. In deriving the subsidiary equations of 4 and 5 some assumptions were made. Math.

that is to say verifying that they do satisfy the differential equations and initial conditions of their problems. provided that the determinant of the coefficients of the highest powers of in the terms does not vanish. .FUNDAMENTAL THEORY of strict 33 pure mathematics. 18. by adding together appropriate constant multiples of. instead of having a system of n second order equations. but this can be avoided by checking the results obtained by the methods above. loc. the ordinary linear differential equation of order n with constant coefficients.1). 35 . cit. to form at least one equation containing no second derivatives. and since the process itself is purely algebraical and adds nothing to the theory of the subject it is sufficient to state the results here. the equations (5. For the problem of differential equations. which could be solved with 2n initial conditions. To make the solution quite rigorous further discussion would be needed. it was assumed that y and its derivatives had Laplace transforms. Kap. and J. would have to be defended. but because of a fault in the specification of the problem. in fact a system of n If this vanishes * C. This restriction is required. verification 5. Doetsch. it can be that the solution obtained by the Laplace transformation method does satisfy the differential equation verified * and initial conditions.. we have i (or less) second order equations. 34. This can be done quite generally. not because of a flaw in the method of solution. Thus.1) D : it is possible. consider the system of equations in this case the determinant in question is (5. For the problem of 4. For example. and that they satisfy the initial conditions. To see what it implies. simultaneous ordinary linear it is possible to give a similar general that the solutions obtained by the Laplace transformation method satisfy the differential equations..

. = i. fy = L. 3>o> yi. Problems of this type occasionally arise in practical also similar difficulties occur in switching applications. etc. in circuit theory. problems in 20. . If the problem is stated with initial conditions. arbitrary initial conditions can be prescribed. I Verify the following Laplace transforms : z. there must be relations between these or there will not be a solution. a system only zn i. Dy. initial values (i) (D + M)y = i. These questions are discussed EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER i. or less.24 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION and some first order or algebraic equations. Solve the following differential equations with of y. -+ f* fyo\ A1 (ii) (D 2 + 5D + 6)3. and for such.

25 i . .sin -M Sm nt +y C S" = sin o>f."1 ' ' ttn f. x I. o with = dy/dw 2 = 3 o at < x< = o and 2 /. . show that y = ( + zl a ~ sZ ). 2 ) . . d*yldx* = x. 3- If 3.(iii) (D 2 + n*)y (iv) (D + 2 i) y FUNDAMENTAL THEORY .

general that initial conditions may be treated as voltage sources of the appropriate types. Here the subsidiary equation (8. that is of a constant voltage in the ( similarly. since the terms involving them appear in the right-hand side added to the transform V of the applied on voltage. T = * = + (R/L)p + (i/LC)) R _ _ 2 f ' ' ^ \ * ~LC ^~LC later.6) is i. C in series. 9. see . Further. the subsidiary equations are initial Returning to (8. of the current). EXAMPLE L t o Constant voltage.6). we remark that it involves the current in the inductance and the initial charge on the condenser (these are related to the initial kinetic and potential energies. R.28 series THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION \ with a leaky condenser of capacity C and leakage conductance i/G. E. respectively.3) will frequently be used For the exceptional case 20. this will be found in 19 to be an im- Q . to Thus. C circuits. Examples on L. it follows that the effect of initial charge the condenser is the same as that of an applied voltage whose transform is ( Q/Cp). 2 J The * notation (9. L=R= o and related problems.* with zero initial current and charge. applied at t R. The same remark is true in. pulsive voltage LlS(f). the effect of initial current 1 Q/C) inductance is the same as that of an applied voltage whose transform is Ll.

3). we I p = -^-e-P* sin nt. 29 (1. nLi TT n2 n n 2 > = = o =r 1 flr' *. This implies that the current starts flowing away from the positive side of the condenser. if o kz JL = Tf-e-M sinh fe. C R After the switch S has been opened. Here Q= CE. RL. C EXAMPLE voltage 2. I = o. Steady current E/R is flowing from a battery of voltage.4 = of capacity charged to o through an inductive re- sistance L.4). R. 3. R. Ej through a parallel combination of condenser and inductive resistance L.9). and (8.5) and (9. It is required to find the potential across the condenser terminals. The initial charge on the condenser Q .3) has been used. and (1. C in series. the transform of the charge on the condenser is found to be ' CE CE Then. V= o. respectively.2).7). we have Q. o the (Fig. E if 2 < o. the circuit consists of L. E is condenser discharged at t . when at t switch S is opened. using Theorem find if I and (1.1) except for the negative sign.5). in the where the notation (9.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY From (9.= CEfi-Wcos EXAMPLE nt 4- ^ sin nt\.6) becomes which is the same as (9. Using (8. case n z > o.

3) where the notation has been used. from the conditions the from P os1 of the problem. since.5) that __Q_E_ v c~p R) + + i) (p cos nt -( -= + 2 ju) + a n\zL -rr^ RC sn . o. this is flowing away With these initial values (8. FIG.0) side of the condenser. ^ becomes 1 = (9. 3. If v = Q/C it is the voltage across the condenser ter minals. con- 2 sidering only the case n > nt +- sin nt\ .30 is is CE. and the initial current 1 in the inductance the minus sign being chosen. Hence. follows from (8.

9) arising from the zeros i<a of the denominator of (9. The other zeros in give transient terms.6) gives in this case . its .<) applied Alternating voltage circuit with %ero initial current E C and charge. sin is Since transform + 0) = sin cos p sin + w cos + tot <^> -f cos wt sin <^. /u. See also 13.7) * Notice that if only the steady state part of I is required. . (wt sin (o>t -f.9). using the notation (8.3). only the terms of (2. to an L. ' (9 2 We Here consider only the most interesting case w either > o. 2 at the end of this Chapter.6) into partial fractions with real quadratic denominator is (p i(jo)(p denominators. gives . In this case the voltage across the switch S is E Anothe-r method of solving this problem is given in Ex. .ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY This is 3! the simplest type of circuit breaker restriking problem in which it is required to find the voltage across the contacts of a switch after they have been opened. I (2. LI E ""LI f =H EC + ia> cos<j> ^}V 1 r~fv +n & Conjugate + W)\8 + w sr . to find I we may put (9.. <j> * ' 2 o> 2 ' ' ' (9 5) Thus. the subsidiary equation tap cos ' _E L 2 j> ' sin $ -{- <ft * . (9. EXAMPLE at t =o 4. v. * . o) a The sin<^ i method .+ m sin + a>.+ cos ut+tni ico * 2 2 2 j 3zo)[(ju. R.6) need be written down. or notice that its + iot)(p + latter 2 t M- in)(P and use . ] j 2 <> Conjugatej (9.

4. and capacity in the r-th of these elements thf (Fig.7) becomes S 2 ). let Vr be the voltage drop over it. z )] . +w + atjun = Z^. Electrical networks It is convenient to work as built up of a regard a complicated electrical number of circuit elements netth< of L 5 U M rs *^OT^ W FIG. . 1 type studied in 8. writing -[a/to) O) 2 (/i + i(u>* -V?. Q . (9. 10. (9. 5. with their terminals connected in som< Let Lr R r Cr be the inductance specified manner. Thus. Ex.14) as iti 2.32 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION To reduce this to real form. resistance. . with initial value I r and let be the charge on the condenser.8 ) 2 2 ) 2 [(/x 2 ) sin ^ |u. To he quite general mutual inductance must be included .. -we use (2.aj cos <j -+- i[no) cos < 2^n sin ^>] = 2>2^ *| (9. o let I r current in the element. be .xilus and argument of the complex number on the left of C9*^)i and similarly Zlt B lt Z 2 8 2 .9) where Z and 8 may be written out explicitly as the mo d. with initial value <!$. 4).n = Z".

_> r ^ M iVJ. (10. . t M either: directly or Usually labour can be saved by specifying the currents. V. That is. in the closed circuit. the I at a junction. = o. (10.2) dt =I r.5) ra the form of the network. (10.7) externally applied voltages.6) automatically. . .4) (10. (10. by the 'use of mesh currents. do i. Then the equations for the r-ih circuit element are JT rk M _ L. for any closed circuit circuit. Law states sum of the that. . equals the sum of the voltage drops. and on the convention of sign we set up for the Currents in the different circuit elements. . . is the subsidiary equation for the found to be 4- #1 4-2-s where 1 1 ="V r Li 4- 5! M 1- =L +R + = M p *rt zr r --.6) This leads to ^ Kirchhoff's Second in the network. Vr over the circuit elements included in the closed .A. so that they satisfy 3 (10.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY 33 * between the r-th so let Ta be the mutual inductance and s-th elements. j-r rs . at a junction. further equations can be written down connecting the 1 T and r in different circuit elements.} ^IU. ? =V v r. Proceeding as in y-th circuit element 8. ^"rP . Law f ]^] I = o. Firstly we have Kirchhoffs First From V . writing ^ o to denote summation round * r . will have a sign depending on the way in which the coils are wound.

13) the ordinary complex current theory. ^ (10. Thus in this case the generalized impedance of the network can be written down by combining the zr of the circuit elements which comprise it according to the ordinary laws for combining resistances in direct current theory. . . . alternating .8) in conjunction with (10. impedance of .4) is the generalized impedance of an iir R r> C r circuit.+JL. " " *r I r =V f. applied' to the terminals of any network with zero initial conditions. V. ..7) can be found to give all the I r When voltage V.ii) That and zr are connected in the same way as current. (10.10) we of the network s the generalized impedance viewed from these terminals * for example. . given by is. sufficient equations of types (10.3) becomes call . ' ' r = ]T?. . Now for a single circuit element of a network with no mutual inductance and with zero initial conditions. Using (10. produces at the terminals current I given by .34 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION a closed circuit Vy and thus V CO ZV r _ y. and resistance in direct current theory. . voltage.3) we have By choosing suitable closed circuits. Vr .9) and (10. %r defined in (10. . (10. For example.. . the generalized impedance of a combination of n generalized impedances z1} z2 zn in parallel is . .. (io. Ir . 1 * * 2(10)) is = 1 + 1 + .

is given by follows in Q = Ll . Examples on electrical networks EXAMPLE i.3) give Mpl. . the generalized impedance of the ladder network. can. . It is reprimary at t quired to find the secondary current (the primary resistance n. the same way from the remarks at the end of 8. due to initial current 1 in an inductance and initial charge on a condenser in that branch. It 5. Fig. is neglected). be written down as the continued fraction *==*!+- -1 . (10.13) FIG. 5.(QfCp) . . 6 are coupled by Voltage V(t) is applied to the o with zero initial conditions. .ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY 35 Again. Here the subsidiary equations (10.14) where z(p) is the generalized impedance of the network viewed from a pair of terminals in the branch. 4- L^ + R + JLl a = 2 o. Fig. that the current in any branch of a network. by repeated application of the result for two resistances in parallel. (10. The two circuits of mutual inductance = M.

If V = E.9) respectively. CE CE . at = o. when. constant. M 2 is discussed in 20. A I L B L We choose the currents first Kirchhoff's (10. so that V = E/p. for the law. this becomes ME and where ME a sin = a". The case LA L 2 = 2. 6. 7 condensers are both the switch S is closed. closed as shown Then the circuits ABD in Fig. Z/ze EXAMPLE Ira Z/ze circuit of Fig. 7 to satisfy subsidiary equation and BGHD are.36 (LX L 2 M FIG. t charged to voltage E.

C in parallel is (10. R. I in the inductance L caused by prescribed o I supplied at the terminals AB.12) it From * ^ R ^ Lp RLp RLC 2 + Lp + R. follows that the generalized impedance of the combination of L. L i? Also the generalized impedance of the inductance hav Lp. 1 FIG. 8. 8 it is required to find 3. Since the same potential is applied to both we . Therefore EXAMPLE the current current In the circuit of Fig. 37 T= ~ E ' we find Zjr 2n * f E where 2 i + VS n 2 /' = i/LC. starting at t = with zero initial conditions.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY Solving for I.

for i> o. o with zero initial conditions. if ^> - p(RLCp o. and suppose known voltage EXAMPLE V -Is H FIG. 9. to satisfy KirchhofFs first law. = spectively. the subsidiary equations for the closed circuits ABDHA. We consider a general bridge network represented by to be the scheme of Fig. 9 applications. are = o . Bridge networks. JL _a 2 . = tan" (]8/a). and.38 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION if I For example = i. so that I = i/p. BDFB. 9. It is required applied at i to find I 5 which is the galvanometer current in most Choosing the currents as shown in Fig. z + Lp + R)' (/ft er** sin +^ 1 where a 4. ABFA. re.

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY Solving for I 5 39 we find * 1 +#2 *! O -*a %A *a ("4) where A = z^ # # # ^ the bridge can be used for measurein (11. this can be made to vanish for all p. #4 = R4 Q>" TTniQ JL J.. 3. and thus. If. by (2. we have 15 The way in which = o. is * It is hardly necessary to point out the advantage of using determinants. #3 of C R4 in *! = +R 15 #2 =R %=R 2.4) ments is determined by the form of zz s3 si-jjs^ as a function of p. . case consider the bridge in As an example x of this which consists of inductance L and resistance Rx resistance parallel.21). zz of resistance 2 #4 of capacity and resistance R . R3> and Here !# in series. whatever the form of the applied may be. particularly when.O ***2 y y3 y14 y Then and if we have voltage I5 = o for t > o. only one of the currents needed. by suitable choice of the circuit constants. whatever the applied voltage V. as here.LU.

in this case a battery of voltage E is applied o with zero initial conditions. we rnay use the circuit as an alternating current bridge by requiring that the steady state part of I 5 is to vanish when the applied Anticis sinusoidal and of frequency o>/27r. vanish and (u. .4). . voltage V and 13.40 . so that t E/p in and the that total is the charge requirement passed (11. #2 and #4 consists of resistance ^ in series with a parallel = = combination of resistance rz and capacity C. However.6) cannot be made to vanish for by choice of the circuit constants. through the galvanometer is to be zero. so from (11. that is V= TOO Ldt 5' i = o.5) that when p o.RI. consider the case in which z1 K-2) #3 RS> ltp -\. 6) all values of p Clearly (11. so that and 2 2#3 _ r" Q>+1 (i i.8) It is easy to verify from (11.8) to be satisfied we must have R 2 R3 = R^ + .4) with = V= rzY A does not E/p. this requires lim 1 5 p->0 ^ = o. this requires that the real ipating the results of imaginary parts of the numerator of (n. it follows that for (n. with j& replaced is that shall both vanish.6).As THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION an example of a bridge whiqh cannot be balanced in this way. '0 By Theorem VIII. by ioi.6). and Lfa + ra ) 2 LCr^co = (R R . 22.Vi) = Rj^ + r .R R \ J 2 2 3 ' " x~\ (T x/ v . (n. a) 2 3 Alternatively the bridge may be used as a ballistic at bridge . .

3>(p) is usually arranged In practice $(p) may be a polyor quadratic factors. a term 1 of period 2w/v and damping factor er **.9) and (10. .8) in the I r . . the natural frequencies of the circuit are n[(3 Vs)]*/ 377 In demonstration problems. = AHD 12. that is. I n in the transforms of the currents. 9 must be precisely . specified. The natural frequencies and damping factors of a circuit . (12. is always found in the course of the calculation -of any of the l r but the I r contain in addition the complete solution of the transient problem.~ . it is usual to open the battery circuit when steady current is flowing from the battery. various branches of an electrical network are found by the solution of equations of types (10.2) of (12. instead of applying a battery to an initially dead circuit. charges . T ' ' ' " ' ' ' (.2). #4 of Fig. The numerators fr(J>] depend on r.. and always take the form .2) there corresponds a term e~^ sin (vt -j. . The t r _ ~~' fr(P) _ .. . In that case the impedances %. nomial in p of degree n with coefficients given numerically. 2. - . The essential point is that the period equation (12. and the circuit of Fig. 9 (with the arm removed so that I 2 Ij) has to be studied with known initial values of the currents in the inductances and the on the condensers. say I l5 .ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY 41 In practice.\ ( } where the same for all l r it is in fact the determinant of the coefficients of the l r in the equations and depends on the circuit only. " Before we can find the I r we need the roots of the period <3>(p) is " equation o. . . and involve the initial conditions and the applied voltages. ir. such as most of the examples linear obvious have to solved here. and we know that to a root ft *" whose roots give the natural frequencies and damping factors of the circuit. Thus in it follows from the first expression for 1 that Ex.7).

. W. . using a graph and improving the rough values obtained in this way. is unsatisfactory. Roy.. Clearly it will be useful to able. . For equations having several pairs of complex roots. 44). A 125 (1929). t Tables of Functions (Edn. 54). described in text books on algebra... For cubic and quartic equations algebraic methods are 1 For the available. always one real root which can be found in this way dividing by the corresponding factor leaves a quadratic. & R.42 we Here an example of such a problem is given in 14. 53) and the root squaring method (W. Theory of .'j Numerical methods can be used for cubic and quartic equations. Note that when there are several pairs of complex roots the method given in W.Equations (Oliver and Boyd. The more sophisticated methods for finding real roots are either A . the latter is preferin Problems on resistanceless circuits lead to equations z p with real (negative) roots which are easily solved by the above methods. Teubner. 1924).and R. If all the roots have negative real parts the system is stable. some tables and charts are given in Jahnke-Emde.Whittaker and Robinson. 83. 68. . Turnbull. 475. & R. and must be used for equations of higher degree. the modified root squaring method seems the most satisfactory J another method. Treatise on Algebra. 1933). 5 (1921). Edn. Soc. Homer's -method (C. S. S. have a result which will indicate whether a system is stable * Charles Smith. the solution will contain terms which increase in this case the system is exponentially with the tune said to be unstable. 1939). & R. Soc. & R. by Frazer and Duncan. and also a method of successive approximation to a complex root.. 22 (1934).Proc. Proc. 2. I Brodetskyand Smeal. is given.. If any of the roots of the period equation have positive real parts.* cubic. Real roots can be found from first principles. Cambridge Phil. Calculus of Observations (Blackie. referred to as C. or 14) by interpolation (an example of this is given in cubic has by Newton's method (W.. . referred to as W. give some references on the methods available for the solution of algebraic equations.

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY

43

or unstable, without the labour of solving the period equaOne such criterion is Hurwitz's * which states that tion. the roots of the equation

all

have negative real parts
a*
a*
a, a* a*

if all

the determinants

are positive,

ar

is

where, in writing n. put equal to zero if r

down

>

the determinants,

Steady state alternating currents 12 that if voltage V is applied to was remarked in o, the transform of the current I r in any any circuit at t branch of the circuit will always take the* form
13.

It

(13-1)

where fr (p) and $(_) depend on the
gr (p) involves the
initial conditions.
</>,)

circuit

only,

and

Now
d>

suppose

so that

V = E sin (cat + cos V=
becomes
cos ^

d> -\-

p

sin

,

x

and

(13.1)

+ p sin

<f>)fr ( p) _j_

gr(p)
'

,

JJ

o If the system is a dissipative one, the roots of <(p) have negative real parts, and thus will give rise to If only the steady state altern ating current transient teams.
will all
* Frank- v. Mises, Differentialgleichungen der Physik (Edn. 2, Vol. i, p. i6a. This is equivalent to Routh's Rule, 4, 1884), Chap. vi.

=

Advanced Rigid Dynamics (Macmillan, Edn.

1930),

44
is

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION
required,

we need only evaluate the two terms of f P* Ctj2 *<*> These corresponding to the zeros

i

+

(^ - 9)

-

Conjugate!
2icu$(i(a) '
J

E

where
^Thus,
if

circuit due to applied voltage V and any initial conditions has been found, the steady state alternating current be deduced immediately. An example has been given in As another we find the steady state alternating (11.7). current in the secondary of Fig. 6 due to the primary

the transform of the current in any part

o

a

can

voltage

E

(p*

_
sin (cot
a

+ 0).

Here (n.i) and

(13.3) give

Mj>E

The

+ o^KI^L,
+

-

(a)

cos

My

<f>

+ p sin + R L^ +
2
,
,

steady state alternating part of I 2 is icof *'a> sin Mi'a>E(o) cos ft </>)g
'

^
.

.

\ J
.

COS

/

(ait

where and
If
^

Z

= {R - (LaL 2 - M +[(La /C - w^L, - M + 8 = arg {[(L^C,)
a 2)

V

+
,

S),
2 2
]

SN

2

)^

}*

2

)]

z

the generalized impedance of a dissipative 60 * circuit looking in at a pair of terminals, and voltage Ee* is applied at these terminals with zero initial conditions, the transform of the input current will be
5f(p)
is

E
y
'

(p-io>}z(p)

and the steady

state current will

be

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY

45

treatment of more complicated circuits 14. Numerical In the problems previously considered, the denominators of the transforms of the solutions have had obvious linear or quadratic factors, so that explicit expressions for the In more solutions could be written down immediately. the denominators may contain excomplicated circuits, of the third or higher degree in p which have
pressions

no simple

If the circuit constants are given. factors. the denominator can be found numerically, the zeros of mentioned in ra, and the solution methods the of one by constants are unspecified, families completed if the circuit the behaviour of curves can be obtained which will show of the circuit under any circumstances.
;

+L
FIG. 10.

from both these points In this section we study, due to unit I in the circuit of Fig 10, view, the current In o with zero mitial conditions. at t volTage applied the usual way we find

of

=

(14-1)

;*Xi
becomes

As an example

in

which

th

^ c=
10
)

2

,
-

x

10

-

*='.oO +i
4
2

ohms

Then

.1)

(14.2)

To

evalulte l!

tCoots

^t^^^.

1-485) (14. f(x) we divide f(x) 2 by (x -f 0-776). Working with three places of decimals only. but it is very simple to work entirely from first principles. o3 (i4'5) Returning to (14-2) we find.x. that the function whose Laplace transform is s where V) 8= ar g (P+a-7j +2^)+arg(a-^+^). and writing 0-647 X io 2 . . so that steps of 6-07 in T correspond . By as repeating this process.2) sin (14. 5.6) give finally . and obtain a ) ]. u'sing Theorem II as in 2. ( 6 47 T. linearly 0-77 /(#) 0-78 at its values at these two 0-776points it would vanish : = = .3 i2) + (o-647 (x -f o'776)(. (14. p io 5 # in this.8) = to 77/8 To when T= plot I from (14. . + 0-624*: + 0-516) = (* + 77 6)[(* + o.46 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION Putting are needed. so that T is and the time in micro-seconds. This cubic can be solved by any of the methods of jj 12. (14. 0-77) between /( 0-78) 0-00279. . . From a graph it is found that there is a real root at This root can be found approximately x 0-77. Ex. so tnat tne root ^ es between ran if and further. as many places of decimals desired can be found. more precisely as follows we find /( 0-00353.7) 5 Using the values a = 0-776 X io 5 ^ = 0-312 X io 5 a = io 10 found above. gives the more (14-4) manageable equation 2 x 3 -f i-4* /(a) = + x + 0-4 = o. t io-6 T.8) we notice that o-o647T 6-07.

8). the It very frequently happens in practice that it is not transient behaviour of a circuit for given numerical values of the circuit constants which is needed. 10 will the circuit constants. A and second terms on the right hand side of (14. Thus. from be studied do is to express (14. V. The first thing to this point of view.1) in terms is obtained i.1) in a form involving only simple ratios. . such as time constants of parts of the circuit. etc.12) contains to study the general behaviour b and k . parameters the two dimenhand side of (14. dimensionless and fundamental quantities. The caleight values of and B being the first culation may be set out as follows. . terms of of nit by (i4-io) . but a general the transient behaviour for any values of description of The circuit of Fig. writing now (IA.. _ so that the solution A = p/i. Thus writing Theorem k = nln = we have jRI +A ^ i?T u A further simplification comes from expressing (14.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY 47 increases of 22^ in the argument of the sine. . 1} V becomes ^-pt+dp*. (14-") The right sionless. and only the sine need to be looked up.

14) to (14. . We say. the sum of their products k. call this a. and the product of the roots equals ~ Or. If we regard a as a parameter. . . . Both these difficulties can be avoided by the following procedure the cubic (14. .18). written in full. . .13) for each of these. + = o i} ajoc. and also we could not be sure that the values of k chosen would fairly represent all types of behaviour in the circuit. i^/(r ). . Treatise on Algebra. ocr 2 where for r2 = k. and solve (14. . that is. roots of If au an .. . (i4 l6 ) (14-1?) 2 2 r) . (14-13) could give k a number of values and solve (14.. but this would be very laborious. = + . Then we know that * the sum of the roots at two of (14. an Sa^ocs = (-)*. ' That and is. and and k >o. with given by (14.+ + = a Zoc^ = a 1 .13) equals kb.16) r z and k in terms of it.48 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION we can regard one of these as fixed at some of the circuit arbitrary value. shall give b fixed values.13) has always one negative real root. and for each of these allow k to run from o to oo. . and see how the solution changes 'as the other takes all possible values. a time equals i.. We : db if\ suppose that it has also a pair of complex roots of modulus r. 3 the values of r a.. = a a> . we find . First we have to study the position of the roots of the R to period equation x for constant b +k= o . are the roots of (14. _!* z. . . decrease from oo to zero. oc n are the xn then Zoc! + a^.13) with the 2 2 * Charles Smith.

and | -j- ^/ (2 _r ) for the corresponding value of k. $ -\. 0-6. Naif 5um of roots FIG. 10 of &. 1 1 the position of the complex root of (14. shows that there - <x. 9. i-o. and as <x increases the The positions of the roots for the values are traced out. curves shown i for all values of b. 4. ii.18) argument three are real roots. If the value of given by turns out to be greater than r z the same (14. when there is = 4 .18).ii) In Fig. 49 value of k given by (14-18).13) is plotted as a function of the parameter a. 2-0 on the curves. 0-4. When <x o this root is for the values 2.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY . 8. k is given by (14. and. of a are marked by successive crosses 0-2.

1-784.6). 11. we select typical values of b from Fig. that is. 0-192. n) half the sum of the real roots other than a as abscissa. 0-469 0-901. > . g Here RI 0-2. 9 there is a real triple root for k == i/(3V3) at a i/Vs for all other values of k there is a If b pair of complex roots.13). together with two or three such sets for other values oi 1 give a fairly comP lete indication of the way in V^J the which transient behaviour of the circuit on k and depends b. and half their difference as ordinate.12) varies with k and b. and a value On each of these curves we choose a few greater b. 0-270. 3-558 of k. 8. 9. 32 of a. 12. measured below the axis. is 0-05. '93> 'i52.50 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION a complex root. with k and study the way in which the current I derived from (14. 12 the resulting set of curves for the case b is representative shown. as we move round the curves. the transition value b than 9. . 16.13) "vary . plotted against n^t for the 4. T^us a diagram su ch as Fig. by plotting (dotted in Fig. To = points and calculate I for these using (14. If b 9 there is always a pair of complex roots of If b (14. In Fig. 2. n FIG. increases as a increases. to values which correspond the values 0-049. o% i/V3. a value of b less than 9. 9 there are three real roots for some values of k these are indicated < = . gives an immediate indication of the way in which the roots of (14. Clearly these curves. for example.

. cumstances. but similar considerations apply to other valves. a FIG. that example we consider the type of problem : practice. that the valves are operated in linear parts of their characteristics. . the quantities a tion factor.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY 15. grid. and cathode voltages namely (15. ^(V but it is a little more fundathis is the common _ mental to As a first work directly from (15. the amplificaIn transient problems. tfV. in the circuit occurs in the amplification of transients of Fig. By virtue of they are easily included as shown an valve the to equivalent by replace (15. V V . and . respectively. and here is always assumed whether the interelectrode any problem it must be decided if not.1) c ). The grid current is negligible in normal cirIn to be zero. by the Laplace transformation method. 51 Circuits which include vacuum tubes Transient problems in valve circuits are easily treated of course. . tages batteries. 13 interelectrode capacities are neglected. Vc the variable parts of the appearing in (15. Only triodes are considered here. -V V . The characteristic equation of the triode supplies a linear relation between the anode current. itself can be neglected capacities in the valve below. I a . V. pi (V a ) where p is the anode slope resistance.1) as will be done here. and grid bias.1) are the transient behaviour voltages and current caused by the constant volthey are superposed on being studied caused current and anode by the anode.1) it is possible circuit element consisting of resistance p and a voltage V ) inserted between anode and cathode . and the anode. 13. and fj. ffl = -V + Va . provided. I _ . .

(x + /OV we find 8 . As a more definite problem we take the case of resistance- .4) {p + * + (i + /*> = /*?. when at it is required to is applied. (15-4) Solving (15. The are subsidiary equations for the impedances z a and the signs being determined by the convention stated above. 14. 13 marked in Figs. . . V >V . ta-S) and from this l a can be found if V g is known.1) is pi. V ff = 13-16 are to be understood in this sense. namely. = VB + /*?..3) and (15.1) implies a convention of sign. . Fig. All the currents and voltages all of which vanish at t = V ff . l a in the anode current. We notice that (15. o.to the grid tional voltage Since and find the change. (15. Also the transform of (15.52 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION steady conditions prevail due to grid bias and plate batteries t o a known addi(not shown in the figure). the changes in currents and voltages it causes are superto know the need not do we the on steady values. and need only write down equations for the changes. FIG. posed latter. I is flowing in the direction of the arrow in if a the same current I a also flows from the cathode.2).

and We seek the anode voltage V a due to voltage V in *2 To illustrate the effect a rather . anode-cathode capacity grid-cathode capacity in z. and find the would be the grid voltage of a second valve) corresponding o to the grid of the t to constant voltage E applied at Here we have. it is easy to write down V 2 . in the notation of Fig.6) is a quadratic in p. of inter-electrode capacity and more complicated system. Fig.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY 53 value of 2 (which capacity coupling. first valve.5) has been used in the last line of (15. . Since the denominator of (15. . V E * i + C (R 2 a Also R 1Ra C aj)I a (iS-6) la FIG. where (15. we consider the circuit Here grid-plate capacity is included in s 3 of Fig.6). 15. 13. 14. applied at t = o at the terminals AB when steady con- ditions prevail. 15.

FIG. 15 to give zero grid current.l a is . . (15-7) .54 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION Choosing currents as shown in Fig. which in this case. we find (I5-I2) whence can be found if the impedances z are known. ff to have all this solution are departures from these clearly one solution of these zero. 16. a. * (I.l a = V. there are steady is free to adjust itself. 16) from the in present point of view. the subsidiary equations are *& + '*A = ?-? . Va Va V .V. Finally we treat an oscillator circuit (Fig. and voltages due to plate and grid bias batteries. but currents As always. Solving ^^ V = * n.1). and the I. . and the problem is to find how behaves if the system is disturbed.* a l a =-V is. . (15-8) (15-9) ) .a = V. 1. To fix : . Here there is a closed system which the grid voltage is not prescribed from outside. - (15-10) and the transform of (15. l ) 8 . .

then the subsidiary equations are = Rl = ? + Li .3). to (15. - i 1. all that is needed is A which does not involve the initial disturbance. o i i Cp i Cp o . + LO + (i + ^(RLt + LRa)] Filter circuits essential feature of such circuits is that a number of precisely similar circuit elements are arranged to form a The * This is the determinant done solely as an illustration. The condition for this. I a) a g in terms of 1 and the circuit constants. and the solution contains terms in ef***. the solutions will have for denominator V V . which is the condition for the circuit to act as an oscillation generator. parts the disturbance dies out gradually and the system is stable if any of the oc r has a positive real part the system If all the oc r .13) to (15. I . .17). 3. (15. is theoretically unstable.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY ideas * 55 suppose there is a change of current I in the inductance L at t o. where a r r=i. actually it executes an oscillation of amplitude determined by the limits to tshe linearity of the characteristic. (12.17) 2. .16) can be solved for All I.17).15) The equations (15. it is C[p(L 1 6. have negative real are the zeros of (15. is obtained by applying Hurwitz's criterion. I (15. .

S^ THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION we repeating pattern. there -will be terms on the right hand sides of the subsidiary equations which depend on the particular initial conditions are * If the charged impedances z and z' in the circuit. and by solving this we get a general expression for the current at any point. filter circuit. there are i impedances impedances z. is independent of them of type Substituting this in (16. . . connecting the transforms of the currents in successive elements. Mathematically this implies that can write down a general relation. 17. 17 are The equations (16. as in the discharge of a. and m m arranged as shown. (2$ -f #')0 e + #e / = o. that is cosh Q= i + -.4) not zero. where gives A We z seek a solution of r. VUf T FIG. (16.2) which connect the transforms of any three consecutive currents are a system of difference equations.2) 2& Ae^. called a difference equation. V = t I _f~* \ vi.* applied at t . Yoltage V is applied at the beginning through impedance ss{> and the whole is terminated by We require the current Ir at any point due impedance # to the voltage o with zero initial conditions. . m" T " - The subsidiary equations for the successive meshes of Fig. As a definite example which includes many cases of Here practical interest we consider the circuit of Fig. 17. %'.

sinh (16. A(# -f * + * *e)A + (*< + *.4) that sinh 2 \Q 6 occur in = #74*. cf. and. Gardner and Barnes. and. ^ ctt. a solution of (16.4). loc.*<r )e + B(* + a . . if there had been to be includetj. namely for A and B in (16. .ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY . FIG. jT functions of r on the right hand function. e Solving these and substituting in (16. ^ *The theory of difference equations is analogous to that of mPl^ A . 180) e ta (16. brief reference to the theory is given be The Laplace transformation method can Equations. of either T elements (Fig. which give two equations A (*. 18 (a). 22 n 2z FIG.%<T*yB = "^ .6) -* 40 (l\*. i&z) or ff elements (Fig.3).7) This general expression simplifies greatly when_ and % i have values corresponding to the common terminaThe network of Fig.ar^X"* == o.2).5). and * Of it. To find the constants substituted in (16. is It both signs of positive sign follows from (16. 18 (6).5). this must be and (16. applied to difference equations.1) and B.5) gives finally = ) sinh (?n g sinh (OT r)fl sinh wi^^Csfa+^-f-a^) sinh (wi r 1)0 a i)ff+2 sinh (/w _ a)0 (16.3) corresponds to the c differential equations. 17 may be regarded as built up tions. the square root -which gives with the (16. 57 Thus. 315. since may be taken.3). had have would a integral of side (16. p. particular in Differential Piaggio. if 6 is defined by in fact the general solution (16.

7) takes specially simple forms when circuits built up in this are open or short circuited. tandem. we Here. (cosh \ . zt are 9 as a function of functions of p. -\ nj\ ("cosh . . 01.1)6 sinh 0' / \/i ' ^ Ol0 ' at oo. with . the far end.cos (cosh \ \ fcosh an/ \ an cos . cosh cosh z. and open %'> = + + = V sinh (-r + i)g 2^ cosh (m + i)0 sinh & known / ' . ' N ( I2) If "9". z . using (16. but with open circuit at the far end. circuited at the far end.cos 0.no additional series impedance far end.4) T Lr (iv) and short circuited get r)9 ' at the V cosh *4 = Jar'. \ n J (16. For z{ o : Fig. 17 with no (i) #o short circuited at the far end.I7) *' v sinh w0 = 2". jr ( ' ' v ) %i = 8 cosh mff ( ^ sections. . # ~z sinh 6 sinh mB' = oo. z'. same.i)0 sinh = A circuit of T *'. (16. . The same as _ ~ "V sinh (m z sinh r)9 (m ' (l6 IO) ' (iii). and the general expression (16. T r ^ *' zx> A circuit of m i.14) . 0' ( 9' sections. o.58 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION connected way in.1 sinh .cos (2n ~ cos an l)?rN ) / (J6. V ss cosh (ii) % = zz sinh (m t (m-r^ )0 . ff with no additional series impedance. but open circuit ' I r ~~ (iii) #o =z f V sinh (m r}d = 2z cosh (m .cos (cosh ^^. r?- The i. . T r = example series : impedance.4) gives p. and using the formulas = a"' 1 f cosh 5 \ .

result in counting the sinh 9 is a common in using same zeros over factor 9 By (16. These can be found from (16. nominator of (16. i. OT-I. though actual evaluations of the currents I r are best carried out by working in terms of 6 as in the examples below.17) are using (16.15). . . it ^ applied to a circuit R.16) so = of the numerator and deo need not be considered to the values of 6 given The by values of > Theorem II. (16.18) To II. It is often advisable to use them to see the exact form of the denominators of the transforms of the currents. (16. % i/Cp. EXAMPLE Constant voltage E of m.. . or by noticing that cosh mQ is zero when ~ Taking more values of s than those in (16.r)9 ^ sinh cosh mQ ^ To evaluate I r we need to know the zeros of the denominator of (16. CE T sinh (m . .13) with the value (16.17) would again. and open circuit at the far end.15) of cosh 6. p corresponding (16.14).13) and (16. i.16). using (16. T sections in which %' Here (16. Both (16.11).8) of Theorem and for this we need . with no additional series impedance. evaluate I r it is best to use the form (2. 5 = .14) no any positive integer n.7) can always be expressed as a quotient ^or of polynomials in p. .59 appears that (16. even or odd.15) And.4) gives cosh 6 = + i |RQ>.

(sinh = -^ \_dd (sinh v cosh m0) . x = t = o i/Cp... with open sections. (16.. using (16.. sinh m sinh L* sinh ) sinh ..cos c &Ltl ^r assumed that none of these equals .19) Then. = sE^=J - > ( V e*s* ( sin ^ .23) _ + ^- ' ' = ' *> ' ' m~ * Using (16.60 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION cosh mff) rd I j..22) and the values of p corresponding to ( 2S a i)*w The are + ico.21) (16. of m.19). .8) to (16.. in which *' circuit at the far end.16). . .34) \* f i r . OT (16.11) T r _ Cpa) sinh (m y)0 ~(> a co a ) sinh cosh mff + ' ( l6 ' s2 ) zeros of the denominator of (16. -. -5- cosh cosh md i)tn- -\- dpjp^a.. applying . Here (16. (16..21) these are seen P where and it is = = to ip.r^ )(2s & ! EXAMPLE to a filter 2..4) gives cosh And from = + i LQ> 2 . . be to. (16. lr (2. T Voltage V= sin tat is = applied at L#>..

(16. cof. + U sinh 0(to>) . 0(co) 2 = ZTT -(- A. 0(to>) = = cos. . cosh.30) decreases exponentially. -2m . _.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY Proceeding as in -r- 6l Example 0)T i we find a+1 ( ) (sinh 6 cosh = LCwz/33 . x . . 1 . .(i -|LCa> L .8) and (16. . and we have found both its transient and steady state r is increased.27) where period 0(zo>) is the value of 6 corresponding to p = uo. Vibrations of mechanical systems Problems on the motion of bodies of concentrated inertia. . That is. 2 ~ cos cos mo r) S . fl/ . while if to 4/LC this term oscillates The circuit is.30) J J \ this case the part of I r of period 277/co -1 1r Coj . cosh 0(w) = 1 tne steady state part of see from (16.29) oscillates.i cos ^ . ~ Ceo (ii) sin (wz \.28) and (i) this gives rise to if o> 2 two where and in 8 < 4/LC.\ . -rWzty) *V1 g \ cosh L. is . . The second term of (16. while < behaviour for applied voltage sin 17. filter. we 27r/co. Ceo sinh (m . A= ( v Nr ) ' > 4/LC. (16. this case the part of of period 27r/co ^ o>t. sin 8 if a. ~ ..22) s 2 = mL *~ t~ o -=. lead . is / u \ (16.21) that i JLCoj : 2 . . (16. sinh (m r)A cos cot = : sinh A cosh wzA . possibilities z'S. As on the other hand (16. 2 ). "I / x % -f- Conjugate J te i0(ia>) V J (16. if to 2 > 4/LC the term of period 27r/co dies out exponentially as we move 2 along the circuit. connected by shafts or springs of negligible inertia. (16.1 (LCa> i).29) where and in ."S* o> C / B zy a ==- cos rs fl. of course.26) J*P And Ir Jp^ip* thus from (2. a low pass trigonometrically.27) * s To evaluate it..

Rotating systems only will be considered here.62 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION very readily to systems of ordinary differential equations which have to be solved with given initial conditions. and lead to precisely similar equations. Torque T. : EXAMPLE i.3) Using these equations we can write down differential equations for the motion of any combination of wheels connected by shafts of known stiffness. for differentiation with D respect to time. . and on the other a wheel of moment of inertia J (Fig. the dissipative forces are restricted to the case of resistance to motion proportional to the velocity. In order tp make these differential equations linear. . We inertia of a ment from write throughout this section. and A for the stiffness of a shaft. since 'they are of perhaps a little more interest than the corresponding problems in linear motion. for torque. (17.2) Also the torque T required to produce a relative displacement 6 between the ends of a shaft of stiffness A is T= A0. If 9 is the displacement of the wheel from its equilibrium . The equation of motion of a wheel of moment of inertia J.^ (l?>l) for angular velocity. A shaft of stiffness A has one end fixed. . ^ = D9 _ > . . a given function of time. kca for resistance to motion proportional to angular velocity. though in some problems Coulomb friction (constant and opposite to the direction of motion) can be treated. 9 for its angular displacea standard position. . J for the moment of wheel about its axis. is applied to the wheel.. that is the torque required to produce unit relative T angular displacement between its ends. and there is resistance ku> to its motion. and with resistance to motion ka) ' is (JD-M)o. acted on by torque T. A number of examples of the differential equations which arise in such problems is given below clearly these can be solved just as in 5 with given initial values of the o> and 9. 19(0)). = T. (17.

ir FIG. Equations (17. 20 (6). (174) *) (JD + = - . Three wheels are connected by shafts of and Ax as shown in Fig. T - FIG. and the differential equation for the motion of the wheel is T A0. . (JD 2 + 6D + A)0 . 19 (a). 2. this gives the second order equation CD can be eliminated .T. initial values of 6 and co in the usual way. 20(0).1) and (17. .4) can be solved with given If preferred. 19 (&). (17-5) a) B* EXAMPLE stiffness J\ Bi FIG. in which the . the retarding torque 63 due to twist of the shaft is A0. .ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY position. B2 B.

6. + ^K^-A^-^).7) (17.6) + M*. . #a a being displacements of the wheels from a reference position in which the shafts are unstrained. (17-") At the point of contact of the wheels there is a driving force P on the wheel r a and . = D0 . if #! and disa are the angular placements of the two gears from their original positions p* FIG. (17.Aft .9) This system can be solved initial in the usual . Suppose a gear of radius r drives a gear of radius r a> tne i r angular velocities being wj and cu 2 in the directions of Then the arrows in Fig. 21. respectively.8) a> z 2 - . 8^ 2> u>. necessary to study the type of complication introduced into the system by gearing. 21. Torque T is applied to the wheel J. = D0. the sub16 sidiary equations form a chain of the type met hi and are treated in the same way. o^. are CJiD (J^ and a) + ^K = . ^ = D^. . (17. EXAMPLE First it is 3. symbols used all have the same meanings as before. way with given values of 6. and all the shafts the same stiffness. Here the differential equations for the motions of the wheels J. o 2 Clearly the problem of any number of wheels connected by shafts of given stiffnesses can be solved in the same way if all the wheels have the same moment of inertia and the same resistance to motion. ^4 geared system.64 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION . J15 J 2 .

More complicated systems. 22 (6). reaction force P on the wheel rv Then if T 2 is the driving torque on the wheel rz and T! is the reaction torque on the wheel ^ .11) and (17.12) shafts.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY 65 an equal. form a pair of linear connections between the angular velocities and torques in the two (17. and thus (17. oppositely directed. 22 (a) in which torque is applied to the wheel J which drives a gear of radius rx and moment of inertia J^ through a As an example we consider the system T 5 . give rise to linear connections in the same way. of Fig.12) FIG. 32 FIG. such as differential gears.

In many cases it is possible to set up an electric circuit which corresponds f to a given mechanical vibration problem. America. together with (17. Acoust. finally. equally useful. also the corresponding problem electrical system may be set up and studied in the laboratory. = I. cf. might have used the equation for (CD + G)V .11).12) are sufficient to give the motion for any conditions consistent * with (17. This does not make the problem any easier to solve.14) .3).1). (17. compare equations (17.1). . Miles. in the sense that both lead to precisely the same systems of differential equations. namely correspondence described here is not the only one .0)--T1 a) 2 2 ). it may be useful in suggesting further developments in that and field. (17. . T T + A^-fl) (J 2 . system arises Sac.17) we a leaky condenser.13) (J 3 D+ D+ > > 2 3 = Ai(0 . Olson. but it gives an interesting physical insight into it.10). (17. (17.12) the equations of motion are shaft of stiffness A. t For a large number of such equivalent problems. 14 (1943).15) . (17. (17. 183. instead of (17. To see the mechanical sort of correspondence J which exists between and circuit problems. since the theory of electric circuits is more highly developed than that of mechanical systems.+ T = -A^ 8 --A(0 l -. The gear Jj meshes with a gear of radius rz and moment of inertia J 2 which drives a wheel of moment of inertia J s through a shaft of stiffness Ar With T! and 2 defined as in (17. Dynamical analogies (van Nostraoad. initial" (17.16) These equations. (17.10) and (17.2). 1943). cf. with the fundamental equations from which the differ- * Initial conditions inconsistent with these correspond to o a pair of gears inconsistently moving forcing into mesh at t or displaced. from which the differential equations for mechanical problems were built up. Journ.11). and in this way another.66 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION . respectively. J The thus. (17.

Resistance. resistance k. Leaky condensers in Fig. V. Mass.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY ential equations of circuit 67' : problems are built up. Displacement. DQ = I. J. the correspondence between these being set out in the Table below.19) for the connection between charge and current.4) as the mechanical problem of Fig.17) to (17. coefficient.3). a nd (17. * to in . Linear velocity. and applied voltage T. T. Displacement. Current. For example the circuit of Fig. 19 (a). k. . 6^ 6 Z are the amounts of charge which have passed through the inductances J. Using this circuits which have the same (a). 6. Electrical. J 1. It appears that (17. Inductance. V . w. Damping Damping Reciprocal stiffness. i /A. (LD-|-R)I (17.17) = .8) respectively. same sets of equations in terms of different quantities. . gives the same differential equation (17. so that the differential equations found by applying Kirchhoff's second law to the closed circuits B 1 B. Moment of inertia. and capacity i/A. 1 AjAaBjjB!. for an inductive resistance with applied voltage. and A 2 A 3 B 3 B 2 are (17. namely V. (17. with current o>. 20 (b) is the equivalent circuit Fig. (17. Rotational. Voltage. C. where 6. J 2 at time t. Capacity. 20 (a).19) are the (17. L. for Linear Motion. so that 20 AA . Reciprocal Force.2). * to Similarly Fig. stiffness. I. charge 9 on the condenser. zo(b) correspond to resistance motion proportional to the relative velocities of the wheels Fig. coefficient. Torque. and . in linear motion of a which the corresponding quantities mass are added for completeness. Angular velocity. V .1). for a condenser with applied voltage. correspondence we can now set up electric differential equations as the mechanical examples considered earlier. Charge. 19 (b) with inductance J.6) to (17. R. Q.

1934). . this understanding the equivalent circuit to Fig. Inst. . Journ. 22 (a} is Fig..12). /A i. t Cf. it is usual to the amplifier a voltage depending on the output velocity D0 or on the error velocity D0. vl (*?) which are the connections between currents and voltages in an ideal * transformer of r 2 secondary and rx primary turns. ". ibid. k(6t " " tends always to bring the output displacement " " into agreement with the and is input i5 displacement " " error To provide proportional to the " f " feed-back into damping for the system. (17.68 0J i THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION and X 2 are the charges on the condensers and i/Ax respectively. 22 (a). 22 (b). 451. " 232 (1934). To = _2 =r " -?.. voltage f is fed into an amplifier-motor system which applies torque This torque ) to the body. . 279 (1941). is fed back to the amplifier * Cf. <DI _i COo. provides voltage k^Dd^ which p. 519. ' . To do this. where k is a constant. and it is easy to check that these lead to the same differential equations. 1 8.11) and (17.e.20) 1 i become in the electrical case r ^2 On = ^=7> M. The simplest arrangement is to mount a generator on the output shaft which The = . Hazen. Finally we consider the equivalent of the geared system The linear connections (17. Franklin Control Problems ". Servomechanisms ideas involved f may be illustrated by considering a rotation control system in wmch a massive body of moment of inertia J has to be driven so that its displacement follows as closely as possible the prescribed displacement 9i(t) of a pointer. Electric Circuits and Wave Filters (Pitman. Minorsky. 128. 218 Theory of servo-mechanisms " . Fig. Starr.

i) sin nt\ (18. (18. the equation .7) that the error 6 case is composed of a constant lag. If instead of feedback .1) t rest at zero dis- placement. so that then (18. . the subsidiary equation is . is given a uniform motion 9 t = Q. .2) where starting at t co 2 = fc/J. The torque supplied by the motor is 6 then k(6 t &iD0 ). .. .. _ z at zero displacement. and the equation of motion of the body is JD 2 is = k(e t If the motion started at . (18. kjDd. . (p + k^p + )0"= -p et .3) gives ~O It follows that feff .8 . of motion is JD 2 JD 2 = or + If the motion is the subsidiary equation 2 kk^pe + kd = started from rest is co 2 k(- d - k^Dd) . (18.4) Suppose the input o. . k]Q together with transient terms. - (18. 0(^42 2 ~"~ + 2 cos ni + -(^ oj 2 ^> 2 2 4 . kfa^kei.7) where w 2 = l^ ^ ( 6 t in this 9 It is seen from (18.p0 the feedback is arranged to be proportional to the error velocity.8) JD 2 ^. t.&. .D0 = o from Q ).ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY - 69 with negative sign.9) . (18.

circuit and voltage is tapped off from some part of this and fed to the amplifier.7). V= RI.13) it: follows that where o> 2 = kj]. In practice the voltage kjl)6 or kj^d is usually not fed back directly to the. = . (i8.t. <) when the roots of the period equation .ii) R)I krffa. . (18. for given . .13) From (i8. The error may c^ R/L. (18. but applied to some circuit. R system. this gives -O and 0= --*-**!"* w sin *. The subsidiary equation for the current I in the L. x If. . with applied torque KV is = kV. R circuit. as before. the voltage 6 t 9Q k^Dd^ instead of being fed directly to the amplifier. . .10) consists of transient terms only and there is no permanent lag as in (18. + = - + . in the first case considered above. To illustrate the effect of this suppose that. 8t Q. Another complication of practical importance is the presence of time lag in some part of the system.ii) to (18.70 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION where w 2 = &/J. .ia) Also the subsidiary equation for the motion of the body of moment of inertia J. In this way rather more complicated transforms arise.15) . (i and the voltage V across the resistance R is given by . (18. with zero initial conditions is 6t (Lp (i8. and that the voltage across the resistance is fed to the amplifier as before. Here there is a time delay determined by the time constant of the L.10) N In this case the error (18. is applied to an inductance L and resistance R in series. amplifier. . be evaluated.

the triangular function.1) t >e * For an interesting account of impulsive functions and their applications see van der Pol. motion In circuit theory the ideas of an impulsive voltage (that is. 23 (c). 23 (&). requires ^>iK. may conveniently be studied by the 19.g. but there is some advantage in the present applications in being able to think of. jfourn. (c). .7* are known. Fig. . Consider the function </>() defined f by =o (19. 381.17) or tn e system will not be stable.. (18. to choose a function symmetrical about t = o. 81 (1937). convenient to have a symbolic representation of such a function and this may be obtained as follows. The way in which the roots of (18. 23 = this instant. . and the "impulsive " of dynamical systems is extensively studied. Hurwitz's criterion (12. that is for the system to be stable.* It is is finite) or an impulsive current. or the function except that the latter has its maximum at t ~ o.16) and the values of vary as k^ is increased method of 14.3) for the roots of this equation to have negative real parts. an applied voltage o and becomes very large immediately after which is zero at t Fig. say. Inst. It is more usual such as Fig. t Many other functions have the same properties.. Elect. Eng.17) there is time delay in the system it is necessary for the amount of feedback to be greater than the minimum amount (18. The impulsive function In dynamics the idea of a very large force acting for a very short time and such that the time integral of the force is finite is extremely useful. e. a very great voltage applied for a very short time and such that its time integral are equally fruitful. Thus if ^ .

\ i. where O(e) is written for a term involving and thus which tends to zero as e -^. FIG. elsewhere. 23 (a). (19-2) a f(t) is TOO continuous function /-<H a+e j f J-oo eja = /(*) + O(e). . no matter how f small e J-oo Also. 23 is.6) a continuous function. and for > o. if <j)(f)dt = . (19. FIG.o. .5) f(t}^(t J if /(i) is oo a)dt=-f(a\ . . . (c).9. . now define the " impulsive " function 8(i) to possess the properties of (j>(t) as e ^ o that is We : S(t) except for o vanishingly small region to the right of t t t = o for < o. v = a"| /' poo J-OO fco 8(t)dt =i. . - (I9-3) e as a factor. (1. .72 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION where This is very large in a very small e is very small. and. region to the right of the origin (Fig. . 23 (#)) and zero O 2 FIG. . 23 (5).

would involve the interchange of order of two limiting processes and be very difficult to justify. Q : EXAMPLE oj 2 M is set in position attached to a spring of stiffness A mass o from rest in its equilibrium motion at t by a blow of impulse P. R.8) impulsive voltage ES(i) is applied at o to an L. We . (19. M( ) is Thus x 2. such as differentiation or integration. (19.* * The S function was denned as the limit of some function as -> o. and. .9) The solutions of Examples and z above have been obtained by the ordinary Laplace transformation procedure. and proceed to solve problems charge the validity of the in the usual way them involving solutions so obtained is discussed later. . and the = EXAMPLE An notation (9. sin nt}. using (19. (19. C circuit with zero initial conditions. using (19.7). e . o . . the subsidiary equation a 2 o) P. PS() and an impulsive current which transfers as a voltage ES(i) as a current QS(). * _ 2 Ej> Thus.6) is. M = motion is and.6) that i. since any use of the 8 function must be regarded as symbolical only.7).ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY It follows 73 from (19.7) for the transform of S(). using (19. .7) that the Laplace transform of the 8 function is unity. . may now regard a blow of impulse P as a force an impulsive voltage whose time integral is E. t Here the subsidiary equation (8. Any mathematical operations on this function. = + = (P/Mco) sin tat. in the case n I > E =_ e Ljfi o.3). -A*<{ w cos nt i ju. is. The equation of i. .

By an cit. It can M easily be verified * that the same is true for a general set in dynamical system of n degrees of freedom motion by blows. Consider the solution (19. C circuit in which no current is flowing.8) from this point of view: it satisfies the differential equation for the in o also as t -+ o for t motion of the mass Now P/M is the velocity (19.9) tends to E/L. 644. they do in fact satisfy the differential equations and initial conditions of their problems. will instantaneously produce a current of this magnitude. Here. * loc. T the integral of S(i) over this time is i that of the finite quantities I and Q is very small . and in addition it avoids the necessity of evaluating the initial velocity due to the blow. Thus the solution obtained by the formal Laplace transformation procedure applied to Example i does in fact giye the complete solution of the dynamical problem correctly. Precisely the same as is t Example 2. and we need an electrical analogue of the theory of impulsive motion in dynamics to show that an impulsive voltage ES(). *> o. This can be deduced from the differential equation for current and charge in the circuit. and Dx -> P/M. MD # + Mco * = M 2 2 o. according to the theory of impulsive motion in dynamics. Phil. . 35.8). Jaeger. . true for the electrical case in -> o the value of I given by (19. 36 (1945). applied to an L. the mass would be started by a blow of impulse P. x -> o. all complete verification for section Mag. we (I9-") Proceeding dynamical theory. .74 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION we must inquire whether these solutions are mathematically The simplest way to do this is to verify that justifiable.10) > with which. integrate this over a very small time. and that of DI is the difference between the final in . (7). R. (19.. easy extension of the method in Carslaw and Jaeger. namely (LD as + R)I + : = E8(). gives a the types of problem arising in this and 20.

giving Laplace transformation method. initial some of these values of the currents and charges do not satisfy equations. ly. loc. in the subsidiary equations. provided a certain determinant did not vanish. and the initial value (zero) of the current Thus LI. (19. = E. cit. used as in each inductance its own initial current. It can be proved in general that for a complicated circuit with various impulsive applied voltages.. treating B(t) as having (19. . It > 20. . as t > o. do in fact give solutions of the equations of the problems * Jaeger. of circuit theory often give rise to a system of differential equations to which this verification applies immediately. and each condenser its own initial charge. . 75 I. do satisfy the equations of circuit theory. In general. a general verification could be given that the solutions obtained by the Laplace transformation satisfied the differential equations and initial conditions. = is easy to verify that (19. so it does in fact give equation of the problem for t the correct solution of the physical problem. the solutions obtained by the Laplace transformation procedure. the currents tend to the values which would be found from the equations of impulsive motion. .9) satisfies the differential o. and. Justification of the solutions of electrical network problems It was remarked in 7 that. however. to which the solution obtained by the Laplace transformation procedure was found to tend as t -> o.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY value. for a system of linear differential equations. they give a combina- method The problems tion of differential or algebraic equations (10. fact true * in all cases that the solutions obtained by the 10.7) for transform.12) and the theory of impulsive motion gives the current I/ E/L. and in that case there will be an It is in impulsive readjustment of these initial values.1) and algeit may happen that the specified braic equations (10.6) .

and zero in L 2 the subsidiary equations are . but only examples illustrating the different cases which can arise. i.. if this takes place.L. and Since the initial current is E/R in L. Steady current E/R is flowing in of Fig. (20. which as t -$ o tend to the values which exist in the circuit after the impulsive readjustment of initial The general theory will conditions. 24 with the switch S closed.76 for t THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION > o. i.)} (20-2) And thus As E(LLX -|- LL 2) . FIG. not be given here. 24. EXAMPLE circuit = the o innf^L. . At t the switch is opened.1) Solving we find Rp R{(LL! + LL + 2 + H.

The o to integrating (20. and.L^W = o.9) . evaluated in the usual way.5) and (20. (20. I. (20. 1^) and I 2() in a very short time r following the opening of S at } o.5) o.6) a . 2 2 . . 78) is charged to potential E. it appears that there has been an impulsive readjustment of current between the three inductances just after the switch was opened. consider the equations of the system for t o. ( 20 10 ) .4).7) values E/R. (20. when at t Q Here the subsidiary equations are (20. The condenser C in the circuit of Fig. 2 a .LjDIi = I + l!=I. . they would be found to contain S functions. I<) is found to have the value If the voltage drops across the inductances were (20. l lt I 2 over this very small time. Also I<). EXAMPLE 2.6) from t =r. Suppose that these change to I<). then. .7).E. we find L{I<> = = - (E/R)} L 2 I 2W + L I C> = o. KO) = ^(0) + yo). in particular. and the condenser o the switch S is closed. which the currents I. I^o) and I 2 () satisfy (20. . (20.7). do not satisfy (20. o. and to verify this result.11) . the finite changes of current may be 4 regarded as being produced by impulsive voltages.10) gives the new values of the currents.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY 77 and. 25 is un(p. . I I 2 had 1} before the switch S was opened.'and neglecting the integrals of the finite quantities E. that is m . . o. Solving (20.8) (20.8) to (20. charged. > namely (LD + R)I L 2 DI 2 4- L DI . To investigate what happens in this case. that is. since this does not equal E/R.

there will be an instantaneous exchange of charge in.12) represents impulsive current which instantaneously exchanges charge ECC1 /(C -(. Whenever a network includes a closed circuit containing condensers only. we find _ R(C -f' _ _ ECQ Thus EC 2 - I=- ECCj R(C (30. . the impulsive current which transfers this amount of charge has appeared.12) can be verified by writing down the differential equations for the charges on the condensers and proceeding as in [ The term ECC^C an . The result (20. this way between the condensers if these are incompatibly charged. If we had used the subsidiary equations for charge instead of those for current.12 FIG. > Example i.Qi) between the two condensers the second term represents the subsequent discharge of the condensers through the resistance. -f C^)]8(t) in (20. 25. this finite change of charge would have been found (in the same way as the finite change of current in Example i) but as we have worked with current.78 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION Solving .

E/^ 26. denominator and is reduced by one. (20. and thus It is ME . and the algebra is greatly simplified. 2 2 . i.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY EXAMPLE primary of 3. L]L 2 . 26.13) Thus. (20. Writing Ij and I 2 for the primary and secondary currents. I 2 -> ME/RjL^ There was a sudden change in the currents when the switch was opened which could have been studied as in Example i.from Ia - K EXAMPLE 4. o the switch S is opened. the subsidiary equation for the secondary is zero. . so = o. : in practice . case of M The problem 2 of n. (20. Fig. . 79 Steady current transformer. for the (perfect coupling). if 2 X 2 . in 1 2 M may be very nearly approached L L = M the degree of the v M 2 the reasons . Here . a flowing in the and the secondary is 1 current is M FIG. (20.14) Here as t -> o. In ME : (11.16) known from general theory that LjL 2 > 2 is of interest for two limiting case L]L 2 = firstly it secondly. Example . here a quadratic has become linear similarly a cubic becomes a quadratic.2) ' becomes .13) (Lap for t + R )I = ME/Rj > o. at it when = Also Mpl x + L = o.

does in fact always give the correct solution of the physical problem. show. (20. applied in the usual way. by L2 . R and capacity C with zero initial conditions. If the initial current and charge are zero. Show that the voltage drop across the condenser is E* This is Ear*" {cos nt + [(R/anL) - (i/RC)] sin nt}. and we of (20.2 the second by + ROIi + MDI = E 2 ( 7) =M 2 .17). multiplying the subtracting. Constant current (E/R) is supplied for f > o to a parallel combination of inductive resistance L. M . The examples above illustrate the types of problem in which there may be sudden changes of charges or currents on closing switches.e) is applied at t and capacity C in series. n z inductance i/LC. which shows that the Laplace transformation procedure. L a Rj! Thus in this case . that the current at any time is L = = (E/2ttL){n sin (nt + e) + sin e sin nt}.18) algebraic equation by elimination from the given differential equations.18) they will change suddenly to hew values which can be calculated as in we can form an Example i. and if the given initial currents do not satisfy (20.8o THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION The significance of perfect coupling from the theoretical * is best seen by considering the differential point of view these are equations of the circuit of Fig. and the way in which these could have been found has been sketched briefly.u) and (1.17) obtain . using (i. 26 : (LJ> If LjL. since the determinant discussed there is LjL 2 the system of equations (20. a a first M. A general discussion along these lines can be given. II o to Alternating voltage E sin (nt -f. an example of the exceptional case referred to in 2 for 7.MR I = LaE.12). / EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER 1. 2.

show that if the grid voltage is changed by 14. the other end Show that of the spring is given a downwards motion a sin a>t.ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY where 9. = RB/RI> = M and R Ca a In the resistance-capacity coupled amplifier of Figs. V A a *= - M M = time t is wa r nn Uft - . Deduce the solution of Ex. Constant|voltage applied capacity Cj in series with a leaky condenser of capacity C and Show that. respectively. first /* 8l and n are defined in (9. z z consists of resistance R s and capacity C 3 in parallel.[w sin nt is n sin at t eat]. show that at time t after this instant the secondary current is . the change in grid voltage of the next valve is 7. 9. In the circuit of Fig. voltage if Show that there is a balance for -all types of applied CI/CB = R4/Ra a 6. the current is E = . 3. o to a condenser of 9. and st a and #4 consist of resistances R a and R 4 5. the displacement of the mass from its equilibrium position at . * 2. At the instant of zero secondary current the condenser is instantaneously discharged. Regarding an imperfect condenser as capacity C in series with resistance R1} the whole being shunted by conductance G. LaL 2 steady-state conditions prevail due to alternating voltage of peak value E and frequency W/ZTT in the primary. 3.In the problem of n.3). = o. zero. . . 13. and capacity C x in parallel. Ex. if the initial charges are leakage conductance G. hangs by a spring of stiffness is at rest in its equilibrium position. 6. -i n4 . with # E at t o. a At t o. Q In the bridge of Fig. mass when the mass 8. show that the charge on the condenser is (CE/aVs){(i + VS) cos - (i - VS) cos wi[i(3 + 4. show that the subsidiary equation for voltage V applied to such a condenser in series with an inductive resistance L. z\ consists of resistance Rj. R is _-r T ? ~ V+ LI .

i) . Heaviside's shifting theorem THEOREM VI. unit voltage applied to a circuit " " at t = o ". say. (21. Since H(i function y(t its is a) is zero if i <a and unity if t a. It has not appeared earlier in the present treatment. // y(p) is the is the then e~ ap > o. shifted to the graph exactly that of y(t) for f hence the right through a distance a. since problems have been stated " hitherto in the. and for a) is zero for t o. 27 (a). a)H(* . y(t). y(p] transform of transform of a). form of. as in Fig. 27 (tf) name " shifting theorem ". * This is Heaviside's unit function. (ai. 82 a)H(i < > > fl.CHAPTER III a 21. instead of it voltage H(f) applied to a circuit must be noticed that these statements are identical only for t > o . the > : : < . . a. for t o the first does not specify the voltage but the second makes it zero. and y(t where * H(t) = o.2) will be found very useful in many problems.2) y(t-aV H(t-a) FIG. the notation (21. < o\ = t> of t i.

O. i. 37 x-. 27 7T/W /' (c).e. o < < = o. = E sin = 0. Fig. >a . = !(* -*-*) y(f) t ff\ ' t I J J" (21-3) 7W FIG.e. THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS prove (21. XO = E{i = E. Fig. wave.e~^eJa Jo Using a large this theorem we number of useful step can build up the transforms of and broken functions. A half sine a>t. EXAMPLE 2. 27 (c). FIG.H(* .- EXAMPLE i. y i.1) a)H(t 83 To poo we have only foo to notice that (co JO erv*y(t a)dt=\ er**y(ta)dt=\. 27 (6). cf. y = E sin Eo> jy o * <t < 7r/o>\ > wt +E sin cj( .a)}..

(r + i)T < < (r + a)TJ = E{H() .E.2H(* .2 t * 3. " saw-tooth " wave. 27 2T (e). i)T. a y=P k(t rT < < (r + t . A rT). Fig. rT < < (r + i)T \ = .84 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM AT EXAMPLE y i. EXAMPLE 4. 27 (d).T) + 2H(i . = E. A " " square wave. Fig. 3.e. y= p =tanh T FIG. 27 o 3T FIG.

. = . .4T)H(i . . Ei 2E(* y(t) = + 2 E(* .4T) in Fig. t A = T the battery is C circuit o battery of voltage E is applied at t with zero initial conditions. is any integer. be deduced from this result.6) can of course 6. EXAMPLE to an L. e-Ptf(t)dt pT Jo Jo + JT e f2T = Jo f *-**/(*>& + <r*TJo eI* (21-5) and (21. To do this we expand the transform by the Binomial Theorem for example if in a series of negative exponentials The transforms of the fun ctions in Examples have is which : Ei _ _ E .EXAMPLE f(t _ f(P) if r + rT) = fooe~#f(t)dt = THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS A function f(t) of period T. (21. by Theorem VI.2V 1 e~ 2^ T e ~P'' X1 e ~r e _E ~^' Then. 85 that = /(). so 5.. R. 86). and at short-circuited. finding the function which has a given transform of this type. EXAMPLE 3 to 5 all involved hyperbolic functions.8) the function y 7. A technique of great importance both here and in connection is that for differential with partial equations. is shown 27 (/) (p.

zontally at the same level at its ends. as in (9. Example 5 at the end of this Chapter). 8. and Then.a). x and carries a concentrated load at x a. . (21. To find the deflection y at any point of a uniform beam of length /. An alternative form for the solution in these cases can be obtained by using the expansion formula of 33. which is clamped horio and x l. applied voltages such as those of Examples 3 and 4 is found in the same way (cf. 2T The solution for 4T FIG.9) for the case > o.10) I. EID*y = W8( . I by Theorem VI. a concentrated load at x a may be treated as a distributed load W = Then. we have to solve with y = Dy = o.2). the differential equation WS(# 6. proceeding as in a). the - transform of the current - is and. when x = o and x = (21. EXAMPLE light W = = = Using the S-function defined in 19.T)}. -X*TlLj = -{e-# sin nt 2 T) sin n(t . 27 (/).86 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION is Here the voltage in the circuit by Example i its transform is E EH(i T).

6/ 22. .11) and Theorem VI. 5+ ++ . subsidiary equation is. but are much more quickly than the general solutions. these Solving for we get finally. Heaviside's series expansion 3 EI This is a useful method for determining the behaviour solutions of the solution for small values of the time the or obtained previously are equally suitable for all values small for are this section useful those of only the time obtained values of the time. by (i-S). If n and in ascending of expand p by denominator (22. . constants to at * = be found from.The &7 THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS VI. obtained as a series of ascending powers oft. by (19. where 3>2 6EI ^s are an l the conditions y = Dy =* unknown o. of and a powers the pression of form . been have II I and in transforms Most of the Chapters found to take the form : where g(p) f(J>) is a polynomial in p degree n. .2) ( 2-' 2 \' "^) and thus y and y = % + oj + a^ + is . from (21. . (22. we . Z.!) find an exof ifp by the Binomial Theorem.7) and Theorem and thus. . we divide numerator and polynomial of lower degree. .

Example i. p-^-ao true under fairly general conditions.4) = .1) gives Therefore. /or the form (22. by (22-3). . ! is the value of y when have proved. the following Theorem. The following theorem. \ \ . t-*0 Ify(p) is the transform ofy(t). If I = in. we letp -> oo (32. we had i/c R TV EXAMPLE 2.88 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION i. In the problem of 14. we since.4). (14. we find and -> o. THEOREM VII. EXAMPLE In 9. . may often be used to determine the behaviour of a function for large values of the time : This result is in fact // y(p) =f(p}jg(p\ where f(p) and g(p) are polynomials in p. and if the roots of g(p) o are either zero or THEOREM VIII. (22.1) o/y. the degree of f(p) being less than that of g(p). .2). of the same type as (22. then lim y(t) lim py(p).

if y(t) = sin ait.6) has been given in (n. 23. suppose of in. (22. may be stated as follows Suppose AB and CD are two pairs of terminals of a let Z be the generalized impedance of the netnetwork quate for : . > > s As an example.10) with r Z % sinh 9 tanh mO (23.f) applied at AB for .8).2) = = . Here we mention only TheVenin's theorem because of its importance in simplifying the algebra in complicated networks. . by (16. of (22.6) The result follows immediately from the formulae of 2 for expressing y(p) in partial fractions. the network is a filter circuit T sections [Fig. Z denned above is. V(. poo y(t}dt J = lim y(p) p-+Q . Network theorems An application Many of the general theorems of steady state network theory have immediate generalizations in terms of Laplace transforms. (22. due to voltage t o with zero initial conditions. .5) and. under the same conditions. . A special case of this theorem. . In this case the quantity o. for example.THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS have negative real parts * then transform is 89 if y(t] is the function whose y(p) limy(t) t--co = p*Q limpy(p) . in an impedance # connected across CD. which is ademany purposes. * This Theorern_ is frequently stated in the literature with no conditions on y(p~). Clearly it does not hold. 18 (a)]. work looking in at CD with AB short-circuited also let v be the transform of the open -circuit voltage drop across CD due to voltage V() applied for t o at AB with zero Then the transform of the current I initial conditions.

are as follows : o f-**yjfyi)du\ Jo = f ^e- where the double v > o. 161. is The proof f * Also referred to as the Composition. which require justification and some conditions on the . the current I in an output impedance given by 2 sinh 9 sinh m6 +# cosh tnff This agrees with (16-7). then yi(p)y z (p) form of ft n( (24.3) Thus. by SQ (23. and sometimes as Borel's or as Duhamel's Theorem.. then t can take all values and t all values up to ro. v t'. cit. loc. The superposition THEOREM IX. and the transy t (p) is the transform of y z (t}. since The'venin's theorem allows the result for any terminal impedance to be deduced from the solutions for open and short-circuited terminations and these are often and in any case are easy to calculate ab initio. and the double integral becomes + = > f "-' Jo .11) with . The essential steps. (16. functions. but the calculation is simpler. p.1) not particularly difficult. v = V sech mO (23. is.1). t C.90 and r =m is the quantity v defined above i. If y^p} is the transform of y^t). known * theorem 24. and involves only routine pure mathematics. Convolution. by . f In this put u v t. or Faltung Theorem. 33 Doetsch.. t. but is omitted here as it depends on the transformation of double integrals. up to integral is taken over the quadrant u o. and J.

* zero initial point applied From the Theorem IX or is : the usual way we find where z(p) is a known function of p. present point of view. any system of ordinary linear differential equations with constant coefficients and with arbitrary functions on the right hand side can be treated in the same way. the current any other part can be determined. In the same way. given numerically. the right of (24. function. for example by a definite integral always express the current by which may be evaluated numerically.t'}dt' = f V(t . The sub- sidiary equation gives Clearly.t'}x(t'}dt' Jo Jo (24-3) plicated Thus for any applied voltage V. Then if x(i) is the whose transform is _ !/#()> Theorem I IX gives = fv(*')*(* . if the current in any part of a circuit is known.THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS As a first application consider the differential 91 equation to be solved with y == Dy =o . or which may be we can in an oscillogram. when t = o.2) which can be dealt with as in Chapter . the chief use the following suppose we require current I at some place in a network due to voltage In at with some conditions. * For non-zero on terms initial conditions there will be additional I. found in the usual way. which may be so comthat we cannot evaluate its transform.

for T voltage V applied to we have an L. The other in the circuit is the V= I. Finally. = 4" f V(* W-LJo *'){ cos *' /it sin *'}*-**' <fc' (24.5). may be evaluated simple and interesting current Ij due to unit applied voltage.6) and Theorem III that since (24.2) and thus. 8(). and the present result shows V= = that if it is known.92 with zero THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION For example.2) in the form ' ' (34 6) ' Now. a definite integral. the current due as V. (24. which. I if 2 > o. . we express the current due to any applied voltage V as I 1} by writing (24. by If IJL may an integral involving has been found as a function of t from (24.8) Clearly various trans- should be remarked that the importance of .7) vanishes when t o. by (24. it t'}dt' y .8) are possible.2). C circuit initial conditions. R. V(p) transient in its own right. as in (9. This is an interesting i. by Theorem is IX. applied voltage. (24. formations of (24.2) has the transform transient to any applied voltage. the function whose transform is &' (24-7) Then it follows from (24.4) The function #() used above whose transform was the current due to a unit impulsive i/#Q>) is.

Fourier's and Mellin's inversion formulae. y > o. the use of theorem is necessary. 'and the integral is to be interpreted and evaluated by the theory of functions of a complex variable.2). which. or functions given numerically by oscillograms is a simple exponential or trigonometric function. f Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus (McGraw Hill.1) as an is of great importance. integral equation from which the solution of the problem could be obtained. is known. cit.3) or (24. Doetsch. loc. this gives an alternative method for finding y(f). Kap. and in particular the calculus of residues. of course. Omitting these conditions. J. 1926). is no shorter than those used earlier. loc. the point of view of the historical development of the subject the correspondence between (25.THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS Theorem IX is 93 in the study of difficult or arbitrary funcif tions. y_oo (25-2) complex variable. 6.8). however. cf. so that for such problems there is no necessity to learn the technique of complex variable. (25-1) ry+tco y(t)=-.. 30. it is to evaluate I directly by the methods used earlier V . A is a which led to ordinary linear differential equations. For a thorough study of the applications of the method to partial differential equations. It is related is sometimes called the Fourier-Mellin Theorem. cit.1) and (25. it states that if y(P) = f J o j o. . For the problems of Chapters I and II In (25. (25. .2) provides an important method for finding the function which has a given transform.. Bromwich. The result 29. The This inversion theorem is a general theorem* which gives y(t) from y(p}> subject.2) Carson -f regarded (25. and Doetsch. to conditions on y(t] or y(p}.\ Z7TZJ eKy(X)dX. If this theory. simpler than to evaluate the integrals (24. 25. . and to a certain extent the in version From to * C.

of Fourier Integrals. as the solution of the problem. The connection with Parseval's theorem on y(t). (26. and its use in physical applications is due to him [Phil. which satisfied certain conditions at t o.4) For comparison with the problems previously discussed. Then (26. loc. = > . t Titchmarsh. the result (26. Fourier Series and Integrals. and is zero J when t < o.2).1) and (26. . edn. with y(X) found from the usual subsidiary equation..i(otY(a>)daj. 27 (1889). dt^ r ZTTJ _oo 2 |Y(o>)i ^o>. and McLachlan. The theorem is often referred 2. In the method as developed in Chapters I and II the problem was to find the solution of a differential equation for t o. Mag. .2. due to Doetsch. (26. Wagner. to as Rayleigh's theorem. .1.i.94 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION Jeffreys. 466]. (26.2) The simplest of the essential conditions on y(t) pCQ . suppose that y(f) is real. J It is frequently stated that the Laplace transformation method contemplates only functions of this type.3) Parseval's theoremf states that. is that J-OO \ 1X01^ be convergent.1) follows from his on using the 119 exponential form for the cosine. cit. 26. . (26. 3. 1. and in fact the solutions found would also hold * For . if oj is real ro TOO Fourier's integral theorem and Fourier's integral ditions theorem* and states that. Theory i. (26.2) become : a proof see Carslaw.2). See also Titchmar'sh. subject to con- = e imty(t)dt. The Laplace transformation and its inversion theorem provides the link between these two ideas this point of view is largely . . roughly provided these integrals exist. regard an -integral of the type (25..1) j then y (t) = -L 277-J_co e. .

* R is . Jo if * provided - JXOI* from is convergent.2) if is y t o with i)>" o. the solution of (D e~* for either t > o or t = o is found to be y though we are only interested in the former case.2). t > o. Also. .9) Thus the Fourier transform the Laplace transform if imaginary. In this section and in 25 there is a difference in principle (though not in the results obtained for t > o) since a solution.THEOREMS ANP THEIR AP PL I C AT I O NS if 95 then* and -Rfi-**Ya)Xa>=XO> f Jo | i (26. To -deduce (26. written for " . . t = o y(t) = e"*.6) follows. it follows that. case.y(-*co).(t). also (26. the real part of ". la sought for example the solution of the differwhich is zero for t < o ential equation above.2) in this we notice that the right-hand side of the latter is equal to and. . p replaced by ( z'o>). Y( the result (26. in this case (26. found from (25. since y(t) is real.6) iR^'YOXo. if Y(w) exists. . t < o y(t) t< i when = + < o.5) is called the Fourier transform Since (26.6) is for the degenerate form of the latter exists when p is pure the degenerate form of (25. for example. Y(w)=.4) CD) is the conjugate of Y(OJ).6) (26.5) is precisely the same as the equation defining with the Laplace transform y(p) of y. (26. = i. and becomes of y(t). Y(u) in (26. would be y(t) ** o. = o.

if the latter does exist. . . while it was on points of interpretation that the old operational method was obscure. proceeding as in Chapter II we find own * Fourier transforms of many functions of this type. each with its . it can be found from (26. From amplitude. and the current I in any branch of it is calculated.Il) In this case (26. (6). ^ ' (26. (26.12) v the point of view of electric circuit theory the great importance of Fourier's integral theorem lies in its The Laplace transform has no physical interpretation. in the same way that a periodic quantity is expressed by Fourier's theorem as a sum of fundamental and harmonics. then. Mag.10) _-_. e* or sin f) but..96 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION zero.* so that if y(t) = e~ at sm fit . For example. with numerical illustrations and applications.8) gives . y can be taken The Laplace transform exists for many functions for which the Fourier transform does not (for example. obvious physical significance it is a purely mathematical device for finding a solution this is not altogether a as it that difficulties can be formdisadvantage implies any ulated and treated mathematically. (26. Phil. On the other hand (26. each with its own amplitude Y(o>)Ja). Now suppose a voltage y(f) is applied to a circuit with zero initial conditions. I.6) expresses y(t] as a combination (that is the integral) of harmonic terms e~ imt . 49 (1935). .9) and previous results. 480. are given in Burch and Bloemsma.

although. if voltage e~ a< is applied at t o to an inductive resistance R. each with its appropriate due . by Thus. (. (26.14) gives "" amplitude TTJO <""' dot. alternatively it is the total response of a square law detector. however.5) This expression has a simple physical interpretation.>o. Applying Parseval's theorem (26. since e. the steady state current in the circuit z'co) is to voltage e~ i(at Thus (26. is new and of great importance. we have an extension of the results ia>)d<a. .16) V ' quantity on the left gives the energy absorbed in the branch of the circuit.15) may be interpreted the statement that the current due to voltage y(t) is by obtained by superposing the effects of all the component frequencies of y(t). L we have The = o 03 | (R 2 2 2 Lzo>)(a ia>) | dw L (t0 -f a jB a )(w + 2 (X ) [continued overleaf . and (26. for the solution of specific problems.6.8) to (26. which is of considerable practical interest. y(t] has a Fourier transform.imt ]z( .THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS where z(p) if is ^ l(t] known and depends on the circuit. this is inferior to the Laplace transformation methods described earlier. . and (26-16) gives this as a real infinite integral without having actually to evaluate the current.13) gives for the Fourier transform of 'Then z'o>).14). One application of (26. That is.9). y( of steady state alternating current theory to non-periodic applied voltages. this will be j7( (26. by (26-6) -. For example.

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION _! ~a tan ~ _! 'a Jo where j8 = R/L. is . If y(t) is two t i. Ex. o repeated with period staircase functions) = < < T tt .. or the difference of 3. in the regions o T. a. It per unit length in o < x < JZ Show that the deflection at any point is 24EI If the square-wave voltage of 21. \z(ioj}\ is a certain range of values of cu. < 2.16) may be evaluated numerically. (26. and this (a repeated pulse. = o C = s is an integer and t' < + T. = is . y(t) o. . (full wave ( rectified alternating voltage) y(p} 4.^ ? 1. and approximations can be introduced.16) need be evaluated only i. R. with a selective circuit. for example. is applied at to an L. If y(f) = | sin cat |. ta < <T t . carries a distributed load and zero in <x< w (constant) clamped horizontally at both ends. and so on (a staircase < < T< < t aT. and very large except in over this range.' A uniform $1 beam /. 3. 3.. 2T < t If y(f) is i.. " " t function) 3T. show that the current in the circuit at time t t' t where asT f 5. In more complicated problems the integral (26. circuit with zero initial current and charge.

i + ze-pT cos nT + e~W 2. an unknown voltage is applied at o with zero initial currents and charges. Ex. = (e~** e'P). If the voltage S at f drop across the first condenser is *. t > o.E e-tf' sin nt' e-f(T+t') s j n 99 n(T t') nL 6. show that the voltage drop across the second condenser is 7. = r* n 8.z o.3) and assuming n in the steady state due to a square wave voltage. - q)'(q + jg + ^) a)' R/L. the current at ' a the is t after of time cycle beginning THEOREMS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS > 2. \ JQ If y(i) v(t') sin n(t t'}dt'. 7. R from that the total energy absorbed by an inductive resistance this voltage is RQ3 where p. Deduce that using the notation (9. . show that its Fourier trans- form Y() is (a u)(/J z'o))' Show L/.(). show *^ 60 that for small values of the time _ _ E / _ nW + LV 6 ' ' 7 \ ' In the circuit of Fig. In the problem of I ~~ n.

with a slightly altered notation. it is rather more The. although the actual process of writing down the solution would be . differential equations for a uniform electric transmission line will be found in 28. although many of the problems The considered are problems in wave motion or conduction of heat in one dimension. and. The line differential equations of the uniform transmission We suppose the capacity C. it is still easy to find the transform Laplace but. for example most results on finite transmission lines. since this usually involves more complicated functions of p than those considered in Chapter I. a knowledge of this technique is essential but it is possible to go far without it. Introductory In the preceding chapters it has been found that problems be leading to ordinary linear differential equations could ^n solved with only the elementary apparatus of 1-3that the study of partial differential equations it will appear the of solution. and in others with the proviso that for a complete treatment the complex variable would have to be used. Transforms can of course be enlarged. 28. combined with the use of contour integration to evaluate the complex integral which occurs in (z$-2)> ful For a complete study of the subject. precisely the same as that used here. inductance L. but the most powergeneral method is the application of the inversion theorem. and leakage conductance G. 25. for shortness. only these will be studied. line to have resistance R. and some on infinite lines. particularly in its theoretical aspects. Table of difficult to derive the solution from it. per unit length. can be obtained.CHAPTER IV PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 27. in some cases rigorously. .

LSx T37T "W^ ""-^~ T > "---T X K FIG. neglecting terms in (S#) 2 this gives Also the voltage drop over the parallel portion the line is HK of V. ft lj.fSoc by the equivalent circuit of Fig. A->. Here the voltage drop from A to B over the series portion of the line is -dtf Bx. by the current and B they will be I + $x and The A portion of the line between V + -Sx. consider the points at Sx. *. and the current in it is ox S#. and A will be I and V. To B at find the differential equations satisfied in and voltage x at -|- the line. I H . V V(x V ^"V. I and to tions of both distance x along the line and time t emphasize this they will sometimes be written I(x. and the current in it is I -Sx + d# .PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Also at let I IOI be the current in the direction of increasing x the point x of the line. 28. and let V be the voltage will be funcdrop across the line at this point. The current and voltage A at x. f) and . respectively. thus . 28. A and B can be represented RSx .

. which we shall write t(x) and V(x) to emphasize that they are functions of x. these depend on the particular problem. as i ( -> o for -> o for fixed x. if the line is joined to some other impedance at > = > x = a. the condition is I x a and all t o if the voltage is prescribed at x a. as t > V(#). I assumptions about the function the solution should be verified. t) must be this prescribed function of t for t also There are = = = = > . o V(#. o with initial con(28. 4. . . (38.B\2) it follows that the differential These are a pair of simultaneous partial differential o wish to solve them for t equations for I and V. there will be a condition involving both the current a. t Proceeding to oo. iii Chapter strictly. we must have V = o for if there is open circuit at a.102 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION '(28. the equations by e~^ and respect to from o Then. we multiply III. 'and with boundary conditions solution The > to be specified. Explicitly these initial conditions are We > >- 1(#). of partial differential equations by the Laplace transformation We consider first the system of equations (28. with given initial values of I and V. I are implied. if the line is short-circuited at * o o for x a and all t a.5) fixed x.6) boundary conditions to be satisfied at the ends of the line. voltage at x = and 29. * precisely as in Chapter I.5) and (28. (28.3).1) From and equations for I and V are (2. 6). For example. integrate with just as in the proof of Theorem * As and.4) which have to be solved for t ditions (28. . .

3).1) where I is now a function of x and jp. in the general .PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 103 t)dt vWx u=o =*-!(*)+ pi . .R' It appears that the effect of the Laplace transformation with respect to t is to reduce a partial differential equation in x and t to an ordinary differential equation in x.6) is.4) and the initial conditions. (39. Using these results. and the corresponding ones for V. 1 1 given by (29. The quantity q which appears in (29. we the " " subsidiary equations (Lp + R)I(*.4) Eliminating gives the ordinary differential equation for?.3) and (28. obtain from (28. p) = -^ + Ll(*) + CVW (29. p) = I (29.6) is. that ' by =~ Lp + R"^ + Lp+. a'nd with respect to the parameter x. When V has been found. . (29. This lias to be solved with boundary conditions which are the are Laplace transforms of those originally prescribed they "best written down as they arise in specific problems. when we wish where we of differentiation have assumed that the orders of integration. where q* = (Lp + R)(C#> is + G) . p). .3) (Cp + G)?(*. and. to emphasize this. may be interchanged. it is written I(x.

.9) The ideal submarine cable. . found as above. Another the partial differential equation of importance is equation of linear flow of heat (v temperature. the THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION : square root of a quadratic function of p. (29.14) . R (i) o. N K ^ ' . is -b when t = o. . K diffusivity) to be solved with v = v(x). ' q = ( p -f- where c = (LC)~*. . q L=G which (29. of the same type as (29.5) in the case (29. for which q = p]c. This has to be solved with y The = y(x\ d zv i) ^ z = Y(). but in three important cases it takes a simpler form. (2 9 .12) ' ^ * and thus of L=G is = o. dv -j9 Z 2 dx p_ -v K i. (29.10) is The equation of wave motion hi one dimension where y is the displacement. T . .8) Heaviside's " distortionless line which L and thus (iii) - R_G_ ~ ~p C p)]c.10) = -\/(RCp). (ii) = G= where c = (LC)-* " in . .104 case. . == o. (29. for . when is t o.. The subsidiary equation. -v(x) . subsidiary equation 2-=-)-). These are " The lossless line ".

. as in method. : . The semi-infinite line We x t consider the First. x = o.8). treating the latter first. infinite lines we rely on the Table of Transforms to find the solution from its transform. ( * We . . 6. In this case the subsidiary equation (29. .3) are . t). solve it by the Laplace transformation could. f) of the solution V(x.5) with its boundary conditions has been solved.2) and (30. but. * = o. which gives the solution in the or (ii) an expansion in form of a trigonometric series terms of the solutions for the semi-infinite line. . Both these methods will be used.* we know the transform For problems on semi*V(x.5) becomes ___ The boundary line are = .3) . for the simple problems arising here. When the subsidiary equation (29. V to be finite as x -> oo V=E/p. (304) (30. the end x o to be maintained at constant voltage E for > problem of the semi-infinite line. suppose o.8) of 0. .2) (30. (30.5) for the case (29. . - - conditions to be satisfied at the ends of the V = E. with zero initial current and charge.5) oo. 30. it is just as easy to write down the particular integral and complementary function in the usual way. t > o. = > o.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS which 105 R=G= is of the same type as (29. The transforms of (30. V to be finite as x -> . which has a physical interpretation in terms of direct and multiply reflected waves. For problems on finite an extension of the lines two methods are available (i) expansion theorem (2.

^= and' p e-(:P-t-P)/fl } . to be a complicated integral involving Bessel functions (cf.4) q. For the distortionless line (29. o (30.10) '(30. In this case the disturbance is still propagated with c. B = o.6) becomes For the lossless line.11) V = Eg-"/H(* xjc) .6) of p In the general case the transform involved in (30. Suppose.6) is quite different from anything previously encountered.1) is The and V (30.8) Then it follows from (21. t . with y(t) = E. after a difficult calculation which will V not be given here. velocity line.106 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION general solution of (30. Thus. and then (30. -p gives A = E/p. (30. at travelling with velocity the point x. now.9) we have . . P c = (LC)-*. mentioned in 29. In the important special cases 35). be studied in 35.9) V is zero up to the time x/c. . p (30. that of applying constant . using the value (29.5) requires = Ae-<* + Be. V:=EH[* that is : -(*/<:)]. but there is attenuation as we move along the Some problems on will the submarine cable. . however.7) . . . and V c from the origin has the constant value which a wave would arrive at E at this point for greater times. that . instead L = G == a o. V can be evaluated simply. . and in fact turns out. R where =G= p V = -e-vl6.1). (30. (30.

for any applied voltage.6) V =/(>>-. . For the distortionless line this 17 . . and subsequently follows that at x o with a time lag of x/c. (30.-W* .6) we have this In the case of the distortionless becomes line. again using (21.1). In the next section the application to problems on found above will be studied. we apply is a sinusoidal voltage E sin The only modification that in place of (30. the end x / maintained at constant voltage E for t = < = > . /(). finite 31.16) and. and a reduction in = magnitude by the factor lines of the solutions e~i> a l c . q (p + p)/c.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS voltage 107 cot. (30. (30.-) c/ \ c / . and Still V= more Ee-p*>/ sin to(t \ . =^)e-(i'+p)/c (30.17) This may be interpreted by the statement that the voltage at x is zero up to time x/c. The end * o. The line travelling wave solutions for the finite transmission As an example of the method we consider the problem of the finite transmission line o x <l. E at x o. and current and charge. with zero initial o is to be earthed.14) generally.15) becomes ) . we have in place of (30.

.6) denned by (29. for which. .6) so that V is a complicated One method of proceeding is suggested function of p. We write which ponentials and (31.5) . (3 conditions are V = E. ^1 . by the device of expanding in a series of negative exwas used in 21. (31.6) in a form involving negative exponentials. t>o. o<x<L /. "^ In the special case of the lossless p/c.2) and (31.8) .1) which satisfies (31. .7) becomes q = line. This expand gives E J T? _ e-e(z-*)( I ' - _ g-2a)(i -j- (29.IO8 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM ATI ON this case subsidiary equation (29-5) becomes in The ^_ The boundary The 2 ? V= o. t>o. (31. ' by = E Jr e -V(l-x)lc e -j>(l+as)/c _|_ e -D(3Z-aO/o _ "\ ^ < I. ( .3) are The solution of (31. is y= Here q is E m ' p sinh g* sinh ql ' . * * = = o.8).4) and (31. Example 6. ' . the denominator by the binomial theorem. ( transforms of (31. V = o.

+ = FIG. the end x being left = insulated. for a finite line can be expressed in As a second example. writing c = (29. it is seen 5 which that the terms of this are all of the form (i/p)efor the . using (21. we consider a lossless line of length /. Returning to the general expression (31.6) in the corresponding problem for this case is semi-infinite line.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS And.7). (/ from the end x = x)/c. it has the value zero. 29. the solution terms of it. initially o the end x t = = charged to o is constant voltage E. at which a would reach the E up point x.appeared in (30. Thus. . and so on.5) becomes. The voltage then has the constant value a wave travelling from the to the time (I x)/c.1) 109 The graph of the function (31. At I earthed. twice reflected wave. 29.9) The voltage at x is zero up to time wave travelling direct is shown I in Fig. In this case the subsidiary equation (LC)~*. at which x o would end the and from x I reflected back end From this time up to the time of arrival of a arrive. if the solution . known.

7) that 1 'f. a square wave of amplitude E-\/(C/L) and period . .12) .:. _Ef = = j>V p {l - e-pa>/C Thu. I a = o. ^j-Hfi-^E \ c) k c . =L .r 3 ) is v The solution p of (31. (31-") (31. E (3I. Lpdx ' ' . .1 ?) that is.13) (31.10) which satisfies (31. (3 . Also by (31.15) The most At this point interesting quantity is the current at = o. 1 2) ' ' cos g-J"/c[ I i. u . x = o. .110 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION which has to be solved with ?=o. Also it follows from (29.11) and (3 1.

Q y. we have x = o...5) becomes where c = = (LC)~*. for zero initial conI ditions in the impedance % Q is that a lossless line of length / o it is charged to voltage E. the = ^.. The finite with terminal impedances I. ..5) we know from (29. and thus (32. I = 1.2) is . (32. (32. At x I /. if voltage v at is applied through the line ZQ to impedance x o = .4) and at x o the boundary condition (32. the line is and the is z terminated by impedance z^ I V Then.7) that 1=-^^. . . where the voltage Suppose that at x line III = current is I r. o. . suppose initially = = (29.- (32-6) becomes = 0. In this case the*subsidiary equation is As an example. the end discharged through a resistance R at x x I being insulated. the subsidiary equation for the impedance z^ namely y Al^ Similarly.* . .5) .. writing V for the voltage at o of the line and the point x the boundary condition at * == IGl 3 " = for the current there.. .PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 32. R Also = -?. for zero initial boundary condition at x is just conditions in this impedance. and that at t o.

112

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION
general solution of (32.3) which satisfies (32.4)
is

The

V = ? + A cosh p(l-x)lc.
Substituting this in (32:7) gives

.

(32.8)

.R A=4
Lc
Using

.

.

sinh

pi

A pi -+A cosh-ic c
,

,

H-

E T
p

=

o.

this value of

A

in (32.8),

we

find

p
The
current
is

R

sinh (p//c)

+ Lc cosh (p//

obtained from (32.6) which gives

jp{R sinh (pile)

+R

'

x

cosl

U

/

'

where

x V(L/C). For shortness we evaluate o. In this case, expressing (3 2 only the current at x I in negative exponentials, and writing a=(Ri

R =

Lc =

=

^)

we

find

E(r
.

-*

+ RO)(I
E
(a

Therefore

E

.

so that the current has a series of constant values, diminishRx -\/(L/C), (the charactering in magnitude. If R istic impedance), there is a E/aR single pulse of current for time zljc, and zero current subsequently.

=

=

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

113

Clearly any terminal impedances can be discussed in the same way, but since the coefficients of the later exare usually rather complicated functions of p, ponentials the method is most suitable for use when the solution is needed for fairly small values of the time.

33. The expansion formula for finite lines In chapters I and II the transforms of the solutions of problems on ordinary differential equations were usually found to be of the form
<p(p)

=

...
,

r^^.i)

g(p] were polynomials in p. The solution was found from (j>(p] by expressing (33.1) in partial ff>(f) or fractions, by the equivalent technique of Theorem II, for example, by the result (2.8) that if a^ . ., n are the zeros ofg(p), and these are all different, then

where f(p) and

finite lines in this chapter, rather complicated transforms have appeared. The new feature of these is the occurrence of quotients of hyperbolic functions of q. For example, the expression

In the problems on

more

'

pcohpl/c
in (31.14). Since cosh % represented by the infinite products *

(33-3)

appeared

and sinh % can be

>

(33-4)

;nb)
*
Carslaw, Plane Trigonometry, edn.
3,

>

(33-5)

168.

8

a quotient of hyperbolic functions such as (33.3) be regarded as being of the type

may

still

C33-)
except that nov?f(p) and g(p) may have an infinite number Then of factors, instead of a finite number as in (33.1). if a lt a 2 are the zeros of g(p), and if these are all exbe can it is to that assume different, (33.2) plausible tended to this case that is, if $(p) is given by (33.6),
, .
.

.

:

-

'

'

(33 ' 7)

to the case in which 2 (33.7) Just as in applies only if it has, the corresponding g(p) has no repeated zeros extensions (2.19) or (2.20) must be used. The result (33.7) will be referred to as the expansion
;

formula

;

it

has not been proved, and

is

merely suggested

as a possible extension to the case of an infinite number of zeros, of the result (2.8) which was proved for the case of a finite number of zeros. - That is precisely the approach which was, used by Heaviside. The justification for the

use of (33.7)

method

is as follows the rigorous pure mathematical of finding </)(t) from (33.6) consists of the application of the inversion theorem (25.2), followed by contour integration and a certain amount of pure mathematical
:

discussion, and, in the case of finite lines,* the final step in procedure is equivalent to the use of (33.7). Thus it may be taken that there is a solid theoretical foundation for results on finite lines (or on wave motion, or conduction
this

of heat, in a finite region) obtained by the use of (33.7) this remark does not apply to semi-infinite lines,^ for example (33.7) must not be applied to (30.6).
J

*

Any

of Table
acteristic

applied voltages must be combinations of the functions I, and the lines must not be terminated by their char-

impedance.

t Or to lines terminated by their characteristic impedance in .this case the transforms encountered are of the same type as those for semi-infinite lines.

10) ** ' has one of the values f d ( cosh pl\~\ -5.4) and (33.3). -y aZ . since cosh (pl/c] (33. l\ V CJ = cos (zn 4v ! - iW = o. we apply it to find (j)(t) from (33. . / 2 To apply (33.. but.(p ) (zn rf =- i>'77 (zn smh. iz) * (33. } n==0> I( 2.i . (33. d f* P smh ^P l \ \. (33.1 \P l (p cosh )= cosh c c c cJ dpY ' . from the point of view of the subsequent = calculation. (33.8). cosh C --~We 21 . First the zeros of the denominator must be found..5) can be used to show the actual factors of numerator and denominator this is often useful in cases where a factor can be cancelled between them. pi c(zn 4.7) to (33..4).7) gives from (33. clearly = =^= costu \.9) ^' VJJ \ Thus __(*cosh UA o Also. we find from (33. . (33:8) since. o the following alternative method is a zero. and the others are is better : We (in + ___ i .. . or where some exceptional : factor arises. \_dp\ ^/Jj)=(2n+l)Mro/2Z 2 -+ 2 i)zV Using these results.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS As a first 115 example of the use of (33.P l 4. This could be done by putting * z plfc in (33.9) = cjj f=0 when p H = i. . for these values of p.7).3) Conjugate I V r L COS 2 jc - cos (2M+ L I)TTC< .3) -j- we need . (33.

was given in (31. connection between this and (33. and if this function is expressed as a Fourier series. which was defined G). it in fact involves only 2 and thus is a function of q p which does not involve square roots.15). the solution (31. the result is (33. . As another example of the application of (33.15) is a periodic function of t' with period 4//c. . . The same result holds for all transforms which arise in on finite problems .14).14) will be studied in Example 3 special cases are given in Examples i and 2. . t33 . namely . appears to be a function of q (which is the square root of a function of p). It follows that lines.14). . has arisen from the zero p = o of the Using this result in (31. ' ' (33 I4) in considering various forms (29. expressed in terms of The successively reflected waves.7) we deterfor the first problem of mine 3 1 from its transform V (31. as given in (33. the infinite product (33.6). ^ although V.5) for sinh % in (33. (33-15) The first point to notice that if we use get .13) is of course that at A any point x.13). E gl + Vl we 'g V . The below .Il6 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION i where the term denominator.14) gives 00 .6) of g-. . (33 I3) solution of the same problem. general case of (33. - . by ? 2 = (Lp + R)(Q> + is.

LC n cosh i.. . factor. The simplest way to see what happens in such a case.] p does not vanish when and..17) zero of the denominator p = o.18) . . ni.17). and the others are . == C/Jp=iTaa>ll n imT. the numerator of o. (33. .. The '" lossless " line. where In this case (33. since sinh fimrc < {I = . + (pWI^} + .19) o of the denominator is clearly exceptional since the numerator of (33.17) also vanishes for this value. iwtc // |_0p\ = (} = . g = pjc. E sinh pxlc . in this form. p=inirc[l. . (33. is to use the series for sinh z and cosh z. = .PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS c 117 = EXAMPLE (LC)-i i. = V . namely zero j> The = =s +-J+TJ + %3 z5 -. and the denominator has only a single zero there. . 1} V c) t sm mr = o.14) becomes V= . ctor.21 ) in (33.20).. Using (33. -. p One sinh pi c is . ^ Cjj. 2. .. (33-20) (33. and to evaluate the corresponding term in the expansion formula. (33. . . (33. Also AI -j- p sinh T. 2.17) and cancel any becomes common .

the denominator of has a multiple zero. q i /RC.18). one of the equivalent type (2. V any common factors EXAMPLE K 2.19) for the zeros get finally from UJ (33.20). or the products (33. and always advisable the tactor.24). (33-24) p = The minor which was encountered above it is at o arises in many to see precisely what happens at such a point by substituting the series (33. The submarine cable.-: -- __ sn difficulty . and cancelling any common In calculating the contribution from such a point. As in p= o p*mhlV(PlK)' is which .21). this gives which is the first term of (33.4). and (33. Note also that if. hyperbolic functions.20) must be used for this zero.7) and (2.8). after cancelling as in (33. In the problem above. e nxo __ Conjugatej .20 .14) becomes = (p/ic)*. instead of using a term of the a type [f(ar ]e ^/g'(ary\ which occurred in (33. namely could have been used. where ' ' '' an exceptional value at Example both numerator and denominator vanish. In this case (33. (33.10).5) for problems.17) and the expansion F = " V F* . a term of the type (2. (33.22).7) p o. Usin we find i.n8 Using (33. this result for we formula (33.

14) with q given by o is a zero of the denominator.. a *w| (33-30) EXAMPLE (33. . (33. (33-3 2 ) (Lp + R)(Cp + G) + f- = o.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS and The other zeros of the denominator of (33.39) -KnWIP Thus we have from (33. 2. sinh Z(RG)i (33-30 Jcp=Q other zeros of the denominator are found from the o and these are q values of q which make sinh ql zero The = need not be considered. (33-28) sinh ^- ) = db sinh imr o.26) are p since = . . Also \~ . n = i.32) gives (33.KM// l( a .. The zero q = = 9 -j- //. . = i. n = i.27) and v= +f5y 3.16). using (33. 2 .. 3 . (33-33) .7).15). .15) of q. and r^-(psinh?oT \_dp = [sinh gZ]j.39) (33. a . =o = . . (33. since a factor and denominator in q has cancelled between numerator Using the value (33. The Here p = general case of (33. .26) and (33.

from P (33. 6) 2 ) -a 2 ]*. and these Si must be treated separately.2 (33-35) The where of roots of this are vn = Z -Pivn [(wW/Z a2 .j " where tan Sn = p/vn . c Using the notation = (LC)-*. . n = \lp- cosh L'dp ql tf J. cos P4 * W!s Using _T .7) . we have ' .130 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION is This a quadratic ing to each value of which gives two values of p correspondn it could also have been deduced . a = (R/aL) . (33-39) . .16). .(G/aC). = (R/aL) + (G/aC).35) will have real negative roots for some low values of n.38) (33. (33-3?) and we suppose for simplicity n. =o. As usual we need -j-(p sinh ql Lfy *J P =.P +.3 . n 1. (33-34) (33-33) becomes p 2 + 2pp + p 2 o- 2 + ^ . V = Esinh*(RG)* ^ -n-Ec 2 x _ sinh ' (33. that is (TTC[I) > if this that vn is feal for all values is not the case (33. (33-. by (33. . . -\ -Z p-pt sinh/(RG)i Conj.31). finally 2 . .

(33. but the solution in terms of multiply reflected waves gives the actual wave form of the disturbance with a simple physical interpretaion. For lines with terminal impedances. These are quite different in form to those in 31. the solution in . (33. (ii) and thus is preferable. From the results (33. that is.39) it appears that the expansion formula gives the solution as an infinite series. line zoith terminal = = . suppose length /. while the solution obtained by the expansion formula (discussed in 34) is available for all values of the it is often difficult to determine the zeros of time. whose terms are products of trigonometric terms in x and exponential or trigonometric t. for not too large values of the time. formula lossless line.13). reflected though the denominator of 34. its transform. both methods are available. the only new feature being that the transforms have more to complicated denominators whose zeros may be difficult find. As a specific example we consider a lossless line of o a at t that and at x insulated I. For more general lines the solution by the expansion is very little more complicated than that for the while the solutions in terms.24). the position as seen from the specific problem. to the finite The application of the expansion formula impedances.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS The examples above seem finite 121 sufficient indication of the method of applying the expansion formula to problems on lines. results of the examples worked out above is as follows For the lossless and distcfrtionless lines with simple (i) terminations.30). Each type of solution has its own advantages. 32 in terms of multiply reflected waves. of multiply waves involve much more complicated functions (not given here). so that it is terms in obtained hard to give any general indication of which method better to use preferably both should be tried in : it is any However. Problems of this type are treated precisely as in 33.(iii) terms of multiply reflected waves is useful in general only for the first few waves. (33.

charged to voltage E. Substituting this in (34.7) / n\ . i dV ^L T <n +. i) (34. . V = A cosh [p(l . = (34-1) /I A >2 -9^ \34 -J dx If = O. . . cos a = p //C /in *-C . and (34. where is (34. _E p' . when x = o.JLi_ ? c oP that * is..8) the ratio of the terminal capacity C to the capacity of . (34.X V E . n are the positive roots of sin a + ka. . . = .% -T-L/V^np Q. ' X = 7 ' ' ' * C is the point o ot the line.4) \<J~ TV boundary condition to be satisfied at * ihe solution of is (34. is discharged The subsidiary equation for the line writing c = (LC)-*.2) A Thus (L(f^ ' V= The 1^2 Cc cosh j>(/ sinn (pi/c) x)/c + (pC n= /Cc) cosh (pljc)' zeros of the denominator of (34. i.6) ^ocn //.122 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION . o. .4) gives (34.1) which satisfies This is the = o. is. using (29. condenser of capacity C into the line at x o. <*</.x)/c)].7). the subsidiary equation' for the condenser ^ at V and I are the voltage and current _. ' ( ^34'S. o. z .5) P= where the arep .

Also .-) .f' j shown and these values can be improved by interpolation.5) by the expansion formula (33.8). ** To find V we need from (34. 31. = tan a ka.these line. (34.9) given by (34. 31.7).y^ FIG. Approximate values of be found from the intersections of the curves the whole roots can and as y y in Fig. = where k is (l/c)[k + i Hh A: 2 a] cos a. (34. .

and g being written for our t. i>. Many results for the general case (35.9) Using and (34. L o. McLachlan and Humbert. calcul See 2. for the submarine cable case. The simplest and most important results follow from the known definite integral f V&*u3-<a*/4w) fa = ?Le.2) are given in their Nos. It is were found thus very important to know the functions which correspond to transforms of these types. p. or a table of transforms. theorem.5 onwards. Here we consider only the submarine cable case. either the inversion . earlier. those stated for g > o. j Gibson. 8-584. Treatise on the Calculus. edn. (35. Further discussion of semi-infinite lines In 30 the transforms of the solutions of problems semi-infinite lines were found to contain the factor . */{(Lp + R)(Cj> + G)}. f Namely. must be used. 1941).) where and lines in q = 31. most of the results f can be read as Laplace transforms. 470. which exalso to linear flow of heat. and. on .124 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION (34. and give an corresponds tension of our table of transforms which will cover a . J (35. (35-3) also symbolique JO *Bell System Technical Monograph. . Perhaps the most useful collection of transforms is given in Campbell ' and Foster x* " Fourier Integrals for Practical Applications in the relevant part of which. In the case of the lossless and distortionless lines these can be found by the use of Theorem VI in all other cases. 860.10). . . Formulaire pour (Gauthier-Villars.2) finite for 32 the travelling wave solutions to involve similar factors. Part 8.a 20 le . p being our p. =G= number of problems of this type. the expansion formula gives cos 35.

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS where a and b are positive. IX.12)^0 a rather more elaborate discussion (35. Putting = \/t in this.10) by differentiating it may (or alternatively of the * same type.4) with respect to the parameter from a to oo.14) may be proved by (35. gives for the error function (numerical values of erf x are given in most books of tables) (35. together with some others which are useful in more complicated transforms can be deduced from these problems. since integral sign with respect to a parameter are as (35. For example (35. gives stituting M . just as (35. 125 bz = p. IV. It must always be understood that the use of these processes needs justification.11). The .9) by Theorem IV.9) follows from with respect to the parameter a be derived independently from Also (35. (3S-3) by putting from (35.9) to (35. * Integrating (35. . but this is usually readily supplied for integrals of the types considered here. Other Theorems' I. The results (35.8) are given.11) may be deduced u t~*). they often allow a chain of transforms (such or (35. also by differentiating or by to a parameter. III.8) was integrating with respect deduced from (354).5) becomes -e -ai>* (35 8) - In Table 2 the results (354) and (35. under the processes of differentiating or integrating most useful.12) to (35-14)) to be deduced from a single transform. and sub- *-W^ = j-'* (354) a.

16) exists and this gives the result (35. the Laplace transform of t restricted to be a positive integer as in where v is not Table I.15). must be .13) (35. This is P TABLE 2 Jo In this Table a and b are positive or zero y(P). as it should be. by P(v Its + i) . (35.10) agrees with (35. is denoted Numerical most books of tables. mentioned. (35-9) erfc (Jflfi) -^ + e al>+W erfc _)_ .I4) P(b . values of the most are given in important properties are F function the integral in (35. (35.15).126 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION v Finally. y(t). so that the special case a = o of (35.17) a special case of (35.5) i) !. if n is a positive integer. (35-15) If v> i. and Also r(ri) = (n is so that (1.15)- .

22) becomes in this case (35 24) ' and. = i R dV = EC* dx (Rp)* . . from (30. I is to be found from . .19) (35. Constant voltage initial E conditions. (35.10).6) with = .11) that Using (29. o at applied at x Here. . from (35.22) v Thus. fac. . Then follows from (35.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 127 As examples of the use of Table 2 we consider the following problems on the semi-infinite submarine cable. . ' ' ' (35 2S) ' EXAMPLE voltage is 2. The '. (35. .20). .27) .1 g-^WK)* . If we had only required the current I at x =^o.26) = Ae-V(*M. . except that the - = fj_V K ax* V o. *>o. which remains finite as x -> oo is solution of (35. = o with zero L = G = o.7). T T the current . As in an impedance * applied to the line through for the line is 30.18).15) and (35. . V=je-*(Pl"* where K it (35. the subsidiary equation The problem of Example i. t EXAMPLE i.26) where K is denned in (35.20) = i/RC. from (35. (35.

= o If . The constant A is found from the boundary condition T E **l rr' =p-~> JVK " x = - That is. Voltage E + = > T7"D r*/ Bfc[ (* R ^7R - **\ i / *j +ajH (i - **\ * .13) gives v= 1 (35-3 ) For other values of # the expression i/feop^ R*) /n (35..7). Thus If V= is ^ R. . it e-V(p/) . Rj = V(L/C). THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION by (29. 1.14) that r V = E erfc where k Again. + EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER IV sistance sin (<at o through a rea) is applied at t o.29) must be expressed in partial fractions whose denominators are linear in^>*. .. the end x = / o at the end x being insulated. (35.29) # a resistance. P. follows from (35. 2. Constant voltage E is applied at t of a lossless line of length /.128 Also. with zero initial RQ to a semi-infinite lossless line x Show that the voltage in the line is current and charge. (35. -^ Ee**+* a|rf erfcf ^ -f k-\/(i<f) \ = if (35-30) # is a condenser of capacity C . J where c = (LC)~*.

is o through an inductive a lossless line of length Z. A lossless is and for t > line of length Z has zero initial current and charge. and the portion I < x < o is uncharged. is insulated.10)) The end x = o I has zero initial current and charge. show that the voltage at any point is = E cos [tu(Z x)jc] sin <of 8E<0/C ^2. show that the voltage at any point is where 5. _ (zn . applied at o t to the end x o'f I being insulated. c A of length . the portion o < x < a is charged to voltage E. o /. show that the voltage any point of the line is ~ (zn + z)l - At I to x = a. and a = (R + RJLp. A lossless transmission line extends from x the end x a being insulated. and K= i/RC in (29. t o there is no current in the line. submarine cable (L = G = o. insulated at x Voltage E sin wt is applied at x o. and the end / being earthed. = L R . 3.PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS the at initial I2Q current and charge are zero. and there being zero Show that the current at w = o . Rt = (L/C)*. Show that the current at x == I at time t is = zn(l + a} + -] (2tt + i)(Z + a) + a L where 4. c (LC)~*. Constant voltage G E is resistance the end x and charge. and a constant voltage E is applied at x = I. 7T 6. initial current aERi = (LC)-i.

_ submarine cable of length has the end x = I earthed.13 tor THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION ' 3nd w is any not to be e 1 ual to Z (2 . 7- A and constant voltage E is ditions bhow. that the current at . using the method of x o is . o with zero initial conapplied at x = 31.

90 Electrical circuits with Ladder network. 43 42 Amplifier circuits.INDEX Algebraic equations behaviour of roots : Error function. 27. 72 Difference equations. 7 operational method. 87 shifting theorem. vibrations of. 16. 20. subsidiary equations for. LAPLACE transforms Tables of. 32 Electric ^35. Bridge networks. 125 of. 93 Functions of a complex variable. 3. 93 Circuit breaker. 88 Boundary value problems. 104 KIRCHOFF'S Laws. criterion for. 94 FOURIER-MELLIN Theorem. 3 1 Conduction of heat. 82 unit function. 126 13 of the 8 function. 91 Integral transforms. 95 connection with LAPLACE Behaviour of solutions for large or small values of the time. Inversion theorem. 73 LERCH'S Theorem. submarine cable. 93 93 Generalized impedance. 43 Differential equations ordinary linear with constant Impulsive function. 28. 88. Lossless line. 113 travelling wave solutions. 104 III. 67 Mechanical systems. i : constants : examples on. 14. theorems on. 55 HURWITZ'S solution of.' 45 notations for. 48 Expansion formula. 104 HEAVISIDE : Deflection of beams. 101 line with terminal impedances. 22. 93 : expansion theorem. 28 18 Distortionless line. 71 coefficients. : 104. 35. 102 simultaneous ordinary linear. uses of. 124 Electric transmission line differential equations. 7. 20 series expansion. 90. i partial. 82. 33 DUHAMEL'S Theorem. 52 FOURIER transforms. 57 HURWITZ'S criterion. : 15. 56 lumped LAPLACE transformation definition. 86 Delta (8) function. 95 FOURIER'S Integral Theorem. 38 BROMWICH. 34 CARSON'S integral equation. 121 Mechanical analogies. 93 4. 113 Filter circuits. 121 series solutions. vi. 61 . 21 transforms. 105 types of solution.

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