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May 29, 2013

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heat transfer

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heat transfer

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4 PDH

Copy write, Heat Transfer Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 12 June 2011

Heat travels three ways: * Conduction - by spreading through solids. * Convection is heat transfer by the movement of heated gasses and liquids. * Radiation - is heat in the form of radiation and travels through space at the speed of light.

Heat always travels from an area of higher temperature to an area of lower temperature. Heat transfer (Q) is the flow rate of heat and is measured in Watts or Btu's per hour.

1. Type in values for the Input Data. 2. Excel will make the Calculations.

Excel's, "Goal Seek" adjusts one Input value to cause a Calculated formula cell to equal a given value. When using Excel's Goal Seek, unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Home > Format > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed, restore protection with: Drop down menu: Home > Format > Protect Sheet > OK

When using Excel's Goal Seek, unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed, restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK

Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu Btu/hr-ft-deg F Btu/hr-ft^2-F lbm/ft^2 Btu/lbm-deg F lbm / sec-ft lbm / sec-ft ft in

Multiply by 0.2931 3.93E-04 778.2 1.730 5.5956 16.0185 4187 3600 1.488 0.3048 25.4

Units Obtained

W hp ft-lbf W / m-C W / m^2-C kg / m^3 J/kg-C lbm / hr-ft kg / sec-m m mm

L in F lbf w ft-lbf ft^2 / sec Heat transfer is measured in feet and meter units. Use the above units table from left to right:

Input Data

m N N-m m^2 / s

Input Data

Input Data Input Data

Input Data

deg C deg K

Input Data

deg F deg R

deg F deg C

Conduction Example

Heat source on t1 side, Q = High temperature, t1 = Thermal conductivity, K = Dimension in inches, L1 = Dimension in inches, L2 = Thickness in inches, X =

Calculation A = (L1*L2)*0.0254^2 A= 0.0103 m^2 Q = K*A*(t1 - t2) / (X*0.0254) t2 = t1 - (Q*X) / (K*A) t2 = 99.90 deg C

CONDUCTIVITIES & DENSITIES MATERIAL Copper, pure Brass, 70 Cu, 30 Zn Silver, 99.9% pure Duralumin, 3-5%Cu, trace Mg Carbon Steel, 1.0%C Bronze, 75 Cu, 25 Sn Stainless Steel,18 Cr, 8 Ni Concrete, stone, 1-2-4 mix Glass, window Brick, common building Wood, fir Wood, white pine Glass Wool, 1.5 lb/ft^3 Properties at 68 deg F K lbm/ft^3 Btu/hr-ft-F 559 223 532 64 657 235 174 95 487 25 541 15 488 9.4 0.79 0.45 0.40 0.063 0.065 0.022 K W/m*C 386 111 407 164 43 26 16.3 1.37 0.78 0.69 0.109 0.112 0.038

Conduction through wall and air films on each side of the wall. Find the heat transfer rate Q and the inner and outer wall surface temperatures. OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT U

The heat flow rate, Q, is the same through each layer in the diagram above.

Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = (t1 - t2) / (Xa / Ka) Heat intensity = Thermal resistance for layer a, Ra = Thermal resistance for layer o, Ro = t1 -t2 Xa / Ka 1/ ho Equation 1

Overall heat transfer rate, Q / A = (t1 -t4) / (Ra + Rb + Rc) Overall temperature difference, T= Overall heat transfer coefficient, U = Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = t1 - t4 1 / (A * Rn) U*(T)

U.S. Units Wall length, L = Wall height, H = Wall thickness, X = Inside convective coefficient, ho = to = t5 = Thickness, Xa = Xb = Xc = Thermal conductivity, Ka = Thermal conductivity, Kb = Thermal conductivity, Kc = Outside convective coefficient, h5 =

Wall area, A = A= ft^2 Thermal Resistances Ro = 1 / ho Ro = 0.500 Ra = Xa / Ka Ra = 1.2821 Rb = Xb / Kb Rb = 0.8333 Rc = Xc / Kc Rc = 0.2232 R5 = 1 / h5 R5 = 0.172 Overall heat transfer coefficient 1 / U = 1/ho + Xa / Ka + Xb / Kb + Xc / Kc + 1/h5 1 / U = Ro+R1+Ra+Rb+Rc+R5

Input Data 300.00 48.00 7.00 2 70.0 36.0 1.00 4.00 0.75 0.065 0.400 0.280 5.80 Calculation L*H / 144 100.00

1/U= 3.0110 Answer: U = 0.332 T = to - t5 Answer: T = 34 deg F Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = U*(T) Answer: Q / A = 11.29 Heat transfer, Q = U*A*(T) Answer: Q = 1129 Btu/hr Answer: Q = 331 Watts Surface temperature is found from Equation-1 above: Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = (to - t1) / (1 / ho) t1 = to - (Q/A)*(1 / ho) Answer: t1 = 64.4 deg F Internal temperature follows: Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = (t1 - t2) / (Xa / Ka) t2 = t1 - (Q/A)*(Xa / Ka) Answer: t2 = 49.9 deg F

Wall length, L = Wall height, H = Wall thickness, X = Inside temperature, t1 = Outside temperature, t4 = Wall material conductivity, K = Inside convective coefficient, ha = Outside convective coefficient, hc = Wall area, A = A= Ra = Ra = Rb = Rb = Rc = Rc = Overall thermal resistance, R = R = Overall temperature difference, T = T = Input Data 12.00 12.00 0.5 70 20 0.263 2.00 10.00 Calculations L*H / 144 1.00 1 / ha 0.50 X/K 1.90 1 / hc 0.10 Ra + Rb + Rc 2.50 t1 - t4 50.0 in in ft deg F deg F Btu/hr-ft-F Btu/hr-ft^2-F Btu/hr-ft^2-F

ft^2

deg F

Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = T / R Q/A= 20.00 Btu / hr-ft^2 Heat transfer, Q = A*T / R Q= 20.00 Btu/hr Q= 5.86 Watts Internal temperatures are found from Equation-1 above: Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = (t1 - t2) / (Ra)

t2 = Answer: t2 =

t1 -(Q/A)*(Ra) 60.00

deg F

Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = (t3 - t4) / (Rc) t3 = t4 + (Q/A)*(Rc) Answer: t3 = 22.00

deg F

2D HEAT TRANSFER EXCEL'S SOLVER > see MATH TOOLS tab below.

The steady state energy balance on the interior nodal point N is: 0 = Q1-N + Q2-N + Q3-N + Q4-N L = Thickness into page. Finite difference equations for each conductive flux: Q1-N = K*L*(Y)*(T1 - TN) / (X) Q2-N = K*L*(X)*(T2 - TN) / (Y) Q3-N = K*L*(Y)*(T3 - TN) / (X) Q4-N = K*L*(X)*(T4 - TN) / (Y) If X equals Y: 0 = T1 +T2 + T3 + T4 -4*TN

Node 1, -900 = T2 + T4 - 4*T1 Node 2, -700 = T1 + T3 - 4*T2 Node 3, -500 = T4 + T2 - 4*T3 Node 4, -700 = T1 + T3 - 4*T4

Solution T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 =

CLICK THE "MATH TOOLS" TAB BELOW FOR INFORMATION ABOUT "SOLVER"

Solution T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 =

0= 0= 0= 0= 0= 0= 0= 0= 0=

400 + 100 + T2 + T4 - 4*T1 T1 + 100 + T3 + T5 - 4*T2 T2 + 100 + 100 + T6 - 4*T3 400 + T1 + T5 + T7 - 4*T4 T4 + T2 + T6 + T8 - 4*T5 T5 + T3 + 100 + T9 - 4*T6 400 + T4 + T8 + 200 - 4*T7 T7 + T5 + T9 + 200 - 4*T8 T8 + T6 + 100 + 200 - 4*T9

Node 9, -300 = T8 + T6 - 4*T9 Equations -500.0 -100.0 -200.0 -400.0 0.0 -100.0 -600.0 -200.0 -300.0 Constants -500 -100 -200 -400 0 -100 -600 -200 -300 Solution T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = T5 = T6 = T7 = T8 = T9 = Column E 235.7 166.1 128.6 276.8 200.0 148.2 271.4 208.9 164.3

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

0 = (T1 + T2)/ 2 + (h*X / k)*T - (h*X / k + 1)*Tn Input Data Ambient temperature, T = 90.0 Convective heat transfer coefficient, hc = 9.1 Conductivity, k = 2.0 Grid spacing, X = Y = 1.5

or mm mm/mm deg C

Coefficients of Linear Expansion in the range 0 to 100C Aluminum = 0.0000238 Bronze = 0.0000175 Copper = 0.0000165 Mild Steel = 0.000012 Porcelain = 0.000004

Calculations L * * t 0.144

in or mm

1. Type in values for the Input Data. 2. Excel will make the Calculations.

Excel's, "Goal Seek" adjusts one Input value to cause a Calculated formula cell to equal a given value. When using Excel's Goal Seek, unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed, restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK

Metric Units

Wall length, L = Wall height, H = Wall thickness, X = Inside convective coefficient, ho = to = t5 = Xa = Xb = Xc = Ka = Kb = Kc = Outside convective coefficient, h5 =

Input Data 300.00 in 48.00 in 6.00 in 9.38 Btu/hr-ft^2-F 22.2 deg F -1.0 deg F 1.00 in 0.66 in 0.50 in 0.10 Btu/hr-ft-F 0.10 Btu/hr-ft-F 0.52 Btu/hr-ft-F 34.10 Btu/hr-ft^2-F Calculation Wall area, A = L*H*0.0929 / 144 A= 9.29 m^2 Thermal Resistances: Ro = 1 / ho Ro = 0.107 Ra = Xa / Ka Ra = 0.2540 Rb = Xb / Kb Rb = 0.1676 Rc = Xc / Kc Rc = 0.0244 R5 = 1 / h5 R5 = 0.029 Overall heat transfer coefficient 1 / U = 1/ho + Xa / Ka + Xb / Kb + Xc / Kc + 1/h5 1 / U = Ro+R1+Ra+Rb+Rc+R5

1/U= Answer: U = T = Answer: T = Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = Answer: Q / A = Heat transfer, Q = Answer: Q =

deg C

Watts

Surface temperature is found from Equation-1 above: Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = (to - t1) / (1 / ho) t1 = to - (Q/A)*(1 / ho) Answer: t1 = 18.0 deg F Internal temperature follows: Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = (t1 - t2) / (Xa / Ka) t2 = t1 - (Q/A)*(Xa / Ka) Answer: t2 = 7.8 deg F

Node 1, -700 = T2 + T4 - 4*T1 Node 2, -500 = T1 + T3 - 4*T2 Node 3, -300 = T4 + T2 - 4*T3 Node 4, -500 = T1 + T3 - 4*T4

Solution Column E T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 =

Convection is heat transfer by the movement of heated gasses and liquids.

4 PDH

Copy write, Heat Transfer Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 12 June 2011

Measuring Air Film Coefficient Heat source, Q = Surface area, A = Inside air temp. thermocouple, t1 = Inside surface temp. thermocouple, t2 =

Watts sq m C C

Calculations Heat convection, air layer, Q = h * A * (t1 - t2) Watts h = Q / (A*(t1 - t2)) S.I. Answer: h = 5.52 W/m^2*C h = (W/m^2*K)/5.596 U.S. Answer: h = 0.986 Btu/hr-ft^2*F Boundary layer thickness = Air flow velocity = X V mm m/s

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Convective heat transfer coefficient, h = k*C*(Gr*Pr)^n / L Description Vertical Plate or Vertical Cylinder Horizontal Plate hot surface facing up Horizontal Plate hot surface facing down Length L Gr C < 10^4 1.36 10^4<10^9 0.59 10^9<10^12 0.13 10^5<2*10^7 0.54 2*10^7<3*10^10 0.14 3*10^5<3*10^10 0.27 n 0.200 0.250 0.333 0.250 0.333 0.250

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation - Pick Horizontal or Vertical Plate: Characteristic Length L height = Input Data-1 8.00

in

width = Exterior surface temperature, Ts = Ambient (room) temperature, Ta = Length, L=(height x width) / (height + width) = L = Plate characteristic length, L = Answer: Ts - Ta = Th = Answer: Th = Air Properties at temperature, Th, from table below:

Input Data-2 Air conductivity, k = 0.03115 W / m*C Air density, = 0.964 kg / m^3 Air dynamic viscosity, = 2.15E-05 kg / sec*m Boundary layer volume coefficient of expansion, = 2.74E-03 1 / deg C Gravitational constant, g = 9.81 m/sec^2 Prandtl number, Pr = 0.694 Grashof number, Gr = L^3*g**^2*(Ts - Ta) / ^2 Answer: Gr = 3.926E+06 Answer: Gr*Pr = 2.725E+06 C and n below are found in the table above for the Gr*Pr value calculated here. Input Data-3 Gr*Pr = 10^3 < 10^9 C= 0.53 n= 0.25 Nusselt Equation, Air Film Coefficient, h = k*C*(Gr*Pr)^n / L S.I. Answer: h = 7.702 W / m^2*C U.S. Answer: h = (W/m^2*K)/5.5956 Btu/hr-ft^2*F U.S. Answer: h = 1.376 Btu/hr-ft^2*F

P2 CONDUCTIVITIES & DENSITIES MATERIAL Copper, pure Brass, 70 Cu, 30 Zn Silver, 99.9% pure Duralumin, 3-5%Cu, trace Mg Carbon Steel, 1.0%C Bronze, 75 Cu, 25 Sn Steel,18 Cr, 8 Ni Concrete, stone, 1-2-4 mix Glass, window Brick, common building Wood, fir Wood, white pine Glass Wool, 1.5 lb/ft^3 Properties at 68 deg F K lbm/ft^3 Btu/hr-ft-F 559 223 532 64 657 235 174 95 487 25 541 15 488 9.4 0.79 0.45 0.40 0.063 0.065 0.022 K W/m*C 386 111 407 164 43 26 16.3 1.37 0.78 0.69 0.109 0.112 0.038

FINS Fins are used to increase heat transfer area and provide a cooling effect. However, if h*A / P*k is greater than 1.00 the fins will insulate and prevent heat flow. h = air film convective coefficient A = exposed surface area of the fins. P = perimeter of the fins. k = fin material conductivity coefficient.

Case 1. Fin, finite length, heat loss by convection at end. Heat flow rate, Q = (K*Ab*n*T)*X1 / X2 Input Data Temperature at fin base, T1 = 200 deg F Room Temperature, T2 = 70 deg F Fin width, w = 20 in Fin thickness, t = 0.125 in Fin material thermal conductivity, K = 174 W/m*C Convective heat transfer coefficient, h = 5.7 W / m^2*C Fin length, L = 0.750 in

Number of fins, N =

Fin width, w = Fin thickness, t = Fin base area, A = A= Temperature difference, T = T = T = For thin fin, n = n= h / n*K = L= n*L = sinh(n*L) = cosh(n*L) = X1 = X1 = X2 = X2 = Q= Answer: Q = Case 2. Fin, finite length (L) insulated end. tanh(n*L) = 0.08632 Heat flow rate, Q = N*(K*A*n*T)*tanh(n*L) Answer: Q = 239.66 Watts

40 Calculations 0.508 m 0.0032 m w*t m^2 0.001613 m^2 T1 - T2 130 deg F 54.44 deg C (2*h/K*t)^.5 4.54 0.0072 0.019 m 0.087 0.087 1.004 [(sinh(n*L) + (h / n*K)*cosh(n*L)] 0.0006 [(cosh(n*L) + (h / n*K)*sinh(n*L)] 1.0044 N*(K*A*n*T)*(X1 / X2)) 1.734 Watts

P3

Fin Efficiency Ideal heat transfer occurs when the entire fin is at its base temperature. Input Data Temperature at fin base - Room Temperature, T = 20 deg C Fin material thermal conductivity, K = 4.00 W/ m*C Convective heat transfer coefficient, h = 9.00 W / m^2*C Fin width, w = 30.00 in Fin thickness, t = 0.080 in Fin length, L = 0.75 in Calculations Fin width, meters, w = 0.762 m Fin thickness, meters, t = 0.0020 m Fin base area, Ab = w*t m^2 Ab = 0.001548 m^2 Fin length, meters, L = 0.01905 m Two Fin face areas, Af = 2*L*w Af = 0.029032 m^2 Perimeter, P = 2*(w + t) P= 1.5281 m n= n= h*P/(K*Ab) 47.12

n*L =

0.8977

P4

Fin efficiency, = Actual Q / Ideal Q Q = (h*P*K*Ab)^.5*(T)*(tanh(n*L)) = (K*Ab*n)*(T)*(tanh(n*L)) (h*P*K*A)^.5 = (K*A*n) Ideal heat transfer, Qa = (h*P*K*A)^.5*T*(tanh(n*L)) Qa = 4.174 Watts Ideal heat transfer, Qi = (h*Af*T) Qi = 5.226 Watts = Qi / Qa Answer: = 79.9 %

P5

Heat transfer, Q =

U*A*Tm

Plane wall heat transfer coefficient, U = 1 / (1/ho + L/K + 1/h1 Cylindrical wall heat transfer coefficient, U = 1 / (1/hi + [RoLn(Ro/Ri)]/K + Ri/Ro) i and o refer to inside and outside tube surfaces. Large temperature difference, Tbc = Ta - Td Tbc = 20 From Input Data below. Small temperature difference, Tad = Tb - Tc Tad = 52 From Input Data below. Logarithmic mean temp. difference, Tm = (Tbc - Tad)/ln(Tbc/Tad) Answer: Tm = 33.5 deg C The added resistance to heat transfer caused by corrosion is called fouling. Fouling factor, R ranges between 0.0005 and 0.002. See manufactures data. Fouling factor, R = (1/Udirty) - (1/Uclean) Forced Convection - in Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers Turbulent flow in coiled tube. Temp. of water flowing in, Ta = Temp. of water flowing out, Tb = Tc = Td = Tube inside diameter, Di = Tube outside diameter, Do = Velocity of water in tube, V =

Water properties at temperature Tb deg C from the table above: Water density, = 994.7 Cp = 4.183 Water dynamic viscosity, = 6.82E-04 Water conductivity, k = 0.6283 Prandtl number, Pr = 4.51 Factor, n = 0.40 Velocity of water in tube, V = 3

Tb = Tb = Re = Re = Re =

Re >4000

Convective heat transfer coefficient, S.I. Answer: U.S. Answer: U.S. Answer:

h = 0.023*(Re^.8)*(Pr^n)*(k/d) h= 11128 W / m^2*K h = (W/m^2*K)/5.5956 Btu/hr-ft^2*F h= 1989 Btu/hr-ft^2*F 11128 Tb - Tc 52 W / m^2*K deg C P6

S.I. Answer from above: h = Large temperature difference, Tbc = Answer: Tbc=

Ta - Td 20

deg C

Logarithmic temperature difference, Tm = (Tbc - Tad)/ln(Tbc/Tad) Answer: Tm = 33.5 deg C Overall heat transfer coefficient = Uo Heat flow rate, Q = Uo*A*Tm Heat flow rate thru inside tube wall, Qi = Uo**di*L*Tm Heat flow rate thru outside tube wall, Qo = Uo**do*L*Tm Uo = h *Ai / Ao Tube inside area, Ai = Tube outside area, Ao = Overall heat transfer coefficient, Uo = Answer: Uo = Cp = Answer: Cp = *di*L *do*L h *di / do 10510 Cp*1000 4183

Disregarding tube fouling, determine the tube length required: The tube length required, L = *V*(di)^2*Cp*(Tout -Tin) / (4*Uo*do*Tm) Answer: L = 15.37 m

P7

Heat in the form of radiation travels through space at the speed of light. Radiant heat energy is proportional to the 4th power of the absolute temperature.

4 PDH

Copy write, Heat Transfer Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 12 June 2011

Heat Radiation Upon a Surface Fraction of heat energy absorbed, = absorbtivity Fraction of heat energy reflected, = reflectivity Fraction of heat energy passed thru., = transmissivity (transparent; solids, liquids, & gasses) By definition, + + = Black Body Radiation An ideal black body absorbs all incident radiation so that, = therefore, = 0 and = 0 1.00

1.00

Radiation Example Material surface emissivity, e = Stefan-Boltzmann constant, = Dimension, L1 = Dimension, L2 = Surface temperature, t1 =

Input Data 0.91 5.67E-08 W / m^2-K^4 20.00 m 3.00 m 38 deg C Calculation Area, A = L1*L2 Answer: A = 60.00 m^2

Absolute temperature. T = C + 273 T= 311 deg Abs Radiant thermal flux reflected, Q = e**T^4 Answer: Q = 482.7 Watts Q is the radiant thermal flux per square foot reflected by the wall.

P1

The total hemispherical heat radiation from a black body surface (A) is, Eb = Stefan-Boltzmann constant, = Stefan-Boltzmann constant, = Gray body radiation, Eg = Gray body radiation factor = Configuration or Emissivity Factor, CF = Radiation transmitted from surface 1 = Radiation transmitted to surface 2 = Surface 1 is smaller than surface 2. If surface 2 completely surrounds surface 1, Fa =

W /m^2*K^4 W /m^2*K^4

1.00 W /m^2*K^4

Radiation Example Horizontal duct under a house. What is the heat loss per unit area of the duct? Duct diameter, D = Duct surface temperature, tduct = Duct emissivity, = Input Data 20 85 0.8 cm C

Temperature under house, twalls = Surrounding air temperature, tair = Convective film coefficient, h =

20 18 5.5

C C W/ m^2*K

0.96

Btu/hr*ft^2*F P2

1. Calculate heat lost by radiation: Calculations Stefan-Boltzmann constant, = 5.670E-08 W /m^2*K^4 Tduct = tduct + 273 Answer: Tduct = 358 deg K Twalls = twalls + 273 Answer: Twalls = 293 deg K Surface 2 completely surrounds surface 1 Arrangement or Emissivity Factor, CF = 1.00 W/m^2*K^4 Heat transferred by radiation, Er = **CF*(T1^4 - T2^4) Answer: Er = 411 W/m^2*K^4 2. Determine heat lost by convection: Convective heat transfer, Q / A = h*(tduct - tair) Answer: Q / A = 368.5 W / m^2 3. Add to find total heat loss: Qtotal / Area = Qtotal / Area = Er + Q / A 779 W / m^2

P3

Excel can be used to facilitate and document engineering calculations. When using Excel's Goal Seek, unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed, restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK

4 PDH

Copy write, Heat Transfer Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 12 June 2011

GOAL SEEK - Trial and Error by Excel Spread Sheet T4 = 38.7 deg. C in the calculation below when input heat flow Q = 5.0 Watts. The objective is to find the input heat Q that will result in the temperature T4 = 25 deg. C. Excel spread sheets will make a trial and error iteration automatically with the tool called, "Goal Seek". 1. Select the calculated answer at red cell, T4 = 38.7 below. 2. Select: Tools > Goal Seek > Pick "To value:" > 25 > By changing: > Pick green cell, Q = 16.0 > Okay.

EXAMPLE - LOCKED

Q= A= T1 = h1 = h2 = k= L= R1 = R1 = R2 = R2 = R3 = R3 = Q/A= T4 = Answer: T4 = Input Data 5.0 Watts 0.25 sq m 45 deg. C 9.00 W/sq m C 5.00 W/sq m C 164 W/mC 0.25 m Calculations 1 / h1 sq m C/W 0.111 sq m C/W L/k m*C / W 0.0015 m*C / W 1 / h2 sq m C/W 0.200 sq m C/W (T1 -T4) / (R1 + R2 + R3) T1 - ((Q / A)*(R1 + R2 + R3)) 38.7 deg. C

PROBLEM - UNLOCKED

Practice Goal Seek below: Input Data Q= 16.0 A= 0.25 T1 = 45 Watts sq m deg. C

h1 = h2 = k= L= R1 = R1 = R2 = R2 = R3 = R3 = Q/A= T4 = Answer: T4 =

9.00 W/sq m C 5.00 W/sq m C 164 W/mC 0.25 m Calculations 1 / h1 sq m C/W 0.111 sq m C/W L/k m*C / W 0.0015 m*C / W 1 / h2 sq m C/W 0.200 sq m C/W (T1 -T4) / (R1 + R2 + R3) T1 - ((Q / A)*(R1 + R2 + R3)) 25.0 deg. C

To install Solver, click the Microsoft Office Button, click Excel Options, and click Add-Ins. In the Manage box at the bottom of the window, select Excel Add-ins, and click Go. Check the Solver Add-in box in the Add-Ins dialog box, and click OK. After Solver is installed, you can run Solver by clicking Solver in the Analysis group on the Data tab.

Step-1 Clik the "Excel Button" top left > Click "Excel Options".

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