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Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012

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A Compact Split Ring Resonator Loaded Antenna


R. Pandeeswari1 , Singaravelu Raghavan1 , and Keloth Ramesh2
1

Electronics and Communication Department, National Institute of Technology, Trichy, India 2 National Institute of Technology, Trichy, India

Abstract In recent years, there has been a growing interest for the use of metamaterials in the
antenna design. Antenna researchers tried to utilize the metamaterial properties to the maximum extend. It has been proved that metamaterials are a good candidate for the enhancement of antenna performance over the past years. Metamaterial properties are particularly used for miniaturization of the antenna. In this paper, a compact split ring resonator loaded antenna is presented. The proposed structure is designed on an FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 2.4 with thickness 1.6 mm and consists of small patch and circular SRR. The antenna resonates at 15.5 GHz without SRR. After loading by SRR resonant frequency is reduced to 10.35 GHz. The reduction in resonant frequency is 33.22%. The distance between the patch and SRR is very important in determining the resonant frequency. Coaxial feeding is used for the excitation of the antenna. Simulation tool based on the method of moment (MOM)-Zeland IE3d 12.0 has been used to analyze and optimize the antenna. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as return loss, VSWR, gain, radiation pattern are obtained and all meets the acceptable antenna standard. 1. INTRODUCTION

Metamaterials are articial materials were introduced by Russian scientist Vesalago in the year 1960 [1]. In contrast to conventional material, left handed metamaterial is designed to exhibit negative permeability and negative permittivity in the microwave frequency range of interest. SRR was proposed by Pendry et al., is designed to exhibit negative permeability [2] and thin wire structure is used to exhibit negative permittivity. Smith et al. combined SRR and thin wire structure to form a double negative metamaterial [3]. In DNG material, the wave vector, electric eld intensity and magnetic eld intensity form a left handed triad [4]. Reversal of snells law, Doppler eect, Cheronkov radiation due to anomalous properties of metamaterial [5]. There are variety of SRR structures have been reported in literature like square, circular, triangular, omega, labyrinth resonator. Metamaterials are used for optical and microwave applications such as lters, couplers, lenses, and switches etc.. Articial metamaterial structures are also used in the antenna design to enhance the antenna performance. DNG material was used to improve the power radiated by antenna [6]. It was observed that gain of the antenna was improved by placing metamaterial slab (superstrate) above the patch. Metamaterial as superstrate was used for gain improvement [7] and as substrate was used for antenna miniaturization [8]. This was also proved that metamaterial structure itself act as a radiating element. Thin sub wavelength cavity resonator was formed by combining DPS (Double positive) material with DNG material (Double Negative) material, in which phase compensation property of DNG material was used [9]. Sub wavelength Rectangular and circular patch antenna was proposed by Andrea Alu et al., in which part of the substrate was lled with metamaterial and remaining part was lled with DPS material [10]. Miniaturized annular patch resonator was developed by partial loading of metamaterial [11]. In this paper, SRR is placed nearby patch and characteristics have been studied with SRR and without SRR.
2. ANTENNA STRUCTURE

The proposed antenna was designed on low cost FR4 substrate with relative permittivity 4.4 and with thickness 1.6 mm. Antenna structure consists of rectangular patch and SRR . Antenna performance is observed without SRR and with SRR. The length and width of the rectangular patch is 0.5 mm and 5 mm. Coaxial feed is used for the excitation of the antenna. Coaxial feed is given at x = .25 mm and y = 4.2 mm. Antenna resonates at the frequency of 15.5 GHz without SRR. The antenna structure without SRR and its return loss is shown in Fig. 1 & Fig. 2 respectively.
3. PERFORMANCE OF THE ANTENNA WITH SRR

Then SRR is placed nearby the patch. SRR is excited by the rectangular patch. SRR resonant frequency must be less than the patch resonant frequency. The antenna structure with SRR and

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PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012

Figure 1: Antenna structure from IE3d tool.

Figure 2: Return loss characteristics of antenna without SRR.

Figure 3: Antenna structure with SRR IE3d tool.

Figure 4: Return loss of antenna with SRR.

Figure 5: VSWR curve of the antenna.

Figure 6: Gain curve of the antenna.

its return loss curve is shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 respectively. The gap between patch and SRR is 0.25 mm. The length and width of the ground plane is L = 5.85 mm and W = 7 mm. Coaxial feed was given at x = 0.25 mm and y = 2.2 mm for the composite structure. The antenna structure with SRR and return loss curve is shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 respectively. The composite structure resonates at the frequency of 10.35 GHz and return loss at the resonant frequency is 27 dB. VSWR is less than 2 over the entire bandwidth and is shown in Fig. 5. The gain of the antenna is 3 dBi at the resonant frequency and is shown in Fig. 6. Simulated radiation patterns of antenna in E -plane and H -plane are shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 respectively. E -eld pattern and Azimuthal pattern is observed at 10.375 GHz and is shown in Fig. 7 & Fig. 8 respectively. The gap between patch and SRR is very important. By changing gap resonant frequency of the antenna can be varied. The antenna resonates at 15.5 GHz without SRR and 10.35 GHz with SRR.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012

39

Figure 7: Radiation pattern in the E -plane at 10.375 GHz.

Figure 8: Radiation pattern in the H -plane at 10.375 GHz.

Figure 9: SRR structure from IE3d simulation tool.

Figure 10: Transmission and reection coecient of SRR.

The reduction in resonant frequency is calculated by using the following. reduction in resonant frequency %s Resonant frequency without SRR Resonant frequency with SRR = 100 Resonant frequency without SRR The reduction in resonant frequency is 33.33%.
4. SRR CHARACTERISTICS

SRR is designed on an FR4 substrate. SRR structure is used to exhibit negative permeability. Coaxial feed is given to both inner and outer rings of SRR. Metamaterial characteristics have been veried by transmission and reection coecient of SRR. SRR structure also satises homogeneous condition. Average cell size p of SRR must be less than g /4. SRR structure resonates at the frequency of 8.6 GHz. The radius of the inner ring is 2.1 mm and outerring is 2.5 mm. The gap between the inner ring and outer ring is 0.2 mm. Coaxial feed is given at x = 3.425 mm, y = 6.15 mm for the outer ring and at x = 3.25, y = 1.75 for the inner ring.
5. CONCLUSIONS

A compact SRR loaded antenna is presented and resonates at 15.5 GHz without SRR and at 10.35 GHz with SRR. Resonant frequency of the antenna can be designed to desired frequency by changing the gap between patch and SRR and by changing the no. of rings of SRR.

40 REFERENCES

PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012

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