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General Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, December 27-29, 1922 Source: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol.

27, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1923), pp. 57-71 Published by: Archaeological Institute of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/497532 . Accessed: 06/04/2011 12:16
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GENERAL MEETING OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA


DECEMBER 27-29, 1922 THE Archaeological Institute of America held its twenty-fourth meeting for the reading and discussion of papers at Yale University December 27, 28, and 29, 1922, in conjunction with the American Philological Association, the American Historical Association, and the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis. Three sessions for the reading of papers were held, and there were four joint sessions: one with the American Philological Association, one with the American Historical Association, one with the Society of Biblical Literature and the Philological Association, and one with the Historical Association and the Philological Association. The abstracts of the papers which follow were furnished by the authors.
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER

27.

2.00

P.M.

1. Professor Walter R. Agard, of Amherst College, The Dating and the Aesthetic Interest of the Metopes of the Athenian Treasury at Delphi. This paper will be published in full in a later number of the
JOURNAL.

2. Dr. Ida C. Thallon, of Vassar College, The Tradition of Antenor and its Historical Possibilities. This paper will be published in full in a later number of the
JOURNAL.

3. Professor Walter Woodburn Hyde, of the University of Pennsylvania, A Terra-cotta Replica of the Philandridas Head (Loeb Collection). This paper was published in full in the JOURNAL,XXVI, 1922, pp. 426 ff.
American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. XXVII Journal of the (1923) No. 1.

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4. Professor B. L. Ullman, of the University of Iowa, Archaeology and Moving Pictures.


The paper aimed to show the importance of moving pictures for archaeological work. Motion picturesmay be useful duringactual excavation in order to prevent later disputes as to important points. They are also useful in presenting views of statues from differentangles, and for displaying certainmonuments, such as the interiorof the Pantheon, which cannot be adequatelyshown in still pictures. They are also helpful in making clear the arrangementof a group of rooms or buildings, but their chief importanceis in giving a faithful reproductionof the life of the past. We ought to have moving pictures showing restoredviews of the Roman Forum, the Acropolisat Athens, and hundreds of other places with the ancient inhabitants, so to speak, going about their daily business. Some material of this sort is to be found in various plays produced in moving pictures. The paper was illustrated with scenes taken from some of these films, such as Julius Caesar,Spartacus,and other filmsdistributed by Mr. George Kleine. Archaeologistshave a great opportunity to take the lead in the productionof historically correctand worthwhilescenes from older civilizations.

5. Dr. Stephen B. Luce, of Boston, Heracles and Achelous on a Cylix in Boston. This paper will be published in full in a later number of the JOURNAL. 6. Mr. J. Donald Young, of Columbia University, A Sarcophagusfrom Corinth. This paper was published in full in the JOURNAL,XXVI, 1922, pp. 430 ff. 7. Professor A. M. Friend, of Princeton University, PreCarolingian Ivories in America (read by Professor C. R. Morey).
The group of Carolingianivories which Adolph Goldschmidt has collected underthe name "Ada" is heterogeneousand composedof severalgroups. One of these, consistingof the plaque in the Bodleian Library (Goldschmidt,No. 5), the panel of the Crucifixionin Berlin (Goldschmidt,No. 8), the Holy Women at the Tomb in Florence (Goldschmidt,No. 9), and the Virgin of the Annunciation in the Morgan Collection of the Metropolitan Museum (Goldschmidt, No. 12, from the Spitzer Collection) because of close stylistic resemblancesto the Ashburnham Pentateuch, now admittedly Spanish, and striking iconographic connections with the ivories of Provence is given a provenance in ancient Septimania, perhaps even in Narbonne and is to be dated before the Arabicconquestof 719 A.D. The resemblances between the MorganVirginand the figure of Eve suckling Abel in the Pentateuch are most noticeable. The draperiesof the figure of Christ in the Bodleian ivory and those of St. John in the one at Berlin bear the same close relation to the long robed figures in the Pentateuch. Three of the scenes on the Bodleian plaque are copied from a

GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER 97-29, 1922

59

Provengal ivory in Berlin, while the sleeping soldiers leaning against the tomb in the Florentine ivory seem copies of the same figures on the buckle of St. Caesarius of Arles. Two ivories which are associated with the group under discussion but which seem to be transitional pieces between this group and those assigned to Provence by Professor Baldwin Smith are the diptych in Milan Cathedral and the diptych in the cathedral at Palermo. Adding these two ivories to those enumeratedabove there are six which may be considered as constituting this Septimanian school. The connection of this school with the "Ada" group of Carolingian art is easier to explain if the Septimanian origin of Theodulphus,the bishop of Orleans,is accepted. The otherivory discussed in this paper is the so-called Cranenburgdiptych in the Morgan wing of the Metropolitan Museum. It consists of two curved panels representingSt. Peter and St. Paul, both beardless and advancing towards one another. St. Peter, to the left, holds the keys--St. Paul carries a codex. These are excellent examples of the broken-downpictorial Roman art which we may call the Latin style. The eye in full view in the profileface is a peculiarity of this~. The type of the face in the diptych and the style of the draperies,as well as the peculiarmannerof attaching the legs to the body which makes the figures extremely broad across the hips, is to be found also in the inserted leaves of the Codex Purpureusin Munich. These leaves, because of their close iconographic connection with the ivories of Provence, are surely Gallic in origin. The same type of capitals of the columns sculptured on the diptych are to be seen in the Milan book covers which belong to the Provengal school. The type of the faces persists in the manuscripts of the Carolingian school of Tours. So does the iconographicpeculiarityof the beardlessSt. Paul. Therefore the diptych can be considered,quite tentatively, as a work of the region of Tours at the end of the sixth or beginning of the seventh century. The Gallic origin is confirmedby the iconography. The panels were not originally a diptych. St. Peter and St. Paul approacheda figure of Christ sculptured on a third panel now lost. The Christwas probablybeardless,seated on a globe, as in the fresco in the Catacombof Commodilla,the Milan book cover and the Manuscriptof St. Ambrosein St. Paul of KIirnten. The three panels could only have been the front of an episcopalthrone or cathedral. The scene is a traditioclaviumwith St. Paul. In the Latin Churchwhere, only, such a scene would be used, the pericopefor the day of St. Peter's Chair is the Gospel account of the delivery of the keys to St. Peter. The commemorationis, of course, for St. Paul. In the Missale Gothicum St. Peter is referredto as the pastor of the sheep and as having the keys. St. Paul is considered as the teacher, "Petrus in clave-Paulus in dogmate:Pastor-Doctor." This explains the presenceof the lambs above the apostles' heads in the ivories. The Feast of St. Peter's Chair, although it originated in Rome, seems to have droppedout of commemorationthere from the sixth to the tenth century but time, the period of the ivories, in Gaul. The subject on flourishedcduring-that the Cranenburg panels, singularlyappropriatefor the decorationof a cathedral, could very welLhave been inspired by the liturgy in Gaul for the Feast of St. Peter's Chair.

8. Professor H. R. Fairclough, of the Leland Stanford, Jr. University, The-Antiquities of Montenegro.

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The Montenegro of today once formed part of the district of Praevalitana, comprisedin the Roman province of Illyricum, which was first created in the time of Augustus in 9 k.D. The Romans built at least two roads through the country, one runningeastwardsfrom Rhizon (now Risano) on the Bouches de Cattaro, and a second running northwardsfrom Scodra (now Scutari in Albania), once the capital of the Illyrian king Gentius. Several substantial piers of a Roman bridge are still standing where the latter road crossed the river Mora~a, two miles northeast of the modern town of Podgarica. The two roads apparently met at Niksic, whose Roman appearancehas been noted by Sir Arthur Evans. The chief Roman remains are to be found at Dukle, the site of the ancient Doclea, which lies at the junction of the Zeta and Mora~arivers. This town is not mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana or in the Itineraria Antonini, and is seldom referred to in our literary records, though the Docleatae are mentioned by Pliny, Appian and Ptolemy. The last named writer is the first he gives in a list that includes Narona and Scodra. An inscriptionin situ has the words respublicaDocleatium. The remains, which are still considerable, include a large portion of the city wall, the forum, a basilica, two temples, thermae, and a portico. Handsome capitals, made from the native Spuz stone, and fragments of columns and well-carved cornices still testify to the beauty of the ancient architecture. Some of these are now lying in the grounds of the American Red Cross hospital (formerlythe palace of Prince Mirko) at Kruievac, opposite Podgarica,where a numberof interesting inscriptionsmay also be seen. The writer has nearly thirty interesting intaglios which were picked up on the site of Doclea and a large collectionof coins, representingHadrian, Gordian III, Philip, Valerian, Gallienus, Salanina (wife of Gallienus), Claudius, Aurelian, Probus, Diocletian, Maximian, Licinius, Constantine I, Crispus, Constantius II, Constans, Valentinian, Gratian, and early Byzantine emperors. It is interesting to find that many of these coins were minted in Alexandria. Other Roman coins, picked up elsewhere in Montenegro, include a silver denarius of Caesar Augustus, struck in Spain, a bronze tetradrachmof Nero
(Oc5 of Elagabalus. For the identification of many of these coins the writer is indebted to Mr. E. T. Newell, President of the AmericanNumismatic Society. The paper was illustrated with numerousphotographs,which included one reproducing a sketch made from life by Miss A. M. Upjohn of a blind old guslar, whose musical recitation of the exploits of olden heroes, KXkahvpco'v,
a~pacr6~)

to speak of a city Doclea, one of the rbI-Xes of Dalmatia, which ~EcE6yELoL

and silver denarii of M. Aurelius and of Soemias, mother

vividly recalled the art of the

iac4qol

of ancient Greece.

9. Professor J. P. Harland, of the University of North Carolina, The Bronze Age of Hellas.
Accordingto the present system of chronologyfor the Bronze Age culture of the Helladic Mainland, the date 1600 B.c. has been taken as the dividing-point between Middle and Late Helladic. But this dividing-point should, I think, be moved down to 1400 B.c., at which approximatedate there'is evidence for a distinct "break" in the cultural and ethnic sequence of the respective ieoples

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of Southern Hellas. There is no "break" at ca. 1600 B.c. The period that follows this date (1600-1500 B.c.) is but a continuation of the previous period. The Minoan influence, seen especially in the decoration in lustrous paint of the pottery of this period, had already appeared in the previous period. It had begun to filter in graduallyin the latter part of M.H. II, and had merely increased and become almost dominant in this period. But the transitionwas gradual. The Sixth Shaft Grave at Mycenae overlaps this transition, as it received its first interment in the latter part of M.H. II, and its second interment in the following period. It is to be noted that the Shaft Graves represent an unbroken series from the second half of M.H. II down through the following period. Hence, since there is no real "break" at 1600 B.c., I shall call this period-1600-1500 B.c.-Middle Helladic III. And likewise, since the period that follows this-1500-1400 B.c.--is, in turn, merely a continuation of (my) Middle Helladic III, I shall call it Middle Helladic IV. A really distinct "break" comes at ca. 1400 B.c., and this date should be taken as the end of the Middle Helladic period, especially because it is of such a characteras to indicate the establishmentof a new regimein SouthernHellas. The evidence for the invasion of a new people at this date (I have called it the "Achaean" Invasion) is briefly as follows: (1) Change of level of habitation; (2) changes in pottery (deterioration, differences in technique, cessation of several shapes, appearanceof three new shapes-high-stemmed cylices, L.H. crater and Biigelkanne);(3) introduction of the fibula; (4) the typical Mycenaean figurine-terra-cotta image of a female deity with or without a child at her breast; (5) new palaces at many sites; (6) the "Bee-hive" or Tholos tomb becomes popularized;the majority and the greater ones are from the period following 1400 B.c., my Late Helladic Period; (7) the "Cyclopean" circuit walls. So I propose the following (emended) Table of Chronology: 2500 to 2000 B.c. Early Helladic Period ............................ca. Middle Helladic Period ca. 2000 to 1400 B.c. ........................... Middle Helladic I 2000-1800 B.C. Middle Helladic II 1800-1600 B.C. Middle Helladic III 1600-1500 B.c. Middle Helladic IV 1500-1400 B.C. Late Helladic Period ..............................ca. 1400 to 1100 B.c. Here we have the major periods corresponding exactly with the cultural and ethnic periods in the history of the successive peoples and civilizations of the Helladic Mainland.

10. Dr. Mary H. Swindler, of Bryn Mawr College, Venus Pompeiana and the New Pompeian Frescoes. This paper will be published in full in a later number of the
JOURNAL.

11. Professor Mitchell Carroll, of Washington, An Exhibition of Jewelry from the Bacharitz Collection. No abstract of this paper was received.

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DECEMBER 28. THURSDAY,

9.30 A.M.

(Joint meeting of the Archaeological Institute and the Historical Association.) 1. DI)r. Sylvanus Griswold Morley, of the Carnegie Institution in Washington, History and Chronology in Ancient Middle America. This paper will be published in full in a later number of the JOURNAL. 2. Professor Ralph Van Deman Magoffin, of the Johns Hopkins University, The Three Flavian Caesars. No abstract of this paper was received. 3. Dr. William H. Buckler, of Baltimore, Historical and Archaeological Opportunities in the Near East.
My object in examining the present Near Eastern situation from the standpoint of History and Archaeologyis to emphasizethe opportunities now presented there, particularly in Anatolia, probably the richest country in the world. The best basis for a quantitative estimate of sites for research there seems to be the list of cities and towns in Anatolia which coinedmoney between the fifth century B.c. and the second century A.D. The term Anatolia, as here used, covers all of Asia Minor lying west of a line running north from Alexandretta through Sivas to the Black Sea. A list of such ancient cities and towns having mints of their own works out as follows: In Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia............................ 95 towns In Lycaonia, Isauria, and Cilicia................. 82 towns ......... In Phrygia and Galatia 61 towns ................................... In Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Pontus......... ....... .... . 34 towns . In Ionia, Lydia, and Caria ............ 84 towns ................ 356 towns Total............................................. When deductions have been made, as well as a liberal allowance for towns of which we know the names but not the exact positions, there will still remain about 300 "virgin" sites of towns deserving excavation. Since the known Phrygian or Hittite spots are not among the town-sites listed above, our total of places deservinginvestigation should be not 356, but nearly 400. How can we best assist in protectingand in using the contents of this enormoushistorical reservoir? The most pressingtask is the making of a thorough inventory and survey-an archaeological"Domesday Book"-of Anatolia, as recommended about fifteen years ago by Sterrett. Of all the elements in such a work the most important would be conservation. By photographs, plans, casts, and other means it would recordthe ancient remainsas they stand, say in 1925;and many priceless things, threatened with destruction within the next few years, would thus be rescued for science.

GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER 27-29, 1922


THURSDAY, DECEMBER 28. 2.00 P.M.

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1. Dr. Walter W. S. Cook, of Princeton University, The New Romanesque Fresco from Catalonia in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
In a recent article on the new Romanesquefresco from Santa Maria de Mur, now in the Boston Museum, publishedin the BurlingtonMagazine,July, 1922, Jose Pijoan stated that this work was of the "eleventh or twelfth century," and in other publications,such as the last fasciculus of "Pinturesmuralscatalanes," and in the article by J. Goday in Museum, the problem of the date has been entirely evaded or ignored. The churchwas founded in 1069 and consecrated in the same year. The fresco,however,is obviously not of the eleventh century and it offers striking proof of the fallacy of attempting to use the date of the consecrationor foundationof a mediaevalchurchto establishthe date of Romanesque frescoes. Palaeography offers a surer basis, although within broad limits, as the artist occasionally copied inscriptions from earlier monuments. The majusculeletters of the inscriptionsin this fresco are of the first half of the twelfth century, which furnishesus with a terminusa quo. Iconographyis the soundest basis for dating and in this case the only sure evidence. A straw which shows the general direction of the wind is affordedby the scenes from Genesis in the splayed window jambs. If we trace the Cain and Abel scene down through the monumentsof WesternEurope, and especiallyin Catalonia, to the eleventh century page of the Bible of Farfa, Abel bears the lamb on his shoulderslike the HermesCriophoros and the two figuresare asymmetrical. In the twelfth century the type changes. Abel holds the lamb with both hands in front of the body and Cain appearson the opposite side with outstretchedarms holding a sheaf of wheat. An essential characteristicof the twelfth century is the symmetrical arrangementof the two figuresas seen in the twelfth century frescoes of St. Savin, the Burgundian capital from Moutier St. Jean, dated about 1135, in the Fogg Museum, and the relief on the podiumof the fagade of the churchof St. Gilles. The date of our fresco can be determinedby the iconographyof the tympanum composition,the subject of which is the "ApocalypticVision," and not the "Ascension," as stated by Sr. Pijoan. In the Carolingiantype of Christ in Majesty, the four symbols of the Evangelists are small inserts at the four corners, as in the ninth century Evangeliary of Lothaire and the first Bible of Charlesthe Bald. This is the type found in the GeronaBeatus, the Vigilano, and EmiliamenseManuscriptsand continuesduringthe first half of the twelfth century,as on the choir screenreliefsof St. Sernin,Toulouse,and in the tympanum at Carennac. The type, however, changesin the mid-twelfth century, as on the tympanum of the central portal of the west facade of the cathedral of Chartres, which is identical with the tympanum composition in the Boston fresco. The symbols are large in scale, characteristicof the naturalisminaugurated by proto-GothicIle-de-Francesculptureabout 1145-1150, as contrasted with the old Romanesquesymbolicalproportionsof the first half of the century, an inheritance from the Carolingian period. There is the same horizontal dividing line of clouds which forms four lateral compartmentscontaining the Signs of the Evangelists, and even the thin fringe of clouds aroundthe inside of the composition. Our artist, in fact, has copied the Chartres composition,

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almost line for line. He has even taken over the twelve apostles on the lintel which are here placed on the semi-circularwall below. This type spreadfrom the tle-de-France throughout Southern France and to the farthest corners of the Iberian peninsula, as shown in the frieze at Carri6nde los Condes (Palencia), the church at Morabes, and is found as late as 1266 on the tombstone of Raimundus de Milano in the Cathedralat Tarragona. The fresco from Santa Maria de Mur is furtherproof of the dominatinginfluence of the creative centre of Ile-de-Franceand on the basis of iconographywe have a sound terminus a quo. Pijoan's suggestion that it might have been painted in the eleventh century is quite untenable and it could not have been executed in the first half of the twelfth century. It is certainly much earlier than the epitaph of Tarragona, dated 1263, and in comparison with other Catalan monuments of the period the fresco in the Boston Museum can be placed in the second half of the twelfth century. Moreover,the same date can be given to the fresco of Ginestarrede Card6s,now in the BarcelonaMuseum, which hitherto no one has attempted to date with any degree of assuranceor definite proof. In fact, the Boston fresco seems destined to be an important factor in establishing the chronologyof mediaeval painting in Catalonia. An article will be publishedthis springin Art in Americadealingwith other aspects of the work.

2. Professor Ernest T. Dewald, of Rutgers College, A Manuscript of the School of Cologne in the Morgan Library. No abstract of this paper was received. 3. Mrs. Phila C. Nye, of Princeton University, The Origin of the Type of the Romanesque Signs of the Zodiac.
The territoryin which the signs of the Zodiacare popularin the Romanesque period coincides with the territory occupied by the Romans, whose soldiers carriedwith them the Mithra worship which persisted until the fifth century in some parts of Europe, and was popular among the people in all those portions of Europe. Also the use of the signs as a continuousband motive seems directly derived from the Mithraic reliefs rather than from any other known source heretoforeconsidered.

4. Mr, Roger Sherman Loomis, of New York, The Bayeux Tapestry.


The three latest books on the Bayeux "Tapestry" are burlesqueson archaeological research. Even the learned journals and standard works of reference contain serious errors regarding the date and provenance of the embroidery. But it is certain that the work was carriedout by Anglo-Saxonsand was completed probably within ten years, certainly within twenty years of the Conquest. Contemporarytestimony establishes the fact that the Norman conquerors set a high value upon Anglo-Saxonneedlework,and took much of it back to decoratethe churchesat home. Only an Anglo-Saxoncould have used the peculiar word forms in the inscriptionsof the Bayeux embroidery. As for the date, both the resemblanceof the costume to that shown in a manuscript

GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER ?7-?9, 19fS

65

completed before 1072, and the fall of Bishop Odo, the hero of the embroidery, a few years later, point to the years immediately following the victory at Hastings.

5. Professor A. Kingsley Porter, of Harvard University, Bari, Modena, and St. Gilles.
The episcopal throne of S. Niccola of Bari is surely dated 1098 by an inscription and by a contemporarychronicle. Being of certaindate, it offersan interesting opportunity to test by comparison the accuracy of the chronological theories current in mediaeval archaeology. Thus the throne is evidently closely related to the tomb of S. Alberto at Pontida, a monument which the documentsindicate dates from 1095, but which modernarchaeologyhas found so advanced in style that it has set aside the documentary evidence and assigned the tomb to the middle of the twelfth century. Since the style is the same as that of the throneof Bari, there can be no doubt that the Pontida tomb really dates from 1095. By a similarprocessof comparisonit becomesevident that the Porta della Pescheria of the cathedral of Modena dates from 10991106, precisely as the documentsindicate, and not from the end of the twelfth century as archaeologists have supposed; that the fagade sculptures of the cathedral of Modena are really of 1099-1106; that those of the cathedral of Cremona date from 1107-1117. This last dating is, moreover, confirmedby comparisonwith the Puerta de las Platerias at Santiago de Compostella,which dates from 1102-1124. The most amazing analogy of all, however, is that presented by the Bari throne and the archivolt of Monopoli with the frieze of St. Gilles. The parallels are indeed so close as to force the conclusion that archaeology in dating the St. Gilles frieze to 1180 has fallen into an error of some forty years.

6. Dr. Gisela M. A. Richter, of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Recent News from Athens.
Miss Richter gave a concise account of last season's excavations in Greeceat Zygouries, Corinth, Mycenae, Thebes, Olympia, etc.-and showed slides of the sculptured bases recently found in Athens.

7. Count Byron Khun de Prorok, Recent Excavations at Carthage. No abstract of this paper was received.
THURSDAY, DECEMBER 28. 8.00 P.M.

(Joint meeting with the Society of Biblical Literature and the Philological Association.) 1. Professor William Bell Dinsmoor, of Columbia University, How the Parthenon was Planned. No abstract of this paper was received.
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2. Professor William J. Hinke, of the Auburn Theological Seminary, Recent Excavations in Palestine.
In September1920, the Palestine ExplorationFund, in conjunctionwith the British School of Archaeologyin Palestine, began excavations at the ancient Philistine city of Ashkelon. During the first campaignsome of the moreprominent ruins were examined. In the southern part of the mound the ruins of a Byzantine church were laid bare with the remains of a Crusadres'church not far away. On the eastern side of the city, between the high mound and the outer wall, a large public building from Roman times was brought to light, constructed with Greek and Roman marble in excellent style. That it dates from the first century of our era is clear from several Greekinscriptions,one of which was inscribedin honorof Aulus Instuleius Tenax, centurionof the famous Tenth FretensianLegion, which took part in the siege of Jerusalem. Professor Garstang is inclined to regard the original building, which has an apse at its southern end, as the Bouleuterion, to which Herod the Great added magnificent colonnades and cloisters as a sort of a forecourt and main entrance. A second campaign was carried on at Ashkelon from April to July 1921, which continuedthe excavation of the Herodian buildingand determinedthe stratification of the mound by cross sections. The chief gain of this excavation has been to definethe characterand limits of the Philistine culture, especiallyin its ceramics, from 1200 to 600 B.c. At the ancient city of Bethshan, now Beisan, about sixteen miles southwest of the Lake of Galilee, excavations have been carried on by the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, under the direction of Dr. Clarence S. Fisher. The first campaignfrom June to October 1921, aimed to determinethe stratification of the ancient citadel, now called Tell el-Hosar. A wide shaft, sunk on the eastern side of the hill to a depth of twelve metres, determinedthe various levels down to the Hyksos period, about 2000 B.c. After determining the various layers of the mound, the excavators began the more difficult task of systematically dissecting the mound. Two separate areas were laid out for examination, one including a large portion of the lower northern and eastern terraces, the other embracing the entire summit. On the lower terrace an Arabic wall and gateway, built of earliermaterials, and, some distance back of them, an Arabic village was found. In the walls of one of the houses a large marble block had been inserted with a Greek inscription, referringto the rebuilding of the town walls in 509-510 A.D. The most notable find on the summit of the hill was an Egyptian stela, of the reign of Sethos I, 1313-1292 B.c. The work during last summerwas largely devoted to an examinationof a necropolisnorth of the hill, which broughtto light a seriesof clay coffins,with rude representationsof human faces. They seem to belong to the twelfth century
B.C.

The AmericanSchool of OrientalResearch excavated during the spring and summerof 1922 at Tell el-Ful, most likely the ancient Gibeahof Saul. On the summit of the hill were found a series of four watch towers, superimposed upon each other. The uppermostmigdol or tower was found to belong to the early Maccabean period, the next below to the later regal period. The director of the School, Dr. Albright, wishes to ascribe it to Asa, whose activity at Gibeah is recordedin I Kings xv, 22. The third tower, most elaborate and skilfully constructed, with ten characteristicniches in its wall and a massive staircase

GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER p7-29, 1992

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seems to belong to the period of Saul. The lowest stronghold, with late Canaanite ware and bronze weapons, was destroyed by fire, as a thick layer of ashes, in places ten centimetres deep, indicates. Although the excavations at Gibeah were not rich in inscriptionsand museum objects, they were valuable for the archaeologicaland historical data brought to light.

3. Professor E. K. Rand, of Harvard University, An Evangeliary of Tours in the Pierpont Morgan Library. No abstract of this paper was received. 4. Dr. T. Leslie Shear, of Columbia University, The 1922 Results at Sardis. This paper was published in full in the JOURNAL,XXVI, 1922, pp. 389 ff.
FRIDAY, DECEMBER 29.

9.00 A.M.

1. Dr. W. R. Bryan, of Columbia University, The Earliest Latin Civilization in the Light of Archaeological Evidence. This paper will be published in full in the Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. 2. Dr. Hetty Goldman, of New York, Excavations of the Fogg Museum at Colophon.
Excavations at Colophonwere carriedon for the first time duringa periodof ten weeks in the early summer of 1922, by the Fogg Art Museum of Harvard University in coiperation with the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. The work was confined to uncovering a limited area of the largest terrace of the upper city; partial excavation of a smaller adjacent terrace, the precinct of the "Mother" or Cybele as we learned from inscriptions; trial trenches at many points of the upper and lower city; and the opening of a few graves in each of three different cemeteries. Our investigations showed that the main part of the upper city or acropolis, was thickly covered with private houses built along well-paved streets, interspersed with public buildings mostly of a secular nature (such as stoas, bathhouses, etc.). The private houses, dated by coins and objects found in them as belonging in most cases to the fourth century, show a fairly uniform plan. A complex of three or more rooms opened towards the south on an irregularly shaped court, containing altar and well, while an isolated room, usually more elaborately decoratedthan the others and with an upper story, formed a towerlike structureopening independentlyon the court. A pit dug throughthe floor of one of the houses revealedthe walls of an earlierhouse more than four metres below the fourth century level and quantities of interesting geometricpottery. No regular temple has yet been found in the precinct of Cybele. We uncovered, however, a long colonnade; a flight of broad steps converging from three sides towards a platform with mosaic pavement and a basis placed in a

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niche of the terrace wall, which may originallyhave supporteda group of statues; and at least one other large building. Many inscriptions were found in this precinct, the most important for the history and topography of Colophon relatingto the extensionof the city walls and replanningof the city, after "King Alexanderand Antigonos" had freed Colophon. Investigation of the cemeteries revealed a tholos tomb, robbed, but with fragments of Mycenaean pottery; burnedburials with a quantity of geometric pottery; and unburnedinternments of the fourth century.

3. Professor Walton B. McDaniel, of the University of Pennsylvania, The Holiness of the Dischi Sacri. This paper will be published in full in a later number of the
JOURNAL.

4. Professor Margaret C. Waites, of Mount Holyoke College, The Deities of the Sacred Axe. This paper is published above, pp. 25 ff. 5. Professor Elizabeth H. Haight, of Vassar College, The Vassar College Tapestries. This paper will be published in full in Art and Archaeology. 6. Professor R. A. MacLean, of Rochester University, The Aeroplane and Archaeology.
Among the many services which the aeroplane is rendering at the present time not the least is the aid which it is giving in archaeologicaldiscovery. In countries such as Mesopotamiawhere there are few maps to guide the archaeologist, and in portionsof Arabiawhich are difficultof accessby ordinarymeans of travel, the aeroplanehas already proved to be a valuable subsidiaryhelp in making preliminarysurveys, and in locating historical ruins and the possible sites of ancient cities. Two illustrationswill suffice. This last summerI went by aeroplane from Amman in Transjordaniato visit some Roman ruins at "Kasr Azraq" in the Syrian desert. Owing to the volcanic nature of the western portion of the Syrian desert this place had probably never been visited before by any archaeologist in modern times. The ruins consist of an old Roman fortress of the days of Trajan. Another noteworthy feature was the presenceon the oasis of about twenty pools of clear cold water surrounded by a Roman wall. It was interesting to observe that while this wall, only portions of which remain, could hardly be distinguishedby an observeron the ground, its alignment and complete circuit of the pools could be seen clearly from the air. My second illustrationis from Mesopotamia. Among the many lost cities of ancient times may be mentionedtwo whichXenophon speaksof in the Anabasis: two cities was due to the fact that the course of the Tigris in ancient times was
the rbXLS eydX~y ( ivopa LTrrTaK , arid the ?r6Xas 1Y&X, K&l iroXUvOpWt7ros, , '~r s. Until quite recently the difficultyin determiningthe site of these &vopca

GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER

27-29, 1922

69

not known to us. But by recent observationsand photographstaken fromthe air it is now pretty well established that that portionof the Tigriswhich lies to the east of Xenophon's Median Wall had its bed about fifteen miles to the west of the present bed of the river. The depressionseen from the air and the line of mounds along the depressionwere the clues which led to what is thought to be the discovery of the sites of both Opis and Sittace.

7. Mr. Harald Ingholt, of Princeton University, Palmyrene Reliefs: Chronologyand Style.


Starting out from the dated examples of the Palmyrene portrait-reliefs,an attempt was made to establish a chronology for the male and female busts. The dated male busts hitherto known seem to justify the following observations: In the first period, extending to about the middle of the second century, the men appear unbearded. Then the fashion changes and the beard is introduced, which, in the latter part of the second and in the third century, apparently undergoes changes similar to the Roman. A class by itself is formed by the beardless figures with a modius-like headdress. The women, in the first half of the second century, are represented with the hair coming down over the shoulders, the over-garment being kept in place by an almost trapezoidalfibula. Most of them hold the spindle and the distaff in their hand, but very little jewelry appears. In the next period,which approximately occupies the second half of the second century, the hanging locks still occur, but more jewelry is used, and the fibula has no longer the archaic shape. This transitional period is followed by a third, in which the locks are done up, and the fibula most frequently is round. As to the style, the most noticeable features are the treatment of the eye and the nonplastic composition of the head. As a whole, the Palmyrene busts afford an unusuallyearly exampleof the flat and decorative transformationof Hellenistic form, similar, in character, to that which is found in the Asiatic sarcophagi.

8. Professor C. R. Morey, of Princeton University, The Chronology of the Asiatic Sarcophagi.


The Asiatic sarcophagi divide into two classes, the first producedin Lydia and presumablyat Ephesus, the second and later class probablymanufactured in northern Asia Minor, and representedby the sarcophagusfrom Sidamara. The chronologyof the first or Lydian group rests upon the dates of the Melfi sarcophagus(ca. 170 A.D.),the sarcophagusdiscoveredat Sardis (ca. 190), and the Torlonia sarcophagus (first quarter of third century). By noting the changes in the system and details of decoration occurring through this sequence, the twenty-odd sarcophagiof the Lydian groupmay be dated, by comparison with the above-mentionedthree, as follows: ca. 160: the Borghese sarcophagus. ca. 165: the sarcophagusfrom Torre Nova, and a lid from the same site. ca. 170: the sarcophagusof Melfi; a fragment with Heracles-scenesin the Giardinodella Pigna; others at Myra (Lycia), and in the Chiaramonti Gallery; a sarcophagus front (Labours of Heracles) in the British Museum.

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ca. 175-185: Two fragmentsfrom Denizli (Phrygia) in the Louvre; a fragment from Sardis in the same museum. ca. 200: the sarcophagusin the Colonna Gardens; a fragment at Isnik. ca. 200-225: the Torlonia sarcophagus. The Sidamarasarcophagiare distinguishedfrom the Lydian group by their strong coloristic treatment of both figuresand ornament, and the earlier ones may be detected by some reminiscence of the Greek ornament maintained throughout the Lydian group. The sarcophagusin the court of the Riccardi Palace at Florence, long dated in the second century and regardedas a capital memberof the Asiatic series, proves to be a western imitation of the first quarter of the third century. What criteriawe have for dating the Sidamaragroup supports Mendel's dating of the Sidamara sarcophagusitself in the second quarter of the third century. The chief evidence for date in this group is furnishedby the gradualobliterationof form in favor of a flat illusionistictreatment. The new fragmentin Berlin, dated by Wulff in the AmilicheBerichteof 1914 in the fourth century, is proved by comparisonwith the Mattei sarcophagus in Rome, on which identical figuresof Muses appear, to be of the second half of the third century. The following chronology may be set up for the group: First quarter of third century: the Richmond fragments; two fragmentary sarcophagiin the Museum at Athens; fragments from Altyntash and Kutaya now in the Brussa Museum; the Borghesefragments in the Louvre. Second quarter of third century: the Sidamara sarcophagus,and that from Selefkeh, both in the Ottoman Museum. Middle of third century: the fragment in the Metropolitan Museum; the Ghetto fragment in the British Museum; fragments at Bari and Smyrna. in Second half of third century: the Mattei sarcophagus;its sister-fragments the British Museumand Berlin;a sarcophagusand a lid at HierapolisPhrygiae; fragments at Konieh, Alashehr,and Eskishehr;a lid at Sagalassus;a fragment from Denizli in the Louvre. End of the third century: the Concordia fragment and another in the Ludovisi collection. First quarterof fourth century: sarcophagus-front from Ste-Marie-du-Zitin Africa, now in the Museum of Alaoui. End of fourth century: Christian fragment from Constantinople in Berlin.

9. Professor Clarence Kennedy, of Smith College, New Photographs of Greek Sculptures in Munich. No abstract of this paper was received. 10. Professor Allan Marquand, of Princeton University, A Madonna by Antonello Rossellino (read by title).
Formerly at Donaldson's, London, then in the collection of Mr. Charles T. Barney, New York, this Madonna is now in the galleries of P. W. French and Co., New York. It is slightly repaired. In style it is very characteristic of Antonio Rossellino, closer in type to the Madonna of the Portogallo Tomb (1466) than to the S. Croce Madonna (ca. 1475). It exhibits still the influence of Donatello.

GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER 27-29, 1922

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11. Dr. W. F. Stohlman, of Princeton University, A Manuscript of the School of St. Gall (read by title). 12. Professor E. Baldwin Smith, of Princeton University, The Two-storied Tomb in Christian Iconography (read by title). 13. Professor George M. Whicher, of Hunter College, Vitruvius' Discussion of Building Materials (read by title).
FRIDAY, DECEMBER 29.

2.00 P.M.

(Joint session of the Archaeological Institute, the Historical Association, and the Philological Association.) No archaeological papers were read.