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+ infinitive I/we shall also possible will be… ing EXAMPLE It will rain tomorrow This time tomorrow I will be lying on the beach I will have finished the repairs by this night In June I will have been working here for 10 years It always rains in November I can’t talk to you: I am working I have worked with children before, so I know what to expect It has been raining all day I worked all last weekend I saw John yesterday I saw John when I was coming out of the supermarket I could not get in because I had lost my keys I was tired because I had been working all day TYPICAL USE Information about the future Continuing situation at a particular future time Completion by a particular future time Continuity up to a particular future time ‘general’ time: permanent situation Actions continuing at the moment of speaking Past action with some present connection Continuation up to the present Past events
Future perfect Future perfect progressive
will have + past participle will have been …ing
Simple present Present progressive Present perfect
infinitive am/are/is …ing have/has + past participle have/has been… ing root verb + (e)d
Present perfect progressive Simple past
Action continuing at a particular past time Action before a particular past time Continuation up to a particular past times
had + past participle
Past perfect progressive
PASSIVE VERBS FORMS NAME Simple future Future perfect Simple present Present progressive Present perfect Simple past Past progressive Past perfect CONSTRUCTION will be + pp will have been + pp am/are/is + pp am/are/is being + pp have/has been + pp was/were + pp was/were being + pp had been + pp EXAMPLE You’ll be told soon enough Everything will have been done by Monday French is spoken here Excuse the mess: the house is being painted Has Mary been told? I was not invited, but I went I felt as if I was being watched I knew why they had been chosen
By MICHAEL |SWAN
the actor possessives and demonstratives This is my uncle (NOT this is the my uncle) Is that Mary’s toys? (NOT Is that the Mary’s toys?) proper nouns (names) Mary lives in Spain (NOT The Mary lives in the Spain) My name is James Bond.three cats a pan. the government I haven’t seen the sun for days People used to think the earth was flat superlatives He is the smartest student in the class Can I have the next pancake? the meaning ‘the well-known’ She married Richard Burton. the universe the future. the moon.the sun. not the James Bond? (indicates ‘the well-known) things in general Books are cheap (NOT The books are cheap) 65. four weathers) a/an with singular countable nouns a secretary an office (BUT NOT a salt OR an offices) uses of a/an -one person or thing (Andy lives in an old cabin) -any one member of a class (A doctor must like people) = any doctor -classifying and defining (She is a doctor) -descriptions (That was a lovely trip) By MICHAEL |SWAN . two wools) weather (BUT NOT a weather. (the listener knows which: the usual one) -Is there a post office near hear? (any post office) the = ‘the only one(s) around’ eg . the earth.two pans wool (BUT NOT a wool.more about a/an countable and uncountable nouns a cat. the world. –What.Practical English Usage Faster Reference ARTICLES 64 –more about the the = ‘you know which one(s)’ Compare: -I’m going to the post office.
a piece of baggage. an accommodation. a permission. we can sometimes use some or any -we met some nice French girls on holidays the We use the when we want to say ‘You and I both know which one I mean’ Compare: -I’m working with children (the hearer doesn’t know which ones) -How are the children? (the hearer’s children) 67. some and any Instead of no articles. an information etc. a progress. a research.Practical English Usage Faster Reference when a/an cannot be left out -in negative expressions (Lend me your pen. a work. possessives Compare: It’s is a good car It’s good (NOT It’s a good) He is a friend of yours (NOT He is a your friend) a/an and the We use the when we want to say ‘You and I both know which one I mean’ Compare: -She lives in a big house (The hearer doesn’t know which one) -She lives in the big house over there (The hearer knows which one) a and an: the difference 66. –I haven’t got a pen) -after prepositions (You mustn’t go out without a coat) -after fraction (three quarters of a pound) when a/an is not used: adjective alone.no article with plural and uncountable nouns a/an not used (in plurals and uncountable nouns) confusing nouns eg.the difference between some/any and no article use with uncountable and plural nouns Both of them can often be used with some/ any or no article We need (some) cheese I didn’t buy (any) eggs By MICHAEL |SWAN .
the speaker doesn’t say how many) -I like roses (No idea of number) 68.the (difficult cases) groups: nurses or the nurses. limited number of members. Instead.Practical English Usage Faster Reference some/any or no article? Some/any – when we are talking about limited but rather indefinite numbers or quantities No article. we use no article -I’m studying the life of Beethoven (one particular life) Life is complicated (NOT The life …) generalisations with singular countable nouns Sometimes. (NOT A tiger is in danger of becoming extinct. we talk about things in general by using the with a singular countable nouns -Schools should concentrate more on the child and less on exams This is common with the names of scientific instruments and inventions. the Impressionists -the is used if we are talking about a ‘closed’ group or class with a relatively definite.when we are thinking unlimited numbers/ quantities. using a/an (meaning any) with a singular countable nouns -A baby deer can stand as soon as it’s born We cannot use a/an in this way when we are generalising about all of the members of a group together -The tiger is in danger of becoming extinct. and musical instruments -Life will be quieter without the telephone We can also generalise by talking about one example of a class. The sentence is about the whole tiger. indefinite group) The Impressionists (a particular artistic movement) By MICHAEL |SWAN . not about individuals) 69. railways or the railways -Generalising about members of a group. or not thinking about numbers quantities at all Compare: -We have planted some roses in the garden. (A limited number. Compare: -French painters (a large.talking in general the does not mean ‘all’ We do not use the with uncountable or plural nouns to talks about things in general.no article -Talking about the group as a whole – the (as if it was a well-known unit) Compare: -Nurses mostly work very hard -Stars vary greatly in size The nurses have never gone on strike The stars are really bright tonight Spanish painters.
defining phrase. at the hairdresser In this case. (who may have more than one son) -I usually sit at the side in church -He is the wrong man for me 70. we are going to study the metals in detail 1970s music.special rules and exceptions Common expressions without articles Some countable nouns are treated as uncountables Examples are: -to/at/in/from school/ university/ college -to/at/in/into/from church to/in/into/out of bed/prison/hospital -by radio/phone/mail/letter -by day at night With place nouns.Practical English Usage Faster Reference Specialists are likely to use the for groups or classes that they study or know about. he sat at the side We sometimes use the even it is not exactly clear which of several particular persons or things we are talking about -John Perkins is the son of a rich banker. we use no article The is used when the noun is following by a limiting. we use the to suggest that taking a bus is a common experience that we all share She kicked him on the knee. Compare: -Metals are mostly shiny -Next class. but I opt for the mountains -I love listening to the wind -British people talk about the weather a lot On the bus. for example. does not mean ‘one bus that you know about’. the bus. expression with/without articles may have different meanings: Compare: -I met her at college (when we were student) I’ll meet you at the college (The college is just a meeting place) -Jane is in hospital (as a patient) I left my coat in the hospital when I was visiting Jane By MICHAEL |SWAN . the sea Referring to our physical environment – the world around us and its climate -My wife likes the seaside. the music of the 1960s (as known as ‘half-general’) In these half-general expressions. Compare: -1980s music -African butterflies The music of the 1980s the butterflies of Africa Physical environment: the town.
We often leave out the between all and a number -All (the) three brothers were arrested. we use spring or the spring. all night. We usually leave out the after all in all day. (NOT …. About particular springs. type of and so on -What kind of (the)a person is she? Have you got a cheaper sort of radio? Amount and number The is dropped after the amount/number of -I was surprised at the amount of money collected. all week. we are are more likely to use the By MICHAEL |SWAN . all year.Practical English Usage Faster Reference Double expressions -with knife and fork -from top to bottom inch by inch arm in arm day after day husband and wife Possessive’s The coat that belongs to John= John’s coat (NOT John’s the coat) The economic problems of America= America’s economic problem (NOT The America’s…) But the possessive noun itself may have an article -the wife of the boss= the boss’s wife Noun modifiers When a noun modifies another noun.the amount of the money …) -The number of unemployed is rising steadily (NOT The number of the unemployed) Man and woman Unlike other singular countable nouns. all summer Kind of etc We often leave out a/ an after kind of. man and woman can be used in a general sense without articles -Man and woman were equally created But we often use a woman and a man. sort of. months and seasons -Where were you last Monday? See you on Thursday I was away in April To talk about the seasons in general. the first noun’s article is dropped -lessons in how to play the guitar= guitar lesson A spot in the sun= a sunspot Both and all We often leave out the after both -Both (the) children are good at maths. or men and women -Men and women have similar abilities and needs -A woman and a man is like a fish without a bicycle (old feminist joke) Days. etc. etc. all winter.
when we say that somebody has/gains a unique position (the only one in the organisation). we generally say the radio. (the) cinema. (the) theatre and television When we talk about our use of these forms of entertainment.Practical English Usage Faster Reference Musical instruments We often use the + singular when we talk about musical instruments in general or about playing musical instruments -Who is that on the piano? -The clarinet is really difficult The is dropped when talking about jazz or pop. and sometimes when talking about classical music -This recording was made with Miles Davis on trumpets -She studied oboe and saxophone at the Royal Academy of Music (the) radio. Compare: -They appointed him Head Librarian -He was elected President in 1987 Where is the librarian? I want to see the President Exclamations A/an with singular countable nouns in exclamation -What a lovely dress! (NOT What lovely dress!) No article in exclamations with uncountable nouns -What luck! -What nonsense! (NOT What a nonsense!) Illnesses No article -Have you had appendicitis? -I have got toothache again A/an is used in few cases such as a cold. a headache -I have got a horrible cold -Have you got a headache? The can be used informally with a few common illnesses -I think I have got (the) flu -She has never had (the measles) By MICHAEL |SWAN . the theatre. the cinema. but television or TV -I always listen to the radio while I am driving -It was a great treat to go to the cinema or to the theatre when I was a child -What is on TV? The is often dropped in all four cases when we talk about these institutions as art forms or professions -Cinema is different from theatre in several aspects -He has worked in radio and television all his life Jobs and positions The is not used in titles like Queen Elizabeth. Compare: -Queen Elizabeth had dinner with President Kennedy -The Queen had dinner with the President The is not used in the complement of a sentence. President Lincoln.
countries. state.Thailand . the United States -the Netherlands and its seat of government The Hague The is unusual in the titles of the principal public buildings and organisations of a town. his coat over his arm (NOT …the coat over the arm) But. When talking about parts of someone’s body. union -the People’s Republic of China. usage varies: . especially when we are talking about blows. departments (Texas. or about their possessions. Trinidad and Tobago) -towns (Oxford. Klang) -streets (Willow street. pains and other things that often happen to parts of people’s bodies -She hit him in the stomach -He was shot in the leg -Can’t you look me in the eye? Measurements The use of the in measuring expressions beginning with by -Do you sell eggs by the kilo or by the dozen? -Can I pay by the month? -He sits watching TV by the hour A/an is used to relate one measuring unit to another -Sixty pence a kilo -thirty miles an hour -thrice a week Place names We use the with these kinds of place names: -seas (the Atlantic) -island groups (the West Indies) -mountain groups (the Himalayas) -rivers (the Mississippi) -deserts (the Namib) -most cinemas and theatres (the Playhouse) -most hotels (the Grand hotel) -most museums and art galleries (the Frick) We use no article with: -continents. Tunku Abd Rahman road) -lakes (Lake Michigan. when the title begins with the town name -Oxford University (NOT the Oxford University) -Hull Station (NOT the Hull Station) Birmingham Airport Manchester Football Club With the names of less important institution. states. the is common after prepositions.Practical English Usage Faster Reference Parts of the body etc. the United Kingdom. Lake Chini) Exceptions: places whose name is (or contains) a common noun like republic. not the -Katy broke her arm climbing (NOT Katy broke the arm climbing) -He stood in the doorway. we usually use possessives.(The) East Oxford Community Centre (The) Newbury School of French Names of single mountains vary. countries. Most have no article -Everest -Kilimanjaro -Snowdon -Table Mountain By MICHAEL |SWAN .
Practical English Usage Faster Reference Newspapers and magazines -The names of newspapers usually have the -The names of magazines do not always have the The Times New Scientist The Washington Post Abbreviated styles We usually omit articles in abbreviated styles -newspaper headlines MAN KILLED ON MOUNTAIN -picture captions Mother and child -notices. posters etc SUPER CINEMA. pay phone bills. RITZ HOTEL -lists take car to garage. … By MICHAEL |SWAN .
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