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BOCCHUS

dc/iiu'rfn^ ^JUGURTHA

THE

ROMAN HISTORY
FROM THE

FOUNDATION
TO THE

of

ROME

BATTLE
To
the

of

ACTIUM;
IS,

THAT
End
Mr.
of the

COMMONWEALTH.
I

By
ProfefTor of

C
i

R E V
c

E

R,

Rh etor

k

in

the College of

Being the

Continuation

of Mr.

Beauvais, ROLLIN's Work.

Tranflated from the

French.

VOL. VL

THE THIRD EDITION.
ILLUSTRx^TED

WITH MAPS AND

COPPER-PLATES.

_____
^

____
O N D O
N,

^t
i

Pi inted for

J.

R

i

v

and Collins, T. Caslon, S. and Roberts,

Crowd

n g t o n, R. B a l d w i k, H a \v e s R. Ho r s field, W. John ston, er, B. Law, Z.Stuart, and N e w b e r y and C a r h a n .

Clarke
W.
Owi-n,

Robinsow

MDCCLXVIII.

Contents

of Vol. VI.
XXVIL
I.

BOOK
^
OPAlNghfs
the

SECT.

Romans great pnin and difqiiiet. They

have feveral lojfes in Cdtiberia. Sev-eral States of Spain fend Deputies to Rome^ to afk peace. Speech of The Senate refers them to Marcellus^ but the Deputies.

fecretly decrees zvar.

The Roman youth
offers

refufe to ferve

in Spain.
all the

Toung

Scipio

his fer vice, -and

draws

Marcelius concludes a peace with the Celtiberians. Cruel avarice of the Conful Lu~ cullus. Siege and taking cf Intercatia. Sin^iilar buthiicullus forms and rcifes the tle and victory of Scipio.
aftei'

youth

him.

fiege of Pallantia.

Lufitania.

The Pr^tor Galba is defeated in Det efiable perfidy of that Prat oj. Viria-

From a poor fjsphe'^d he By various firatagems^ in which he abounds, he defeats the Romans on feveral ocThe Conful Fabius Ai,milianus marches agahifi canons.
capes being mATlhered. thus ef JKComes a terrible warriir.
'

Viriathus,
fuls frcjn the

A faying

of

Scipio' i excludes the

command of

the armies.

veral advantages over Viriathus.

two ConFabius gains feMetellus makes zvar

during two years with the Celtiberians.

Hs

confiancy

and humanity. A faying of his upon fecr-ecy. Praife and character of Viriathus. After having defeated the
Conful Fabius, he retires into Liifttama.
attains the Confulfhip by a badftratagim.

^ Pompeius
Exceffes of
is

Metellus,
eted him.

when

he

is

informed, that Pompeius

io fac-

Various expeditions of Pompeius of little conExpeditions of Fabius into Hifpania Ulterior. fequence. Peace concluded between Viriathus and the Romans. That
peace
is

broken.

Viriathw^ by a fxratagem evades the

purfuit of C<£pio.

He demands peace of. him ineffebtualy.

depio, become odious to the whole army, runs a great

A

a

rf(iue

C
fifque.

ON TENTS.
Viriathus to he
killed hy

He

caufes
:

treachery.

His

obfequies

bis merit.

continuing the ficge

Pompey ruins his troops by of Numantia during the winter. He

Pomconcludes a treaty of peace with the ISumantines. pey afterwards denies having made that treaty^ and has Example of interefi enough to be acquitted at Rome.
The two Confuls imprifoned feverity againji a deferter. Confiancy of the Conful by the Tribunes of the People.
Brutus builds Valencia. Ncfica in refpe^ to the People. He purges the province of robbers. Popillius defeated

Mancinus arrives behy Jtratagem before Numantia. He retires by nighty and is purfued by fore that city.
the Numantines.
tiated hy Tiberius.

He makes an infamous treaty negoHe is ordered to Rome. Mancinus
Numantia are heard
in the Senate.

and

the Deputies of

Ti. Gracchus ftrongly fupports

the caufe of Mancinus.

The Conful yEmilius
lantia^

attacks the Vaccctiay befieges Pal-

and

is

at length obliged to fly with precipitation.

Succefs of

It

is

P^ffage of the river Lethe. decreed at Rome, that Mancinus fkould be delivered

Brutus in Spain.

They refufe to receive him. Numantines. He Noble confideyice of the Conful FuScipio yEmilianus is eleEled Conful. rius in his virtue. He labours and S^ain is given him for his province. It affumes an entirely fuccceds in reforming his army.
to the

returns to Rome.

niw

afpe£i.

Juguriha comes

to join

Scipio.

Marius

ferves under him.
tines battle.

Scipio perfifls in rcfufing the
lines

Numan-

He draws

cumvallation round the

city.

of contravallation and cirHe flmts up the paffage of

Wonderful order that he eftablifhes the river Durius. Vain efforts of the for being informed of every thing. Scipio They implore aid of the Arvaci. Numantines.
Jeverely punifhes the city of Lutia.
tntercjlednefs

peace.

Gencrofily and difThe Numantines fend to ajk Famine Numantia maffacres her Deputies,

of Scipio.

makes horrible havock
renders.
demoUfloed.

in that place.

It at length furis

Many

Numantia Triumphs tf Sapio and Brutm.
kill

thewfelves.

totally

Reflexi-

ons upon the courage of the Numantines^ and the r^in

of Numantia.

Private

life

of Scipio /ifricanus,

i

Sed.

,

CONTENTS.
Se6l. II.
Affairs that happened at Ro-me.
Cenfors.

Ge-

nerous confiancy of the tribunes of the People again ft one Death of Cato^s fon^ Census. of their own CoUegues. and of Lepidus the Pontifex Maximus. Galba^ accufd

Condemnation of 'Tubulus. hy Cato, is acquitted. Severe fentence of Mo.nlius Iforquatus againfl his on. Scipio Africavus accufed. He accufes Cotta^ who is ac-

f

quitted.

Singular
in

Change

conduct of heellm in a pleading. the government in refpe5l to the Pr^tors.
.

Cenforjhip of Scipio

Newfuperjiitionsprcfribed. LaiJU Calpurnia againjl extortions. Sumptuary lawspajjed at

different times concerning the expences

of the public fchools offaltation.

Law

of the table, ylbufe Licinia concern-

ing the election of Pontiffs. Scrutinies introduced at in the election of the Magifirates. "The method of fcrutiny is alfo introduced in ti ials : then in the p ffing

Rome

of laws abroad.

andlaftly., in trial of State criminals. IVars Appius Claudius makes war againjl the Salaffi, and triumphs by the aid of his daughter a veftal. The
:

Ardyani

defeated^

cf the Jlaves in

Sicily.

andfubje^ed to the Romans. War with Ariflonicus.

IVar 6i

BOOK
Seft.
I.

XXVIII.
father and mother of

Ti. Gracchus

and

Cornelia.^

the Gracchi.
cation oj her

Cornelians extraordinary care of the edu-

racter of the
is

two fons. Similitude and difference cf chatwo brothers. 'Tiberius^ when very young

ele'^ed

Augur.

He ferves

under Scipio in Africa^

and afterwards in Spain under Marcinus as ^afor. Treaty of Numantia the caufe and origin of his "misfortunes.
is

Tiberius efpoufes the party of the People.

He

ek5fed Tribune,

and revives the Agrarian laws.

Complaints cf the Rich againjl him. 05taviuSy one cf his collegues., cppofcs his law. Tiberius endeavors to
bring over his collegue hy fair means, but ineffectually. He undertakes to have 05lavius depofed, in which he
fucceeds.
rius.

Reflexion upon that violent proceeding of Tih;-

The law for

the diftribution of lands
it in

is

paffed.

Three commiffiomrs appointed for putting

execution.
A.'u^

A

3

CONTENTS.
Mucins
catifes
is

fubftituted to

O^a-vius.

^therms perfuades
life.

the Peofle^ that dejigns ave fo'i^med againji his

He

a decree to pafs for the dijiribtttion of the eflates He undertakes ef /it talus amoNgjt the poorer citizens. to jufhify the depofuion of Ocfavim, and to have himfelf
cont.nued in the
Capitol.
office

of 'Tribune.
Seditious
in the

He

is killed in

the

Reflexion upon that event.

The

accomplices

cf 'Tiberius condemned.
Craffus
is eleffed
is

Triumvir

pio Nq/ica
ple.

fcut into Afia to
retires.

anfwer of Blofius. P. room of Tiberius. Sciavoid the fury of the Peo-

Caius Gracchus

Anfwer of

Scipio Afri-

Speech of canus upon the death of Tiberius. Cenfus. the Cenfor Mctellus to exhort the citizens to marry. Fury

of the Tribune Atinius againft Metellus.

Difficulties

of

the difiribution of lands. Scipio declares in favour of He is found dead thofe^ that vjere in poffieffion of lands.
in his bed.

His

obfeqiiies.

Ill-timed frugality of Tuber o.

Scipio's remotenefs

man.

M^

Praife of that great Caius applies himfelf to the fiudy of eloquence goes to Sardinia as ^iffor. His dream. His wife
i?i

from pomp.

€ondu^
Senate.

Sardinia.

His great reputaticn alar-ms the

Turbulent defgr.s of Fulvius. Corifpiracy fupHejujliCaius returns to Rome. preffied at FregeU<r. He is defied fies himfelf ehtinly before the Cenfor s.

Tribune notwithflanding the oppofition of the Nobles,

His praife. He prepcfes fevered laws. He undertakes^ and executes fevtral ptdlick works of importance. Fannius is elecied Confid by the interejt cf Caius. Caius
is

C

chofcn Tribune for the fecond time.

He

transfers the

adminiflration of jufiiee from the Senate to the Knights. The Senate^ to ruin the credit of Caius^ makes Drufus

felf.

one of his collegues., oppofe him, and becomes popular itCaius carries a celcny to Carthage. Drufus takes

advantage of his abfeme. changes his habitation.

He Caius returns to Rome. Decree of the Conful Fannius contrary to the interefis of Caius. Caius quarrels with his collegues. They prevent him from being ele^ed Tribune for the third time. Eveij thi'ng is ripe for his de-

The Conful Opimius makes the Senate takl firu^tion. arms. Licinia exhorts her hufband Caius to provide for
his

CONTENTS.
his fafety.
tually.

He

endeavours an accommcdation

ineffec-

Fiilvius is kilkd upon

followers put to flight.

mount Aventins, and his Sad end of Caius. His kead^

upon which a price had beenfet, is carried to Opiu.ius. His body is thrown into the Tiber. Temple ere^ed to Concord. Honours rendered the Gracchi by the People. Agrarian laws of the Gracchi annulled. Retreat of Cormlia to Mifenum. Fate of Opimius. Reflexion upon
the Gracchi,

oa

Scd.

II. TFines of the Confulfhip of QpimiuS. Africa ruined by grafhoppers^ and afterwards infefted zvith a plrgue^ occafioned by their dead bodies. Sempronius triumphs

over the Japodes^ and Metellus over the Dalmatians,

and fame States of Gallia firft over the TranfaU Sextius fuhje^s the Sdluvians, and builds pine Gauls. The Allobroges and Arverni draw the the city of Aix. Roman arms againft them. Opulence of the latter people. Embaffy from the King of the Arverni to Domitius. The Allobroges and Arverni are defeated by Domitius. Great
againft the Balearians.,

War

Tranfalpina.

Fulvius triumphs

victory gained by Fabius over the fame people. Perfidy Reman province in of Domitius in refpe5l to Bituitus. Trophies ereSfed by the vigors. the Gauls. Their tri^ War againjl the Scordifci. Lepidits noted by umphs. the Cenfors for living in an houfe of too great a rent. Thirty-two Senators degraded by the Cenfors \ amongfi

Marius' s friend. Beginnings of Character of his eloquence. His prcbityfuf He had wrote his life. His pe£fed in matters of gain.
the reft Caffius Sabaco^

Scaurus.

Confulfhip.

He

is eleEled

fortune of Metellus Macedonicus.
tion of dignities in the houfe

Prince of the Senate. Good Surprizing accumula-

fuffer themfelves to be corrupted.
"Ihe orator

of the Metelli. Three veftals They are condemned.
this affair.,

Marcus Antonim involved in

and

Temple ere^ed to Venus Verticordia. Human violims. Car bo accufed by L. Craftus. GeneHis timidity. Single occafion on which roftty of Craffus. C. Cato condemned for extorCraffus oppofes the Senate.
acquitted.
tions^

Scrupulous exaSinefs of Pifo in refpe^ to a gold

ring,

A

4

16^

BOOK

CONTENTS.

BOOK
Se£b.
I.

XXIX.

/Jhridgment of the hijlory of MafiPrince. Partition of his domithat Praife of jtiffa. Charauier and great qualities of death. his nions after Majiniffa^ fends Jugurtha Midpfa^ of Jugurtha. fin
Prearable.

'

He acquires great at the fiege of Niimaniia. repitaii:n there. Scipio fends home Jugurtha with a letMicipfa, at his reter to Mcipfa^ full of his fraifes.
tofrve
turn.,

adopts him.

horts lis three fins to live in
yotingefl fin.,
to he killed.
tle

Being at the point of death., he exgreat unity. Hiempfal^ the quarrels with Jugurtha, who caufes him Adherhal the eldcfl, is defeated in a bat-

and takes refuge at Rome. Jugurtha Rome, and corrupts the principal perThe Senate fends Commijfioners to the Senate. fi- s of new partition of that kingdom bea make to Numidia, Adherbal. Jugurtha attacks Adand tween Jugurtha to take arms. He defeats his him obliges herhal, and him T^he Senate^ hejieges in Cirta. and brother's army,
by Ju^^urtha^

fends deputies to

by their Deputies, order them to lay down their arms. Jugurtha, notwithjianding thofe orders, continues the
Jirge

with vigour.
its aid.

Adherhal writes

to the

Senate, to

implore

Deputies are fent to Jugurtha,

who

Adherbal furrenders and is murdered. conclude nothing. He finds his fon as again War is declared ft Jugurtha.

a Deputy

to

Rome, who

is

ordered to quit Italy.

The

Conful Lalpurnitis arrives in Numidia at the head of Jugurtha corrupts him and alfo Scaurus^ the arm-y.

and makes a pretended returns to Rome, and is
bune

treaty with them.
univerfally blamed.

Cdpurnius The Tri-

Memmius

animates the People by harangues againji

L. Cajfius is deputed to Jugurtha and his accomplices. Jugurtha, and perfuodeshim to go to Rome, to give an account of his condu^. Jugurtha arrives at Rome, and
corrupts the Tribune C- B^bius.

Memmius interrogates
B^cbius forbids

Jugurtha juridically before the People.

him

to

anjwer, and breaks up the affembly.

Jugurtha

caufis

Maffiva

to

he offaffinated at
Italy,

Rome.

He

uceives

orders to quit

Rome and

193
Seft.

:

CONTENTS.
Seft. II. JugirTtha eludes the attacks of the Conful Albinus. Reflexion of Salluji upon the prefent ftate of Rome. Me.

telliis is

charged with the

choice of

war of Numidia. Mariusfcr one of his Lieutenants.

He makes On his ardifiplins

rival in Africa, his firft care
in the army.

is to re-eft ahlifh

Jugurtha fends Deputies to Metellus who engages them to deliver up their maftsr to him. Metellus marches his army into Numidia with great precaution.

defend himfelf by arms.

Jugurtha^ finding himfelf amufed, rejolves to Battle, in which that Prince is defeated. He raifes a new army. Metellus ravages the whole fiat country. Jugurtha furprizes part of the Roman army. Great joy at Rome for the vi^ory gained
over Jugurtha, New vigilance of the Conful to prevent being furprized. Jugurtha continues hisJkinjiifijes*

Metellus hefieges Zama. During the winter-quarters he endeavours to bring over Jugurtha^s confidents. 'The

King,

betrayed by Bomilcar, confents to furrender ct

difcretion to the

Romans.

Deprived cf every thing, he
is

again takes up arms.

Metellus

continued in the com-

Jugurtha prepares for the war. The inhabitants of Vacca maffacre the Roman garrifon. It is put to fire and fword by Metellus. Origin of the emnity between Marius and Metellus. Beginnings of Marius* His birth. He makes his s education and character. firft campaigns under Scipio Africanus, and acquires his He is created a military Tribune \ and afterefteem. wards Tribme of the People. He caufes a law topafs,
mand.

H

mtwithjtanding the opprjition of the Senate. He prevents a largefs, which one cf his Collegues is for giving the People. He is Hefuffers two repulfs in one day. chofen Pr<etor with great difficulty, and accufed of caballing for that
office.

He

inarrics Julia.

His fortitude

agairft pain.
.

He

is

chofen Lieutenant General by

Me-

His conduct in that employment. Metellus refufes him pcrmiffion to go to Rome to demand the Co}?ful' piracy of Bomilcar Conf fhip. Marius decries Metellus. covered. He is put to death. Excgainft Jugurtha dif treme dread and trouble of Ju;^urtha. Metellus grants Marius his d'ijcharge. Manus is defied Conful. "-ihe
telhu.

war"

i S

CONTENTS.
-war againjl Jugurtha
is

confided to his care,

Cicero*

Marius for attaining the Battle, in which Jugurtha' s perplexities. Confulf}jip. He retires to Thala, and quits itfoon af^ he is defeated. The place is hefieged^ and taken by the Romans. ter. Jugurtha arms the Gdetuli. He engages Bocchus to declare againji the Romans. I'he t-mo Kings march towards
opinion of the means ufed by
Cirta.
lus^

Metellus repairs thither

alfo.

Grief of Metel-

when he

receives advice^ that

tofucceed him.
'Deputies^

He holds

Marius is appointed a conference with Bacchus by

225

Se6l. III.

Marius prepares every thing for his departurei He fets out from Rome, and the People. harangues He is perfe^ly well received Metellus in Africa. arrives a triumph is granted him. honour ''The at Rome. of

Upon an

accufation

of

extortion.^

his judges

refufe to
be--

Marius examine the journal of his adnmtiflration. troops his war. inuring and for gins by forming,
befieges
befteges

and takes Capfa., a place of importance. a caftle, which was thought impregnable, and
he finds at
it.

He He

is almoft difcouraged by the difficulties

A

and gets to the top of the again with a fmall detachment He re-afcends it fort. detachment enters the fort) Ihe given him by Marius. arrives in the camp^ and the place is taken. Sylla Roman. Bocchus Birth and character of that famous attack They Marius^ joins Jugurtha with his troops. and have fome advantages at firjt. They are afterMarius^ s care in 'wards defeated and put to the rout. New battle, in which the Romans are marching. Bocchus finds Deputies to Marius^ again victorious. and then to Rome. Marius, on the infiances of BocAfter much ftuciuation, he chus, fends Sylla to him. The latter delivers up Jugurtha into Sylla's hands.
Ligurian climbs up the rocks,
afcribes

the glory
:

triumph

Facts.

Marius'' of this event 10 himfclf Detached' end of Jugurtha. The fon of Fabius SerCenforfijip of Scaurus.
miferable

vilianiis banifhed the city,

father for
.^

his

infamous conduct.

and then put to death by his The fon of Fabius
Allc'

CONTENTS.
JUohrogicus interdi^ed hy the Frator. Singular characHe is condemned for His vanity. ter of T. Albiicius. Scaurus accufed before the People, and acextortion. The tribune Domiquitted not without great difficulty.
tius transfers the ele^icn

of Pmtiffs and Augurs to the

People,

260

BOOK
Se<5t. t.

XXX.

Of

the

Cimbri and Teutonesy German nations.

Incurftons of thofe nations into different countries. They are attacked in Ncricum by the Conful Car bo, and de-

They move into the country of the Helvetii. They beat the ConThe gain a great victory The Tigurini in Gaul. Silanus ful The Conful C<£pio plunders over the Conful L. Caffius. Cn. Mallius, a man of no methe gold of Touloufe. rit, is made Conful, andfent into Gaul to fupport Capio, Aurelius ScauJDiffention between Capio and Mallius.
feat him.
Tigurini and Tugenijoin them.

rus defeated and taken by the Cimbri.

Terrible defeat

of the

Reman

armies.

The Cimbri

refolve to

march

to

Alarm and ccnfternation of the Romans. RuMatilius exercifes and difciplines the troops perfectly. The Cifnbri rius is elehed Conful for the fecond time. The marching of the Cimbri fet cut towards Spain. Geinto Spain leaves Marius time to form his troops. He digs a new canalfor the nerous aSiion of Marius.
Rome.
Rhone.

He is

elected Conful for the third time.

Sylla

perfuades the Marfi to enter

into

an

alliance

with the
Alarius

Romans.
is elected

The Cimbri are defeated

in Spain.

The Cimbri and Marius deTeutor.es fcparate, and the Confuls afo. Martha, a Syrian clines fighting with the Teiitones. •woman, given out by Marius for a prcphctefs. Marias The Teuiones continue their refufes a Jingle combat. inarch, and advance towards the Alps. They are entirely defeated by Marius near the city of Aix. The Roman army prefents Marius with the fpoilsy who caufts them to be fold at a very low price. Marius, whilfl
Conful for the fourth time.

employed at a facrifice, receives advice that he
7

is elected

Con-

CONTENTS.
'The Cimbri enter Italy. Cotiful for the fifth time. the Adige. Marius joins his force the pafs of

They army

Battle fought near Vercell^. with that of Catulus. entirely The news of this Cimbri are defeated. The incredible joy at Rome. Marius trivi^ory occafions Catulus. with Misfortune umphs jointly of depio. agreeable Senate to the by a law^ He makes himfelf adrninijlration in part to that rejiores the juflice which of command^ and his is He divefted of eflate is order.
ccnfifcated.

He is afterwards excluded the Senate. He is condemned by the People for plundering the gold of again
Confequences of that fentence,
Italy.,

Touloufe.

291
excited by

Se6t. II. lnfurre5lions cf the flaves in
Vettius the

Roman
Sicily.

Knight.

the fiaves in

Occafion of the revolt of Six thoufand revolted fiaves chufe

They form an army of twenty Another revolt two thoufand horfe. thoufand foot ^ and is leader. Athenion Salvius, cf the fiaves^ of which who had taken the name of Tryphon, unites all the Lucullus is forces of the rebels under his command. fent into Sicily^ and gains a great violory over the fiaves. But he negleSis to take advantage of it. Servilius fucTryphon dies, and Athenion is chofen ceeds Lucullus. King in his fiead. The Conful M\ Aquillius terminates Parricide committed by Publicius Malleolus. the war. Marius by intrigues and Punjfhment cf parricides. Origin of the hatred money obtains a fixth Confulfioip.
Salvius for their King.

cf Saturninus for the Senate.

He

the People^ and attaches hitnfelf to Marius.

becomes Tribune cf Cenfor-

fhip of Metellus Numidicus, and violent contefts beThe latter infults the Amtween him and Saturninus.
haffadors
acquitted.

of Mithridates.

He

is

cited to a trial
is

and

Having

killed

Nonius, he

e'eBed Tribune

'

He fropofeSt andpafies for the feccnd time in his fiead. a new Agrarian law. Vile fraud of Marius. MeteU lus, of all the Senators, refufes to take an unjufi oath.

He

is

banifhed.

Infolence
to

of Saturninus.

conduB of Marius

infiame divifions more

'New

exctffes

of Saturninus.

6

Unworthy and mere. All the orders of the Commonwtalth

^

CONTENTS.
Ttionwealth unite againfi

him

:

he

is

put

to death.

His

memory

is detejied.

'The fa5iion of Marius prevents the

return of Metellus.
rius quits

Rome

J

to

Glorious reed of Metellus. Maavoid being witnefs of the return

of Metellus^

326

Antonius had triumphed over Se6l. III. Birth of defar. Aauillius^ accufed of extortion, is faved the Pirates..
by the eloquence of Antonius.
the

Opprejfive exanions of

Roman Magif rates
Duronius
is

in the provinces.

Admirable

prohibited.

vi5}ims Senate for a very The kingdom of Cyrene left to the remarkable reafon. Romans by will. Sertorius a military Tribune, Jignalizes
expelled
tice

condii5l rf Sc^vola, Proconful

of Afia.

Human

Praife of Crajfus, and Sdevola. himfelf in Spain. Laiv paffed by the Confuls to prevent ufurping the freedom of Rome without right. Scavola renounces the

government of the province fallen
grity

to

him by

lot.

Inte-

and

noble confidence of Craffus.

Sedition of

fummoned to take his trial. Wife advice given him by Antonius, of Sulpicius. Sylla. He exhibits a fhew of a combat^ Pratorfhip of
banus.
is

He

NorCharaMer

with an hundred linns unchained. Decree of the Cenfors Crafjiis and Domitius againfi the Latin rhetoricians. Debates between the Cenjcrs. Luxury of the orator
Craffus.
into voluntary banifhment.

Unjufi condemnation of Rutilius. He goes He is invited to return to

Rome

by

Sylla.,

and

refufes.

He had made

himfelf maf-

ter of all polite knowledge

^50

BOOK
Se6l.
I.

XXXL

IVar with the allies. Its nature, origin, and duArdent dfire of the allies to have the freedom The Senators^ to recover the adminifi ration ef Rome. of jufiice, fupport ther.ifclves with the Tribune Drufus. That Tribune labours to gain the people by laws favourable to the muhitude and the allies., by the promife of making them citizens. The Conful Phdippus cppofs the laws of Drufus^ C^pio^ another opponent of Drufus,
ration.
;

Vio-

CONTENTS.
The Violence of Drufus againfi depio and Pbilippus. to law divide new the admi'Drufus Jaws pafs. of nifiration of juftice between the Senators and Kn ghts. Perplexity of Drufus^ who cannot keep his promife with Inflexible conjlancy of Cato whilji only an inthe allies.

A

fant.

Proceedings of the
the Senate.

alliis.

Saying of Philippus

injurious to

Conteji on that

head between

Craffus and

Philippus.

flexion en his death.

Death of Craffus. Cicero's reDeath of Drufus. His charati^r.

All

his

laws are annulled.

Law pfffed

by Varius for

informing againfi thofe, tvho had fuvcured the allies. Scaurus Cotta accufed^ goes into voluntary banifjment.
extricates himfelf out of danger by
his conftancy

and

Vat ius himfelf^ condemned by bis own laWy haughtinefs. The allies prepare for a revolt. perifhes miferably. elves into a republick. Maffacre at AfThey form themf Italy. the (tales revolt Open Embaffy of culum. of of the allies to the Romans^ before they enter into the war. They have the advantage at firfi. Unjuji fufpicions of The the Conful Rutdius againfi: many of the Nobility. Marius advifes execution of the law Varia fufpended. Rutilius is the Conful to decline a battle ineffetlually. Grief and confianation of Rome. defeated and killed. C^pio, deceived by Pompedius, pcrijhes in an ambufcade
Viuicry of the Conful with a great part of his army. JuliuSy which makes the Romans refume the hcbits of Victory began by Marius^ and complcated by peace. Marius declines a battU. tie retires with little Sylla. He Icfes an eye by Sertorius fignalizes bimfdf. glory. a wound in battle. His fentiments on that occafion. Two flaves fave their mifirefs at the forming of GruVi^fory of Cn. Pompeius, in con/equenee of mcntmn. which the magifirates of Rome refume the ornaments of Freedom of Rome granted to fuch of their dignities. Freedm-:n admitted the allies as had continued faithful. The Conful Pcmpeius prejfes the into the landfrvice. He beats the Marji, and juhjeUs fiege of Afculum. Aflave of Vettius kills his ether neighbouring people. The Conful Pcrcius is killed mafler^ and then himfelf. Young Marius is fnfpe^ed of being the auin a battle.

thtr

CONTENTS.
iHhorof his death.
Sylla

Pompeii.

He

takes upon

dejlroys StaUce, and hefieges him the command of Pojlumiui's

army, and does not revenge the death of that General He defiroys an army of the murdered by his foldiers. He is honoured with Samnites commanded by Cluentius.

a Corona obfidionalis. He conquers the Hirpini. He enters Samnium^ and gains feveral advantages there. He returns to Rome to ft and for the Confulfhip. He glories in the title

of Fortunate [Fselix.]

Inconfjlency of
their arms.

his character.

The Marfi

lay

down

Ge-

neral council of the league transferred to Efernia, Judacilius, defpairing to fave his country Afculum, poifons

'Triumph of Jfculum taken by Cn. Pompeius, in led captive. which Ventidius is PomCn. Pompeius,
himfelf pedius
enters

Bovianum

in

triumph, and

is

defeated

Emhaffy of The fVar of the allies fubfifis only in a lanpurpofe. Eight new Tribes formed by the new ciguid manner.
killed.

and

the allies to

Mithridates, to no

tizens.

Cenfors.

Afellio Pnjetor of the city affafftnated

in the

Forum

at ufury.

Law

by thefa^ion of the rich, who lend money Plaiitia, de vi publica. By another

law of
ConfuL

the fame Tribune, the Senators are refiored to
Sylla
is

a

fjare in the adminijlration of jujlice.

ele^ed

Debate on thatfubje5i between him and C. Ca-

Se(5l. ir.

Marius^s jealoufy of Sylla rifes to occafion of a prefnt made by Bocchus
People.

excefs on the
to the

Roman

Both are ambitious of commanding in the war againji Mithridates. Marius isfupported by P. Sulpicius. That Tribune's chara5ler. The Senate having given to Sylla the command of the war againji Mithridates, Sulpicius endeavours to make the People transfer it to Marius. Sedition upon that occafion. Marius prevails, and bas the employment he defired conferred upon him by the People. Sylla marches with his army againji Rome. Perplexity Marius. Deputations by him to Sylla in the fent of name of the Senate. The latter feizes Rome. Marius
flies.

Sylla prevents

Rome from

being plundered.

He
nate,

reforms the government, raifed the authority of the Se-

CONTENTS.
nate^
rius,

and

deprejfes that

of the People.

He

caufes

Ma-

Su/pichis,

and

ten

other Senators to be declared

Sulpicius is taken enemies of the publick. Sylla's moderation. Flight of Marius.

and

killed.

He

fuffers

Cinna
rage.

to be eleSled Conful.

T^he Conful

^

Marius' s party Pompeius is killed by
Italy.,

refiime

cmhim

his foldiers.

Cinna, in order to force Sylla to quit
to be accufed by a 'Tribune of the People.
to

caufes

He

endeavours

have Marius

recalled.

Tofucceed in that view, he

undertakes to mingle the yiew citizens with the old tribes.
Sedition on Phat occaficn,
city.

Cinna

is

He

has Sertorius with him.

driven out of the Cinna is deprived
his fiead.

of the

Confiilfhip^

He gains

the army,

and Merula appointed in which was in Campania.
to his intereji.

He

con-

ciliates the States

of Italy

the Ccnfuls.

Marius

Perplexity of returns into Italy, and is received

They march againfi Rome. Pompeius Strabo Battle, in which one comes at lafl to the aid of Rome. The Samnites join Cinna'' s party. brother kills another. Death of Pompeius Strabo. Hatred of the public for
by Cinna.

him.
nate.

Marius

offers

O^avius

battle,

who

dares not

accept his defiance.

Deputies fent to Cinna by the Sethe Confulfhip.

Merula

abdicates

New

depu-

tation to Cinna.

Council held by

Marius and Cinna,

folved.

wherein the deaths of thcfe of the contrary party are reMarius and Cinna enter the city, which is given
to all the horrors of

war. Death of the Conful OcDeath of the two brothers L. and C. C^far, and of the Craffi, father andfon. Death of the orator M. Antonius, Catulus, and Merula. Horrible JlaughHumanity Cornutus favedby his Jlaves. ter at Rcme.
up
tavius.

of the
elties

Roman

People.

Lenity of Sertorius.

New cru-

Saevola wounded with His death. of Marius. Reflexion upon the a dagger at the funeral of Marius. Reflexion upon character of Marius, and his fortune.
thefiate of Rome.,

439

THE

[

1

]

THE

ROMAN HISTORY^
FROM THE

FOUNDATION
T
O T H E

of

RO

ME
U
AT.

BATTLE
BOOK
THE

of

A C T

I

TWENTY-SEVENTH.

includes principally the war with Viriathus, and the fiege of Numantia and, laflly, fome detached fad: till the commotions of the Gracchi,
years.
It
:

THIS

book contains the fpace of about

twenty

S
Spain gives the

E C'T.

I.

Remans great pa'm and
in Cdtiberia.

difquiet.

'They

have feveral
Deputies.

loJJ'es

to Rome, The Senate refers them to MarceHus^ hut The Roman youth refufe to ferve fecretly decrees w^r. Toung Scipio offers is fervice, and draws in Spain.

fend Deputies

Several States of Sprin. to ajk peace. Speech of the

I.

Marcellus conc'udr.s a peace youth after him. with the Celtiberians. Cruel avarice of the Ccnful Luall the

VoL. VI.

B

culhiS

CONTENTS.
cullus.

Siege

and taking of

Intercatia.

Singular battle

and
fiege

viulory of Scifio.

of Pallantia. Luftania. Deteflable perfidy of that Prator, Viriacapes being murthered. thus ef From a poor fhephtrd he becomes a terrible warrior. By various ftratagems^
in zvhith he abounds.^ he defeats the
occafions

forms and raifes the The Praetor Galba is defeated in

Lu cullus

Romans

on feveral

The

Conful

Fahius Mmilianus

marches

againft Viriathus.

A faying

of Scipid's excludes the

two Confiils from the command of the armies. Fabius gains feveral advantages over Viriathus. Metellus makes
war, during tizo years^ with the Celtiberians. His confiancy and humanity. faying of his upon fecrecy. Prafe aud chara£ler of Viriathus. After having de-

A

feated the Conful Fabius^ he retires into Lufitania.

^

Pompeius attains the

a badftratagem. Exceffes of Metellus, when he is informed that Pompeius Various expeditions of Pompeius of is to fucceed him. little ccnfeqiience. Expeditions of Fabius into Hifpania Ulterior. Peace concluded between Viriathus and the Romans. ThaU peace is broken. Viriathus, by a ftratagem, evades the purfuit of Capio. He demands peace him to the whole C^pio, become odious im^ffeSfually. of army, rims a great rifque. He caufes Viriathus to be killed by treachery. His obfequies : his merit. Pompey
ConfuljJoip by

ruins his troops

by

during the winter.

continuing the fiege of Numantia He concludes a treaty of peace with

the Nu-mantines. Pompey afterwards denies having made that treaty, and has interefi enough to be acquitted at Rome. Example of feverity againfi a defer ter. The two Co fills imprifioned by the Tribunes of the People.
}

Ccnfiancy of the Conful Naftca in refpe5f to the People. Biutus builds Valencia. He purges the province of

NuHe retires He makes by nighty He is oran infamous treaty, negotiated by Tiberius. dered to Rome. Mancinus and the Deputies of Nurobbers.

Popillius defeated by firatagem

before

mantia.

Mancinus arrives before that city. and is purfued by the Numantines.

mantia are heard

in the Senate.

Ti. Gracchus ftrongly

fiipports the caufie of

Mancinus.

The Conful Mmilius
attacks

CONTENTS.
attacks the Vaccai, hefteges Pallarjia,

and

is

at length

obliged to fij with precipitation. Succefs of Brutus in Spain. Pajfage of the river Lethe. It is decreed at Rome that Mancinus fuould be delivered to the Numantines.

'They refufe to rece.ve him. confidence

He

returns to Rome.

cf the Conful Furius in his virtue. Scipio j^milianiis is ele^ed Conful. Spain is given him

Noble

for his province.
his army.

He

labours

and fucceeds

in reforming

new afpe^. Jugurtha comes to join Scipio. Mariiis frves under him. Scipio perfifis in refufing the Numa?itines battle. He draws lines of contravallation and circumvallation round th^
It affumes

an

entirely

city. He fhuts up the paffage cf the river Durius. Wonderful order that he eft ablifoes for being informed of every thing. Vain efforts of the Numantims. They

implore aid of the Arvaci. Scipio feverely punifjjes the city of Lutia. Generoftty and d'fmtereftednefs cf Scipio.

I he Numantines fend
her Deputies.
place.
It at length

to afk peace.

Numantia

maffacre's

Famine makes

horrible

havock in that
kill themfclves.

fm renders.

Many

Numantia is totally demoliihed. Triumphs of Scipio and Brutus. Reflexions upjn the courage of the Numantines^ and the ruin of Numantia. Private life of
Scipio rifncanus.

the Roman arms proipered in Africa and Achaia, where they entirely ruined Carthage and Corinth, they had not luch good fuccefs in Spain which, though Icveral times overcome, was never entirely reduced into iUDjeftion. We have already obiervcd elfewhere, that, of all the provinces of the empire, this v/as that which fubmitted with mofi: reludiance to the yoke, was always ready to revolt, and made the longf^ft and moit obftinate refiilance. This is the charadter which * Horace gives it in more than one place, in extolling the victories gained by Auguftus over the States of Spain, either in perfon or
\

HILST

*
fera

Cantabrum indoftum juga
domitus catena, Od.
xiv.
1.

ferre noftra.
1.

viii.

3.

Od. vi. Cantabsr aon

I.

2.

Cantabsr
doraabilis.

ante;

Od.

4.

B

2^

by

^

FULViUS, ANNIUS,

Confuls.

by his Lieutenants, and the glory which he had at length attained of fubjedling it. At the time of which we are fpeaking, Spain found the Romans great employment. Viriathus on one fide, and the Numantines on the other, often defeated their armies, and covered their Generals with fhame and difgrace. I Ihall not give the war with Viriathus, and that with As the durathe Numantines, two different Names. tion of the firft is contained in that of the fecond, and the events of both are intermixed in fome degree, I Ihali comprize the whole under the name of the war of Spain. It was made on different fides, during the fpace of twenty years, with fome interruption, but always with animofity and inveteracy ; which Ihews *, that it was not a war of glory and ambition, but of enmity and hatred, which could only terminate with This war ended the ruin of one of the two nations. with the entire deftrudion of Numantia.
A.R.
592.

Q^OpiMius.
L. POSTUMIUS.

Ant. C.
154.

A vi6tory gained by the Lufitanians over the Prsetor Calpurnius Pifo, animated the neighbouring States, drew them all into the revolt, and made them take
arms againft the Romans.

The

fear left this infurredion

might have unhappy

confequences, occafioned the election and departure of the Confuls to take place fooner than ufual.
A.R-

599.

Ant. C.
>53'

Q^FULVIUS NOBILIOR. 1\ AnNIUS LuSCUS.
entered upon office no longer on the of March, as had been the ancient cuflom, but on the firft of January and this example became

The Confuls

fifteenth

:

the rule.
* Cunn Celtibcris bellnm, lit cum animicis, gerebatur, uter uter imperaret. Offic. i. 38.
effet,

non

Ful-

FULYIUS, ANNIUS,

Confuls.

g

Fulvius, having Spain for his province, marched A. R. 599 againft the Celtiberians called Belli. That people oc- "^"^* ^^ CLipied Segeda, a very llrong and powerful city, and Appian. fortified it extremely, notv/ithftanding exprefs prohi- ij. ?^^^When they were informed of zy^^ig'i. bitions of the Senate. the Conful's approach, who advanced at the head of an army of thirty thoiifand men, not having time to compleat their fortifications, they retired with their wives and children into the country of the Arvaci,

whofe principal
aid againfl

city

was Numantia, imploring

their

the

common enemy.

The

latter

placed

Carus, a citizen of Segeda, at the head of their troops, one of the moft able captains of the country. Having laid ambufcades for the Romans, he attacked them with twenty thoufand foot, and five thoufand horfe the adlion was very warm, and the fuccefs doubtful. Each fide loft fix thoufand men. The Arvaci retired the following night into Numantia. The Conful followed them thither the next day, and incamped three miles from the city. fecond battle enfued. The Romans had the advantage at firft, and purfued the enemy to the gates of Numantia. But the ele^yhants which Mafinifi'a had fent them, having turned againft themfelves, the Numantines, who law that the Roman troops were in diforder, fallied out of the city, attacked them vigoroufly, and killed them above four thoufand men. They loft on their fide near half that number. The Romans had ftill fome other bad fuccefies. Ocilis, a famous city of the country where the Confal had de^ pofited his money and provifions, furrendered to the
:

A

Celtiberians.

Prastor L. Murnmius, in Kifpania Ulterior, Appreceived at firft a confiderable blow but afterwards,
:

The

ibid,

having been taught by his difgrace, he gained many advantages, which, though not decifive, acquired him the honour of a triumph." It was this Mummius who, in his Confulfhip, of which we have fpoketi already, took and deftroyed Corinth.

B

3

M. Claudivs*

6
A.R.600.
Ant. c.
152.

POSTUMIUS, LICINIUS,
]y[,

Confuls.

Claudius Marcelll's
rLACCCUS.
1-'

III.

T TJL. V ALERIUS

Appian.

the Celtiberians.

Conful Marcelhis had no great fuccefs againft He, however, retook the city of Ocilis, from which he demanded hoftages, and thirtytalents of filver (about thirty thoufand crowns). Whilit he was preparing to befiege Nergobrix, the inhabitants fent Deputies to him, to dem.and peace upon fuch conHe replied, that they ditions as he fhould think fit. had no peace to hope, unlefs the Arvaci and Celtiberians, furnamed Belli, joined with them in making Thofe People made no difficulty the fame demand. The Conful granted them a truce, to confent to this. in order to give them time to apply to the Senate. Other States, in the alliance of Rome, fent alfo their Deputies thither, to oppofe the demand of the firft, not believing themfelves fafe unlefs covered by the

The

Roman

arms.

Marcelius took up his winter-quarters in a place called Corduba, fituated upon the river Bstis, in an He enlarged the place, extremely fertile country. and fortified it, fo that he was confidered as its founder. And this is the origin of the colony of Cordova. Mummius having quitted Lufitania, to go to Rome to demand a triumph, the Prstor M, Atilius took upon him the government of that province in his room. The new General, after fome flight fuccelTes, having retired with his troops into winter quarters, the revolt became almoft general amongft thofe States and they attacked fome cities which had declared for the Romans.
;

A.K.^'Ojt. Ant. C.
j^i,

j^^
-f

PosTUMius Albinus.
J_.ICINIUS L,UCULLUS.
f
T

L..

Pol b.Lcg^*.'.I"-

In the mean time the Deputies, of whom we have fpoke, arrived at Rome. Thofe who were the allies
.
.

•^FP'"^--

^

OX

POSTUMIUS, LICINIUS,
of the

Confuls.
:

7

People were received into the city as A. R. 601 Arvaci, who were confidered as enemies, they '^"'^* ^' the to ^^* remain beyond the Tiber till they ordered to were The Coniul introduced them foon fliould be fent for. audience of the Senate. Ail Barbarians, as an to they gave very were, a clear and judicious acthey the different factions of of their count country. They reprefented, " Thatif thofe who had taken arms ao-ainft the Romans were not punifhed with feverity, thev would not fail, as foon as the Conful's army fhould remove, to fall upon the allies of the Romans, and to treat them as traitors to their country, and that, on the firft advantage they lliould have, it would be eafy for them to draw all Spain into their party. They

Roman

demanded,

in confequence, either that an army fhould continue in Spain, and that a Conful fhould be always year prote6t the allies, and cover them every to fent infults the Arvaci the of or, before the legions from
•,

fhould be recalled, that the rebellion of the Arvaci fhould be fo feverely punifhed, as to deter all thofe who fhould be tempted to follow their exam.ple." Audience was afterwards given to the Arvaci, Though they affefted a kind of humiliation in their words, it was not difficult to perceive, that they did not believe themfelves overcome, and that their hearts were not of accord with this outfide of fubmifTion. " They magnified the advantages they had gained in feveral battles, and put the Romans in mind of the inconftancy of fortune. They declared, however, that if any penalty were laid upon them, they fliould willingly undergo it ; provided that, after havin.othereby expiated the fault which they might have committed through inadvertency, they fliould be reeflablifhed in the fame rights which Ti. Gracchus had granted them by the treaty he had m.ade v/ith them." When the Senate had heard the Deputies of Marcellus, knowing, by their difcourfe, and the General's own letters, that he openly inclined to peace, they
did not think

AmbafTadors of the Spaniards

proper, to explain themfelves to the and contented themfelves with aniwering, that Marcellus would inform
it
•,

S

4

them

'

8

POSTUMIUS, LICINIUS,
'

Confqls,

A.R.6oi,tt,em of the Senate's intentions. But, at the fame time, convinced that the intereft of the allies, and j^", the glory of the Commonwealth, required that they fliould a6t with vigour, they gave orders fecretly to the Proconful's deputies, who were fetting out for Spain, to inform him that he was to make war againft the Arvaci with vigour, and in a manner worthy of
the

Roman

name.

Cellus, they

little upon the courage of Marthought of fending him a fucceffor, with pew troops, as loon as poJTible, The Confuls wanted neither zeal nor ardor ; but when the queflion was, to make the levies, difficulties arofe, which furprized It had been the more, as they were leaft expefted. told at Rome by Q^Fulvius, and the foldiers who had ferved under him in Spain, th^at they had been obliged to be almofl always under arms ; that they had innumerable battles to fight and fuftain that an infinite number of Romans had perifl-ted in them ; that the courage of the Ccltiberians was invincible; and that Marcellus trembled for fear he fnould be ordered to make war longer againft them. This news occafioned fo great a confternation amongft the youth, that, in the fenfe of the oldeft Romans, the like had never been known. Inftead of more Tribunes than were neceffary, as formerly, nobody ftood for that employment. The perfons whom the Conful charged with the war in Spain appointed their Lieutenants, refufed to follow him. What v/as moft deplorable, the youth themfelves,

As

they relied but

•,

,

cited according to cuftom, would not lift. Senate and Confuls, terrified at fo ftrange and fo unexpeded an event, did not know what meafures finding, in fuch a conjundure, both feverity to take and lenity equally dangerous. Scipio Africanus, who was then fcarce thirty years old, and was the only intrepid and obedient peribn of all that timorous and indocile Youth, on this occafion ftiewed his courage, and, from thenceforth, that he was born either to

though

The

•,

fuftain the glory,

or obliterate the difgrace, of the
rofe up,

Roman name.
go and

He

and

faid,

that he

would

ferve the

Commonwealth

in Spain, either as

Tribune,

POSTUMIUS, LICINIUS,

Confuls.

9
*

Tribune, or in any other rank that fhould be afligned ^'^'^°^' "^'j, him. ." That he was invited to go to Macedonia in a function wherein he Iliould incur lefs danger;'* (the Macedonians having demanded him, by name, for appeafing fome troubles that had arofe in the country) " but that he could not abandon the Commonwealth in fuch a preffing conjundure, which called all thofe into Spain that had any regard for true glory." This difcourfe furprized and charmed. The heir of the Scipios and ^milii was with joy difcerned in this geEvery body ran immediately to nerous refolution. embrace him the next day the applaufes redoubled. How efficacious good example is, was then feeru Thofe who before were afraid to lift, now, apprehending that the comparifon which would not fail to be made between Scipio's courage and their fear, would refled difgrace upon them, were eager either to follicit military employments, or to caufe themfelves to be
:

entered for the fervice.

This generous zeal of young Scipio very naturally mind that which his grandfather by adoption, the firft Scipio Africanus, (hewed in a like conjundure, and in refped: to the fame province. Whilft all this palTed at Rome, the Proconful Mar- Appian.de ^^P' cellus, more cunning than brave, defiring extremely ^f^' to terminate the war before the arrival of his fuccefTor, to difengage himfelf from dangers, and, at the fame time, to fecure to himfelf the glory of having eftablifhed peace in Spain, engaged the Celtiberians, by infmuation and careffes, to make peace. The treaty was concluded, and it was agreed, " That the Celtiberians, after they had given hoftages, and paid the fum of fix hundred talents (about fix hundred thoufand crowns) fhould live according to their own laws, and be deemed the friends and allies of the Roman People." The Conful Lucullus was charged with the war of App. 2S3, Spain, and went thither with defign to make his advantage of the fpoils of fo rich a province. On his arrival, he faw, with grief, that peace was concluded
calls to

with the Celtiberians.
treaty juft

He

did not dare to infringe a
his

made, and turned

views a different way. Pie

lo
A. R,
6oi.

POSTUMIUS, LICINIUS,
He
j-|^g

Confuls.

Ant. c,
151-

refolved to attack the Vaccsei, neighbours of Arvaci, though he had neither the Senate's orders, nor any juit pretext for making war againft them. He however laid fiege to Cauca, one of their principal After a flight and fhort defence, the inhacities. He required hoftages of them, bitants furrendered. with an hundred talents, and that their horfe Ihould He alfo introenter into the fervice of the Romans. duced a g^rrifon of two thoufand men into the city. The Caucsei refufed him nothing. The garrifon im-

mediately opened the gates to the whole army, which put all the youth capable of bearing arms to the fword: twenty thoufand of them were killed. The old men,

women, and

children, were fold into captivity

•,

and

fcarce any one could efcape.

The

report of fo bar-

barous an execution fpread terror throughout the whole country, and caufed the Roman name to be abhorred and detefted every where. From thence Lucullus marched into Intercatia, another very ftrong city of the Vaccaei, where the Spaniards had twenty thoufand foot and two thoufand horfe. The Conful exhorting them to furrender upon reafonable conditions, they replied with infult, " We " muft then forget the proof of your faith, which " you gave at Cauca." The befieged frequently fkirA mifhed, but avoided coming to a general battle. Spaniard, one of the principal perfons of the country, of an extraordinary ftature, and covered with fhining arms, prefented himfelf in the front of the Roman army, challenging the braveft amongft them to fingle combat and, as no one dared to accept the challenge, he infulted the whole army with an air of contempt and ridicule. Young Scipio, who ferved under Lu-cuUus in the quality of Tribune, not being able to bear fo grofs an indignity, advanced boldly, and,
:

when they came to blows, ran his enemy through, and laid him dead at his feet. After this glorious vidtory, the Romans thought only of preffing the fiege. Scipio gave new proofs of his intrepid valour on this occafion, being the firft that mounted the wall when
the affault was given to the place
:

it

however was not
carried.

POSTUMIUS, LICINIUS,
carried.

Confuls.

n

afterwards beine; out to a^-R. 6oi. D fpun ^^ Ant. ^ "'' * great length, and ficknefs fpreading amongfl the 151, troops on both fides, an accommodation was propofed The befieged would confide only in the promife of
fiesfe

The

The agreement was made. The inhabitants Scipio. fupplied the Conful with ten thoufand coats for foldiers, a certain number of great and fmall cattle, with fifty
hoftages
filver,
:

this

had been ilipulated

:

for as to gold

and

the fole things Lucullus fought in this country, there was none to be had. He paid Scipio all the

honours due to him, in the prefence of the army, and adorned him with a mural crown. It is by fuch degrees perfons at length attain tlie firft rank, and it is in this manner that great men are formed. Lucullus, whofe hopes had been fruftrated at theAppian. fiege of Intercatia, fought to make himfelf amends by attacking Palliantia, a very ftrong and opulent city. It was reprefented to him, that this enterprize, in that fealbn of the year, might become very dangerous but avarice has no regard to wife counfels. He at length perceived the truth of them, but to his fhame, being obliged to raife the fiege for want of provifions. The befieged purfued and harraifed him in his march, till he arrived at the river Durius. The Spaniards having retired, the Conful removed into Turdetania, to pafs the winter-quarters there. On the fide of Hifpania Ulterior, that is, in Lufitania, the Prsetor Ser. Sulpicius Galba, who fucceeded M. Atilius, having made a forced march to aid allies who were much prefTed, arrived very opportunely near the enemy, and attacked and put them to flight. However, his troops being extremely fatigued, not having had a moment's reft, did not purfue them with any vigour, and halted from tim.e to time. The
:

enemy perceived this, faced about, attacked the Romans, who could fcarce carry their arms, with vigour, and killed them about feven thoufand men.
Galba could not undertake any thing afterwards, and put his troops into winter-quarters till Lucullus came
to fecond him.

AVe

;

12

POSTUMIUS, LICINIUS,
60T.

Confuls.

A^R.

We

have

faid,

that

Ant. C.
151.

quarters in Turdetania.

LucuUus pafied his winterHaving perceived that the

App.

in

liiip. z82.

troops of the Lufitanians, which were in the neighbourhood, obferved no difcipline, he fent a confiderably ftrong detachment againll them, and killed four thoufand of them. He attacked the army of the fame enemy near Cadiz, and deilroyed fifteen thoufand of them, puflied the reft to an eminence j where, foon after, for want of provifions, they were obliged to He found no farther refinance in Lufifurrender. thefe fuccefles ; and ravaged the whole after tania country with impunity. This example gave Galba courage, and he did the ^^^Q Qj^ }^js f\^Q^ carrying fire and fword every where; which made the revolted people return to their duty, They demanded of Galba to at leaft in appearance. be admitted into the amity of the Roman People, upon the fame conditions as M. Atilius had prefcribed Galba, concealing a black and dethe year before. teftable defign under a gracious and obliging outfide, profelTed, " to take compafiion of their condition, and to be forry to fee, that, rather through neceflity than malignity, they were reduced to rob and pillage that he rightly perceived, it was want and poverty that forced them to follow this kind of life ; that he could, if that feemed convenient, and they would truly become friends of the Roman People, place them in a better foil, and fettle them more to their advantage by dividing them, however, into three bodies, becaufe he had not at his difpofal a fufficient The traft of good land to contain them altogether." air of goodnefs and fidelity with which he fpoke to them, perfuaded them. They accepted his propofal, removed into the three places he pointed out to them, that were feparate from each other, and waited there, After according to his orders, till he fhould return. confider to pretending went to the firft, and this, he them for the future as friends, he induced them to put their arms, for which they had no farther occafion, into his hands ; which they made no difficulty to
-,

do.

do.

13 After having thus diiarmed them, he furrounded A. R. 601. them with intrenchments, and cauled them to be '^'^^' ^' mallacred, whiift they vainly implored the wrath and vengeance of the Gods againft fuch perfidy. He did
the fame in refpedt to the fecond, and then to the Fev/ efcaped the flaughter, of which number third.

MARCIUS, MANILIUS,

Confuls.

was Viriathus, no doubt referved by an exprefs order of the Divine Providence not to fufrer a crime, fo contrary to all laws, human and divine, to pafs with imAuthors do not agree punity, even upon earth. amongft themfelves concerning the number of thofe who periflied upon this occafion, fome m.aking it amount only to nine thoufand, and others to thirty thoufand. Probably the latter have added thofe who were killed to thofe who were fold« Qalba diftributed a very fmall part of the plunder to the army his in:

fatiable avarice engrofied all the reft.

On his return to Rome, he was accufed before the People for this horrible murther. Cato was his ftrongeft and moft formidable adverfary. I fhall give
the reader
all

that relates to this trial in the fequel.

L. Marcius. M. Manilius.

A.R.

605.

^"^- ^•

execution of Galba did not terminate Anp. The Romans foon paid for the ^^^Pperfidy of which they had been guilty with their blood
the war in Lufitania.
that a man of nothing, from the loweft condition of mankind, could ever form the defign of making war with the moft powerful people of the earth ^ This, however, Viriathvis the Spaniard did, who had efcaped the Every inftrument lufSces in the cruelty of Galba. hands of God, when it is his will to chaftife men, and to evidence his juftice. Viriathus, from a fnepherd become an hunter, and from an hunter a robber, had long enured himfelf in the forefts to an hard and laborious life with other mountaineers, all men of bravery and bold like himfslf, without fortune or hopes,

The bloody

in

^^9*

and

defeats.

Could one believe

a defcendant

livini^;

14

MARCatJS, MANILIUS,

Confuls.

A. R. 603. living only from the point of the fword, accuftomcd Ant. C. J.Q £^11 fuddenly from the tops of their mountains upon in a word, contravellers, and to difappear inftantly tinually exercil'ed in the greateft danger and rudeft faHis troops infenfibly, through the reputation tigues. cf their Captain, which increafed every day, augmented fo much, that it became an army j with which he had the courage to make head againft the Generals of the Roman People, as we are going to fee. The army of the Lufitanians, compofed»of ten Appum* The PnTtor C. thoufand men, ravaged Turdetania. Vitilius arrived opportunely, and attacked them fo vigoroufly, that he killed a great number of them, and drove the reft into a place where it feemed impofTible for the;ii to continue without perifhing of hunger, nor remove without being cut in pieces by In this extremity, they fent Deputies to the enemy. the Praetor, to intreat him, " that he would grant them lands which they might cultivate, and where that, in acknowledgement, they they might fettle arms in the fervice of the Roman their employ would would become moft zealous and whom they to People,
-,

:

faithful allies."

Vitilius relilhed this

propofal very

much, and the treaty was upon the point of being concluded, when Viriathus addrefled himfelf to his
comrades to the following effedl " Are ye then ig*' norant with what men you are going to treat ? *' Have you forgot, that the Romans are never to be •' feared more, than when they profefs favour ^ And " will you, by a blind and imprudent temerity, ex" pofe yourfelves to a bloody maflacre, like that *' which, under Galba, has deprived us of fo many " brave companions ? If you will give ear to and " obey me, 1 well know how to extricate you out " of the danger that now makes you defperate." He had no occafion to fay more they all fwore obedience
: :

to

him

that inftant.

immediately drew up his troops, as if to give He chofe a thoufand horfe to accompany him, and gave orders to the reft, as foon as they
battle.

He

fhould

MARCIUS, MANILIUS,

Confuls.

15

Ihould fee him mount on horfeback, to fly imme-A. R, 603. ^^^' ^' diately, difperfmg on feveral fides, and to meet him ^' The Pr^tor, furprized and at the city of Tribola. difconcerted, did not dare to purfue them, apprehending, that the troops which remained would fall upon his rear. He therefore turned all his forces
"

But the latter, by the fwiftnefs of avoided all his attacks, fometimes feeming to fly, and fometimes making a feint of advancing By this condud he kept the Romans againft him. that and the following day in the iame place. When he judged that the reft of the troops v/ere arrived in a fafe poft, he retired in the night, through tracks unknown to others, but very familiar to him, and efcaped the Romans, whom the ignorance of the ways, the weight of their arms, and the little fpeedinefs of their horfe, prevented from purfuing him long and viThe good fuccefs of this ftratagem acgoroufly. quired him great reputation, and much augmented
againft Viriathus.
his horfes,

his authority.

Numbers came from

all

fides to

lift

under
bola,

his banners.

The
a

Prsetor,

knowinrg that Viriathus was at Triagainft him.
It

marched

foreft.

The new

Spanifti General laid an

was neceflary to pafs ambufcade

there, and, having ftiewn himfelf with a fmall

number

of troops, fled precipitately, as if through fear, and drew on the Prretor into marfiiy places. Viriathus eafily extricated himfelf out of them by ways which he knew but this was not the cafe with the Romans,
•,

upon whom the troops in ambufh fell that moment, charging them on the flanks and in the rear. Vitilius was killed. Four thoufand Romans either loft their
were taken prifoners Six thoufand retreated to * Carpefl!us with the Quseftor ; who, not relying
lives, or
:

much upon
Rome.

troops difcouraged by their defeat, had
fent

recourfe to the neighbouring States in alliance with

They

him

five

thoufand

men

5

v/honi

* Appian believes this to be the city of Tartefuis, where Arganthonius, faid to Uave lived uu hundred and i'd'ty years, reigned.

8

Viriathus

6

1

FABIUS, HOSTILIUS,

Confuls.

Viriathus entirely cut to pieces, almoft not a fingle man efcaping.

JiL.

R. 604.
448.

Sp.

POSTUMI US.

^"^^Diod.apud

L. Calpurnius Piso.

Valef. 346.

C. Pkutius, who fucceeded Vitilius, and had brought with him ten thoufand foot and thirteen hundred horfe, was not more luccefsful. In a firft adlion, wherein Viriathus had laid an ambufcade, he loft four thoufand men ; and almoft all the reft in a fecond. At his return to Rome, he was accufed before the People, as having occafioned thefe lofTes by his ill condud; and banifhed. The inhabitants of Segobriga fuffered themfel>«es Front. strat. 111. t-Q be twice deceived by the ftratagems of Viriathus. Seeing a fmall number of foldiers driving cattle, they fent out a confiderable detachment againft them, which fell into an ambufcade, and was entirely defeated. Ibid. 1 1. Some time after, having removed three days march from Segobriga, and thereby infpired the inhabitants with a falfe fecurity, he returned fuddenly, in a fmglc day, and furprized the city, which did not exped: to be attacked in fo Ihort a time. He had many other fuccefles and, befides the two Praetors of whom we have juft been fpeaking, A. R. 607. Hiftory alfo mentions Claudius Unimanus, and Nigi^^i'Js Figulus, whofe defeat added new glory to the 145. arms of Viriathus. The Senate at length perceived, that they had a ferious war in hand, and that it was necefiary to fend a Conful with confiderable forces into thefe provinces, to reduce an enemy that at firft feemed only worthy of contempt.
: *

A.R.

607.

Ant. C.
145.

Qi FaBIUS ^MILIANUS.
L. HOSTILIUS MaNCINIUS.

1

The

province of Spain

fell to

Fabius,

who was

the

fon of Paulus i^milius, and the elder brother of the

fecond Scipio Africanus.

He

carried with

him only

new

"

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,
hew
raifed
:

Confuls.

jy
A. R. 607.

let the

men becaule it was iudo-ed reafonable to foldiers who had ferved in Africa, Greece, and

„'

'

enjoy the repofe they had fo well deThe number of troops who followed him ferved. into Spain amounted to fifteen thoufand foot, and When he arrived, he o-ave near two thoufand horfe. the care of formJng them, by continual exercifes, for all the functions of V/'ar, to his Lieutenants, whiift he went to Cadiz to offer a facrihce to Hercules, who was confidered as the firft of the family of the Fabii. Miftaken religion he had done better not to have quitted his army, where his duty required his preDuring his abfence the enemy defeated one fence. of his Lieutenants, and took great fpoils from him Viriathus, haughty this news hafrened his return. from the victor)' he had lately gained, offered Fabius

Macedonia,

!

:

But the latter, firm and unalterable battle ever}'- day. to the refolution he had formed of not venturing a general a<5lion, contented himfelf with flight fkirmifhes,
by degrees, who were void of experience, and much intimidated by He accompanied them in perfcn in their defeat. foraging, to prevent furprizes by an enemy fruitful in ftratagems, and Nyhofe vigilance nothing efcaped.
to form and re-animate his troops

AURELIUS LOTTA. L,
^_,
.

Ser. Sulpicius Galea.

/\.

a

t> ^ « K. 605,

Ant. C.
1+4-

Both the new Confuls extremely defired to com- vai. Max. mand in Spain, and their debates upon this head di-vi 4. Scipio's opinion, whole vided the whole Senate. quit;e recent glory of having deilroyed Cartkage gave him great authority, was exped:ed with im.patience. " I think," fays he, " that both ought to be ex*' eluded becaufe the one has nothing, and no" thing will fatisfy the other." If this was the Cotta, as is highly probable *, who, ten years before, would have avoided paying his debts under ijffp refuge of the
;

This

faft will

be ipokeii^of elfewhEre.

Vol.

VL

C

Tribunitian

i8
A. R.
608.
*

CLAUDIUS, C^CILIUS,

Conlbls.

J44.

Tribunitian power, with which he was then invefted, Scipio's cenfure was perfectly well applied. As to Galba, he was the perfon who had treacheroufly maffacred the Lufitanians.

App.

291.

was, in confequence, continued to year reaped the fruits of the wife conduft he had before purfued, and the ftridnefs with which he had caufed difcipline to be obferved in his

Fabius,

The command who this

army.

more animated by

formed by his care, and ftill example than his difcourfe, were quite changed. They feared the enemy no Viriathus longer, and were not averfe to a battle. His pride and boldnefs began perceived this plainly. to abate, after he had been defeated on feveral occafions. This campaign was as glorious for the Romans, as the preceding had been ignominious to them, and Fabius put his troops re-eftablifhed their reputation. into winter-quarters at Corduba, which I Ihall call Cordova in the fequel.
foldiers,

The

his

A.R.

609.

Ap. Claudius PuLCHER.

Ant. C.
143.

Q^ C^CILIUS MeTEL. MaCEDOM.
Viriathus, taught by his defeats, did not confide in his

own

forces, but fought aid

from

his neighbours.

He
Belli,

lent Deputies to the Arvaci, the Tithi,

and the

who, fmce the peace made eight years before with Marcellus, did not feem to have moved ; and engaged them to take up arms againft the Romans, and join
It difViriathus's plan fucceeded wonderfully. him. charged him from, the greatefl part of the weight of Only a Prsetor v^fas fent againft him, whilft the war. the Conful Metellus marched againft the CeltibeMoft hiftorians make the war of Numantia rians. the principal city of the country of the Arvaci, as we have already faid, begin here. Metellus made war in Spain during two years with the particulars of which are not come great fuccefs down to us. For want of a circumftantial account of his exploits, authors have preferved what is of no lefs
-,

vajue;

!

CLAUDIUS, C^CILIUS,
value,
flrokes
to

Confuls.

19
R. 609,

that chara6berize him,

and give us A.

room
merit.

confider

him

as

a perfon of very exalted

^'^\^'

conflancy and feverity in com- Val. Max. he befieged Contrebia, an important "' ^' city in the country of the Celtiberians, five Roman cohorts gave way upon an occafion, and abandoned the poft he had afligned them. Merellus commanded them to return to it immediately, giving orders, at the fame time, to the reft of the army, to treat as enemies, and to kill, whoever lliould fly for fafety to So rigorous an order extremely alarmed the camp. the foldiers of thofe cohorts, and they all made their wills, as going to certain death. The General continued inflexible; * and his conflancy proved fuccefsful.

He

was a

man of

mand.

When

The
fenfe

foldiers,

who went

but death,

returned viftorious.

of fliame, courage does defpair fometimes impart The fteadinefs of Metellus did not however dege- Vai. Max. nerate into rigour and cruelty and he was fenflble to'^- ^' humanity to fuch a degree, as to give it a preference He had made a breach in to the hope of vidory. the walls of Nergobriga; and the befieged feeing themfelves upon the point of being forced, thought it advifeable to place upon the breach the children of Rhetogenes, an illuftrious Celtiberian, who had quitted his countrymen to adhere to the Romans. The father was not with- held by feeing the danger and death of his children, and prefied the General to give the afi^ault. Metellus refufed it, and chofe rather to renounce a certain conqueft, than to deftroy innocent vidlims. He accordingly raifed the fiege of Nergobriga. But if he omitted taking one city, he found full amends in the voluntary fubmifi'lon of many others, which opened their gates with joy to an enemy of fo much clemency and generofity.
:

expeding nothing Such force has the when united with fear, and fuch
to battle

* Perfeverantia ducis queni
recepit.

moriturum
tiinoii

Tantum
Vell.
ii.

effecit
5.

mixtus

nilferat, militem vii5lorcm. pudor, fpefque delperatione

quasfua.

C

2

He

20

CLAUDIUS, C^CILIUS,
He
-j^

Confuls.

A

R- 609.

Ant. C.
A.u6ior.

had, befidcs, another quality, highly important condud:^ of great affairs ; this was, fecrecy. One de day, on being afked by a friend what he was going to
j.|^g

vir. Illuft.

yi-^dertake,

"

I
it

would burn

my

veft," replied he,

"

if

"

I

thought

knew my

defigns."

The
iftountam

With thefe talents, and by this condud, Metellus gained great advantages over the Celtiberians. ^ut the Prstor Quintius, who had fucceeded Fabius in the command in Lufitania, had not the fame fuccefs. He had, however, gained advantages at firft ; having put Viriathus to flight, and obliged him to retreat to a mountain, where he kept him blocked up in a very but that artful Spaniard having narrow compafs fallen fuddenly upon him, at a time when he was not very vigilantly upon his guard, killed him abundance of men, took many enfigns, and purfued the Romans
:

quite to their camp.
Frein-

ihem. Im.

The reader may, with reafon, be furprized, to fee ^^^ q£ neither birth nor education, as we have obferved eliewhere, without fupport or prote6lion, who
^
is

at the

head of troops by a means entirely extraorduring feveral years, the weight of the

dinary, and without the fan6lion of publick authority,
fuftain,

Roman

His perfonal merit fupplied him arms, with honour. He had inwith all that he wanted in other refpecls.
trepid valour, wonderful fagacity, a perfe6t

knowledge

of the

pe
+°-

oiiicii.

an extraordinary capacity for the ftratagems of war, and a patience proof againft the rudeft fatigues, which a robuft body, and long habit With thefe of living hard, enabled him to fupport. qualities he had humanity, moderation, and juftice. He equally divided the plunder acquired by the method of arms between thofe who adhered to him. V/hatever riches fell into his power, he never thought After having of appropriating them to himfelf. gained fo many vidtorieg-, he always continued what he had been in his firft campaigns he had the fame arms, the fame habitj and the fame outfide in every No feaft, na rejoicing, not even that of nup-' thing.
art military,
:

tials,

fo legitiiBate

and

allov/ablcj

made him change
anv

METELLUS, FABIUS,
any thing
in

Confuls.
life.

21

always Kftood at table, ate only bread and coarfe meats, leaving ^"^'
his

ufual

manner of

He

^°9-

^'

thofe that were more delicate to his gueils. By this regular and temperate life, he retained a found and vigorous body to the laft, a mind always capable of

applying to

affairs,

and

a virtue

and reputation ex-

empt from
L.

all

reproach.

MeTELLUS CaLVUS. Q. Fabius Maximus Servilianus.

a.

R, 6io.
14.2.

•^"^- c.

Fabius had Hifpania Ulterior for his province. His App. 280. army confided of eighteen thoufand foot, and fixteen hundred horfe. As he was haftening his march to Ituca in Boetica, with part of his troops, Viriathus advanced to meet him with fix thoufand men, all veteran foldiers, and accuftomed to conquer. The Romans found no fmail difficulty in fuftaining their they however maintained their ground, firft charge and the Conful purfued his march. The reft of the army having joined him, with ten elephants and three hundred horfe, which Micipfa King of Num.idia had fent him, he attacked Viriathus, defeated and put him to flight but the Spaniard, whofe attention nothing efcaped, having obferved diforder amongft- the troops that purfued him, faced about againft ihem, defeated them, killed three thoufand, and purfued the reft to the gates of the camp, where the Romans fhut themfelves up, and neither the Conful nor the reft of the officers could prevail upon them to march out againft the enemy. Night put an end to the battle. "^ Viriathus, after having long harrafled the Conful, fometimes in the night, and fomctimes in the heat of the day, and having made him fuffin* extremely, re: :

tired into Lufitania.

C

3

Q^ POMPEIUS

22
A. R.
Ant,
6ii.

POMPEIUS, SERVILIUS,

Confuls.

C

Q^ POMPEIUS.
g^

l^j,

L. bERVILIUS L^.PIO.
family Nobility of the houfe of the Pompeii, which will foon beconie fo powerful, and will hold the firfl rank in Rome, is
firfl

f,

f-^

Q^ Pompeins

was the

of

his

name and

that raifed hjmfelf to the great offices.

The

of no antienter date. The manner in which he of

whom we are fpeakdoes attained the Confulihip, his probity and fming Lselius flood for this office, cerity no preat honour. fupported with the whole credit of Scipio. Pompeius,

they reckoned in the number of their friends, concealed the dcfign he alfo had of afking the Confulihip, and even promifed to join them in foUiciting but, inflead of taking pains for the latter, for Laslius he afted flrenuoufly for himfelf ; and fucceeded fo well, that he fupplanted Lselius, and was ele<51:ed Conful. He thereby lofl Scipio's friendfhip that is, a much more valuable good than the Confulfhip, efpecially acquired by treachery. Val. Max. He alfo fucceeded in having the command of the ^^' 3army in Hifpania Citerior conferred upon him, in the room of Q^ Meteilus, who was his particular enemy, Metellus was highly incenfed at this, and proceeded to exceffes that extremely fully the praifes hiftory has hitherto given him. To prevent his enemy's having any advantage from his labours, he was not afraid to prejudice the publick affairs, and the fervice of the Commonwealth. He diminifhed his army, by giving difcharges to all that demanded them he ruined the magazines he had made for am.munition and provifions he caufed the bows and arrows of the Cretans, that ferved as auxiliaries in his troops, to be thrown into the river he ordered that no provender fliould be given to the elephants. Deplorable example of the weaknefs of human virtues they hold good againfl ordinary attacks, and, in confequence, long feem pure and irreproveable but, as foon as the ruling paflion
:
•,

whom

:

:

:

!

:

comes

POMPEIUS, SERVILIUS,
comes
in
:

Confuls.

23

play ; as foon as the weak part of the foul is A. R. 611. ^' every thing is ^"^' attacked, they deliver up their arms in diforder, every thing is inverted ; and it then evidently appears, that it was not virtue that was adhered to, but the fplendor and homage which attend
the pra6lice of it. Metellus, in defiring to hurt his enemy, hurt himhe fuliied the glory of his exploits in felf very much
:

Spain, which were great, and deprived himfelf of the triumph that was to have been the reward of them. Q^ Pompeius was not fo capable of conducting a On arriving in his war, as managing an intrigue. province, notwithftanding all the ill-will of Metellus, he found himfelf at the head of an army of thirty thoufand foot, and two thoufand horfe. He no doubt brought with him a confiderable reinforcemiCnt but
:

he was far from doing all the fervice with that army that might be expefted from it. The Arvaci, probably terrified by the number of Diod.apud thefe troops, had fent Deputies to the Conful to treat Fulv. Ur"^"' of peace with him, and all the conditions of it were Settled ; the principal of which v/ere, that they fhould put Termefta and Numantia, the ftrongeft places of the country, into the hands of the Romans, and fliould deliver up all their arms but, when they came to the execution of this lad article, it appeared {o unworthy and Ihameful, that, looking upon each other, they all<:ed whether they could live without arms, and without honour ? Their very wives and children, tranfported with grief and indignation, made them the fharpeft reproaches, and declared, that it would not be poflible for them to acknowledge them any longer either as hufbands or fathers, if they were capable of fuch meannefs. In confequence, the treaty was broken. Pompey then formed the fiege of Numantia but, difgufted by difficulties which he found in it contrary
: :

to his expectation, he foon after railed the fiege,

made
it

and army inveil Termantia, expecting to carry The fuccefs did not anfwer his with more eafe. C 4 hopes.
his

; :

24
A.R. 6ii.]^opes.
'

POMPEIUS, SERVILIUS, Confuls. He was more fortunate in the expedition

j^i.

he undertook againft a great body of robbers who ravaged Sedetania, of whom he purged the whole

Diod.apud
^
*^
'

country. He afterwards befieged Lanci. The Numantines ^^^' fent four hundred youth to the aid of that neighbouring and allied city. The befieged received them with
all pofTible

marks of joy,

as

their prefervers.

Some
to

time

after, finding

themfelves very

much

preffed, they
infilling that

offered to furrenden,

demanding no condition but

have their
the
at
firft

lives

fpared.

The Romans

Numantines fhould be delivered up

to

them, they

ftrongly refufed to hearken to that propofal

but being, at length, in want of every thing, and perfuading themfelves that neceffity had no lav/, they let the Romans know fecretly, that they were determined The Numantines to do what they required of them. were informed of this being defirous that fo fhameful a treachery fhould not pafs with impunity, they attacked the inhabitants in the night, and put many to The Conthe fword the fight was rude and bloody. ful, informed by the noife occafioned by this tumult, took the advantage of it for fcaling the walls, and made himfejf mafter of the place. All the inhabitants
:
:

App.

293.

to the fword. He gave the Numantines who remained, to the number of two hundred, liberty to whether he was moved with compaffion return home for the unhappy fate of thofe brave men, whole fer^ vice and zeal had been repaid only with ingratitude or defigned, by that aft of clemency, to difpofe the inhabitants of Numantia to fubmit to the Romans. In Hifpania Ulterior, the Proconful Fabius Servi-? lianus, who had been continued in the command, took fome places garrifoned by Viriathus, and a famous chief of the robbers, called Connobas, who furOnly the rendered himfelf to him wjth all his troop. Fabius caufed the right hands of chief was fpared ail his foldiers to be cut off'; a treatment which appeared unjuff: and cruel, becaufe they had furrendered

were put

:

:

-

upon

the Proconful's faith.

LililLIUS,

SERVILIUS,

Confuls.

25
A. K. 6ii»
^^^_

He

befieged.

afterwards led his army to Erifana, which he Viriathus having found means to get into

without being perceived by App, rude fally upon them the next ^^*' the Romans, made a killed he them abundance of men, morning, in which poll to from whence it was difficult a andpulbed them * Viriathus get off. did not forget for the army to fortune he did not fuffer himielf to himfelf in good foothing advantage, fo an but conbe dazzled with fidered it as a favourable occafion for making a good Accordingly, a treaty was peace with the Romans. " That there concluded, to the following effed " {hould be peace and amity between the Roman " People and Viriathus, and that both fides fhould " retain what -they aftually poffefled." This treaty, though not much for the honour of the Roman name, was ratified by the People : fo burthenfome did the war of Spain feem to them.
the place in the night,
:

p.

:

C.

L^Lius Sapiens.
.

A.

"R,6is.

Q. Servilius C^pio.
Hifpania Ulterior
fell to
-,

^^^^'

who was the broand the command in Hifpania Citerior was continued to Q^ Pompeius. As foon as Caepio was arrived in his province, he wrote to the Senate, that the treaty concluded by his
Csepio,
ther of Fabius Servilianus

ibid,

brother with Viriathus difhonoured the Roman People. Senate, by their anfwer, gave him permilTion to diftrels Viriathus as much as poffible, but without

The

noife. Not fatisfied with this tacit permiffion, he returned to the charge, and infifted fo often and fo ftrongly, that the Senate at length confented that he fhould make open war againft Viriathus. With politicians, treaties and oaths pafs for nothing, when they become incommodious, and do not fuit their views.
*
is

Th

iuTvxiay

!s"^

iCptrtv-

Literally, did not brave
it

good fortune.

It

daring good fortune, to confider

as obliged to attend us always,

as if in our

pay and

at

gur dlfpofai,

Viriathus,

i6
A. R.
612.
*

L^LIUS/SERVILIUS,

Confuls.

Viriathns, not being in a condition to oppofe the army, quitted Arfa, where he was when he Conful's j^Q^ App.p.204 received this news, and made great marches before him, ravaging all the places through which he palled, The latter could to retard the purfuit of Csepio. not come up with him till he came to the frontiers of

Carpetania. ftratagems.

.

The Spaniard had recourfe to his ufual Flaving chofen all his fwifteft horfe, he drew them up in battle upon an eminence, as if he was preparing to give battle, and in the mean time he made the reft of his troops file off through a dark winding valley, whilft the detachment he was drawing up covered their retreat. When he believed them far enough before, he fet out himfelf full fpeed, well affured that the fwiftnefs of his horfes would make the enemy incapable of coming up with him, however near they were. Accordingly, they could not fo much The Conful as difcover what route he had taken. the Gallaci, fall on the Veftones and made his wrath deftroying their country, to deprive the by entirely hopes aid from them. of enemy of all Viriathus, feeing that the war became every day more difficult for him to fupport, and that feveral of his allies, fome from necefiity, and others of their own accord, quitted his party, thought it prudence to try methods for an accommodation before he had received any blow. For this purpofe, he fent Deputies to the Conful ; who reprefented to him, " That, for fourteen years, which the war had continued, there had been various advantages and lolTes on both fides that their General, at a time v/hen his affairs could not be faid to be in a bad condition, had feized the firft occa:

fion

that the Conful's

which offered for making peace with the Romans.: own brother had granted it, and that That he it had been ratified by the Roman People. did not think he had given any caufe of complaint fmce the conclufion of that treaty but that, without defiring to enter in any manner into difcuffions upon that head, he prayed the Conful to confider, th^t he always continued, on his fide, in the fame difpofition
•,

for

L^LIUS, SERVILIUS,

Confuls.

27
A. R. 6ii.
*

for peace, and even ready to accept any other new reafonable condition which the Roman People fhould
pleale to impofe

"^^^

upon him." Conful anlwered in few words with great hauo-htinefs, " This is not the firft time, Lufitanians," faid he to them, " that you have talked in the fame *' ftrain. For feveral years you have afked peace, " with fo much earneftnefs that one would think you " were weary of the war ; and yet you always begin it " again with a virulence which Ihews that you cannot " bear peace. It is to no purpofe to fpeak of a treaty " that fubfifts no longer, as the Roman People have " cancelled it. The queilion is, whether Viriathus " is fmcerely difpofed to fubmit to the Senate's orders. *' Now what we principally require of him is, as he *' has made feveral of the cities of Spain quit the fide " of the Romans, the principal citizens of which he " honourably entertains about him, that he delivers " up thofe rebels to us. It is by this proof we Ihall " know, that he really repents his paft conduft." he refolved to Viriathus paflionately defired peace perfons demanded to be put obey, caufed part of the to death, amongft the reft, his own father-in-law, and delivered up the reft to the Conful ; who ordered their hands to be cut off. Cspio afterwards propofed a new condition ; which was, that Viriathus and the LuTo this article fitanians fhould deliver up their arms. neither that General nor his troops could confent ; fo that the v/ar was began ag-ain. It is evident, that Viriathus was ready to facrifice every thing for the fake of peace, except his liberty and that of his country. He had done but too much to purchafe that peace, when he put to death and delivered up the principal perfons of his allies to the Conful and of all the adions hiftory relates of him, this is the only one that cannot be excufed. But when the queftion was to deliver up his arms, that is, to fubmit to the yoke, and be at the mercy of the Romans, Jie could not refolvc upon it. Was he in the wrong,

The

:

:

when

28

L^LIUS, SERVILIUS,
612.
'

Confuls/

A.R.
^^'

when he had the examples of of a Lucullus and a Galba ?
Cospio, With
j^gj^ q£- n-juch
•,

the perfidy and cruelty

Diod.apud
Valef. 618.

whom he had now to do, was not a more honour and he had, befides, fo

haughtinefs and cruelty, that he was odious to the [whole army, and principally to the cavalry, by whom he believed himfelf defpifed, and whom he treated, for that reafon, with ftill lefs favour than the
reft of the troops. To humble and mortify this corps, he ordered the fix hundred horfe of the two legions to

much

go, attended only by their fervants, to cut wood near the mountains occupied by the enemy this was evidently fending them to the (laughter. The Lieutenants and Tribunes remonftrated upon it to the Conful but
:
-,

he had no regard to them, and perfilled in his refolution. His defign was, to reduce them to come of themfelves to afk favour of him, and to humble They chofe rather to expofe themfelves before him. themfelves to certain death, than to give him that unIn confequence, they juft and malignant fatisfadion. immediately fet out. The cavalry of the allies, and many other foldiers and officers, who could not endure that fo many brave men fhould be facrificed to the Conful's caprice, accompanied them voluntarily. The detachment being much ftrengthened by this additional body of troops, cut wood without any
danger.

At their return nothing was heard but murmurs, In complaints, and imprecations againft the Conful. their rage, fomebody happened to fay, that he well deferved to be burnt himfelf with the wood they were carrying back. Every body took hold and applauded and, as foon as they re-enthat word that moment tered the camp, they began to place the wood round Csepio's tent. If he had not efcaped their fury by flight, a Conful of the Roman People would have been burnt in his tent by his own foldiers a thing
•,

:

App. 269.

without example. The danger he had been in, which did not leave him without dread, made him more defirous than ever
I

to

L^LIUS, SERVILIUS,
:

Confuls.

29

but, as he did not believe ^'^- ^pto fee an end of this war ' it poflible to terminate it by honourable means, he j^q. had recourfe to treachery. With money and promifes he corrupted two officers fent by Viriathus to treat of peace with him, and engaged them to murther their General. Accordingly, they killed him without noife, or being difcovered, having entered his tent in the night, where they found him afleep ; and immediately went to carry the nev/s to the Conful, and to demand He referred them the reward he had promifed them. alone belonged to dewhom he faid it to Senate, to the termine, whether officers fhould be rewarded who had What a monfter was this killed their General. When the news of the death of Viriathus fpread in App. 269, the army, the whole camp refounded with cries and They deplored the fad fate of their General, groans. and their own misfortune; having neither leader, It was to them an increafe of ftrength, nor counfel. grief, not to know the authors of the crime, and to have the confolation of taking a juft and legal vengeance of them. With faces bathed in tears they paid him the laft duties with all the magnificence in their power. They laid his body upon an high funeral pile, and burat it, after having facrificed a great number of viiflims. The troops, both infantry and cavalry, marched feveral times round the pile, drawn up in battalions and fquadrons, fmging, after their barbarous manner, the praifes of the dead. When the fire was out, they gathered his afhes, and placed them in a tomb. The ceremony concluded with battles between two hundred couple of gladiators. Viriathus was equally a good foldier and a good General ; a man both to defign and execute, full of courage, and, at the fame time, of great prudence : folely intent upon the good of his troops, and indifferent to his own wants, he made himfelf as well beloved by them as a good father is by his children. He knew how to keep them within the bounds of their duty by an exad: difcipline, but tempered with lenity, and always guided by reafon. Accordingly,
!

durino-

36
A. R.
612.
*

L^LIUS, SERVILIUS,

Confuls.

140.

durino; more than ten years, that he commanded, nd commotion, nor any fedition, ever arofe in his army. Excellent talent in a commander without birth. That of knowing how to make himfelf refpefted but fuperior merit ferved him inflead of nobility. The war with Viriathus ended with his life, but not
:

that of Spain, which, for feveral years more, gave the Romans no fmall difquiet. Pompey again befieged

Numantia,
fallies

which made a vigorous defence.

The

of the befieged were fo frequent, and they attacked fometimes the foragers, and fometimes the troops employed in the works, with fo much ardour, that the Romans hardly dared to quit their intrenchments.
App. 298.

Many

fell in thefe different attacks.

troops arrived from Rome, fent by the Senate into Spain to relieve fuch of the foldiers as had deferved their difcharge by fix years fervice. Though Pompey

New

did not rely much upon thefe troops, who were new levies and without experience, however, to enure them to the fatigues of war, and alfo to re-eftablifh his own reputation, which was next to entirely loft, he refolved The to continue the fiege even during the winter. rigor of the feafon, 'and the air and water of the country, to which thofe foldiers were not accuftomed, occafioned many difeafes, and, particularly, very painful cholicks, which made great havock in the army. Tq add to their misfortune, the befieged, knowing that the Romans had fent out a great detachment to intercept a confiderable convoy, pofted an ambufcade near the camp, and afterwards attacked the advanced guards with fome troops of foldiers. The Romans not being able to fuffer this infult, quitted their intrenchments in great numbers ; the befieged did the fame, and an a6tion enfued during v/hich the Numantines fuddenly quitted their ambufcade, and deThe viftors, anifeated a great part of the enemy. mated by this fuccefs, marched without lofs of time againft the great detachment, and cut it almoft en•,

tirely to pieces.

Pompey,

POPILIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

3,

Pompey, perceiving he had taken a wrong ftep, re- A. R. 612, ' tired from before Numantia, and made his troops go "^^^ But, as he ex- App. 299. into winter-quarters in feveral cities. fpring, and in the fuccellor at his return to peded a before afraid of being accufed the People, Rome was fome neceflary to take it meafures for he thought avoiding that danger: with this view he fent fome perfons in v/hom he could confide to the Numantines, to induce them to demand peace, by giving them hopes
'

would be granted them. Though they might have had many advantages over Pompey, however, wearied out by the length of war, and, no doubt, becaufe they were fenfible of the great difproportion between their own forces and thofe of the Romans, they readily gave in to the overtures When their Ambaffadors appeared, made them. Pompey, afTuming an haughty tone, declared in the affembly, that he had no other conditions to propofe to them, except that they fhould deliver up themfelves, and all they poffefled, to the difcretion of the Roman People but, underhand, he let them know The treaty was conhis reafons for that language. cluded they made their fubmiffion in the prefence of the afiembly ; but nothing farther was required of them but to deliver up their prifoners, with the deferters, and that they fhould give hoftages. It was alfo ftipulated that they fhould pay thirty talents, part ^0,000 crowns. down, and part in a certain Ihort time.
that very favourable conditions
:
:

M. POPILIUS L^NAS.
Cn. Calpurnius PiSO.

A. R. 6n.
Ant. c.

As

foon as Popilius,

fuccelTor in Hifpania Citerior, arrived there, the

mantines

had been charged from the care of the war, denied that he had made any treaty v/ith them. The Numantines, inexprelTibly furprized, and imagining all that pafTed a dream, exclaiming againft the Proconful's breach of
6
faith,

who was appointed Pompey's Nuoffered to pay the remainder of the fum that ftipulated. Pompey, who faw himfelf dif-

32

CORNELIUS, JUNIUS,
6t3. faith,
*

Confuls.

A^-

,3g.

upon the Gods and men to witnefs thd wrong done them ; for fome Senators and many officers had been prefent at the conclufion of the treaty. The Conful referred them to the Senate ; and, in the
called

mean

time,

attacked the Lufones,

a people in the

neighbourhood of Numantia ; againft v/hom he did nothing confiderable. The Deputies of the Numantines pleaded their caufe at Rome, and proved it fo evidently, that it was He impofiible to difguife Pompey's breach of faith. however perievercd, and fupporting himfelf by his credit, which was enormous, he perfifted in denying the fafl with the utmoft impudence ; and it was deIn proportion creed, that there had been no treaty. hiftory, we fhall fenfibly perceive in our proceed as we manners of every which corruption of the progrefs kind makes in Rome. It {hewed itfelf again at the fame time, in refped of He was accufed of extortion, the fame Pompey. and four pcrfons of Confular dignity, the two Cfepios and the two Metelli, depofed againft him. Cicero fays, Clc. pro Foiit.ii.i3.t;hai; the authority of thofe grave witneffcs had not its effetfl, becaufe they were confidered as enemies of the But to judge of this particular fad: from the accufed. reft of Pompey's condud, it is highly probable, that the credit of this fadlious and intriguing man carried
it

alfo in this cafe againft right.

A. R. 614. Ant. c.
132.

P- Cornelius Scipio Nasica. D^ ^ Junius Brutus.
I

cannot omit, before

I

continue our account of
re-

wliat paffed in Spain, relating, in this place,

Liv, Epifi.

fome markable fads that pafied this year at Rome. The Tribunes of the People gave an example of
:

fe^

verity highly capable of fuftaining the military difciphne C. Matienus, a name known in other refpedts
in the

Roman

Hiftory, had quitted the

army

in

Spain

:

«:

He was accufed, for this reafon, without a difcharge. before the Tribunes^ snd by their fentence condemned
to

CORNELIUS, JQNIUS,

Confuis.
his

33
neck, A.
R.

to be whipped with the Furca (or gibbet) on and afterwards to be fold for * the lov/eft

6h.
*

price, as

"^^^

This being of lefs value than the meaneft of flaves. fentence was executed in the prefence of the new-raifed foldiers the Confuis were then levying.
This inftance of feverity, at a time when the glory of the Roman arms declined every day, did the Tribunes great honour but they foon loll the merit of it, by the infolence of their condu6t in refpeft to the Confuis.
:

of

They pretended to a right of exempting ten citizens, their own chufing, from the neceffiry of lifting for

This was an old difpute, the fervice in the field. which had been already carried very far, between the
Tribunes and Confuis thirteen years before. The Confuis of the year we now fpeak of ftrongly oppofed this attempt and the Tribunes, in their fury, and particularly animated by Curatius, one of their own number, a man of the meaneft extradlion, had the infolence to commit the two Confuis to prifon. -f- This is the firft, but will not be the laft inftance of this violence of the Tribunes. The privilege they had, of being facred and inviolable in their perfons, made them capable of daring any thing, without its being poflible to withftand them, when they were all agreed. fliall foon fee this power of the Tribuneftiip rife
:

We

ftill more fatal to the Commonwealth. Thefe two Confuis, who were treated with fo much indignity, befides the refpedt due to their fupreme ftation and birth, were highly to be regarded on account of their perfonal merit. Scipio Nafica gave a proof of his admirable conftancy of mind, not only on the occafion of which I have been fpeaking, but in oppofing and filcncing the whole aflembled people. Provifions were dear at Rome, and the fame Tribune of the People, Curatius, was for forcing the Confuis

to excefles

into certain regulations in

refpe<5l

to corn.

Nafica

• Seftertio nummo: about three half-pence. 1. ill de "leg n. 20. i:\yi this in exprels terms. However, the epitome of Livy tells us, that the Confuis Lilcullus and y\lbinuj ^ad before been imprifonsd upon the fame difj>\ite.

f Cicero

Vol. VI,

D

oppofed

34
A. R.
"
g
'

CORNELIUS, JUNIUS,
•,

Confuls.

6i4.oppofcd this and, as his difcourfe was i]l received b)R the People, and he was interrupted by murmurs and
cries,
*'
:

Romans,"
I

faid

he,

raifing his voice,

"

filent

know
filent

better than

you what
*

is

for the

" be good

" of the Commonwealth."
fembly was

At
;

out of refpe6l

that word the Afand the authority of

a fingle man had more imprelTion upon the multitude, than fo fenfible a concern as that of provifions and
brdad.

As

to Brutus,

he acquired

ra.uch.. glory in

Ulterior, whither he was
that country.

lent

to eitablifh

Hifpania peace in

After the death of Viriaihus, a great number of who had fcrved under him fubmittcd voluntarily. but, to make CiEpio took their arms from them them quit the life of robbers, which they had hitherto followed, he conceived it neccliary to tranfplant them into another country, where a fettlement, and lands He had not time to ^o cultivate, were given them. compleat the execution of this projeft Brutus put the laft hand to it, and cauled the city of Valentia to be built for them, fettling them, as we fee, in a place far remote from Lufitania. By the example and under the prote6tion of Viriathus, many troops of robbers ravaged Lufitania, and continued to dofo after his death. Brutus undertook to purge the province of them, which he did not effe6l Accuilomed to live in the mounwithout difficulty. tains, of which they knew all the windings and turnings, they fell fuddenly in troops upon travellers, and even upon bodies of Ibldiers, and then retired to their holes, by by-ways almoil impradicable, with a fpeed that made the purfuit of the moft a6live and deThis trade the Miqueterminate cn^-mies ineffectual. Icts ftill follow in fome provinces of Spain. The Conful could conceive no other method fo'r putting a ftop to their incurfions, than to attack the
thofc
: :

*

"Qi^'i

aiivctojitutis,

voce audita, omnes piono venerationis filentio, majorem c']ms. quani luorani al:;nentorun>, curam egerunt, Val. Max.

iu. 7.

towns

35 towns and villages that belonged to them, and where A. R. 614.. they were born, in hopes that they would, perhaps, ^"h/' come to the relief of tlieir countries, or, at lead, that they would abandon thofe places to his foldiers, the plunder of which would make them amends for all He found more refiilance their pains and fatigues. there than he expected j not only the men, but the women, took arms, to defend their houfes and effecfts. Thefe Lufitanian women went to battle like men, and endured wounds and death with the fame courage. It was, however, necelfary to give way to force ; and the inhabitants of thofe places, finding it impoflible to refill the number of their enemies, which was infinitely fuperior to their own, removed all the effeds they could carry away to the mountains, and thereby fecured their pcrfons and goods. But at length, being defirous to prevent the total ruin of their country, they fent Deputies to the Conful to make their fubmiffionj who very willingly granted them pardon and peace. On another fide, Popillius, who had been con- Frontm. tinued in command in Hifpania Citerior, according to sn-atag. the orders of the Senate, renewed the fiege of Nu-"^**^'
'

CORNELIUS, JUNIUS,

Confuls.

mantia.

The

inhabitants did not, according to their

former ciiflom, made no faliics walls, without This continued
conlul believe

march out to meet the Romans, and upon them, keeping clofe within their appearing or making any motion. for fome days which made the Prothat the befieged, tired and difgulted
;

with their former lofles, were entirely difcouraged. In confequcnce, he ordered his troops to apply ladders to the walls, in order to fcale the city; which they did without delay, and with great ardor. The tranquility which ftill continued in the city, without the appearance of anv foldier upon the walls, gave Popillius fom.e fufpicion, and he im.mediatcly gave orders for founding the retreat. The foldiers, who had flattered themfelves with carrying the city by affault, and inriching themfelves by the great plunder they Ihould find in it, obeyed but (lowly, and with reluftance. It

was

at

ihis

inftant that

the befieged fallied through

D

2

difiercRt

36
A.R.
6i+.

the not ^J^^j^' time to draw up in battle, and defeated part of the

iEMILIUS, HOSTILIUS, Confuls. different gates, threw down all who had mounted ladders, vigoroufly attacked the reft, who had
army

A.R.

615.

M. i^MiLius Lepidus.

Ant. C.
137.

Q
Romans

HOSTILIUS MaNCINUS.'

Liv. Epit.

App.

300.

Mancinus came to complete the difgrace of the before Numantia. It is Taid, that, when he fet out from Italy, many finifter omens foretold the but the true omen was, misfortune that waited him his incapacity and want of courage. An author, of weight, does great him the lionour, however, to no
:

fuppofe,

that

he

reiblved to re-eftablifli difcipline

amongft
Appian.

Plut^m^*
Graccho.

he expofed them to a battle. from the teftimony of all Hiftorians, But it is fl-Lirmifh pafTed in which the Numana<5lion or that no not always the advantage which fenfibly ; tines had their boldnefs, and difcouraged the Roaugmented mans. This, at length, came to fuch a pitch, that
his troops before

certain,

.

.

the

Roman

foldiers

could neither fupport the voice or

fight of a

Numantine. Mancinus, in fuch a fituation, believed he could not do better than to quit his camp in the night, and to remove his troops, for fome tmie, from Numantia, with the view of dilpelling their terror by degrees, and of giving them time to relume the courage and

Appian fays, a falfe boldnefs natural to the Romans. report, that the Cantabrians and Vacc^ei were coming
to the aid of their countrymen,
refolution.
Plut..

made him take this However it were, he retired in the night The Numantines being informed with great filence. of his retreat, fet out to only the number of four thoufand, purfued thofe who fled without lofs of time, attacked them in the rear, made a great flaughter of
them, and pulhed the reft into very difficult places, from which there was almoft no way to retire and, though the Roman army confifted of above twenty thoufand men, they furrounded them in fuch a man-,

Liv. Epit.

ner.

.^MILIUS, HOSTILIUS,
ner, that
it

Confuls.

57
615.

was impoflible for them to extricate them- A. R. ^^^' felves. This can hardly be conceived. Mancinus, defpairing of opening himfelf a way by Plut.
force, fent an herald to

the

Numantines

to afk

fome

conditions.

They

anfwered, that they would confide
:

only in Tiberius Gracchus, and demanded that he fhould be fent to them he then fervcd under Mancinus in quality of Qusftor, that is, of Treafurer. This great confidence which they exprefi^ed for him was founded partly upon his perfonal merit ; for the whole army refounded with his name and virtues. It proceeded alio from the remembrance of his father, who having formerly made war in Spain, and fubjedled feveral nations, had granted the Numantines peace, and had taken care that they fhould enjoy it. Tiberius was accordingly fent. He conferred with the principal officers of the enemy. The treaty was concluded. The particular articles are not known ; but the conditions were equal between the two ftates. The Numantines, taught by the example of Pompey's perfidy, took a precaution, which, however, proved of no great ufe to them this was, to make the Conful, Qiiaeftor, and principal officers, engage by oath to caufe the treaty now made to be obferved. When every thing was thus regulated, the Romans fet out, leaving all the riches of their camp in the hands of the
:

Numantines.
the fpoils were the regifters of Tiberius, which were the account of all the fums received and expended whilft he had been Qiiseflor. As it was highly important for him to recover them, he left the army on its march, and went to Numantia, attended only by three or four of his friends. The Numantines
in

Amongft

received him perfedlly well treated him with all the marks of refpedl and amity, and forced him to accept of an entertainment with them after which they returned him his regifter, and preffed him to take any
\
:

part of the fpoils that he thought fit. He accepted only incenfe, which he employed for the publick fa-

D

3

crifices^

-38
A. R.
J

^MILIUS, HOSTILIUS,
615,
'
^

Confuls.

and refumed the route of the army, well with his whole treatment by the Numantines. Appian. As foon as the news of this treaty arrived at Rome, the Senate began by recalling Mancinus, and ordered him to return to the city to give an account of his conduft and, at the fame time, made iEmilius, his Collegue, fet out, to take his place. App. 302. As foon as Mancinus returned to Rome, his affair was e?:amined in the Senate. He there modeftly jufti.fied his condud:, partly imputing all the misfortunes
cnf^ces^
*

fatisfied

•,

-that

;he

had happened to him to the bad condition in v/hich had found the army-, infinuating, that he riiight perhaps be allowed to afcribe them, aifo to the v/rath of the Gods, incenfed that. war had been declared againft the Numantines without any vifible caufe and excufing the treaty from the indifpenfible neceflity of .confenting to it, in order to preferve the lives of above twenty thoufand citizens .that, for the reft, contented with having rendered the Commonwealth that fervice, he lliould quietly exped the decifion of his fate from
•,

:

and
tia.

the Senate, being ready to facrifice with joy his liberty life to the utility and honour of his country. The

Senate alfo gave audience to the Deputies of NumapBut the bell fupport of this whole caufe was Ti-b. Gracchus, who thought it very ftrange, that it ihould be made a crime in him to have preferved the Commonwealth fo great a number of citizens. He was feconded by all the relations and friends "of thofe who had ferved in this war, that is, the All of them extolled greateil part of the People. the greatnefs of the fervice which Tiberius had rendered the State and though they willingly gave up Mancinus, on whom alone they laid the infamy of this treaty, the interefts of the Quasftor were fo clofeiy vmited with thole of his General, that it was not pof-fible but that the proteflion which Tiberius found "^mongit the People, Hiould alfo have fome effect in The affair was not decided till favo.ur of Mancinus. the year following.

:

Whilft

;EMILIUS, HOSTILIUS,
V/hilll
all

Confuls.
the Conful

29

this

paffed at

Rome,

M.^^-^is-*

^milius being arrived in Spain, and defiring to fig",^_ nalife himfeif by fome enterprize, made war againlt Appian. ^qq— 302« the Vaccasi, who were very quiet, and befieged Pallantia, the ftrongeii place

of the country.
in this

He

affo-

ciated

D. Brutus with himfeif

proje6t,

who

commanded in Hifpania Ulterior They had already united conful.

in

quality of Protheir troops, when

Rome with a decree, exprefly forbidding the Conful to undertake any thing againil the Vaccsi. He gave them the reafons he had for attacking that people and concluding that the good luccefs of his enterprize, which he confidered as certain, would juftify him entirely with the Senate, he obftinately pernlred in his fcheme, which did not fucceed as he had expefted. The fieere continued lonjr, and the befieo;ers bep-an to be in want of provinons. confiderable convoy was upon the point of arriving under the command of a General officer named Flaccus, when unfortunately the enemy iiTued fuddenly from an ambufcade where they waited for him, and furrounded him on all fides. Flaccus would have periiked there, with
two Deputies of the Senate arrived from
:

A

whole detachment, but for a flratagem which hapcame into his head. Fie fpread a report throughout his troops, that the Conful had at length made himfeif mafter of Pallantia. They raifed great cries of joy, which infinitely difcouraged the enemy and upon that news, which they believed very true, they retired imm.ediately. Flaccus, by the means of this happy lie, faved his convoy and detachment, and arrived in a manner triumphant in the camp. But this fupply was of no long duration, and famine began again to be felt fo fenfibly, that it every day deftroyed a great number of beafts and men. The Conful was in defpair, and made his troops dehis

pily

•,

camp

in the night.

It

is

eafy to conceive the diforder

and confufion which mull take place on
precipitate a departure.

wounded, v/ho

in

fo fudden and of the fick and vain implored the help of their com-

The
4

cries

D

rades,

'

'40
•A- R- 615.
"2*7.

iEMILIUS, HOSTILIUS,
rades,

Confuls.

and loaded them with imprecations on feeing themfelves inhumanly abandoned to the mercy of the enem.y, fcon apprized the befieged of the Conful's nodtirnal flight. They quitted the city in a body, and having come up with the flying troops before funrife, they inceflantly harrafl^ed them during the whole day, attacking them fometimes in the rear, and fometimes in the flanks. They might have deftroyed the whole army, if they had continued the purfuit but the approach of night obliged them to return home.
•,

The Roman troops efcaped as they could, difperfing themfelves on all fides. Six thoufand men were loft
on
Frem{hem.

this defeat.

Orof. V,

Brutus was the only one who confoled Rome for ^j^-g |-j^^ news, by the good fucceis he continued to have in Hifpania Ulterior. He took above thirty towns, and carried his victorious arms as far as the What did him moft honour with ocean on the weft. That the foldiers, was his pafilng the river Lethe. name, by which one of the rivers of hel] was called, and of which the Romans had never heard before, tejrified them to fuch a degree, tliat not one of them Brutus, without the leaft condared to approach it. cern, fnatched an enfign from one of the Vexillarii, and, crying our, " This enfign and your General will " foon be on the other fide," he pafied the river, and He afterwards was followed by the whole army. pafled the Minius, one of the gre^teft rivers of Lufitania. He found the people determined to defend The women themfelves fought with themfelves well. mafculine courage, and, when they were taken prifoners, killed themfelves and their children, preferring It is he, hov/ever, reduced them. 5. death to flavery faid, that having made them fall into ambufcades, into which their rafh bpldnsfs precipitated them, he killed them fifty thoufand men, and took fix thoufand. Thefe fuccefles acquired him the flrname ot Gallascus, or Callaicus, conqueror of the people of
:

Galicia.

P.

FuRius

FURIUS, ATILIUS,
P. FuRius Philus. Sex, Atilil'S Serranus.

Confqls.,

41
A.R.
6i5.

i!^^'

new Confuls entered upon office, App. 30*, came to a determination in refped: to Man- q^'^,^ |-j^ cinus, and upon the treaty which he had concluded, 109, The treaty was cancelled, as made without the authoand it was rity of the Senate and People of Rome

As

foon as the

the Senate

:

decreed, that all thole who had fworn to the obfervance of it (hould be delivered up to the Numantines. Two

Tribunes took upon them
fuffrages.

to

propofe to the People

the authorizing this decree of the Senate by their

himfelf admired good and generous a citizen, as he had been a timorous General. When the law was propofed by the Tribunes, conformably to the Senate's decree, he harangued the People in fupport of it, though it was to prove fatal to himfelf: and in that renewed the example which had of old been let by Sp. Poftumius, after the treaty of the Furcje Caudime. Tiberius did not pique himfelf upon the like geneHe feparatcd his caufe from that of his G«rofity.
this occafion,

Mancinus, on

made

for his courage, and Ihewed himfelf as

neral,

and by

his credit,

his

own and

his friends fol-

licitation,

prevailed

upon

the People to authorize the

Senate's decree only in part, and to

condemn Man:

cinus only to be delivered

up

to

the Numantines.

Tiberius carried the thing much farther he could not pardon the Senate the wrong he pretended they had done him and the defire of revenging himfelf did not a little contribute to thofe turbulent and hazardous enterprizes which occafioned fo many misfortunes to the Commonwealth, and to himfelf an unhappy and deplorable death. In confequence of the People's decree, MancinusCic.de was put into the hands of the Confiil P. Furius, to be^g'^^' ** carried to Spain, and delivered up to theNumantincs App. ibid. by one of the heralds (Feciales) called Pater Patratus.
•,

He

42

FURIUS, ATILIUS,

Confuls,

A.R. 6i6.He was, accordingly, brought to the gates of Niiand bound hand and foot. But the ^ile^' rnantia naked,
•,

Numantines refufing to receive him, the Romans would not take him back fo that a man, who had

been Conful the year before, and at the head of a great army, pafTed the whole day between the camp and the city, abandoned by his own people, and rejected by the enemy till, night being come, the Romans He returned to permitted him to enter the camp. Rome, and would have entered the Senate as ufually but that was oppofed. P. Rutilius, one of before the Tribunes of the People, pretended that he was no longer a citizen. The Tribune did not aft in this manner out of ill-will, but becaufe he believed the And inthing contrary to the fenfe of the laws. after having been who, taken by the thofe deed, their country, into repofTelTed returned all the enemy, captivity had deprived which themi and rights of * called Poftliminii. was But the what Jus this is that, by immemorial reprefented, tradition, Tribune whoever had been fold by his father or the People, or delivered up to the enemy by the Fascialis, fhould have no jfhare in the privilege and right of return. It was neceffary, that the authority of the People fliould who reinftated (rehabilitated) Mancinus, interfere and declared that he fnould always be confidered as a citizen, and enjoy all the rights annexed to that conHe even afterwards attained the Prstorfhip. Plin.xxiv. dition. '5Mancinus, to preferve the remembrance of this event, caufed a ftatue to be erefted, v/hich reprefented him in the fame circumltance and attitude he v/as in when delivered up to the Numantines. The monuments of hiftory com.e down to us, contain Val. Max. ill* 7nothing either done or attempted by Furius againft the All that v/e know is, that he was a wife Ntiniantines.
•,
•,

•,

•,

* P. Rutilius Tribunus plebis de Seiutu juffit educi, quod eum quia memoria fic efTet proditura, quem pater fuus effe aut populus vendidifietj aut pater patratus dedidiiret, ei nullum efie poftliminium. Cic,

civem negaret

:

and

FULVIUS, CALPURNIUS,
'and

Confuls.

43

of v/hich he gave a proof, inA. R. 616. chufmg Q^ Metellus and Q^ Pompeius, both his ene- '^"'^g*^* mies, and enemies to each other, for his Lieutenants. They had reproached him with having taken pains to acquire the command of the armies. He carried them with him, confiding in his own virtue, becaufe he did not fear to have witneffes whom hatred might render very attentive in obferving all that might admit of cenfure in his condu6t.
5

moderate man

SeR. FULVIUS FlACCUS.

A.R.617.
^^^' ^'
135.

Q. ^^ Calpurnius

Piso.

Nothing confiderable pafTed under thefe Confuls in The war which had fubfifted there fo long, Spain. mortified and difhonoured the Roman People exceedingly.
nations,

After having conquered fo many powerful

they had the grief and fliame to fee, for many years, all their ehiorts mifcarry before one city, and their armies almolt entirely beaten, by enemies who, of themfelves, were very weak, and whom the incapacity only of their Generals had hitherto rendered foriTiidabie. To remedy fuch great evils, they
feriouily thought of employing fome perfon of known and experienced miCrit, whofe ability might reinftate the honour of the Commonwealth. There v/as nocic. de occafion to deliberate long upon this choice. The Amidt. Deftroyer of Carthage feemed the only one capable 01^* "* terminating the war of Numantia. Accordingly, when the queftion was to eleft magiftrates for the enfuing year, Scipio having come into the field of Mars to follicic in favour of Fabius Buteo, his brother's

fon,

who

flood

for the Qujeftorihip,

the

Roman

People eledted him Conful. * Thus we fee him twice eicded Conful, and both times without aflcing it, which was contrary to cuflom, and very extraordinary;
* Confulatum petivit nunquam, fa6lus eft Conful bis primum, ante tempus ; iterum fibi luo tempere, reipublicse pene fero: qui, duabus urbibus everfis inimiciflimis huic imperio, non modo praefentia, veriim etiam^futura bella delevit. Cic.
:
,

the

44
A. R.
617.

CORNELIUS, FULVIUS,
the
firft

Confiik.

"^135.^*

before the time in refped to age; the fecond ^^ ^^-^ time, but almoft too late for the Commonwealth, which, in the preceding years, had been in He was deftined to great want of fuch a General.

which may be confidered as the greateft enemies of Rome, and thereby to acquire the glory not only of putting an end to prefent, but, alfo, of preventing future wars.
deftroy the two cities,

A.R.618.
Ant. C.
134..

P. Cornelius SciPio C. FULVIUS FlACCUS.

II.

Appian.
S02. 303Plat,

m

thegm.
»oi.

Lots were not admitted to determine the provinces of the Confuls that of Spain was given to Scipio by j.|^g Senate. Abundance of citizens prefented themthe Senate felves voluntarily to ferve under him
: :

would not grant them that permiflion, giving for reafon, that it v/as the means to defert Italy, and that

Rome

had many wars to fuftain at the fame time. The revoked flaves in Sicily aftually gave the Romans
Befides which, Spain leemed to great employment. have more occafion for a General, than for troops, the

commanded by preceding Confuls having Scipio was only permitted to always remained there. raife fuch aids as he could from the cities and States He drew towith which he had any particular ties. gether about four thoufand men of this kind, including a fquadron of five hundred Emeriti (foldiers who had ferved the ufual tim.e) which he formed
legions

out of the chofen troops, attached to his perfon, and called "the fquadron of friends." No ready money was given him: he had only aflignments upon the revenues of the Commonwealth, not yet paid in. He was the more reconciled to this laft article, as he could -raife fums from his own purfe and thofe of his but the refufaj of raifmg friends to fupply his wants new troops affeded him fenfibly ; thofe which he was to find in Spain having been often defeated ; and v/hether by the courage of the enemy, or their own
•,

cowardice^

;

CORNELIUS, FULVIUS,
cowardice,
it

Confuis.

45
R. 6i2* •^"'- ^•

was

difficult to

make them perform any A.

good
in

fervice.

Scipio arrived in Spain, he found the troops App. 303. with neither order, difci- ^™"*'"' pline, or refped: for their officers, and abandoned en- iv/i?^'
a miferable condition,
idlenefs,
tirely to luxury,

When

and

licentioufnefs.

He

im-

mediately conceived, that, before he could think of attacking and overcoming the enemy, it would be necefTary to take pains for reforming his army ; and it was to this that he devoted his whole care and application.

He began by banifliing every thing from the camp that tended only to the fupport of luxury, the fuperand fervants, efpecially the proftiwere to the number of two thoufand. He caufed a great number of carriages and carriage-beafls to be fold, which the Ibldiers ufed for moving their baggage, and retained only fuch as were abfolutely He left them no other utenfils except neceffary. fpits, kettles, and pots, and no food but boiled or He retrenched beds for eating, and or* roafted fieffi. dered that they fhould ufe none but a kind of * fquab Huffed with ftraw ; and fet them the example himfelf. He made them make long marches, laden with their baggage, provifion of corn for fifteen or twenty days, and feven palifades. He alfo made them dig trenches, plant palifades, and raife walls ; and demolifhed the whole immediately after, propofing no other end to himfelf but to enure them to fatigue ; faying, " that thofe ought to be covered with dirt, who were afraid of being fo with blood." He was prefent in perfon at ail thefe exercifes, and exacted labour and obedience with great feverity. He often faid, " that auftere and rigid Generals were of great advantage to their armies and indulgent ones, to the enemy for, added he, the camps of the latter look gay, but the orders of the

numerary

futtlers

tutes, that

-f-

:

* The Greek word properly fignifies a bundle of leaves and twigs wrapt up in a cloth. f Luto inquinari, qui fanguine nollent, jubebantur. FtOR. I

Generals

46
A. R.
618.
'

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

Generals are defpifed in them; thofe of the others ^^^"^ ^^^ ^"^ gloomy ; but the troops are obedient 134. and ready on every call in them." Appian. j^ a Ihort time the army entirely changed afpedl, 304—30 He then approached ^^^ became quite different. Numantia ; but would not attack thofe terrible enemies till he had firft feafoned his troops for war by different expeditions againfl the neighbouring States. The whole campaign pafied almoft in this ; and he did not think the time lolt, having put an end to the contempt the enemy had for his army, and enabled it to ad againft them with vigour at the proper time. After this he returned to Numantia, to go into winSalluft. in It was there Jugurtha, the grandfon of ter-quarters. ^^^^'h^' Micipfa fending an aid of him. joined Mafmiffa, App. 306. elephants, with a great number of archers and (lingers, put Jugurtha at the head of them, not out of confi.

deration for that

young Prince,

but, on the contrary,

Veil.

ii.

9.

to rid himfelf of him, by expofing him to the dangers of fb hot a v/ar as that of Spain, from whence he was He was dein hopes that he would never return. ceived in his expedation, as we fhall lee in the fequel. Marius, who was one day to conquer Jugurtha, ferved at this time with him under Scipio, who treated both He delighted to favour with great marks of efteem. and cultivate rifmg merit rewards, praifes, marks of particular friendihip, were all employed to encourage the young warriors, and make them tread the paths
:

of glory.
A. R. 619.
Ant. c.
133.

P.
j^

MUCIUS Sc^VOLA.
Calpurnius Piso Frugi.

This year was famous for the commotions excited by Ti. Gracchus on one fide, and for the taking of Numantia on the other, which terminated a long and
dangerous war.
the latter event.
Appian.

We

Ihail treat,

at prefent, only

of

The end and

plan followed by Scipio, in refped to

the Numa;itines, during the preceding campaign, and that

6

; ;

MUCIUS, CALPERNIUS,

Confuls.

47

that now beginning, had been, and ftil] was, not to ^-R- 619. venture a battle with them, to damp the ardor of their '^^^' ^' courage, and to fubdue them by famine in ruininotheir country, and endeavouring to intercept all their Only once he came to blows with them convoys. foragers, upon whom the Numantines his becaufe in danger. He forced them to fly, were fallied, had them, contenting purfue not himfelf v/ith letdid but

ting his Ibldiers fee

Numantines flying before them, which feemed almoit a prodigy. The befieged having feveral times demianded peace without effed:, rightly
it

that they could obtain hand, and, being almoft in defpair,

perceived,

only fword in they frequently
his

offered Scipio

battle,

who

conftantly purfued

plan, without regard to their imputations of fear and cowardice. He often repeated, with praife, the faving of his father Paulus iEm.ilius, * " that battle ought

not to be given except in effed of great neceflity, or a very favourable occaflon." To deprive the Numantines of all hope and refource, Appijin, he began a line of contravallation round their city, so^—jos.

He had fettled .tw9 camps, and given the command of the one to his brother Fabius, referving that of the Fart of the .army was employed in other to himfelf. carrying on the works, .and the other in defending the workmen, Numantia was fituated upon an hill, and was about twenty-four Stadia in circumference, that is, almoft a league. The line of contravallation was twice as large. The workmen had orders, when they were attacked by the enemy, to make a fignal immediately, in the day-time by holding up a purple caflJbck on the. end of a pike, and in the night by fire in order that aid might be inilantly fent them. When this work was finifhcd, a fecond, not far from it, was began. A. trench was dug, ftrengthened with palifades, and a wall was ere6led, eight feet thick and ten high, without including the battlements,
_

* (Negabat Pauliis)

nifi

fumma

neccllitiido,
•*'

bonum Imperatorem fignis coUatis decertare, aut fumma ei occalio data, eflet. AvL^
'

GJELL.

xili. 3.

This

48

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Conruls.

A;R. 619. This wall was flanked with towers from fpace to Ant. c. fpace throughout its whole extent. In a morals^ '^^* through which the line of the wall ran, he cauied a mole to be made of the fame thicknefs and height. Appian fays, that Scipio was the firfl who furrounded a city in this manaer with lines, that did not decline a battle. The river Durius (now the Duero, or Douro) remained, which running along the walls, was a great fupport to the city, and afforded means for bringing provifions and troops into it. The men entered it perceived, being either by diving, or in fmall without boats, which carried them to it in a rapid manner, Appian fays, that either by the help of fails or oars. the river was too broad and rapid for laying a bridge over it ; which it is not eafy to conceive, as Numantia was fituated at no great diftance from the fource of However that were, according to him, the Durius.
Scipio ufed the following expedient for (hutting up He built two forts on the oppofite banks, from which he laid a bar of long and ftrong beams,
that river.

made

faft

at the

two ends with great

cables.

Thofe

beams were armed with long

fpikes of iron, which

^

being perpetually agitated by the motion of the water, Ihut up the paifage againft fwimmers and divers, and fuch as were for approaching in barks. By all thefe works Scipio made it impofllble for
advices,

the befieged to receive either provifions, fuccours, or and kept them entirely ignorant of what

palled without.

When all was compleated, and he had placed all kinds of machines in the towers, fupplied the walls with ilones, darts, and javelins, and with archers and he polled foldiers throughout (lingers in the two forts the whole extent of the intrenchments, at no great diftance from each other, who, night and day, were to inform the fentinels next them of ail that palTcd, and came to their knowledge. Each tower had orders, as foon as it fhould be attacked, to make the fignal agreed upon, and all the reft immediately to do the fame.
-,

,

MtJClUS, CALPURNIUS,
fame.

Confuls.

49
that -^'R* 619'

Thus the fignal of the tower gave notice fome movement was makinof and the fentinels

that

'

f,*^'

gave advice told the caufe and particulars. The army, including the auxiliary troops which Scipio had drawn together from the States of Spain ia alliance with the Romans, confifled of fixty thoufand men. Half of them were employed in guarding the walls ; twenty thoufand to fight when neceflary, and ten thoufand to relieve and fupport the latter. Every one had his poll and duty affigned him ; and the orders received were immediately executed.
,

The Nu man tines

frequently attacked thofe
:

who

guarded the walls at different places but the defence: was as fudden as the aifault for the fignals were given on all fides ; the fentinels who gave advice were immediately in motion ; the foldiers deftined for battle marched that moment towards the part of the wall v/hich was attacked and the trumpets from the tops of all the towers animated the combatants. Thus the whole extent of the lines, which was fifty fladia (more than two leagues) fpread terror by all this motion and. noife ; and Scipio did not fail to vifit every part of" them every day and night. He rightly judged, -thac the enemy, fhut up in this manner, could, not long hold out againil him and he io firmly affured himfelf of reducing them by famine, that having an opportunity of cutting a body of the Numantines in pieces, who had faliied in order to forage, he refolved to ier them re-enter the city-, faying, the more. tliere was of them the fooner their provifions would be confumedi Notwithfranding all thefe piiecautions, a N-umaa-App. tine, a man of* fenfe and courao;e, called. Khctogenes Caraunius, taking advantage. of a dark and clocdy. night, found means, w:ith. fame friend^, to pafs.over the walls by the help of .ladders, w'hlch xh'ey carried with them, and to repair to the feveral cities of. theArvaci, to implore their aid., in favo.ur. of the K.uman-' tines, their neighbours and brediren,. reduced. to tho lad extremity, and 'menaced" with the .molt dreadful misfortunes. But the. whole country was in fo greac. Vol. VI. terror. E
:
•,

:

..

^o?*

.

'

"

50
A. R; 619. terror,
Aiit. c,

MUCIUS, CALPURNIU3,

Confuis.

App.

308.

that they would not lb much as hear RhetQgenes ; and wherever he applied, he v/as ordered to retire immediately. He was received favourably only at Lutia, a confidei able city, fituated twelve leagues from Numantia. The youth interefting themfelves warmly for the Numantines, occafioned aid to be promifed them. The
elders,

who had been of a different opinion, gave Scipio feCret advice of this without lofs of time. The Roman was no lefs expeditious on his fide. It was
two in the afternoon when he received the news j and the next day, before fun-rife, he was before the city He demanded that the with a great body of troops. principal perfons of the youth fliould be delivered up
to him. Upon being anfwered that they had efcaped, It was neceflary to he threatened to ftorm the place. hundred them four of were fent to him, whofe obey caufed to off. fet he be cut He out direftly on hands the return, and next day re-entered his camp at his day-break. I ought not to omit here a new inftance of Scipio's generofity and difmtereftednefs, though it has no other relation to the war with the Numantines, than having Whilft that General agreed with it in point of time.
:

was incamped before Numantia, confiderable prefents came to him from Antiochus Sidetes, according to 57Livy's epitome or from Attalus, according to Cicero. ^f'^^' i;q.m'j4. It was then the cuftom v/ith the Generals to conceal this kind of prefents, and convert them to their own advantage but Scipio, who was much above fo mean an avidity, would receive them in prefence of the whole army'; he caufed them to be entered in the Qusftors accounts, arid declared, that he would employ them to reward thofe who fhould diftinguilli themfelves by their bravery. In the mean time, famine reduced the Numantines App. 309. to extremity. They deputed fix of their citizens to Scipio, to obtain favourable conditions of him. Abarus was at their head, and fpoke. " He began by highly extolling the courage and greatnefs of foul of the Nu;
:

§

mantines.

;

MUCiUS, CALPURNIUS,
ttiantines,
-•

Confuls.

51
*

of which he gave for proof all the calamities A. R. 6-i^. ^ Ant C they had hitherto fui^ered in defence of their liberty. ,.'j^ He added, that Scipio could not but honour virtue wherever he found it, and fpare a people who unThat the grace he doubtedly merited his efteem. came to demand for that People, who were ready to furrender themfelves to the Romans, was either to treat them with humanity, or to fuffer them to perifli Such lofty difglorioufly in battle fword in hand." courfe was not proper for exciting compafilon. Scipio replied in few words, " That the only condition hfe could grant them was, that they fliould abandon themfelves entirely to the difcretion of the Romans, and deliver up ail their arms." The Numantines, accuftomed to a kind of favagCApp. 309, liberty, which rendered them incapable of bearing any yoke, were naturally very violent and outrageous and the extremity of the calamities which they had long fufFered, had made them flill mot-e fierce. Scipio's anfwer, when reported, put them into a fury, and threw them into a kind of madriefs that made them In their defpair tlo longer matters of themfelves. they fell upon Abarus, who brought them this mournful anfwer, and imagining that, for the fake of his private interell with Scipio, he had neglefted and betrayed thcfe of the city, they manacred him, with the other Deputies. They feveral times attempted to make fallies, butApp. 310^ Scipio perfiiled firmly in his realways ineffectually. In the mean time, folution not to hazard a battle. After famine made dreadful havock in the city. having exhaufted all the refources which extreme necelTity fuggefts in times of fuch mifery, they at length

came to eating human flefli ; and defpair flifiing, in many, all fenfe of humanity, the weak became the
prey of the ftrongeft, v/ho were not afraid, for prolonging a miferable life for a few moments, to kill and

devour

their fellow-creatures

and

citizens.
:

They were no

longer

rrien,

but fpeftres

fo

muchrbid.
evils

had mifery, hunger,

iicknefs,

and
?.

all

manner of

E

united.

^2
A. R.
619.

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,
P^^J'^i^ce

Confuli

united, effaced their afpefts, and given their whole ap-

^Tix

an haggard and diftradted look. At length they furrendered to Scipio ; who ordered them, the fame day, to bring to him all their arms. They afked fome delay as a favour many not being able to re•,

folve to facrifice their liberty, and defiring to die free

Scipio in their yet free country, killed themfelves. Rhetogenes, of whom we granted them two days. have fpoke before, the richeft and moft powerful cf the citizens, occupied the finefl: quarter of the city. He fet it on fire, and having drawn together all fuch as, like himfelf, were ardent for their liberty, he put fwords into their hands to kill each other in fmgle combat, and, in that manner, to die like brave men. He concluded this barbarous ceremony by ftabbing App. 3"* himfelf, and leaping into the flames. The third day, thofe v/ho remained repaired to the place affigned Scipio referved only fifty of them for his trithem.

umph,

fold all the reft, entirely demoliflied the city,

and diilributed the territory of Numantia amongft the That unfortunate city was, neighbouring people. however, rebuilt afterwards, as mention is made of it The ruins of it in the Geographers of later times. time. feen in Mariana's were ftill to be The news of the taking of Numantia occafioned The ufual thankfgivings were great joy at Rome. made to the Gods, and the Senate nominated ten Deputies to regulate

of Spain, in concert Thofe two Generals being with Brutus and Scipio. returned to Rome the year following, triumphed, the firft over the Gallicians and Lufitanians, People of Brutus affumed the furname of Hifpania Citerior. Scipio added to the furname of AfricaCallaicus nus, which he bore already mih a double title, that
the
affairs
:

of Numantinus.
are a fine eij^-ample of what loftiof courage is capable, when fuilained by an ardent love of liberty. At the beginning of the war there were only eight thoufand men in the city that bore arms. However, with that fmall number, for
ftefs

The Numantines

J

how

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,
how many
years did they

Confuh.
againlt the

53

make head

Ro- A^R.

6^9.

them

often did they beat their Generals! mans! What misfortunes ^nd difgraees did they not make Even in this lall year, Scipio, at the fuffer

How
!

^^^/

head of fixty thoufand men, feemed fiili to fear them a battle, in fome meafure, and would never hazard w^s This once. than more which they offered him a gaining of fure man, great wifdom in him. That only, time of means the by them cpmpleat vidory over would not advance it a few days at the expence of himfelf obliged his foldiers blood, which he thought But, at children. his does father to fpare, as a good of the courage the of proof great the fame time, a refpedt in circumfpedlion Scipio's :Numantines was, to them with fo great a fuperiority of forces. There is no one, I believe, who is not moved with companion for the deplorable fate of this brave People, whofe whole crime was not being vvilling to fubmit to
pretendthe fway of an ambitious Commonv/eakh, that affirms,. plainly Florus univerfe. ed to give laws to the than war unjuft more a made that the Romans never that of teftiir.ony the if But that againft Numantia.
writer,

who was

a Spaniard

by

origin,

and of a

warm

imagination, is to be feveral the l^umantines, during the courfe of the war, {hewed and peace, of propofals times made reafonable more franknefs and regard for juftice than the Romans. juftify the entire It therefore does not feem eafy to that Rome defurprized not am I ruin of that city. which had rival was a State That ftroyed Carthage. become have might and rendered itfelf formidable, Numantines the But fubna. to more fo, if fuffered apprewere not in a condition to make the Romans that fee not do I and em.pire hend the ruin of their with them comparing * for foundation had any Cicero Anger, and the Cimbri, who came to invade Italy. Romany the led have tq feem the fpirit of revenge,
it is
:

rejefted, at lead

certain, that

* Sic

cum

Celtibcris,
efiet,

cum

batur, uter

non uter imperarct.

Cimbrls bellum, ut cam jnimicis, gereCiC. de OfEc. i. 3*5,

E

^^-^^

3

54

Private Life of SCIPIO
^^> psi'haps, the policy

AFRICANUS.

A

R. 619. into

^il\^'
''

the refolution they took to deftroy Numantia; of conquerors. They were for

'

'

fhewing, by a lignal example, that every city and people, which refilled them obftinately, had nothing to expecc but entire ruin.

Private Life

of

SCIPIO AFRICANUS.

THE
more

taking of Numantia, which terminated a war that difgraced the Roman name, compleated

But, in order to have a perfect idea of his merit and charadler, it feems that, after having feen him at the head of armi^, in the tumult of battles, and in the pomp of triumphs,
Scipio's military exploits.
it

will not

be

loft

labour to confider him in the repofe

pf a private life, in the midft of his friends, family, and houfhold. The truly great man ought to be fo The Magiftrate, General, and Prince, in all things. v.-hilft they are in a manner themfelves, conftrain may exhibiting themfelves as fpcftacles to the publick, and appear quite different from what they really are. But, reduced to themfelves, and without the witnefles who
to v/ear the mafk, all their luftre, like the theatre, often abandons them, and leaves the pomp of be feen in them than meannefs and narto little more

force

them

rownefs of mind. Scipio did not depart from himfelf in any refpedl. He was not like certain paintings that are to be feeri he could not but gain by a nearer only at diftance view. I fhall not repeat in this place what I have faid before, of the generous manner in which, v/hile very young, he aded in his family j of that noble difintereftednefs which acquired him fo great a reputation ; and, which does not feem lefs eftimable, of that * fincere and confcant reipeft for his brother, becaufe the elder, notwithftanding the fuperiority of his own merit, that placed him infinitely above hinriv
:

quod

* Scipio Q^ Maximum fratrem, omnino fibi nequaqiiam parem, is anteibat sstate, tanquam fuperiorern colebat. Cic, de Amic. 69.

ThQ

.

Private Life of SCIPIO AFRICANUS.

55

The

excellent education which he had had, through the care of his father Paulus iEmilius, who had pro-

vided him with the moft learned mafters of thofe times,
as well in polite learning as the Sciences,
ftru(5lions

and the

in-

he had received from Polybius, enabled him to fill up the vacant hours he had from publick affairs profitably, and to fupport the leifure of a private life with pleafure and dignity. This is the glorious teftimony given of him by an hiftorian " No-body * knew better hov/ to mingle leifure and aftion, nor to ufe the intervals of reit from public bufinefs with more elegance and tafte. Divided between arms and books, between the military labours of the camp, and the peaceful occupations of the clofet, he either exercifed his body in the dangers and fatigues of war, or his mind in the firudy of the fciences." The firft Scipio Africanus ufed to fay, -f That he was never lefs idle than when at leifure, nor lefs alone than when alone. fine faying, cries Cicero, and well worthy of that great man. And it fhews that, even wiien inadlive, he was alv/ays employed and that when alone he knew how to converfe with himvery extraordinary difpofition in perfons acfelf. §
:

A

-,

A

cuftomed
folitude,

to

motion and agitation,

whom

leifure

and

v/hen they are reduced to them, J plunges into a difguft for every thing, and fills with melancholy, fo that they are difpleafed in every thing with themfelves, and fink " under the heavy burthen cf Bolleau. This faying of the firft having nothing to do."
Scipio feems to me to fuit the Second ftill better, who having the advantage of the other by being educated in a tafte for polite learning and the fciences, found
* Neque enlm quirquam hoc Scipioiie elegantlus intervn.lla nego-"tioram otio difpLinxit (emperque aut belli aut pacis ferviit arcibus ; fempcr inter arma ac ftudia verfatus, aut corpus perlculis, aut ani-*
:

mum

difciplinis exercuit.
fe

otiofus j nee minui folum, quam cijm folas efict. De Offic. iii. i. § Itaque duas res, quae languorem afferuiiC ceteris, ilium acuebant»

f Nunquam

Vell. Patkrc. i 13. minus otioi'um efle, quam cum

otium & folitudo. Ibid. X Hinc illud eft ts^dium,
animi volutatio, tranq. anim. i^

&

''difplicentia Cwx

&

& ptii

fui

triftis

utque ec^ra

pitieuti.i.

mifqnam refideatis SENtc. de
i«i

E

4

5^

Private Life of SCIPIO AFRICANUS.
in that a great refource

againft the inconvenience lof

which we have been fpeaking. Bdides which, having ufually Polybius and Pansetius vv^ith him, even in the field, it is cafy to judge that his honfe was open, in tinnes of peace, to all the Learned. Evefy body knows, that the comedies of Terence, the moft accomplifhed work of that kind Rome ever produced, for natural elegance and beauties, are afcribed to him and Lslius, of whom we fnall foon fpeak. It was publickly enough reported, that they affifted that poet in the compoficion of his pieces j and Terence himfelf makes it an honour to him in the prologue to the Adelphi. I fhall undoubtedly not advife any body, and, leaft of all, perfons of Scipio's rank, to write come-

.

But 'on this occafion let us only confider tafte general for letters. Is there a more ingenuous, more affeding pleafure, and one more worthy of a wife and virtuous man, I might perhaps add, or one
dies.

in

neceffary to a military perfon, than that which refrom reading works of wit, and the converfation of the Learned ^ * Providence thouo-ht fit, according to the obfervation of a Pagan, that he fliould be above thofe trivial pleafures, to which perfons without letters, knowledge, curiofity, and taile for reading, are
fults

more

obliged to give themfelves up.

Another kind of pleafure, ftill more fenfible, mor^ warm, more natural, and more implanted in the heart of man, conftituted the greateil; felicity of Scipio's
life:
this

was that of

friendiliip

;

a pleafure feldom
•,

known by

great perfons and Princes

rally loving

becaufe, geneonly themfelves, they do not deferve to
is

have friends. However, this of human fociety, fo that

the moil grateful tie
the poet

J

Ennius

fays

with great reafon, that to live without friends, is not to live. Scipio had undoubtedly a great number of
* Quanto plus deieftationis habiturus, quam ex illis ineruditis volaptatibus Dedit enim hoc Providentia munus hominibusj ut honefta magis javarent. Quintil. i. ii. X Cui poteft vita effe vitalis, qui non in amici mutua benevolentia conqujefcar? De Amicif. 22.
!

thenij

;

Private Life of SCIPIO AFRICANUS.
and thofe very ilkiftrious but I ihall fpeak here only of L^lius ; whole probity and prudence acquired him the furname of the Wife. Never, perhaps, were two friends better fuited for They were ahnoft each other than thofe great men. of the fame age, and iiad the fame inclination, benevolence of mind, tafte for learning of all kmds, principles of government, and zeal for the publick good. Scipio, no doubt, took place in point of mjhtary but L^lius did not v/ant merit of that kind ; gl-ory and Cicero tells us, that he fignalized himfelf very much in the war with Viriathus, * As to the talents of the mind, the fuperiority, in refpeft of eloquence, feems to have been given to L^lius ; though Cicero does not agree that it was due to him, and fays, that Lcclius's ftiie favoured more of the antient manner, and had fomething lefs agreeable in it, than that of
them,
:

p

;

Scipio.

Let us hear LceHus himfelf (that is, the words cic.de Cicero puts into his mouth) upon th^ fbrift union Amidt, " f As for '°^' ^'^^' v/hich fubiifted between Scipio and him. me, fays L^elius, of all the gifts of nature or fortune, there are none I think comparable to the happinefs of having Scipio for my friend. I found in our friendIhip a perfe6l conformity of fcntiments in refped; to publick affairs ; an inexhauftible fund of counfels and fupports in private life ; with a tranquility and delight not to be expreiTed. I never gave Scipio the leaft offence, to my knowledge, nor ever heard a word efcape him that did not pleafe me. had but one houfe

We

*
tit

De

ipfius Lffilii

&

Scipionis ingenlo,

quanquam
ille,

ea jam

eft

opinio

plurimum tribuatur ambobus, dicendi tamen

luftrior

fed

multovetuftior

&

hcrridior

laus eft in Ljelio ilquam Scipio. Brut. 83.

f Equidem ex omnibus rebus, quas mihi aut fortuna aiit natura tribuit, nihil habeo quod cum araicitia Scipionis poffim comparare. In hac mihi de rep. confenfus in hac rerum privatarum coniiiium in eadcm requies plena obleftationis fuit. Nunquani ilium ne minima, quidem re offendi, quod quidem fenferim nihil audivi ex eo iple, quod nollem. Una domus erat, idem viftus, ifque communis, Neque Iblum militia, fed etiam peregrinntiones rullicationefque communes. Nam quid ego de ftudiis dicam cognofcendi Temper rJiquid $c dil'cendi, \n quibus rouioti ab oculis pcpuli omn-e otiofain tempus contrivinaus?
;
:

and

;

53

Private Life of SCIPIO AFRICANUS. and one table at our common expence, the frugality
of which was equally the
travelling, in the country,

In war, in together. I do not mention our ftudies, and the attention of u$
talle

of both.

we were always
j

both always to learn fomething

this

was the employthe fight

ment of all our leifure hours, removed from and commerce of the world."
Is there

that which Laslius has juft defcribed

any thing comparable to a friendfhip like ? " What a confolation is it to have a fecond felf, to whom we have nothing fecret, and into whofe heart we may pour out our own with perfedt effufion * Could we tafte profperity fo lenfibly, if we had no one to fhare in our joy with us ? And what a relief is it in adverfity, and the accidents of life, to have a friend ftill more affedted with them than ourfelves ?" What highly exalts the value of the friendfhip we fpeak of, was its not being founded at all upon intereft, but folely upon efteem " What occafion, fays Lsfor each other's virtues. could Scipio have lius, of me ? f Undoubtedly none nor I of him. But my attachment to him was the effeft of my high efteem and admiration of his virtues and his to me, from the favourable idea he had of my This friendfliip increafed charafter and manners. afterwards on both fides, by habit and commerce. both indeed derived great advantages from it but thofe were not our view, when we began to. love each
!

We

:

other."

An amity founded on fuch principles, efpecially between perfons at the head of the moft important affairs of the State, muft have been very grave and ferious. It undoubtedly was fo, when occafions refic loqui, ut tecum ? tantus fruftus in prolperis rebus, nill haberes qui illis, a;que ac tu ipfe, gauderet ? Adverfas vero ferre difficile eflet fine eo qui illas etiam gravius, quam tu, ferret. DeAmicit. 32. f Quid enim Africanus indigens mei? miniaie hercle acne ego

*

Quid dulcius, quam habere quicum audeas
effet

Qnis

:

quidem

ille viSed ego admiratione quadam virtutis ejus ciffim opinione fortafle nonnulla, quam de meis moribus habebat, me Auxit benevolentiam confuetudo. Sed, quanquam utilitates dilexit. multas & magnae confecutas funt, non fniat lamen ab earura fpe caufse Dc Amicit. 30. diligendi profectas.

illius.

:

quired

Private Life of SCIPIO AFRICANUS.
quired

55

but at other times it was attended with a gaiety and innocent mirth not eafily conceived. * When efcaped from the city, as from a prifon, they
it
:

went

to breathe at liberty in the country,

how thofe They ufed
ftones

great

men would

it is incredible play like boys together.

to gather fhells, and little round and flat upon the coaft of the fea, and defcend to the moil Ample games, with no other view but to unbend Such amufements in perfons of their themfelves.

merit argue a candour, fimplicity, and innocence of jnanners that cannot be too much efteemed. I cannot place the famous embafly of Scipio Afri- Freiu^ canus into the Eail and Egypt better than here we
:

J^"™-

...-

fhall fee

we

the fame tafte of fimplicity and modefty, as j^?^ have juft been reprefenting in his private life, Ihine
it.

"^

*

out in

It

was a maxim with the Romans frequently

to fend AmbaiTadors to their allies to take cognizance

of
It

and to accommodate their differences. view that three illuflrious perfons, P. a. R. Scipio Africanus. Sp. Mummius and L. Metellus, were fent into Egypt, where Ptoiomy Phyfcon then reigned, the moll cruel tyrant mentioned in hiflory. They had orders to go from thence to Syria, which the indolence, and afterwards the captivity, of Demetrius Nicator amongft the Parthians, made a prey to troubles, faftions, and revolts. They were next to vifit Afia Minor, and Greece, to infped into the affairs of thofe countries, to enquire in what manner the treaties made with the Romans were obferved, and to remedy, as far as poflible, all the diforders that fnould come to their knowledge. They acquitted themfelves with fo much equity, wifdom, and ability, and did fuch great fervices to thofe to whom they were fent, in re-eftablifhing order amongft them, and in accomtheir affairs,

was with

this

605*

* Saspe ex focero meo audiyi (it is Craflus that fpeaks) ciim Is diceret focerum fuum Laelium femper ferexum Scipione folitum rufticari,

pofque incredibiliter repuerafcere

quam

cum rus ex urbe, tandicere de talibus viris, fed taraen ita folet narrare Scaevola, conchas eos umbilicos ad Cajetam ad Laurentum legere confuefle, ad omnem animi remifTionem, ^udumciue defcenderp. De Orat. ii. zz,
efle folitos,

e vinculis, evolaviffent.

Non audeo

&

&

&

modating

;

6q
-to

Private Life of SCIPIO AFRICANUS.
modating
parts in
their differences, that,

when

they returned
all

Rome, Ambaffadors

arrived there from

tho

which they had been, to thank the Senate for having fent perfons of fuch great merit to them, whofe wifdom and gqodnefs they could not lufficiently commend." The lirfl: place to which they went, according to their infirudions, was Alexandria. The King received them with great magnificence. As for them,
they affeded
it

fo little, that at their entry Scipio,

who

was the richeft and moil powerful perfon of Rome, had only one friend, th.c philofopher Pansetius, with him, and five domeflicks. * His vidories, fays an antient writer, and not his attendants, were confidered and his perfonal virtues and qualities were efteeme4 iji him, and not the glitter of gold and fiiver. Though, during their v/hole ftay in Egypt, the King caufed their table to be covered with the moft
exquifite provifions of every kind, they never touched,

any but the moft fimple and common, defpifmg all the reft, which only ferve to foften the mind, and But, on fuch pccafions, ought enervate the body. of fo powerful a State as Rome not the Ambafladors reputation and majefty in a to have fuftained its foreign nation, by appearing in pubJick with a numerous train and magnificent equipages ? This was not the tafte of the Romans, that is, of the People of the whole earth, that thought the moft juftly of true greatnefs and folid glory. When the Ambaffadors h^d fully gratified their curiofity in feeing Alexandria, and had compleated the affairs which brought them thither, they went up the Nile, to vifit Memphis, and the other parts of Egypt. They either faw with their own eyes, or

knew from
the great

exaifl

informations taken

upon

the fpot,

number of towns, and
ejus, fed vi£lori32

the prodigious mulnee,

* Non mancipia
q.uri

numerabantur

:

quanturr^

&

argenti, fed

quantum amplitudinis
iv. 3,

poixdiis fecurr; ferret, sefti-

mabatur,

Val, Max.

^itude

Private Life of SCIPIO

AFRICANUS.
•,

6i

titude of inhabitants, which that State contained the ftrcngth its happy fitnation gave it ; the fertility of its foil, and all the otiier advantages it enjoyed. They berceived, that it v/anted nothing to make it powerful and formidable, but a prince of capacity and applicafor Phyfcon, who then reigned, was nothing tion I have given his character, after than a King. lefs Ancient Hiftory. the His belly was of fo Juilin, in enormous a bignefs^ that he could not carry the load, of fiefh which his intemperance had produced, and never appeared in public but in a chariot. He, how',

ever,
ter,

"
^'-

made an eitort to accompany Scipio. The latturning towards Panstius, faid to him fmilinor, The Alexandrians are obliged to us for feeing theTr
King on
foot."

What a contrail is there between abandoned to all manner of vices, and Scipio, the model of wifdom and virtue Accordingly, Judin fays, that, inflead of being, like Phyfcon, the objeiSt of his fubjeds contempt, Scipio, whilft he gratified his curiofity in vifiting whatever was worthy of it in Alexandria, was himfcif a fight to the whole Duni infpicit urbem^ fpe^faculo Alexandris fuit. city.
this Prince,
!

SECT.
/Jffairs that

II.

ha-ppemd at Rome. Cenfors. Generous con* Jtancy of the -Irihunes oj the People agahji one of their c-jon Collegues. Death of Cato's fon^ and of Cenfus.
Lepidus^
Cato^
the Pontifex
quitted.
is ai

Mamnus. Galba^ accufed by Condemnation of T'uhidus. Severs fentence of Munlius Torquatus againji his fon. Scipio
/jfricanus accufed.

He

accufes Cotta-,

who

is

acquitted.

Angular C'.nduol of Lallus in a pleading. the government in rcfpe^ to the P'r^tors.
of Scipio.

Change in
Cenforfhip

New fuperftitiojts prof ribcd.

La'W Calpurnia

Sumptuary laws paff,d at different trnus concerning the expences of the table. Abuje of the piiblick fchools of faltation. Licinia concerning
againji extortions.

Law

the ele5iion of Pontiffs. Scrutinies introduced at Rome in the e'e^ion of the Magifirates, The method of fcrutiny

^2

AFFAIRS
tiny is

that

happened
:

at

ROME.

then in the pajfing of laws : and lajily^ in trial of State criminals. Wars abroad. Apfius Claudius makes war againji the Salafft^
'The Ardy.tni

alfa introduced in trials

and triumphs by the aid of his daughter^ a vefial. defeated^ and fubje£led to the Romans.

War

of the flaves in

Sicily.

War

with Arijlonicus.
fadts in the courfe

HAVE

omitted

many detached

I

which happened during the third Punic of war, and that of Numantia. I proceed to relate them here, before I go on farther.
hiftory,

AFFAIRS
A.R.
Val.

that

happened

at

ROME.

M. Valerius Meflala, and C. Cafllus Longinus, 59?Max. ^gj.^ created Cenfors the 598th year of Rome. The "* ^* former had been degraded by the Cenfors fome years before but he made fo good an ufe of that difgrace, that he rendered himfelf worthy of the Cenforfhip in
:

the confequence.
Val.

Max.

^^

5-

Whilft Meffala obliterated, in this manner, his paft ignominy, by the new honours paid to his virtue, L. Cotta, Tribune of the People, dilhonoured the office he held, by a condudl highly unworthy of a magiftrate, Abufing the authority of the Tribunefl-iip, which prote6ted him from being fued by his creditors, he abfoHis Collegues, inraged lutely refufed to pay them. that he Ihould make fo venerable and facred an office an afylum for his avarice and injuflice, all rofe up againfh him, and declared, that if he did not pay his debts, or give fecurity for doing fo, they would join Would it with his creditors to reduce him to reafon. not be highly contrary to juftice, that no officer fhould

dare to fignify a procefs to a magiftrate in a confiderable office ? TheLuftrum, which was clofed under the Cenfors A.R. 599. of whom we have juft fpoke, was the fifty-fifth. The citizens were found by the Cenfus to amount to three hundred and twenty-four thoufand.

The

AFFAIRS
The

that

happened

at

ROME.

63

following year Cato loll his Ton, who was then ^' ^-.^^oo. He might have con- c^^/ ^^ Prsetor, and very dear to him. fidered himfelf as doubly his father ; becaufe, befides life, he had given him his education, which he would confide to nobody but himfelf; having been his tutor both in literature, the ftudy of the laws, and even the Our manners make this exercifes of the body. But Plutarch pofitively affirms, almoft incredible. that Cato himfelf taught his fon to dart the javelin, to fence, to ride, to charge, to bear heat and cold, and to pafs the moft rapid rivers by fwimming. He had been at the trouble of writing hiftories for him, and in large charad:ers, with his own hand being defirous that his fon might not want fo great an advantage as the knowledge of the antient deeds of his countrymen. He never let a word efcape him in his
•,

'

prefence, that was in the leaft repugnant to morality,

and with

caution as he would have obferved So much care and pains fucceeded perfeftly and Plutarch obferves, that Cato fpoke of his fon in his works, as an excellent perfon, and one equally diftinguifhed by civil and military virtues. That young man was very happy in marriage j for which he was as much indebted to his own merit, as his father's reputation. His wife was Tertia, the daughter of Paulus iEmilius, and fifter of the fecond Scipio Africanus he left children at his death.
as

much

before the veftal virgins.
:

:

His

by it, but, however, bore that misfortune with all the conftancy of a philofopher, and did not lofe a fmgie moment of his apphcation to the publick affairs on that account. As he was always an enemy to empty pomp, and vain expences, his funeral was only plain and decent. The fame year died alfo the great Pontiff M. .^mi- Eplt. lius Lepidus. He had in his will forbad any magnificent obfequies to be made for him ; defpifmg, as well as Cato, the ufelefs oftentation of expence in the funerals of great perfons. P. Cornelius Scipio Nafica was eiefled Pontifex Maximus in his room.

father was extremely afflided

Liv.

At

^4

AFFAIRS
At
the interval
I

that

happened

at
I

ROME.

am now upon
which
I

veral remarkable trials,
their order.

were feproceed to relate in
find there

A. R.

603,

The firfl; that occurs is that of Galba, accufed before the People for the horrid maifacre of the Lufitanians, with equal perfidy and cruelty. L. Scribonius

Libo, Tribune of the People^ was his accufer. But a more formidable adverfary, Cato, who, after his Confulfhip v/hich he had pafTed in Spain, had declared himfelf the defender and patron of that province, joined the Tribune, and fupported him with all his credit and eloquence. According to Livy he was then * ninety years old: but his zeal for the publick good and juilice animated him, and he had ftill fuliicient fpirits to harangue the People, and to exhort them not t6 fuffer the crime to go unpunifhed. Galba was one of the moll illuftrious Orators of his Cic. de Orat. 227, time ; of which we fliall loon cite a proof. His principal excellency was in moving paflions, the in which Brut. 89, 90. eloquence difplays itfelf moft, and exercifes its greateft Val. Max. pQ^^j- Qy^j- j-j^g mind. Flis crime was notorious, and drew upon him general indignation. But his judges were the multitude, that eafily pals from one extremity to another, and with whom opinion frequently takes place of reafon. He took the advantage of this propenfity, and fpared no pains to mollify the People, and move their compalTion. Accordingly, in his defence he endeavoured to difguife the faft as much as poffible. But f his principal refource was a fight,
,

-"

* According to Cicero he lived but to the age of eighty-five. Reprehendebat Galbam Rutilius, quod is C. Sulpicii Galli, propinqui fui, Q^pupilium filium ipCe pene in humeros fuos extuliflet, qui patris clariflimi recordatione & memoria fletum populo nioveret, & duos filios fuos parvos tutelae populi commendafiet, ac i'e, tanquam in procinftu teftamentum faceret, line libra atque tabulis populum Romanum tutorem inftituere dixiffet iilorum orbitati. Itaque ciim & invidia & odio populi turn Galba premeretur, his qUoque eum tragediis liberatum ferebat. Quod item apud Catonem fcriptum video Nili pueris & lacrymis ufus effet, pceuas eum daturum fuille. De Orat. i. Eg fafto mitigata concione, qui omnium confenfu petiturus ei'at, pene nullum trifce fuHragium habuit. Val. Max.
•f
: ^

which

AFFAIRS

that

happened

at

ROME.

6^

C. Suli^hich he prefented to the eyes of the judges. relation, his near a Senator univerfally Galba, picius

efteemed, had by his will appointed him guardian of a of very tender years at his death. He made him appear in the Forum, carrying him almofi: upon his own bringing with him, at the fame time, his Ihouiders own two fons, who were alfo very young. Then, after having expatiated in the mofb moving terms, with tears in his eyes, upon the deplorable condition of his whole unfortunate family, confidering himfelf as one upon the brink of deftrudtion, he compared himfelf to foldiers that made their will before a battle, and recommended thofe tender infants to the Roman
jfon
•,

leaving them under their care and tuition. This fight, attended with the difcourfe and tears of a vehement orator, moved and changed every, body. The juft indignation they had conceived on the meer relation of Galba's cruel treachery to the Spaniards, on a fudden gave place to compafTion and indulgence ; and the perfon v/hom every body, in their thoughts, had deemed unworthy of grace, was acquitted without a fmgle fuffrage againil him fuch force and fway has

People,

:

eloquence over mankind
tunate.

!

Another criminal, fome years after, was not fo for- F^ein/hem* This was L. Hoftilius Tubulus, a man i;S!'i?'"" equally void of honour and fhame, who, during the
affaflins,

year of his Prsetorfnip, when he prefided in trying had publickly fold juftice, without obferving' As foon as his term of oiiice expired, A. R. any meafures. P, Scsvola, Tribune of the People, attacked him ; and the trial was referred to the decifion of Cn. Servilius Caspio, one of the Confuls. Tubulus did not
ftay
till it

6ii^

was to come on, and difappeared.

It

was

a frequent cuftom at Rome to be fatisfied with this voluntary banifhment, to v/hich criminals condemned

but fo vile a wretch as this was thought Tubulus was fo gentle a puniihment. cited to appear, and forefeeing that he fhould be condemned to be ftranglcd in prifon, he chofe rather to
themfelves
:

unworthy of

poifon himfelf.

Vol. VI.

F

The

;

66
Vai.
^* ^'

AFFAIPvS
Max.

that

happened

at

ROME.

following year gives us an example of paternal making one tremble. Deputies from Macedonia laid complaints before the Senate
feverity capable of
agaiiift

The

D,

Silanus,

who, during

his

command

in that

province, had committed many oppreflions in it. Maalius Torquatus, the * father of the accufed, a Senator of extraordinary merit, defired that no fentence might

be

pa.ired

upon

his fon,

till

affair himfelf.

No

difficulty

he had examined into the was made to grant him

this,

abilities

tv/o

every body placed great confidence in his and probity. He heard both fides during claySj and on the third declared his fon guilty
as

and, in confequence, forbade him ever to appear beSilanus, after fo fad a fentence, could no fore him. the light, and hanged himfelf out df fupport longer father, through a rigour it is hard to The defpair. fo much as afilft at his funeral j but not praife, would of the profeffion bar, remained calmly at being of the thofe who came to confult him, as home,, anfwering ufual, .This behaviour fpeaks the heir and defcendant of that Manlius Torquatus, who had caufed the head of his vidiorious fon to be cut off. But ought this
zeal -to be carried fo far as to.ilifle the fentimentsof .,ru:nn..: nature ? 1^;0 gtory, no fer vices rendered the State, exempted ••a Roman citizen from the vexations of the Tribunes. Wc.have feen a glaring example of this in the perfon of the -hrll Scipip Africanus. The fecond experienced the fame trial, but extricated himfelf more fuccefsFreinihem.fuliy, He hadten Cenfor, and, whilii he exercifed suppi. ^^^^ office,' would have, noted and degraded Ciaudius
'

,;

-

;

.

Htliis

Afellus, a.Rpnian Knight- who w^s prote(5ted from dilgrace folely by the. oppofition of the other Cen~

This Qaudiits. retained the. warmeft A, R. 6i3ifo^Mvimmius.. or 614, vi-ef5;H>tinentagainftSeiplo, and, being become Trjnbtinej
:

jhe

^

accufc^SLVt

preteiicf^ ;andr£or

^ji^^njtp Msi

.on what hiijil before the People V^^t crimo,: tke monuments come Mpni, Scipio; wonderfully fuilained
.
•,
:

and

"
-

'-^"i-

...

.his

AFFAIRS

that

happened

at

ROME.
:

67

He did not put on his charafter of magnanimity. fuppliant as a nor appear and even demourning, an air of with that fat adverfary, fuperiority rided his great man. This affair no upon fo had well a -Very
confequences.
^v-Scipio himfelf,
feveral years after,

and when heck.Divin.
to that of Cari" Caecil.

had added

the deftru6lion of

Numantia

The authors who fpeak of p^oMur. thage, accufed L. Gotta. this affair do not mention, the oecafion of it ; but fup- n. 58.
pofe, that Cotta
for the

was undoubtedly guilty. The caufe ^'^^|' was pleaded feven times before judgment was paffed
:

^^'^^

proceedings in writing ; and when a cauie, after having been pleaded on both fides, did not appear fufficiently clear, they decreed that it fhould be reheard at new expences. At length, the eighth time that Cotta's affair came on, he was acquitted. It is faid, that the accufer's too great power faved the accufed ; the judges having apprehended, that the condemnation of Cotta might be afweak pretext this. It cribed to Scipio's credit. would indeed be horrid iniquity, that the power of an adverfary fhould caufe an innocent perfon to be condemned but ti'iat is no juil reafon for acquitting a

Romans knew nothing of

A

:

criminal.
I

a

fa(51:

can conclude v/hat regards trials no better than by which, in my opinion, reflefts great honour
the

upon

Roman

Bar,

and

ftiil

more upon

Lselius,

was to plead a criminal affair, in which fome publicans, or farmers of the publick revenues, were concerned ; the cognizance of which the Senate had referred to the Confuls. He pleaded with his uiual exadnefs and elegance. But the Confuls were not convinced, and decreed it fhould be heard a fecond nev/ pleading of Laelius, flill more elaborate time. and predfe, enfued ; and judgment was ilill refpited, and a new trial ordered. The farmers re-condu6led Lslius to his houfe, expreffing the utmoft gratitude, and defirins him not to be difcouraged. He anfwered, " that he had the greatcft confideration for them, and, chat he had manifefted it by taking this affair upon F 2 him. £w
Scipio's friend.

He

A

.

^8

AFFAIRS

tliat

happened

at

ROME.

'

him ; that he had employed all the pains in it of which he was capable but that the beft they could do, would be to apply to Galba, who being a more vehement orator than himfelf, wo-uld throw more warmth and force into the manner of pleading their eaufe, and probably carry it in their favour.*' They cook his advice, and applied to Galba, who, being to fupply the place of fo great a man, long refufed to take their defence upon him, and was fcarce prevailed upon at length to do fo by their earneft follicitations. He employed all the next day in ftudying the caufe, making himfelf perfeftly mailer of it, and in preparing and dilpofing his proofs. The third day, which was that on which it was to be heard, he fhut himfelf up in a detached vaulted clofet, with fome learned flaves wha were his fecretaries. When he was informed that the Confuls had taken their places, he quitted his clofet with his vifage and eyes all in flames, as if he had jull been pronouncing his pleading. It was even ob:

ferved, that his flaves had been treated with feverity

v

a proof that he was as violent a mafl:er, as he was a vehement orator. The audience was very numerous,and in great expe6lation ; and Lselius v/as prefent. Galba began to fpeak with fo much force and elo^ quence, that he was interrupted by applaufes. at almofl: every part of his pleading: and he fo happily employed both the force of proofs and the vehemence of paffions,

that the Farmers entirely carried their caufe, and were acquitted. Such a fuccefs in thefe ci re umj fiances did Galba' great honour but the modeft and equitable behaviour of Lselius was no lefs admired which fliewed, * that
:

;

in thofe times the perfons

firll rank at the bar were void of all mean jealoufy, did each other juftice,and were glad to praife the merit and talents of others. .We alfo -f fee on this occafion, that there is no equality

of the

* Erat omnino turn mos, ut in reliquis rebus melior, fic in hoc Brut. i^fo hiimanior, ut faciles effent in fuum culque tribuendo. jEx hac Rutiliana narration e rufpicari licet, cum duse fummse fint -fiu Oratore laude§, una lubtiliter difputandi ad docendujn, altera gra-

betweett

AFFAIRS

that

happened

at

ROME.
•,

6^

between the two kinds of eloquence of which the one confines itfelf to informing the judges with exa6tnefs and perfpicuity, and the other in a manner ravilhes their confent by an irrefiftible violence and
-,

that the latter infinitely excels the former.
I have faid that Tubulus, who was condemned the6iithyear, had prefided as Praetor in trials for
in-

af-

faflination.

It

was, therefore, before that time that a

change had been made v»^ith -regard to the Prretors in the polity of the government of Rome, and in the
It confifts in this : that as, before, of the fix Prastors two only remained at Rome to prefide in trying civil caufes, and the four others went either to govern the provinces of the empire, or
it was decreed, at the time of the armies which we are fpeaking, that they fiiould all pals the whole year of their Prsetorfhip in the city; two with the iifi.ial funftions, and the other four to take cocrniIt was in this manner that zance of certam crimes. the ^eftwnes P-erfetuse were inifitutcd that is, the
-,

adminiftration of jufbice.

command

-,

ordinary tribunals for trying the crimes of caballing, After having paiTed the year of peculation, &c. their Prastorfiiips in thefe fun6lions, they were all fix fent to govern the provinces in the quality of Proprstors. All this has been related more at large in a diifertation in a former volume of this work. Two motives probably occafioned this change to be made the one, that the empire having been confiderabiy enlarged by the conqueft of Africa, Macedonia, and Achaia, four Prsetors were too few for the number of the provinces the other, that licentioufiiers and diforders augmenting, the neceflity of the ordinary tribunals for checking crimes and punifhing criminals, was obvious. Scipio, in his Cenforfhip, ufed his utmoft efibrts a. r. againft' degeneracy of manners, and the abufes, of
: :

6io.

yiter agendi ad
ficiat is

animos audientium permovcndos

;

multoque plus pro:

qui inflaminet Judlcem,

t.slio,

vim

in

Galba

fuille.

quam Brut.

ille

qui dcce;it

elsgautiaiii in

F

3

every

70

AFFAIRS

that

happened

at

ROME.

But every kind, that had been introduced at Rome. all his zeal was rendered inetFe6lual, by the too great facility of his collegue, L. Mummius, a man of merit in many instances, but fmiplc, eafy to be deceived, and of that kind of good difpofition that deAccordingly, whilft Scipio. Diod.apud generates into weaknefs. Valef. examined into the condud of the Senators, Knights,; and common People, with feverity, and employed the whole authority of his office in reforming vices,* Mummius. noted none, or even dil'charged all thofe that he could, who had been noted by his Collegue.Vai. Max. Scipio ^ODuld- not help complaining of this,vand' f^id ^^'^' one day, in a full affembly of the People, " that he fhould have exercifed the Cenforlliip in a manner worthy of the majefty of the Gommon-weakh, if he ^^ had either had no Collegue, or a Collegue.'-* Scipio, however, did not carry his feverity to ^Kccfs j of which we have a proof, in the manner he aded in refpect to a Roman Knight called G. Liciniuu Sacerdos. At the review of the Knights^' when k came to his turn to prefent himfelf to the*Genfors, Scipio faid with a loud voice: " I know C, Licjnius " is perjured, and if any body will accufe him, V\\ ** be a witnefs agalnft him." Nobody: offering thenlfelves, Scipio, addrefling himfelf to Licinius, ordered " I will not note you," faid he, " that val. Max. him to pafs. ^^' ^' " it may not be faid laded the part of accufer, judge, " and witnefs, in refped to you.'* Upon which Cicero makes this fine refiedion: ^' Therefore *. this great man, ^to whofe judgment not only the Roman People, but foreign nations,, referred themfeives, did jiot think
I
.

'

:his

own

ronfcioufnefs fufficcd, ,whent.the.-qtvefti.Qji:'W^s
::;:-.,.

-

to degrade .a citizen!"' I Ihait relate .another

'.^.n-'Oin^D

^\!ln:M
:

J

memorable circumflanee-. in Scipio's Cenforihip.: Qn the cl ofmg :Qf the -CeBfus it was the cuftora to implore the Gods, by a prayer, to
.

r*: Itaqtie is cujiis ar-bQtri5&.:p6,pnluvRonaantis^&£extera5^erite5 ocrtitentse efle confi.ieverant, ipfe fua confclentia ad ignominiam.ialterius contentus non fuit. Cic. pro Cl. n. 154.

'^

7'
I

s;

-:

augment

AFFAIRS

that

happened

at

ROME.
When

71

augment the pov/er of the Roman People,

the regifter, according to that cuflom, read this form, Scipio faid, " Our power is great enough. All that " we ought to afl^ of the Gods, is to preferve it in

And he immediately caufed the the fame ftate." form to be amended and it remained as he had die* rated it from thenceforth. In the Cenfus made by the Cenfors Scipio and Mummius, the citizens were found to be three hundred and twenty-eight thoufand three hundred and forty-,

"

two.
I ought not to omit here the wife precaution taken ^.r^ g^,, by the Senate to banifh the aftrologers from Rome,Val. Max. and to prohibit a new worlhip of Jupiter Sabazius, which had been introduced there. We have examples of the attention of the Romans to reform new and happy had it been, foreign fuperfcitions in all times if the old ones, which were often as abfurd and fhamful as thofe they profcribed, had not: gained greater credit with them Livy * fomewhere fays, that, in the fame manner as g g
'

:

!

known before remedies to cure them, fo crimes which call for the redrefs of: laws. Thus the avarice and injuftice of the Roman Magiftrates, which continually increafed, occafioned a very wife law, by which the States, whom the Governors of provinces had oppreffed and plundered, were authorized to apply to the Judges for reftitution of what had been unjullly taken from them: Lex CalpArjm It was propofed by L. Calpurde pecuniis repetmdis. nius Pifo Frugi, Tribune of the People, in the beginning of the third Punic war, in the Confu^lihip of L. Marcius Cenforinus and M. Manilius. It was, perhaps, this law, that acquired this Triburie chei ho-, ,' nourablc furnaint? of Frugi, hone^ roan. ji
difeafes are

are the

;

03 ti3Ya,.q £
ific

yd ^rboiJ

aril aiolqirii
eft

oJ iimiiii^

-^Ai

>xvr
;

• Sicut ante morbos necefie

cognitos

effe,

qurim remedia eorum

cupiditates prius najae Tont, quaro leges quse
,4.^1

iis.modum faCetcnt.
.Jail

.n

.0

oiq .oiO

non

eotx. jjoo:;

72;

AFFAIRS
The

that

happened

at

ROME.
in entertain-

excefTive expences

made

at

Rome

Macrob.
^' *^'

ments, were alio the occafion of pafling different laws for putting a fiop to the luxury of the Table., j^^g l^^v Orchia was the firft, fo called from C. Orchius, Tribune of the People, who propofed it in the 569th year of Rome, in the ConfulPnip of Q^ Fabius Labeo and M. Claudius Marcellus. It only prefcribed the number of the guefts. Cato often complained, in his harangues, that it was not obferved.

Macrob.
^JJi^ Qgll
ii,

Twenty-two years

after,

that

is,

in the 591ft

of

Rome, appeared

the law

Fannia.

The

former, far

24.

from remedying the evil, had only augmented it, in leaving perfons at liberty to be at what expence they pleafed, provided they did not exceed the number of guefts prefcribed by it this went to the root of the
:

by fixing the expence itfelf. It was preceded by a decree of the Senate, which ordained, that the principal citizens, who, at the time of the games in honour of the mother of the Gods, made entertainments for each other, fhould take an oath to the Confuls not to expend at each of them above an hundred and twenty Alles, or thirty fefterces that is, about three ftiillings and fixpence of our money, exclufively of gardenftuff, paftry, and wine j that they ftiould ufe no wine but of the growth of the country and fnould have no plate exceeding an hundred pounds in v/eight (about the fame weight Troy). The law Fannia, which was palTed in confequence of this reiblution of the Senate, was more exprefs in refpeft to the diftinftion of the days, allowing an hundred Aifes for entertainmients on certain feftivals, thirty AlTes ten times a month, and only ten on the other days, which are about tlireepence of our money. This law was called Fannia, from the Conful F'annius, who propofed it. The law Didia was inftituted eighteen years after. Macrob. An. Rom. 609. It decreed, that not only the city of Rsme, but all Italy, and every gueft, as well as the perfon who gave the entertainment, ftiould be fubje^t to the penalties of the law Fannia,
evil,
;
-,

'T

^

-

The

:

AFFAIRS
The

that

happened

at

ROME.

73
*

law Licinia is afcribed, by feveral of theMacrob. P. Licinius -^^^^ /^ Learned, to the 64.26. year of Rome. The CraiTus Dives, then Tribune, was its author. warmth for putting it in execution was fo great, that the Senate decreed it fhould be obferved as foon as propofed, without waiting till it had received its final authority from the fuffrages of the People, which could not take place, according to cuftom, till after three market-days, that is, till twenty-feven days after its promulgation. It differed little from the law Fannia, and was only a kind of confirmation of it. It decreed, that, on the Calends, Nones, and Market-days, the citizens fliould not expend above thirty Afles, that is, lefs than fix-pence of our money ; and that, on the other not excepted days, no more than three pound of frefh, and one of fait meat, Ihould be ufed, without including fruits. Some other regulations were afterwards made but luxury, always too ftrong for the laws, continually broke the barriers pains were taken to oppofe
to
it.

am amazed that thefe Legiflators, fo fevere againil the luxury of the table, did not extend their viev/s to another abufe, againil which Scipio inveighs with veI

hem*ence, in a difcourfe of v/hich Macrobius has preThis abufe confilled in the fufferferved a fragment. ing of public fchools at Rome to be kept by Comedians,
fent,

Sat.

yi.

10.

which young perfons of both fexes were of gefture, and to declaim, the art of accompanying the pronunciation of verfes with motions of the body. Thefe mailers, who were of loofe manners, often taught their pupils to perform
to
to learn the art

Jafcivious motions,
all fenfe

entirely capable of extinguiOiing

of modefly.
'*

Scipio

of

this practice.

Our
;

makes bitter complaints * youth, fays he, gJfto the
:

* Eunt in ludum hiftrionum difcuut cantare quas msiores noftri ingenuis probo ducier voluerunt. Eunt, inquam, in ludum faltatorium inter cinsdos virgines puerique ingenui In his (vidi) unum, quod me Reipublicae maxime miiertum eft, puerura bul latum petiJwris tilium noa miaorem anuis ducdecim cum crotalis faltare, quani

fchool

74

AFFAIRS
j

that

happened

at

ROME.

pronounce verfes as onfchool of exercife which our anceftors confidered an the ftage for fiaves. Boys and girls of condition as a profefTion what thefe fchools. But in company were came to they? I have myfelf feen, adds he, a boy in one of theie fchools (which fight made me deplore the fate of the Commonwealth) I have feen a boy, I lay, the fon of one who was actually a candidate for office, performing a fpeech to the found of a kind of tabor, or a dance, capable of making a flave void of fhame Such an education muft undoubtedly haveblulh." had a great tendency to corruption of manners. T6 what enormities muft not an youth fo educated natu-^
the aftors, to learn to
rally give

themfeives up ? of which it remains for me to fpeak have They tend a diffei-ent view from the preceding. either to aggrandize the power of the People, or to

The

la^vs

exempt them from dependance on the Great. ''''>nrt'ji"j A.R. 606. The Tribune C. Licinius CrafTus, to make his
'

^'^'. ^^ ,

court to the People, and mortify the Senate, propofed
'

"^ '^

a change

of the Pontiffs, and to transfer whereas hitherto it had always been made by the college of Pontiffs themLselius, then Praetor, fpoke ftrongVy ag^inft felves. this propofal, fnewing how dangerous it was to make any innovations in matters of Religion. This motive, to which the multitude is very fenfible, caufed a law entirely popular to be rejeded by the fuffrages of thfe
in the creation

the choice of

them

to the People

•,

People.

next laws regard fecrecyifi giving fuffrages, which the perfons of confequence feem to Till the 6.£ 3th year <)f A.KV6i5.jiave been divided in opinion. given viva voce in been had fuffrages the lSIu. Rome, appear, that this not does it magiftrates": and chufing 34. had any inconthem ele6ling in proceeding manner of propofed in it. been had ever change venience, as no
-

The

' Goncerning

*

'

faitationenl impudicus.; fei:y)jlu8^jhpn^^e,^|aJf:asf'^fiQ^;^f<][ffet.

apudMACROB
^'''
'

f.

'''-t

-^••"' /;;'"-"/'';

p^C^f »J>
,

-

"

-j-

In rhe inierpie'-atibn of Vh^is palTage I

JSaltation.

have followet! tlje Abbe Da Boj^^a See RefleQion- upon Painting and Poetry. Vol. III. Sed, 13*
'

.

V-::It

7lr:.0

;

AFFAIRS

that

happened

at

ROME.

75

It -had even this advantage, when any one propofed perfons without merit for offices, the founder part of the citizens could make him fenfible of the confequences, and bring him over to a better opinion. have often feen that the People, efpecially on important occafions, came readily into the fentiments and remonftrances of the cicizens Who made the publick good their view. But when the great and powerful began publickly to abufe their authority, in order to give the law in elections, employing not only promifes, but even menaces and violence, the People conceived thoughts of preferving their liberty from their attempts, by no longer giving their fuffrages viva voce, but by fcrutiny fo that each citizen threw into a locked vote-box, that had an opening at top, a note, with the name of the perlon he voted for infcribed upon it. Cicero elegantly Deleg. defines this method of proceeding in elections, tabellam ^f^^n viyidicem tacitte libertatts \ " a certain method of preie^ving the liberty of fuffrages by the fecrecy of fcrutiny/' But, on another fide, this method is only-

We

^

more liable to corruption, delivering thofe who do ill from the fhame of being known. Human things are of this kind, and always have two afpects. Hov/ever it were, this law, which eflablifhed the method of fcrutiny for the ele6lion of magillrates, was •called Gabinia, from the name of Gabinius, Tribune ipf the People, who propofed it. He was a man of
-2

neither birth nor merit.
-2-;^ wo years after alfo,.the fame method of fcrutiny Deleg. Ui. jWas introduced alfo in trials, by L. CafTius, Tribune 3+> 35* "xjf the People ; and from his name the law was called
;

CalTia.

The Conful ^milius, famous

for his elo-

vquence,

.the ancient cuftom.

employed the whole force of it for preferving One of CaiBus's Collegues alfo pppofed it: but he at length rofe up, and it was believed that he defifiied by the advice of Scipio Afri'canus. Thus the law was accepted.

Carbo, a very feditious citizen, extended it to theDeleg.in, "AfTemblies of the People, in which the inftitution of 34-Jaws
is

determined.

Only

7^
Deleg.
^^'
iii.

WAR S
:

A

B

ROA

D.

Only One kind of trials were exempted from the method of fcrutiny thefe were thofe before the People
for crimes of high treafons. Caffius had exprefsly ex-

cepted this fmgle cafe. alfo in this point \ and, repented it all his life.

Caelius introduced fcrutiny
if

we may

believe Cicero, he

WARS ABROAD.
To compleat the relation of all that I have left untouched, it remains for me to fpeak of two wars of little importance, and of that of the flaves in Sicily,
A. R.
608.

S?m'
suppi.liii.

which gave the Romans great employment. Ap. Claudius being Conful with Q^ Metellus MaThe Salalli, cedonius, had Gaul for his province.
inhabited the country now called the valley of Aofte, had a quarrel with their neighbours, concerning a river necelTary to the working of certain gold mines, Appius then fuccefsfully carried on in that country. was appointed to terminate this difference. But, proud and haughty, like all the reft of his family, and befides jealous of the glory of his Collegue, he was refolved, at all events, to acquire the honour of a triumph. He therefore gave the caufe entirely for the neighbours of the Salafli, whom he thereby reduced to He Vv^as defeated in a firft battle, and take arms. But he had his revenge afloft five thoufand men. terwards, and killed the Salafli five thoufand on their fide. This was a great lofs for that people. They and Appius returned to fubmitted in confequence he deferved a triumph, afllired that Rome, fo fully demand it, but only afked that he did not fo much as a decree for being permitted to take the money for de:

who

6—

out of the publick treafury. This being refufed, he took the expence upon himTribune of the felf, and undertook to triumph. People oppofed it, and even threatened to have him Claudia, thje pulled by force out of his chariot. daughter of Appius, who was a Veftal, faved her
fraying the expences of
it

A

father

from

this affront.

She placed herfelf by

his fide
if!

WAR OF THE
in his chariot,

SLAVES

in

SICILY.

77

and the Tribune, refpeding in her the facred chara<5ler with which fhe was invefted, did not Thus triumphed venture to execute his menace. Appius, with more glory to his daughter than himfelf.

The

Ardyasni, a People of Illyricum, had ravaged

Freln-

and even partgj^^"^j j^ The Senate having 19—21. of Italy in their neighbourhood. caufed complaints to be made to them ineffe(5tually by Deputies, fent a body of ten thoufand foot and jSve hundred horfe againit them. On the fight of this army, the Barbarians fubmitted to all the conditions it was thought proper to impofe upon them. They foon forgot their promifes, and renewed their ravages. The Conful Ser, Fulvius Flaccus was ordered to march againft them, who foon reduced them to realbn and, in order to put a final end to their courfes, he removed them from the fea into the midland country being forced, there, to apply themfclves to hufbandry for fubfiftence, they became as pacific as they had before been turbulent and unruly.
the lands of fome of the
allies,
;
:

Roman

WAR

OF

THE SLAVES

in SICILY..

From the end of the fecond Punic war, that is, Diod.iTnitS during more than fixty years, Sicily had enjoyed pro-P''ot. '^ found tranquillity, and in the arms of peace had applied folely to the cultivation of lands, and the corn* Actrade, in v/hich its v/hole wealth confifted. cordingly, the wife Cato called it the granary of the CommiOnwealth, and the nurfing-mother of the Roman People. This trade inriched not only the inhabitants of the ifland, but a great f number of Roman
* Itaque il!e M. Cato Sapiens cellam penarlam reipiibl-iccE no*rse, nutricem plebis Rotnanas, Siciliain noininavit. Cic. in Ver. ii. 5, f Multis locupletioribus civibus utimur quod habent propinquam, .fidelem, fru6iuofamque provinciani quos ilia partim raercibus fuppeditandis cum qusftu compendioque diinittit; partim retlnct, ut arare, ut pafcere, ut negotiari libeat, ut deuique fedes ac doraiciliura,

toUocare. ibid, 6,

citizens.

78

WAR OF THE
citizens,

SLAVES

in

SICILY.
fituation^

who, invited by the nearnefs of

went
lies,

thither regularly every year to
^

make

confiderablc

purchafes of grain

and

cultivated

or fettled there with their fami^ the lands they had acquired

there.
It is eafy to conceive, that a great number of flaves were neceflary for cultivating a country of fuch great extent and fertility as Sicily. We lliall fee that the number of thofe who took arms amounted to almoft two hundred thoufand. This multitude of flaves would have been of great advantage to Sicily, if their mailers had treated them with humanity, and they had been in the leaft of the charader of the perfon to whom Seneca writes in thefe terms i " I hear t with joy by thofe who come from you, that you live familiarly with your flaves. This agrees well with one of your prudence and learning. But fome may fay, they they ought rather to fay^ they are men, are flaves companions, nay, friends, of an inferior clafs-^Conr tinue to be loved and refpeded, rather than feared, by your flaves. It was thus the antient Romans lived. Our forefathers called the mailer of the houfe, the and his fervants and flaves, his father of the family Corruption of manners has changed this fine family.*'
:
-,

order.

.

i

v;

luxury, the natural confequence of great riches, had gained ground amongft the inhabitants of this ifland, it extinguifhed all fenfe of equity and hu»manity in their minds, and f the flaves were treated

When

not like men, but beafts, and with more cruelty than for care is taken to feed oxen and horfes, to : to perform all the fervice they can; them enaWe ^|v|ier<^9j% thefe iqhumftii nok jpaen frequently xefufed
beafts
• Libenter ex his qui a te veniunt cognovi, familiariter te cum Hoc prudentiam tuam, hoc eruditionem decet. Servi Servi funt ? Imo homines. Servi funt ? Imo contubernales. funt ? Imo humiles amici— Colant potius te, quam timeant- Majores fervos, fair^iliares. noftri Dominum, patrem familije appellaverunt

lerVis tuis vivere.


'-

:

Senec.

Epjft. 47.

'

-

-

f Alia interim

crudelia
fed

& inhumana prretereo,

quod nee tanquam
SEN.iiC,EpiIi.4.7.

hominibus quidem,

tanquam jumentis abutimur.

their

^

WAR OF THE
their flaves the

SLAVES

in

SICILY.
life,

79

moft indifpenfible neceflaries of

not to mention the blows and other barbarous ufage infiided upon them. Thofe unhappy wretches, driven to extremity by want, took to robbing and as the credit of their masters prevented the Praetors from doing juflice upon thefe thieves, there was foon no fecurity throughout Sicily i it became a very murtherous abode. This trade of robbing was an exercife which prepared the flaves
:

for war, in acculloming them to rapine and violence, enuring their bodies to fatigues, and rendering their

In their meetings courage more favage and brutal. other, that being, as they wercy each they reproached they flourifhing youth, Ihould be and numerous SI the luxury of a feeding pomp and in Iblely employed of voluptuous men. Every thing tended fmall number
\vnisOi bri^ ^:jmbmq vjo'-i to a general revolt. native of Syria, then the flave of a Eunus, a One

Enna, called A ntigenes, was very a(fliye in fomenting this difpofition. He boafled his (kill in magick, and pretended to know future e vents and to converfe with the Gods, who had affured him that he In venting his pretended (hould one day be a King. flames breathed out of his. mouth, in which he oracles, hole each end, full of comwith an at a nut he held had that he fet on fire. His mafl:er dimatter buftible feeing him play tricks, and with thefe himfelf verted them, carried him with him to the oppofing far from ate, to divert the conipany. There he where houfes concerning his Sovereignty': future Interrogated he was the guefirs, by way of joke,- defired hVrn to have therh in his favour when he came fo be King j and-upon hiis aflTurances that he would treat them in a very kind -and gracious manner, he was rewarded with Ibmething •^od\from the table.. This^m|n'ncrof jeftirto-ffi came a very: ferioivs affair, ^fld the kindnels of thofe •who had' familiarized themfdve? thus with this, flaye, was rewarded by very effeftiiaT and eflential feiryiceSir The confpiracy broke out at the houfe of Damo^hilti^. ^He was one of the richeff inhabitants of Enna, i:5n' and
citizen of
j
;

2,0

WAR OF

THE

SLAVES

in

SICILY.

and mafter of a prodigious number of Qaves, whom he treated with unheard-of barbarity and cruelty ; an haughty, infolent, brutal man, who had the train and equipage of a Prince, and made entertainments that exceeded all that has ever been faid of thofe of Perfia His wife, Megallis, the worthy in magnificence. fpoufe of fuch an hufband, imitated his haughtinels and cruelty in every thing. Their flaves, to the number of four hundred, were the firft that fet up the After having confuited Eunus, ftandard of revolt. who promifed them good fuccefs in the name of the Gods, they placed him at their head, and having armed themfelves as well as they could, with flaves, palifades, fpits, and whatever they could find, they and all the flaves in the entered Enna in good order city having joined them, they plundered the houfes, and committed all kinds of exceifes and cruelties in Knowing that Damophilus and his wife were them. at their country-houfe, which was very nigh, they feized them, dragged them into the city in chains, and having carried them to the theatre, which was the place of the aflembly, they accuied them in form, tried them, maffacred Damophilus upon the fpot, and delivered up Megallis to the female flaves, who, after having made her fuffer a thoufand indignities, threw her headlong from the top of a tov/er, or fome rock. The fate of this mercilefs mafler's daughter is enShe was of a quite different chatirely remarkable. and mother, and- full of goodher father raftcr from compafTion for thofe who fufhumanity, and nature, unhappy flaves, when they thofe confoled fered. She beaten. If they were and had been cruelly ill-ufed In a word, them provifions. put in prifon, fhe carried of her utmoft things to the Ihe relieved them in all hearts their power. By this conduft fhe had gained y
•,

and experienced that t!rfeS: very happily on this occafion. This infolent and brutal multitude, amidfl their greateft fury, remembered her goodnefs to them. They
treated her with refped, paid her all kinds of honours,

and

WAR

OF

THE SLAVES

in

SICILY.

'

8x

and caufed her to be condu^fled in fafety to relations of hers at Catana. Eunus alfo kept his word with the inhabitants of Enna, to whom he had promifed his protedion. He faved them from the llaughter in which all the reft of the city were involved. As he had acquired great authority by his juggling tricks and fanaticifm, the revolted flaves declared him There was no occafion for violence to their King. make him comply with their choice. He immediately aflumed the fcepter, diadem, and other marks of He appointed his officers, gave his the fovereignty. female * companion, who as well as himfelf was a Syrian, the name of Queen, caufed himfelf to be called Antiochus, and decreed that his new fubjeds
fhould take the name of Syrians. In lefs than three days fix thoufand men joined him, who arm.ed themfelves as well as they could. He ran from city to "city, and town to town, fet open all the places where flaves were fhut up, and augmented his forces to fuch a degree, that he ventured to come to blows v/ith the Roman troops fent againft him, and defeated
.

them on

feveral occafions.

Cleon on another' fide, in imitation of Eunus, having put himfelf at the head of a body of Uaves, began to ruin the territory of Agrigentum, and in the fpace of thirty days drew together five thoufand men. It was believed at firll, that thefe two bodies of flaves,
divided in intereft, would deftroy each other. But On the firft order that Cleon this proved a miftake. received from Eunus, he declared for him, and went with his troops to fubmit to the command cf the new

King.
It is eafy to

judge what horrid ravages and cruelties

a multitude of domeftick enemies committed againlt Sicily, who knew neither laws, fliame, nor fentiments

of humanity.
*
I

Diodorus Siculus

tells

us,

that they

ufe this term,

becaufe marriage between flaves was not autho"
.
'

rized

by the laws.

Vol. VI.

G

treatcxl

82

WAU
which

OF

THE

SLAVES

in

SICILY.

treated prifoners of war with the utmoft barbarity* cutting off their hands, and even their whoJc arms. The fame author has prefervcd a deplorable adventure,
affedled.
is impoffible to read without being much Gorgus,.oneof the moft illuftrious and ric heft citizens of Murgantia, being abroad to hunt, perceived a band of thefe robbers coming towards him. He immediately fled towards the city but as he was on At this inftant foot, he had little hopes of efcaping. his father arrived. on horfeback, and immediately difmounted to make his fon get up- The fon could not refolve to fave his life by abandoning his father to perifh ; and the father had the fame fentiments in reThey difputed, and intreated each -fpedt to the fon. other with tears, without being able to pre^^ail on This mutual tendcrnefs was fatal to both. either fide. The robbers arrived, and maffacred. father and fon
it
-,

together.

;.

.•.

The

battles with the

Romans were no

lefs

fuccefsful

Florus mentions to the rebels, than their robberies. to the number of four Praetors, who were beaten by them, Maniiius, Lentulus, Pifo, and Hypf^iis. So many vidories very much augmented Eunus's army,

now amounted to feventy thoufand men and it was believed, that adding all that had revolted in the different parts of Sicily together^ they would form the The Romans number of two hundred thoufand.
that
*,
*

then perceived, that thefe revolts merited great attenand they fent the Conful, C. Fulvius, the tion, Coilegue of Scipio Africanus, into Sicily. It does not appear, that this General gained any great advantages.

This
fpiracy

fpirit

of revolt, like a contagious

difeafe, fpread

into Italy, and even into the city of

Rome.

A

con-

formed by an hundred and twenty flaves was difcovered there. They werefeized, and put to death. It was known from their own confeffion, that the flaves of feveral cities of Italy had entered into this confpiracy. Q^ Metellus and Cn. Servilius Caspio were charged with this affair. They deftroyed four
'

thoufand

WAR

OF THi

SLAVES

in SICILY.

83

thoufand flaves at SinuefTa-, and canfed four hundred ^nd fifty to be hanged at Minturns. This evil ihewed itfelf in feveral province^ byX ij) Sicily efpecially it continued to rnake flrange havoclc. a.r. 619. The Conful L. Calpurnius Pifo, who l^ad fucceeded Fulvius, put a ftop to its progrefs by the gopd order and feverity of difcipline he re-eftabUflied amongft the Vai. Max. troops. C. Titius, who commanded a body of Cci- ii. 7. .^rontm. yalry, having fuffered himfelf to be furrounded by th? flaves, had furrendered to them, and delivered up hi^ arms, on condition of having his life faved. Pifo condemned him to remain, during aU the time he Ihould ferve, from morning to night barefoot, in thp principal place of the camp, in a robe cut ignominioufly, and a tunicjc without a girdle, all marks of infamy. He was forbade to frequent the baths, or go to any entertainment; and all his men were difmcunted, and obliged to ferve in the companies of flingers, who wefe confidered as the meaneft corps in the army. So diftinguilhed a punifhment kept all the troops and officers to their duty, and was followed by good fuccefs. The rebels incenfed againft the Mamertines, who had alone kept their flaves in obedience and fubmiflion, becaufe they had always treated them with goodnefs .^d hurnanity, adually befieged their city, MeiTina,
:

with numerous troops. Pifo made his army march againfl: them, and gave them battle. Eight thoufand remained upon the fpot, and all that were taken prjfoners were crucified. In difl:ributing the rewards to thofe, whp.h^d flgnaiized themfelv/ss in the battle, he declared that his Ton deferyed a crown of gold of three pounds in weight but as it did not become ^ magiArat-e to put the -Commonwealth to the expence of a prefent, that was to enter his own houje, he would diflingUiifli tl>e hpnour of the reward from the value of :the matter that * as his General he aftu^lly granted hi^n the hpnovirj b^it a§,his father he would iecure
:
•,

Val.
'^'-

Max.

3-

*

Ut honprei?!

pub1ic,e|i duce, pr^Uupi;$. j)?tre pfiv^tj^ agp^eret.

G

2

the

^4

WAR
the value to

OF

THE SLAVES

in

SICILY.

him by his will. Such a delicacy confirms the furname of Frugi that had been given to Pifo, and is worthy of him, who had firft eilabliflied the law
againfl the extortion of magiftrates.
It was the Conful P. Rupilius, who had the honour of having terminated the war of the flaves in Sicily. They were in poITeflion of many places but two in particular conftituted their ftrength, Enna and Tauromenium; and Rupilius conceived, that if he could take them, it would be a certain means to purge SiHe becily of them, and entirely to extirpate them.
:

A. R.620.

"gan with

'which
'

Tauromenium, a very well fortified city, made a long and vigorous defence. As the

Conful was mafter at fea, it could receive no provifions on that fide ; and all the convoys by land were intercepted. The famine became fo horrible, that The city was they ate their own wives and children. at length taken, and all the flaves that remained were put to death, after having fuffered the moft. cruel tor'^ents.

The Conful then moved 'to Enna. That titj was confidered as impregnable, and had a numerous garCleon who but it foon wanted provifions. rifon
:

commanded
'

in

it,

having made a

falley

with

all his

beft

troops, after having long fought like a defperate

man

who expedled no quarter from the enemy, was at length taken, and died fome days after of his wounds. His dead body, which was expofed to the view of the befieged, entirely difcouraged them. Some, to have their lives faved, delivered up the place to the Romans
thefe

by treachery. Twenty thoufand flaves periflied in two cities. Eunus, that imaginary King, efcaped into fteep and almoll inacceflible places, with fix hundred men, that compofed "his guard. Rupilius purfued them thither, He foon reduced and attacked them vigoroufly. them to defpair, and they all killed one another, to avoid the fliame and cruel torments prepared for them. Eunus was too defirous of life to follow their example:

WAR
pic: he hid

WITH ARISTONICUS.

8s

himfelf in dark and deep caves, from whence he was taken, attended only by four companions of his fortune, who v/ere (the thing is remarkable, and fiiews the effeminacy of this mock King) his cook, baker, bather, and the fool that diverted him at table. He was thrown into a dungeon, where he periihed foon after of the loufy difeafe.
bles

Rupilius, to leave no remains nor fufpicion of trouand revoks in Sicily, made the tour of the whole

ifland with a detachment of chofen troops ; and after having entirely re-eflablilhed peace, he applied himfelf,

in concert

with the ten commiflioners the Senate

had

fent thither for that purpofe, to inftitute fuch wife

approved by the people, and confidered as the foundations of the publick tranquilhty. This Rupilius, as we fee, was a man of ability and merit but not of birth. The Sicilians were without doubt much furprized to have a perfon to regard as a Conful and Legiilator whom they had feen in their iQand as an ofBcer of the revenue. The favour of Scipio Africanus, who knew Men as well as Things, had miUch contributed to raifc him to the
•,

regulations, as were highly

Vai,

Max,

^'' ^'

Confuifliip.

'

After he had regulated the affairs of Sicily, he returned to Rome with his army. He had done adlions which indifpenfably deferved a triumph. But it was judged that the meannels of the enemies had in fome meailire degraded fo fignal an honour. It was thought fufficient to grant him only the inferior triumph, called Ovatio. Attalus King of Pergamus died about the 614th Ffeinpcm. His nephew, who had the fame name, ^'^^' year of Rome. with the firname of Phiiometor, fucceeded him in his kingdom, but not in his virtues. For, as if he had intended to make his fubjeds regret the lofs of him, he abandoned himfelf to all kinds of excefs and deHappily for them' his reign was fhorc, bauchery. _and continued only five years. Having no children, he made a will, by which he
*
.

G

3

-

appointed

8^6

WAR
t

WITH ARISTONICUS.
heirs.

appointed the Rotl-ian People his

Eudetfius of

Pcrgamus cari-ied it to Rome. But Ariftonicus, who gave himfelf out as defcendeti from the royal family, endeavoured to get pofTeffi6t\ 'of

fon of

And indeed, he was the the Stares of Attahis. Eumenes, but not legitimate.
as well

He foon formed a confiderable party,
fjtvour of the people,

by the

accuftomed to be governed by

Rings,

as the aid of the flaves, who at that time had revolted in Afia againft their mailers, as thofe of Sicily had done, and for the fame reafons. Neither the refift-

'

ance of many cities, who refufed to acknowledge him, nor the fuccours fent thofe cities by the Kmgs of Bithynia and Cappadocia, could flop his progrefs. The Senate of Rome deputed five AmbafTadors or
CoitimiQ'loners,

whofe unarmed authority produced

A.'^.Szi.

jyq

effed.

out
rich
.

The Romans at length made an army fet uhder the command of P. Licinius CralTus^ a very
man, of high
birth, eloquent,

an able Lawyer,

and great Pontiff, but v/ho does not feem to have had kny military merit. He was the firft Pontifex Maximus, to
given.
in Afia were very inconfiderable. nothing more memorable of him, than Hiftory which may well be termed excefliV'e Sri aft of feverity, as follows. In befieging a city of Afia, It is rigour. dem,and of another city, in alliance with the Ke fent to Komans, the greateft of two mails he had fecn there. H's intent was to make a battering-ram of it. The chief engineer of the place believed the leaft fuit^d the Upon which LiciConfui's deiign bell, and fent it. q,nd without nius ordered that engineer to attend him hearing his reafons, ordered him to be ftript and fcourged, faying, that he required obedience, and not advice from him. He perifhed itiiferably, and even, if Juflin may be believed, by his own fault; having * been lefs intent

whom
exploits
relates

any

command

out of Italy had beeii

His

•,

f Intentior Atta|icse predse, tjuam bello.

Justin, xxxvi.

4.

Upon

WAR
upon conducing

WITH ARISTONICUS.
the war well, than

87
qollefting

upon

and converting to his own ufe th^ riches of the Kings of Pergamus. His army was defeated, and himfelf He however avoided the difgrac.e of taken prilbner. being delivered to the vit^or, by making a barbarian kill him, into whofe eye he thruil a ftick v/hich he had in his hand, on purpole to enrage him. The Conful Perperna, who fucceeded Crafllis, foon A. R.622, Having made the utmoft experevenged his death. dition into Afia,. he gave Ariftpnicus battle, entirely defeated his army, befieged him loon after in Stratonicea, and at length took him prilbner. fje immediately fent him to Rome in the fleet which A.R.623. he loaded with all the treafures of Attalys. Manius Aquilius, who had lately been eleded Conful, made
haite to take his place, in order to terminate the war,
,

depriy^ -him of the honour of a triumph. He found Arjftonicusfetout, and foon after Perperna,' who had followed, died of diiba-e at Pergamus. Aquilius had ^no ,dilliculty in putting an end to a war, which Perperna had brought fo near a fuccefsful conclufion. He hov/ever difhcnoured the advantages he gained, by an horrid -Cf-^rpe whigli, all ;narions deteft. In order to force fome piaces to furrendcr, iKpoifoned the fprings from whicn they had their v/ater. The fruits of this war to the Romans was, that Lydia, Caria, the Hellefpont, Phrygia, in a word, all that compofed the kin-"^dom of Attalus, vs/as reduced into a Roman province, under the common name of Afia. The Senate had given orders to deilroy the city of Phocasa, which had declared againit the Romans, both in the war, of which we have been fpeaking, and before in that againft Aniiochus, The Inhabitants of Marieilles, which was a Colony ofPhoca^a, moved as much with the danger of their founders, as if that of their own city had been in queftion, fent deputies to Rome to implore the clemency of the Senate and People in.tiiejr favour. However juft the indignation of the Romans was againft Phocsea, they could not refufe complying with the warm follicitations of a People,
anc}
,

^^

4

for

88
for

WAR
whom
who

WITH ARISTONICUS.

they had long had the higheft regard, and rendered themfelves ftill more worthy of it by the tender gratitude they expreffed for their forefathers and founders. Manius Aquilius on returning to Rome received the honour of a triumph, inftead of the punifhment he had juftly deferved for the unworthy and criminal methods to which he owed his fuccefles. And foon after, on being accufed of extortion, he was acquitted, which did not retrieve his honour, but difgraced his judges. As to Ariftonicus, having been exhibited as fight to the People in the triumph of Aquilius, he ft
V/as carried to prifon

and ftrangled.

And

thefe

were

the confequences of Attalus's will. Mithridates in his letter to Arfaces, King of the Parthians, * accufed the Romans of having forged a will
nes, of his

of Attalus, to deprive Ariftonicus, the fon of Eumefather's kingdom, which appertained to him by right but it is a declared enemy, who lays this crime to their charge, and confequently his teftitnony is of no weight.
:

• Simulate impio teftamento, filium ejus (Eumenis) Afiftonicum, quia patriura regnum petivesat, hoftium more per triumphum duxerc,

Apud Sallust.

infragiii.

THE

THE

ROMAN
Revised

HISTORY,
Completed

&c.

and

By

Mr.

C

R E V

I

E

R.

C9>

D
'

\, ,1^

'^^

Mr.

C R E V

I

E

R's

AE)

VERTI S EMENT
TO

THE
of the Firil Edition.

Ninth Volume

TH
farily the

public are now going entirely to perit has loft Mr. Rollin. great part of this volume is indeed of his compofing: but befides that the laft fragments of an author, whofe work has been interrupted by death, are necefceive, that

E

A

leaft finiflied, Mr. Rollin had left voids, which I was obliged to fill up ; and before the end of the volume, my guide quits me, and I am left abfo-

lutely to myfelf. Thus * the death of

Mr. Rollin, without being untimely or premature, is no lefs to be lamented by And indeed it may be called premature, the public. according to Pliny the younger's thoughts, who conceives -f- the death of every one to be fo, that medi" For, adds he, tates works worthy of immortality. thofe, who, devoted to pleafure, live in a manner from day to day, fee every day the accomplifhment of their reafon for defiring to live. But as to thofe, who have pofterity in view, and to perpetuate their
• Mors quam matura, tarn acerba. Liv. vi. i. f Mihi videtur acerba femper & immafura mors eorum, qui immorVale aliquid parant. Nam qui voluptatibus dediti, quali in diem vivunt, vivendi caufas quotidie finiunt. Qiii vero pofteros coo-itant, & memoriam Ibioperibus extendunt, his nulla mors non repentina eft, ut Plin. 1. v. cp. 5. fluas Temper inchoatum aliquid abrurapat.

?

names

92

Mr. CREVIER's
names by
too foon
fine

advertisement.

for

and ufeful works, death always comes them, becaufe it always interrupts

fomething began.'* It undoubtedly was not the frivolous view of a chimerical immortality, that engaged Mr. Rollin. More folid and Chriftian motives diredled his labours.

But it tory.
in

is

true, he did defire to

finifli

his

Roman

His-

And

I

remember, that

after

his

firft illnefs

May 1741, when I congratulated him upon his return in health, and that, probably for a confiderable number of years, which I wifhed might extend to the longeft term of human life; he replied with vivacity, " I fliould be very forry for that. But I fhould defire, " if It were the will of God, to live long enough to
" compleat
It v/as

my

work."

not the will of God. Neither his wifhes, thofe all who mine^ nor of love virtue and letters, nor refpe(5t. as juft as necelTary heard in that It were is All that the difpenfations Providence. of to fubmit to I can and ought to do, is to endeavour, as much ^s iri me lies, to imitate fo dear a mafter, and fo excellent a

model.
I confefs,

that of

all
is

ter admirable, there

the qualities that render a wrinot one, of which I fhould be

'

amiable chara6ler of fimplicity, humanity, goodnefs, and modefty, with which he wins the hearts of all his readers. An author of renown has however taken occafion from it to make him feveral reproaches, which all terminate in that of having had too much deference for; the authority of the I fhould injure Mr. Rollin's memory, if I ancients. undertook to juftify him in a point he thought for his He was far from thinking, with his cenfurer, glory. that it was necelTary to begin the feriousftudy of hiftory only towards the end of the fifteenth century and confequently, that not only Herodotus, but Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, "Salluft, Livy, Tacitus, and all the ancients, were to be confidered as nothing. I fhall Whatever zeal I may fay no more upon this fubjed. have to oppofe the attacks upon Mr. Rollin, I choofe rather to make the moderation he profeiTed throughout
fo ambitious, as that
-,

Mr. CREVIER's
out his whole
life,

ADVERTISEMENT.
rule
:

pj

and the rather, becaufe difcourfe is fuperfluous, where things fpeak themfelves ; and the univerfal efteem of ail the truly learned, as well as his lefs inftru6ted readers, declares loudly not his apology, but his^ praife.
I

my

therefore

Hop

fhort
it

rnpre willingly, as

and chufe to be filent the ; would not be eafy for me to keep

within certain bounds, if I once indulged myfelf in fpeaking. I have only to apprize the reader of two
things.

The

firft

is,

that

to avoid, as

much

as pofTible,

having Mr. Roll in charged with my faults, I have pointed out the additions, in any manner confiderable, that I have inferted in his text; and have taken care to mark the exadl place where his manufcript ends. The fecond obfervation I have to make, relates to the rediiftion of the Greek and Roman fpecies of coin into ours. I have conformed to Mr. Rollings eflimate, without believing it abfolutely exad:, as he
did not believe it himfelf. It is certain that the only to have any thing exa<5l in this kind, is to make weight the rule. Nor are the learned without great difference of opinions in this refpeft. It is however the method I have followed, as the bed in itfelf, in my edition of Livy. But we have certain ideas of weights, when the fpecies of coin are in queftion and mod readers would be out of their depth, if we gave them the fums in marks, ounces, drams, and grains. I fhall only obferve, that Mr. Rollin's eftimate comes nearer to exadnefs, if we compare it with what moft nations confider as the intrinfick value of gold and filver, than if we fixed ^ir to the. current value of thofe metals -in France,

means

:

THE

[

94

]

THE

ROMAN HISTORY.
BOOK
THE

TWENTY-EIGHTH.

THIS
tains
is

book Includes about twenty years, from the 6igi}[i to the 638th y^ar of

conprincipally the Hiftory of the Gracchi, fome wars abroad, the mofl important of which
It

Rome, and fomething more.

whereby the Romans form a prov^ince the Gauls ; and varipus affairs of the city.
that

in

S;E C T.
H'ftory of the

I.

G

jr.

a

c c

h

i.

Ti.

Gracchus and Corneli^^ f^fher and mother ^fihe Qorndifl'^ extraordinary care of the e^ucat^n two her SmiUti^de an^ difference of <hara^r fons. of brothers. the two Tiberius., when very youpg, is of ele^ed Augur. He ferves under Scipjo in Afri-ca,- and afterwards in Spain under Mancinus as ^^fl&r. 'Treaty of 'Numantia the caufe and origin of his misfortunes. Tiberius efpoiifes the party of the People. He is ele^fed Tribune, and revives the Agrarian laws. Complaints the him. Rich his collegues, againft OSJavius, one of of
Gracchi.
cppofes his law.

Tiberius endeavours to bring over his

colltgue by fair means,
to

hut ineffectually.

He

undertakes

have OCiavius depofed^ tn which he fucceeds.

Reflexion

CONTENTS.
The flexion upon that violent proceeding of Tiberius. law for the difirihution of lands is faffed. Three commiffioners appointed for putting it in execution.
is fubjlituted to

9^

Muaus

Tiberius perfuades the peoO^avius. He caufes ple^ that dejigns are formed againfi his life. a decree to pafsforthe difirihution of the ejiates of Attalus

amongft the poorer citizens.

He
is

undertakes tojufiify
in the

the depofition of 05iavius, in the office of Tribune.
Reflexion upon that event.

and to have himfelf continued

He

killed

Capitol,

The

accomplices of Tiberius

condemned.
eleSled
is

Seditious anfzver of Blojtus.
in the

Triumvir
retires.

fent into Afia to

Gracchus

P. Cfaffus is Scipio Najica room of Tiberius. Caius avoid the fury of the People. Anfwer of Scipio Africanus upon the

death nf Tiberius. Speech of the Cenfor MeCenfus. tellus to exhcrt the citizens to marry. Fury of the Tribune Atinius againji Metellus. Difficulties of the

favour of thofe dead in his bed. His obfequies. Ill-timed frugality of Tuber a. Scipio's remotenefs from pomp. Praife of that great man. Caius applies himfelf to the fiudy of eloquence. He goes to Sardinia as ^it£Jior. His dream. His wife conduct in Sardinia. His great reputation alarms the
diftribution of lands.

Scipio declares in

that were in

poffeffiion of lands.

He is found

\

ijj£iO

Senate.
preffied

Turbulent defigns of Fulvius, Confpiracy ftipat FregelU. Caius returns to Roms. Hejujiifies

himfelf entirely before the Cenfors.

He

is

elected

Tri-

bune notwithftandivig the oppofition of the NobleSi_ His He prcpofes feveral laws. He under takes^ and praife.
executes feveral publick

works of importance.
.

C. Fcf^:

Caius is Conful.by the intereji of Caius. He transfers the chofen Tribune for the fecond time.
nius
is elected

The

adminijtraticn ofjujlice from the Senate to the Knights. Senate, to ruin the credit of Caius, makes Drufus,

one of his collegues, oppofe him, and becomes popular Caius carries a colony to Carthage. itfelf. Drufus
takes advantage of his ahfence.

Caius returns to Rome-

Decree of the Conful pannius contrary to the interejis of Caius. Caius quarrels
changes his habitation.

He

with

his

collegues.

They- prevent

him from
'

being
(levied

^6
for
to

HISTORY
his
deflru^lion.

OF THE

GRACCHI.

ek£led Tribune for the third time.
Senate take arms.
dation ineffe5fitaUy.

Every thing is ripe The Conful Opimius makes the

Licinia exhorts her hufband Caius

provide for his fafety.

He
is

endeavours an accommo-

killed upon mount Avenput to flight. Sad end of Caius. His head^ upon which a price had been fety is carried to His body is thrown into the Tiber. Opimius. Temple
tine,

Fuhius

and

his followers

Honours rendered the Gracchi by Agrarian laws oj the Gracchi annulled. Retreat of Cornelia to Mifmum. Fate of Opimius. Reflexion upon the Gracchi.
ere^led lo Concord.

the People.

THE

troubles occafioned
in the

by the Gracchi

are a

Thefe were the firft civil contefts, that were terminated by violence and murder, and in which the blood of Romans was fhed by Romans a fatal example that v/as foon revived and multiplied, that brought on civil wars, profcriptions, and at length a change of government, and the fall of a liberty, that no longer fubfifted, ex:
.

mournful epocha

Roman Hiftory,

cept to give the

Commonwealth

tyrants under the

Graec^
'
'

name of defenders. The TWO BROTHERS,
v/hom

Tiberius and Caius Gracchus,

for brevity-fake I fhall ufually call the one, Ti-

berius and the other. Caius, were the fons of Tiberius

who, though he had been Cenfor, and twice Conful, and had triumphed as often, derived more luilre from his perfonal virtues, than from all his His merit, which Ihone out early, acquired dignities.
Gracchus,

him an

We

He married Cornelia, iliufcrious match. daughter of the great Scipio, Hannibal's conqueror. have feen in what manner that marriage took place in effed of the generofity with which Ti. Gracchus,

'

notwithftanding an ancient enmity, declared warmly in favour of the Scipios, in a perfecution excited againft them by the Tribunes of the People. Cornelia, after the death of her hufband, who, left her twelve children, applied herfelf to the care of "her family with a wifdom and prudence, that acquired her
i

great

HISTORY
great efteem.

OF THE

GRACCHL
that

97

Pcolomy King of Egypt (this muft have been Ptolomy Phyfcon) would have divided his crown with her, and fent to
Plutarch
tells us,

but fhe refufed it. He hufband very unworthy of fo accomplifhcd a fpoufe. There is no great proShe loft moft of her children ia bability in the fad. She had only one daughter left, her widowhood. Sempronia, whom fhe married to the fecond Scipio Africanus ; and two fons, Tiberius and Caius, whom flie brought up with fo much care, that, though they "Were generally acknowledged to have been born with the moft happy geniufles and difpofitions, it was judged, that they were ftill more indebted to education The anfwer ftie gave a Campanian than to nature. That lady, lady concerning them, is very famous. who was very rich, and ftill fonder of pomp and ftiew, after having difplayed in a vifit ftie made her, her diamonds, pearls, and richeft jewels, aflced Cornelia Cornelia dexearneftly to let her fee her jewels alfo. teroufly turned the converfation to another fubje6l, to wait the return of her fons, who were gone to the publick fchools. When they returned and entered their mother's apartment, ftie faid to the Campanian lady, pointing to them with her hand, " Thefe are " my jewels." very memorable laying, that includes great inftrudlion for ladies and mothers. The Gracchi diftinguiftied themfelves exceedingly amongft the young Romans of their time, by the talent of fpeaking; and it has been obferved, that they were indebted for it to the particular care their mother * Cornelia took to retain the beft mafters then at Rome about them, to teach them the Greek language, She fpoke her polite learning, and all the fciences. own tongue with great purity and the language of her children argued it, and did honour to her, whofe maternal cares feemed to have had the forming of their

demand
would

her in marriage

;

certainly have been an

,

A

:

• Gracchus diligentia Corneliae matris a puero do£tus, Grnecis Uteris eruditus. femper habuit exquifitos e Grascia magiftros. Cic. in Brut,, 104..

&

Nam

Vol. yi.

.

H

bodies

^8

HISTORY
bodies
lefs

OF THE

GRACCHI.

in view, than that of their ftyle. *Her mentioned with praife by Cicero and Quintilian. It is but juftice to the ladies to own, that they excel in the epiftolary ftyle, which ought to be fimple, clear and natural, with elegance and delicacy. 4 i^3J»/ Cornelia had abundance of other great qualities, for which llie was highly refpefted. Juvenal afcribes an air of pride and haughtinefs to her, which, in his fenfe, took much from her merit, when he fays, *' That a fimple citizen of Venufia was preferable as a wife, to Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, if the latter, with great virtues, brought along with her an haughty brow, and was for reckoning the tri*umphs of her family into her portion."
letters are

Malo Venufinam^ quam te^ Cornelia, mater Gracchcrum^ ft cum magnis virtutibus affers Grande fupcrcilium, numerasindote iriumphos*

^

We muft return
Plut.

to her children.

Through

the rc-

femblance of thefe two brothers in refpedt to courage, temperance, liberality and magnanimity, fome evident differences v/ere however obferved. Firft, as to feature, look, walk, and all motions, Tiberius was calmer and more compofed, Caius more warm and vehement; fo that when they fpoke in publick, the former always kept in the fame place, with a grave and, fedate countenance-, the other was the firft of the Romans who introduced motion in the tribunal, going from one fide to the other, and ufing ftrong and violent geftures. This diverfity was alfo obferved in the charafter of their eloquence, which was extremely warm and vehement in Caius, and in Tiberius mild, and fitter to m.ove compafiion. The didlion of the latter was pure, and extremely elaborate; that of Caius
* Legimus epiftolas Cornelias matris Gracchorum. Apparet filios non tarn in gremio ed ucatos, quam in fermone matris. Cic.inBrut. an. Gracchorum eloquentiae multum" contulifle accepimus Corneliam matrem, cujus doftiffimus fermo in pofteros quoque eft epiftolis traQUINTIL. I. I, *1itus.

free

HISTORY
free
rius

OF THE

GRACCHI.

9^

and bold.

The {ame

difference was obvious again

and in their common expences. TibeCaius, in comparifon was fimple and frugal with other Romans, was fober and temperate ; but with his brother, he feemed to give in to the new tafte for pomp and magnificence. Their manners were no lefs different in all other reTiberius was mild, moderate, and polite; fpedis. Caius rough, violent, paffionate, abandoning himfelf in his harangues to excelfive gufts of anger, which he could not keep in, and to terms and tones of voice,
at their tables,
:

that fuited fuch emotions.

To

*

remedy

this

incon-

venience, whenever he fpoke in publick, he had a fervant behind him with a pipe, who when he perceived by the tone of Caius's voice, that he grew over-

vehement, and abandoned himfelf to his fire, he founded a foft note upon his inftrument, which brought back the orator to a lefs vehement pronun-^
ciation.

On

the contrary,

when

his utterance

grew

weak and
preffion,

languid,

the fame mufician

touched an

higher and more lively note, which, to ufe the exawakened and re-animated him. f It was a very extraordinary thing that Caius, in a publick alfembly, in the midfl of the turbulent adions, that fpread terror amongft the Patricians, and in which he had every thing to fear for himfelf, fhould hear the fervant, that founded the pipe, and raife or lower his voice, according to the note given him. Tiberius was nine years older than his brother. P^"^' Hence it was, that there was a confiderable fpace of time between their entrance into publick affairs. And this, as Plutarch obferves, contributed mofl to the ruin of all their undertakings and defigns ; becaufe
quoties apud populum concionatus eft, fei"vum poft peritum habuit, qui occuite eburnra fiftula pronunciatioiiis ejus modos formabat, aut nimis remijjps excitando, aiit plu? jullo concitatos revocando quia i^lnm calor & impetus aftionis attentum hujufce tempexamenti aEilimatorem cfTe non patiebatur. Val, Max. viii lo. Vide Cic. de Orat. iii. 225. f Hsc ei cura inter turbidiffiinas aftiones, vel teiTcriti optimates, vel tiinentj, fuit. QuiNtiL 12.

* C. Gracchus

fe muficse artis

:

H

2

thev

. '

100

HISTORY

OF THE

GRACCHI.

they did not flourilli together, and could not unite their power, which would have become very great, and perhaps irrefiftible in effe6t. Tiberius, almoft as foon as he afTumed the robe of

manhood,

acquired' fo

much

reputation and

efteerti,

that he was thought worthy of being elefted into the
college of Augurs, much more upon account of his And Ap. Clauvirtue than on that of his high birth. dius, who had been Conful and Cenfor, and was aftually Prince of the Senate, to unite him to his

family, of which he was very defirous, gave him his daughter in marriage. He ferved in Africa under
Scipio, who had married his fifter: and, as he lived with him, he had a nearer opportunity of ftudying that great model, fo capable of exciting his emulation. He took the advantage of it, and gave proofs of his He had the glory of being valour and good condu6t. His the firft that mounted the wall of Carthage. good nature, and engaging manners, acquired the love of the troops, and when he quitted the army, he was highly regretted by every body. When he was Qiiseftor, he had Spain for his province*, and the unfortunate Mancinus for his General, whofe difgrace gave Tiberius occafion to augment his reputation, in Ihewing not only his activity and underftanding in publick affairs, but a refpeft which would not fuffer him ever to forget what he owed his Conful> whilft Mancinus himfelf, under the load of his mishave feen fortunes, almoft forgot who he was. the Numantines repofed in him, and what confidence concluded treaty with them, manner he a in what fatal event to Tiwhich faved the Roman army: a berius, which, as we fhall fee, proved the caufe and origin of all his misfortunes. This treaty was received and interpreted differently at Rome, according to diverfity of interefts. The relations and friends of thofe, who had ferved in this war, when Tiberius returned to Rome, affembled in crowd-s about him, crying out, that they were obliged to him alone for the lives of twenty thoufand citizens ; and imputing 2

We

:

HISTORY
imputing
General.
all

OF THE

GRACCHI.
in the treaty to the

loi

that was fhameful

On another fide, thofe who confidered the peace he had made as fhameful and unworthy of the Romans, (and thefe were the perfons of the greateft power and authority in the Senate) were on this occasion for following the example of their anceftors, who in a like cafe, fent back to the Samnites not only the Generals, but all thofe who had any Ihare in the treaty of Caudium, Quseftors, Tribunes and other officers i thereby making all the odium of violated oaths and breach of faith fall upon their heads. The fame did not take place on this occafion, The People decreed, that only the Conful Mancinus fhould be delivered up to the Numantines, and exempted all the reft from punifhment in favour of Tiberius. Proud of this kind of vidory over the Senate, and angry, that their body had declared againft him, * he renounced the party of the Old and Great, to whom his father had always adhered, and gave himfelf up entirely to the People, ftudying to pleafe them by every means, in order to weaken and ruin the credit of thofe, whom he confidered as his enemies. For this purpofe he conceived a method, which, far from having any thing odious in it, feemed only the efFe6t of his zeal for juftice and the publick good, and might really have been fo to a certain degree. On the firft occafion I had to fpeak of the Agrarian laws, I faid, that it had been a cuftom with the Romans from the earlieft times, when they had conquered a neighbouring people, to confifcate part of their lands, and annex them to the territory of the Commonwealth. Some of thefe lands were fold others were diftributed amongft the poor citizens, wha were fent thither in colonies and fome were let for
:

in eo foedere improbando SeiiatCis feveritas dolori timori fuit iftaque res ilium fortem claruai virum a gravitate patrum defcifcere coegit. De Harufp. refp. 43. Ad quem [Tribunatum] ex invidia foederis Numantini bonis iratus

* Ti. Graccho invidia Numantini Mancini Cos. cum efiet, interfuerat

foederis, cul feriendo, quseftor

C.

&

&

:

&

'

.

acceiTerat.

Bnit. 103.

H

3

the

102
the

MUCIU5, CALPURNIUS,
Life

Confuls.

of the piiblick.

By

this regulation the

Com-

monwealth provided for the fubfiftence and multipliBut in procefs of time the cation of her citizens. Great and Rich pofTefled themfelves of almoft all thefe' lands, that were originally the State's, either by purchafe, or by having fuch adjudged to them, on account of paying a greater quit-rent, on which fmall ones had been laid; or laflly by violence. Several regulations had been made to put a flop to thefe ufurThe Tribunes Sextius and Licinius had pations. paffed a law, by which it was prohibited to pofTefs more But avarice, indufthan five hundred acres of land. trious to invent new methods for eluding the force of laws, had always broke thro' thefe feeble barriers.'^ The Rich at firfl caufed thefe lands to be cultivated by the people of the country, who were jree but as thefe free farmers were often obliged in time of war, to carry arms, and to fufpend the cultivation of land inftead of natives of the country they employed flaves, who did them much more fervice, and from thence their number increafed infinitely but that of
:

;

:

the fubje61:s of the Commonwealth diminifhed in proportion ; and it is eafy to conceive what a misfortune
this
Piut.

was to the

State.

Tiberius had been an eye-witnefs of this, and was fenfibly concerned, when in crofllng Tufcany on his way to Numantia, he faw the lands lie defart, ancj found no other hufbandmen, herdfmen, and fhepherds on them, but flaves from foreign countries, who were

exempt by
A.R.
619.

their condition

from ferving

in war.

P.
j^^

Ant.^c.
»33-

Mucius Sc^VOLA. Calpurnius Piso Frugt.

When Tiberius was eleded Tribune of the People, he undertook to reform this diforder, and to reinflate the poor citizens in the pofiefTion of the lands, of which they had been deprived, by reviving the law Cornelia Licinia, of which I have juft fpoke above, his mother, who perpetually reproached her two fons with pafiing their Ijves in obicurity^ and not diflingui^iing

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls,

lo^

giiiiliingthemfelvesby any fignaladions, and " that the a. r,(^ 19. Romans called her Scipio's mother-in-law, and not the Ant. C? ^^^' mother of the Gracchi," ftrongly urged him to propofe
that law.
v/as the

But what

ftill

more determined him

to

do

{o,

People,

who by

written papers affixed to por-

ticos, walls, and tombs, exhorted him every day to take upon him their defence againft the mercilefs Rich. He however did not think proper to refolve upon it without taking counfel. He communicated his defign to fome perfons, who were confidered as the principal citizens of Rome for reputation and vir-

Of this number were CrafTus, who was afterwards Pontifex Maximus, the lawyer Mucius Sc^voia then Gonful, and Appius Claudius, fatlier-in-law of Titue.

berius.

One would think, fays Plutarch, that a milder and more humane law was never propofed againft fo great an injuftice, and fo enormous an ufurpation. For inexpelhng with {hame thofe greedy pofTeiTors eftates from the lands they held, contrary to the lav/s, and fentencing them to make reftitution of all the gains they had unjuftly made from them, it only ordained, that they fhould quit them after having received from the publick the price of the lands they polTefTed, and that the citizens, whofe circumftances
ftead of

of others

relief, fhould enter upon them in their ftead. appeared to the People, that the Rich ought to be App. ^' perfectly fatisfied, that no penalty was laid upon them for the paft ; and that no more was required of them, than to fufFer thofe they deprived of their eftates to reenter upon them. But the Rich Vv'ere far from thinking in the fame manner. They reprefented that thefe lands were eftates, which had been in their families from immemorial time that they had built upon them., had planted them, and th^t the tombs of tJieir forefathers were upon them 5 that they were fortunes divided amongft brothers, or that the portions of wives were laid out in purchafing them ; that they had been given to children in marriage or laftly, that money had be^n borrowed upon thefe knds, which ."~ were 4

required
It

Civ*

'

-,

:

H

I04
^^R; 6^9J33-

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

were mortgaged for the payment of their debts. Thefe were undoubtedly great difficulties, and give room to think, it was with reafon, that Lselius, whO' in his Tribunefhip had the fame idea of this matter as Tiberius, dropt it, and by that circumfpedion acquired the furname of The Wife^ which has done him fo much honour with pofterity. The Rich in confequence were juftly alarmed, rofe up againft the law, and even went fo far as to attack the perfon of the Legiflator; endeavouring to perfuade the people, that Tiberius propofed this new partition of lands only to excite great troubles in the Commonwealth, and to induce commotions and confufion. They got nothing by all their outcries and com' Tiberius bore them down irrefiftibly ; and plaints. as he maintained a caufe, that feemed entirely jull and honeft, with an eloquence capable of carrying an unjuft and dilhoneft one, he made himfelf terrible to his opponents, when in an affembly of the whole People round the tribunal of harangues, he came to urge the moft fpecious and popular reafons in favour of the Poor, which could not fail of being applauded in an audience fo much interefted in approving them. " The " wild beads, faid he, that roam in the mountains " and forefts of Italy, have each their hole and den tQ " retire to ; but thefe brave Romans, who fight and " expofe their lives for the defence of Italy, enjoy " only the light and air of the heavens, of which they " cannot be divelled, and poifefs neither houfe nor '^ cottage to fbeker them from the injuries of the " weather. Without homes, without retreat, they " wander about in the very heart of their country with *' their wives and children like miferable exiles. Their " Generals in battles exhort them to fight for the tombs " of their fathers and their houfhold gods and yet " amongft all this great multitude of Romans, there is *' not one, who has either a paternal altar or tomb of " his ancellors. They go to war, and die only to fup" port the luxury, and to increafe the riches of others ; *' and yet iome do not biulh to call them the lords " and
:

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,
« and mafters of the
univerfe,

Confuls.

105
^'

when

in reality they have A. R. 619.

^"^ not a fingle inch of land in their pofleffion." J 33. which words, he pronounced with a kind To thefe of enthufiafm, that fhewed * they came from his heart, and that he was fenfibly touched with the misfortunes of the People, there was not a fmgle perfon of his adverfaries, that dared to make the leaft reply. The inconveniences attending the ruin of the fortunes of the belt families of Rome and Italy, might undoubtedly have afFeded minds capable of reafon and reflexion. But a multitude, allured by the hope of commodious and agreeable fettlements, and prejudiced by fuch arguments, as we have jull feen the eloquent Tribune ertforce, were abfolutely deaf to the ftrongeft reafons, that could have been urged to the contrary. Accordingly the Rich renounced the thoughts of anfwering Tiberius, and applied to M. Oftavius, one of his eolkgues, a young man, grave in his manners, full of moderation and prudence, and befides a particular Oclavius in confequence, out of friend of Tiberius. confideration for him, at firft refufed to oppofe his But, as moft of the great perfons of Rome decree. preffed and conjured him to fecond them, at length, in a manner carried away by their importunity, he rofe up againft Tiberius, and oppofed his law. Now the oppofition of a fmgle Tribune put a flop to every thing, and as long as it fubfifted nothing farther could be done. Tiberius, exafperated by this obllacle, withdrew this law, in which, as we have obferved, he had kept within the bounds of moderation, and propofed another of greater feverity againft the Rich, and therefore more agreeable to the People. It decreed, " That all thofe who pofTefled more lands than the ancient laws allowed, fhould quit them immediately," without mentioning any allowance or fatisfaftion. Warm difputes pafTed every day in the tribunal between him and Oftavius. But though both fpoke with the utmoft vehemence, neither faid any thino- injurious of the other, nor did they fuffer the leaft word
'

• Scias fentire

eum

quse dicit.

Quintil.

to

!

.

io6
A.R.
,2j\

MUCI17S, CALPURNIUS,
to

Confuls.

619.
'

efcape them

in

their ang-er, that could be taxed

with indecency: luch force has a good education to keep the mind of man within the bounds of wifdom and moderation! Tiberius apprehending, that Odavius might be actuated by private views of interefl, becaufe he was poflefTed himfelf of a confiderable number of the lands dependent on the Commonwealth, in order to induce him to renounce his oppofition, offered to indemnify him out of his own fortune, though himfelf was none of the richeft. Odavius did not accept this offer. Tiberius then, to Hiake the conftancy of his adverfaries, pafled a decree, by which he prohibited all magiftrates to exercife their fundions, till the people fhould have deliberated upon the laws. He even Ihut the gates of Saturn's temple, where the publick trea-

'

,

was kept, and fealed up the locks, that the Qiiasmight take nothing out, nor bring nothing into it and laid great fines upon fuch of the In Prastors, as fhould refufe to obey this decree.
fure
ftors or Treafurers
j

confequence, all the magiftrates without exception, not to incur that penalty, abandoned their mi-niflraWhat an enor-; tion, and fufpended their functions. mous power was this in a Republican State, which in the hands of a young man of thirty, can thus with a few words interdid all other magiftrates In the mean time, the day fixed for the affembly arBut wiien Tiberius was for fending the people rived. to give their fuffrages, the Rich had carried off the This circumurns which held the ballots for voting. ftance occafioned a great confufion, that might have had very fatal confequences. Manlius and Fulvius, perfons of Confular dignity, threw themfelves at the feet of Tiberius, conjured him to prevent the dreadful inconveniences, into which he was hurrying, and prevailed upon him to go and confult with the Seliate. He repaired to it immediately. But feeing that au-. guft body determined nothing, on account of the Rich, who had tnoft credit and authority in it, he formed a refolution, that was generally difapproved
.

ty

;

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

107

by all perfons of worth, which was to depofe 06tavius A.R.619. * from his office of Tribune, defpairing of ever being ^^^^
able to pafs his law by any other means. However, before he proceeded to that extremity, he tried gentle methods. He defired Odavius, in
the prefence of the whole alTembly, and ufed the moft affed:ing terms he could conceive, fqueezing his

hands, and conjuring
fition,

him

to depart

from
in

his

oppo-

'

and to afford the People
their right,

this grace,

manded nothing but
would

and

who deobtaining it,
many
pains,

receive but a flight reward for the

fatigues, and dangers, they hadfuftained for the

Com-

monwealth. Oftavius perfifted ftifly in his refufal upon which Tiberius manifefted his defign. " " are," faid he, " two coUegues perpetually and dia^*

Wc

metrically oppofite to each other, upon an affair of " the greateft importance. I fee but one means of " terminating the difpute which is, that one of us be
;

deprived of his office. I fubmit myfelf to this firfl:. *' Odavius may bring what relates to me into delibera* tion. For my part, if the People decree it, I will in** ftantly defcend a private perfon from the tribunal.'* Oftavius being far from acceptirig fuch a propofal; *' Well then," refumed Tiberius, " to-morrow I will ** propofe the depofmg of 06tavius to the people. The " people Ihall decide, whether a Tribune, who obfti" nately oppofes their interefts, ought to continue in" veiled with a charge, that he received only for their
*'

'

prote<5lion."

next day, the People being afiembled, Tibethe tribunal, and again endeavoured, by the moll gentle perfuafions, to bring over Odavius. But finding him ftill inflexible, he propofed the decree for depriving him of his office, and fent the People to give their fuffrages. Thirty-five Tribes \yere prefent. Seventeen had already given their voices againft 06l:avius, and only one was wanting to form the majority for depofmg the Tribune, when Tiberius ordering them to flop, began again to intreat him, embraced him before the whole People, and fpared no kind of carefTesj imploring and conjuring him not to expole
rius

The

mounted

io8
/s..

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,
his

Confuls.

R, 61 g.'poh
133-

Ant. c.

himklf to iuch ^n affront, as to be divefted of charge by the People, and not to draw upon him the reproach of having been the author of fo rigorous, a proceeding. Odavius could not hear thefe inftances without being moved and foftened. He fhed fome tears, and kept filence during a confiderable time, as if deliberar ting upon the choice he fhould make. But at length having call his eyes upon the Rich, and thofe whq polTeffed lands, who were around him in great numr bers, he feemed to be alliamed of breaking the promife he had made them ; and turning towards Tiber rius, he declared with a refolute tone, " That he mighl a6t as he thought fit." Accordingly, the decree for depofing him being paffed, Tiberius ordered one of his freedmen to pul) him down from the tribunal j for he employed his freedmen as officers. This circumftance ftill added The People howto the indignity Odavius fuffered. ever, far from being moved with it, already prepared to fall upon him, when the Rich ran in to his aid, and oppofed the fury of the multitude. 06laviu3 efcaped with great difficulty; but one of the moft faithful of his flaves, who kept continually before him to defend him, and ward off the blows, had both Tiberius hearing the tumult, and his eyes beat out. being informed of what had juft happened, was extremely forry for it, and made all poffible hafte to prevent the confequences. All that Tiberius had done hitherto, had at leaft the appearance of juftice. But by an unexampled proceeding, to depofe a magiftrate, v;hofe perfon was facred and inviolable, only for ufing a right annexed to his office, was an ad:, that inftantly gave every body difguil. It is evident, that Tiberius thereby entirely enervated the authority of the Tribunefhip, and deprived the Commonwealth of a refource infinitely For, as * ufefui in times of trouble and divifion.
*
fana.

,

Quod enim
mente
fit ?

eft

tarn

defperatum Collegium, in qvio nemo
i'ij.

e

decern

De Leg.

24.

Cicero

MUGIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

109

Cicero obferves, could it often happen, that the whole A.R. 615. college of Tribunes fhould be fo much corrupted and "^"Jj. defperate, that not one in ten of them fhould think with reafon, and be well inclined ? Now the oppofition of but one of them fufficed to fruftrate the malignity of This right of oppofition was therethe other nine. fore the refuge of the Commonwealth ; and Tiberius, in annihilating it, gave the State a mortal wound. But this was not all ; for he hurt himfelf extremely. He gave his enemies an handle he cooled the affection and zeal even of his own party, who had the higheft refpedt and veneration for the Power of the Tribunefliip, and could not without grief fee it im* Accordingly, this violent paired and degraded. proceeding of Tiberius was deemed the principal «aufe of his dellru6lion. fhall foon fee what he
:

We

will fay in his

own juflification.

But

fadls,

as well as

reafon and juftice, declare againfl him.

After the depofmg of Oftavius, no farther
It

obflacle,,

that could prevent the pafTing of the law, remained.

was received, the diftribution of the lands decreed, and three CommifTioners, or Triumviri, appointed to make enquiry and diflribute them. Thefe were Tiberius himfelf, his father-in-law Appius Claudius, and
his brother

Caius, then very

little

more than twenty
believed
it

years of age, and adtually ferving under Scipio at the
fiege

of Numantia.

The People

incum-

bent upon them to choofe none but perfons, upon whom they could entirely rely, for the execution of a law, in which they were fo much interefted. All this pafTed quietly enough ; nobody daring to oppofe Tiberius further. The eleftion alfo of a Tribune to fucceed Oclavius was at his difcretion. He did not take a perfon of note, but one of his clients, called Mucins, whom his recommendation ferved inilead of merit.
* Quid ilium aliud perculit, legs ^brogavit? Cic. ibid.
cjuod poteftatem intercedendi Col-

nifi

The,

no
"'a^ c^*
133.

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,
'^^^ Nobility, notwithftanding,

Confuls.
retained the

who

warmeft refentment againft him, and dreaded the increafe of his power, did him all imaginable affronts in
the Senate. Upon his demanding to be fupplied with a tent at the publick expence, as was the cuftom, in order to his ufing it for incamping, whilft he was employed in this diflribution, they refufed it him, though it always had been granted even to perfons, who were fent to execute much fmaller commiflions. They went farther, and ordered him for his expences only nine oboli a day, that
half,
is

a denarius

and an

treatment was promoted by -f P. Nafica, who publickly declared himfelf his enemy. He pofTeffed many of the publick lands, and was extremely mortified with being forced to give them up. All thefe difficulties only exafperated the People more and more. He was told that his defenders had every thing to fear from the violence and hatred of the Rich. Tiberius, on the occafion of the fudden death of one of his party, who was fufpedled to have been poifoned, either feigned to be, or adtually was, in He put on mourning, and carrying fear for his life. his children to the Forum, he recommended them to the People, and conjured them to preferve thofe young unfortunates and their mother, as defpairing of being able to fave his own life, and expefting nothing but death. It is eafy to conceive, how much fuch a fight was capable of moving the multitude. About this time, Attalus Philometor, the lafl King of Pergamus, being dead, his will was brought to Rome, by which he had appointed the Roman People Affoon as it had been read, Tiberius took his heirs. hpld of the occafion and propofed a law, importing, ** That the ready money arifing from that all Prince's eftates, fliould be dillributed amongft the. poor citizens, in order that they might have wkerefterling.
ill

about eight-pence

This

f He had been Conful
pf him.

in 6 1\,

under which yeaf we have fpoken

With

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

m

with to furnifh their new poflefllons, and to provide A. R. 619. ^" themfelves with the tools neceffary in agriculture." •^"'^' '^^* " That as to the cities and territories that He added, formed the dominions of Attalus, it was not the right of the Senate, but of the People, to decree in
refped: to them."

Thus Tiberius fpared the Senate in nothing, attacking the authority of their whole body, after having Ihaken the fortunes of almoft all the members that
compofed it. In confequence he was expofed to a thouiand inveftives and reproaches from the Great,

But the rudefl attack was from one Annius, a man by no means comparable to him, either by birth, talents, or manners ; but one, who in altercations was fingularly happy in perplexing his adverfaries with captious quellions, or keen and witty repartees. This Annius had the boldnefs to call upon Tiberius to confefs, that he had violated a magiftrate, whofe perfon was facred. The incenfed Tribune immediately fummoned an affembly of the People, brought Annius before ir, and prepared to accufe him. But the latter perceiving how much overmatched he was, had recourie to what conand
thofe
in

their intereft.

he had

to fupport,

ftituted his ftrength.

He

alked Tiberius's permifTion

put one queft^on to him. Tiberius confented, and the whole PeopI^ kept fiience. Annius then faid thefe few words " You are for taking revenge of me. " Suppofe I implore the aid of one of your Collegues. " If he takes me under his proteflion, and in confer " quence you are enraged, will you deprive him of " the Tribunefliip ?" Tiberius, on this queftion, was fo much difconcerted, that though of all mankind he was the mod capable of fpeaking without preparation, and the boldeft and moft determinate of haranguers, he remained mute, did not anfv/er a fmgle word, and
to
:

difmiffed the aflembly diredtly.

of all he had done- in his nothing had drawn more odium upon him than the depofing of Odavius, and that the People themfelves were ftiocked at it. Upon this fubjed he
fully perceived, that
office,

He

made

U2
A.R,
6«9.

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Corrfuls,

Ant.-C.
J33«

naade a long £peech, of which Plutarch repeats fome fLi-okes, to fhew the great force of his eloquence, and his addicfs in reprefenting things in favourable colours. It were to be wiilied, that we had thefe fragments in
Latin.

He fays, " That the perfon of the Tribune was " only facred and inviolable, becaufe he was the man " of the people, and facred by condition for their " protedion and defence." " But, added he, if the
«*

Tribune departing from

his deftination,

does the
-,

" People injury, inftead of protefting them if he * weakens their power, and prevents them from " giving their fuffrages in fuch cafe he deprives him;

of the rights and privileges, that have been •' granted him, becaufe he does not do the things, *' for which alone they were conferred upon him. For " otherwife, it would follow, that we fhould fuffer a *' Tribune to deftroy the Capitol, and burn our arfe" nals: in that cafe he v/ould be a Tribune, a bad *' one indeed, but however ftill a Tribune. Where« as, when he deftroys and fubverts the authority and " power of the People, he is no longer a Tribune. " Is it not fbrange,that a Tribune fhould have aright^ " when he thinks fit, to drag a Conful to prifon, and *' that the People (hould not have that of divefting a " Tribune of his office, when he makes no ufe of it, *' but againft thofe who gave it him ? For the People ** equally chufe both Conful and Tribune. *' Regal power, befides including in itfelf all the aii*' thority and power of the other magiilrates, that are *' delegated from it, was alfo confecrated to the gods *' by the moft facred ceremonies, and the mofl augufl: *' faGrifices. Rome however did not fail to expel Tar*' quin on account of his injuflice. The guilt of a '* fingle man was the caufe that that power, the molt *' ancient of this empire, and which had given birth
*'

felf

"
*'

to Rome, was utterly « What is there more

abolifhed.

*'

facred and venerable in Rom6 than the virgins, who continually watch the facred fire? But, if one of them happens to commit a " crime.

;

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

115
*

crime, Ihe is buried alive v/ithont mercy finning againft the gods, they no longer retain that inviolable charafter, \vhich they folely have on the In like manner, when a Triaccount of the gods.

For, inA.R.6ig.
"

133.

juft that he fliould retain a charadler,

no longer which he has for he folely received for the fake of the People to which power, he the ov/cs his himfelf deftroys whole force and authority. In confequence, if he was juftly elefted Tribune, when the majority of the Tribes gave him their fuffrages, with how much more reafon and juftice is he deprived of his office, when all the Tribes have unanimoufly given their votes for depofing him ? " There are no things fo facred and inviolable, as thofe which have been confecrated to the gods. However, none ever prevented the People from ufing them, from changing their place, and tranfportingthem whither they thought fit. It is therefore allowable for them to do with the Tribuneihip what they do with the moft facred things, and to

bune

tranfgrelTes againft the People,

it is

:

transfer

it

to

whom

they pleafe.
is

" And

lailly,

a certain proof, that this office

not
is,

inviolable,

abfolutely fpeaking, nor removeable,

that thofe on
it

whom
it."

it

has been conferred, have laid

down of

themfelves, and have defired to be dif-

charged from

With

thefe fpecious reafons Tiberius
:

endeavoured

weak pretexts, like two-edged to cover his violence weapons, tending to reduce every thing to the law of as that of the two Tribunes, who the ftrongcft have moft credit and power, would never want fhould plaufible infinuations, that his adverfary attacks the rights of the people. The time for ele6ting nev/ Tribunes approaching, both fides fpared no pains in canvaffing; the one, that fuch might be chofen as favoured the Rich; the other, to continue Tiberius in office. The latter even intended to have his brother Caius appointed his collegue, and his father-in-lav/ Appius declared Conful
;
,

j^j^

Vol. VI.

I

believing

\i4
*

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,
*

Confuls.

'

A.R.619. believinor thefe the fole means for fucceeding; in hi» He therefore endeavoured to conciUate enterprizes. the favour of the People more than ever by new laws,, Plut.

V

11

ii

2
'

Plut.

and retrenching by all methods the authority of the Senate, rather out of a fpirit of contention and vengeance, than through any regard for iuflice and good government. He propofed a law for abridging the for eftabliihing a right time of ferving in the field to appeal to the People from the fentences of all the to introduce amongft the judges^ different tribunals who were then all of the number of the Senators, aa cq^i^l number of the Knights, and even to give all the ftates of Italy the freedom of Rome. Whilft this paiTed, the day for the eleflion of the Tribunes arrived. Tiberius, and his whole party, fee•,

J.

ing that they were not the ftrongeft, becaufe many of the People, employed in country works, were abient^ began firft to fly out, and pick quarrels with the other Tribunes, to gain time ; reproaching them, that for their private intercfts they betrayed thofe of the People ; and at length Tiberius adjourned the affembly Pie then came into the Forum with to the next day. with the utmoil dejection in his robe, a mourning conjured the People to take him tears with face, and faying, that he was afraid his protection, under their him with force, and affafiinate enemies would attack this difcourle, he moved the him in the night. By People fo much, that many of them polled themfelves before his doors during the whole night. The next day he went at day-break to the Capitol. On his arrival every thing feemed much in his favour ; affoon as he came in viev/, the People raifed a great
•cry

of joy to exprefs their affection ; and when he afcended the tribunal, he was received with great honours, and care was taken, that none fliould approach him, who were not known. I omit feveral tad omens, with which hiftorians do not fail to accompany extraordinary events, and with which they obferve Tiberius was fo much difmayed, as almoft to confiderj whether he fhould return back, and re-

nounce

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.
'

115
A. R.6ig.
\nt.

But C. Blofius of Cum^ nounce his enterprize. ^ who was his great confident, encouraged him, reprefencing to him in the (Irongeft terms, how fhameful it would be for him to give way in that manner to his enemies, and to frullrate the expedation of the pubhc. At the fame time the People were afTembled in the Capitol the Senate had alfo met in a neighbouring temple but there was neither order nor tranquillity in either of thefe affemblies. Nothing was heard but noife, fury, and tumult. Mucius, the Tribune, who had been fubftituted to 06lavius, having began to call upon the Tribes to give their fuffrages, tound it impoITible to proceed to bufmefs, fo extreme v^ere the noife and uproar. In this diforder, Fulvius Flaccus, one of the Senators, got upon an higher place, in order to be feen by the whole affembly; but not being able to be heard in
;
:

^

"*'

*

133.

noife, he made a iign with his hand, to that he had fomething in particular to fay to Tiberius. The latter immediately ordered the People
etfed:

of the

fignify,

open and make v/ay for him ; when Fulvius, who had approached with great difficulty, informed him, that the Senate being alTembled, the Nobihty and Rich had ufed their utmoft endeavours to brins; over the Conful Scsvola to their party, and not being able to effedl it, they had refolved to kill him themfelves ; and in order to that had drawn together a great number of their friends and (laves all armed. Upon this information, thofe who were about Tiberius thought of preparing for his defence. They girded their robes clofe, and breaking the ftaves ufed by the officers for clearing the way before the magiftrates, they took pieces of them to ufe for want of
to

other arms. At the fame inftant Tiberius, who could not make himfelf heard at a diftance on account of the great noife which continued, lifted up his hand to his head, to fignify by that action to the multitude the danger that threatened him, and that defigns were formed
I 2

againft

ii6
'

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,
life.

Confuls,

A. R.6t9. againft his

13^

* His enemies, to give that innoceirt and infamous conftruCtion, cried our, that he publicly demanded a crown. Q^ Pompeius had before made way for that calumny, by giving out, that the perfon, who brought the Will of Attalus to Rome, had delivered the royal purple and diadem to Tiberius, and that the Tribune had received thofe ornaments of the fovereignty, as being foon to reigft
g^ft^^'"^

^ black

himfelf in

Rome.
of
this accufation

The
what

falfity

was evident

:

but of

will not people

make

ufe to deftroy an

enemy

.?

Scipio Nafica, who had put himfelf at the head of Tiberius's mofli violent adverfaries, fnatched the occafion of the pfefent moment, and called upon the

Conful Scaevola to aid
tyrant.

his country, an.d

deftroy the

The

Conful,

who was

a prudent and

mo-

man, replied, " That he would never fet the example of violent meafures, nor deprive a citizen of
derate

without his being tried in the forms but thar, perfuafion People, at the of Tiberius, proceedthe if deliberate upon any thing contrary lav/s, to the ed to have regard to no this." Nafica^ upon he fhould
life
:

that, rifing
*'

up

in a paffion,

cried ouit, "^

As

the

Con-

through a fcrupulous exa<5lnefs to the forma*' lities of the law, expofes the Commonwealth and " the laws themfelves to certain deftruftion, though I " am but a private perfon, I will put myfelf at the " head of you." At the fame time he wrapped his left arm in part of his robe, and lifting up his righs, faid, " Follow me all you, who have any regard for *' the prefervation of the Commonwealth." The whole Senate arofe, and followed Nafica, who went diredlly
ful,

to the Capitol.

Few dared to oppofe the paffage of a troop con> pofed of all the' molt illuftrious perfons of the city. Thofe who followed the Senators had brought large flaves and levers ; and themfelves laid hold of the legs
*

Cum
iii,

hortaretur,

plebem ad defenfionem falutis fu?f?, manu caput tangerjs prxbuit fpeciem reguum fibi Sc diaderna polcentis.

Flor.

and

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,
find pieces

Confuls;

u;

of the benches broke by the people inA^R. 6^5. and opened their way to Tiberius, ftrik- ^^^' ^' 135. ing and knocking down all before them without All fled, and many were killed. refpedl to perfons. As Tiberius himfelf was flying, fomebody catched hold of him by the robe to ftop him, when he left it in their hands, and continued his flight in his tunic. But happening to fall down as he ran, the moment he got up, P. Satureius, one of his Collegues, gave him blow on the head with the foot of a firfl: a great bench and a fecond was given by L. Rubrius, another Tribune, who boafted of it as of an adion much Tiberius v/as but thirty years of age, for his honour. when he was killed. More than three hundred perfons were knocked on the head with ftav€s and itones, and not one flain with the fword. This is the firft fedition, as I have obferved before, fince the expulfion of the Kings from Rome, in v/hich the blood of the citizens was Ihed. have feen, in the bell times of the Commonwealth, very warm and violent contefts between the Senate and People but either through the condefcenfion of the Senate, or the refpe6t of the People for that auguft body, every thing terminated quietly and by meafures of reconciliation. Perhaps it had not beea difficult in the prefent occafion for the Senators to have imitated the wife moderation of their anceftors, and to have brought over Tiberius by fair means or if it had even been necefiary to ufe force, things need not have been carried to fuch cruel extremities. That Tribune had not above three choufand men with him, a,nd none of them armed with any thing but fliicks.
their flight,
-,

We

:

:

The

Gi"eat

had certainly right on

their flde.
itfelf.

The

enterprize of Tiberius was culpable in

It

was allowable to deprive tlie adual poflJeffors moft illuftrious of one half of a ftate of their fortunes, to transfer them to the other. And though there might have been fome injuflicc originally in the thing, it was in a manner obliterated by long poflTefTion and it is not without realbn, that Prefcription has been 1 ^ termed
:

never and the

Ii8
A.R.
619.

MUCIUS, CALPURNIUS,
termed the pairon of mankind.

Confuls.
it

Befides, could

be

Ant.^c. gj^pejC^ej^ that all the moil powerful citizens would ^^' acquiefcc in being deprived of their whole eflates ?

Tiberius's law therefore airmed one part of the city againft the other ; and confequently can only be confidered as pernicious. Thefe refle6fcions are * Cicero's, who oppofes the

conduft of the Gracchi, and fuch reformers, with
that of Aratus, the founder of the Achaian league. Sicyon his country had been under fubjedion to tyrants during
their power,

Aratus having abolifhed fifty years. and brought back fix hundred exiles with him, was exceedingly embarrafied, becaufe on one fide juftice feemed to require, that thofe exiles ihould be reinftated in their fortunes, and on the other it fcarce feemed equitable to deprive poffefTors, who had been fo during fifteen years. (How much more regard would lie have had to poffefTors of feveral ages ?) But what did Aratus ? He obtained a confiderable fum of money from Ptolomy Philadelphus, " O great with which he conciliated all interests. born a being worthy of and Cicero man, cries f, with. be dealt thus citizens ihould Roman It is Ihould llatefman wifdom true of a The policy and not be to divide the interefcs of a people, but to unite them entirely by common and falutary ties of
1

equity.'*

which it is impofTible to objc<51:, are a fentence of condemnation againft Tiberius. The caufe of the Great and Rich was confequently

Thefe

principles, to

* Qin agrariam rem tentans, ut pofiefTores
11

labefaftant
poteft,
eft

fundamenta
aliis

reipublica:
fi

:

hon

quum

adimuntur,

aliis

fuis fedibus pellantur— concordiam primum, quae efle condonantur pecunias deinde
;

Id atque urbis, ut fit libera, & non foilicita Quam habet sequitatem ut agrum multis fuse rei cuique cuftodia. annis aut etiam feculis ante pofleflum, qui nullum habuit, habeat, qui autem habuit amittat. De Offic, ii. 78, 79. f O virum magnum, dignnmque qui in noftra republica natus eaque humana ratio & fapientia efTet ! Sic par eft agere cum civibus boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes scquitate eadera continere. De Ollic. ii. n. 83.
licet.

scquitatera, quae toUitur omnis,

habere fuum cuique non

enim

proprmm

civitatis

the

POPILIUS, RUPILIUS,
tlie

Confuls.

119
^^^ti A^^^- 6^9'

befl.

fet a pernicious
its

But they difhonoured it by cruelty, example, which was ftill more fo

in

j^j,

confequences.
It

and fury had a great is evident, that pafTion For the murder of Tibeihare in their proceeding. rius, and his blood fo inhumanly fhed, was not capable of fatiating their animofity.

They

exercifed a

cruelty on his body that rifes even to withftanding the warmeft intreaties Caius, they would not permit him to render the laft honours during the
it

barbarity.

Notaway,

of his
to take

brother
it

night, and threw

of the dead. Thus peone of the moft fhining perfons Rome had ever produced, who might have become the ernament of his country, if he had ufed more prudence in the application of his great talents,
into the

Tiber with the

reft

rifhed in the flower of

life

P. POPILIUS

L^NAS,

P. RUPILIUS.

B..R.62.0. Ant. C. 332.

The Confuls were ordered by the Senate to profecute the accomplices of Tiberius. But Rnpilius, to whom the province of Sicily had fallen by lot, where we have fccn him terminate the war againft the Slaves fuccefsfully, foon left the care of affairs at Rome to 'his CoUegue, who executed his commifiion with great feverity, or rather cruelty. Many of the unfortunate Tribune's friends were banifiied without any forms of trial, and many put to death Diophanes, the rhetorician, was of the number of the latter, Plutarch adds, that one C. Billius, or Villius, was ihut up in a tub with vipers and ferpents ; a kind of punifhment entirely new, and which feems almoft improbable unlefs it was defigned to imply, that he was treated as guilty of parricide againft his country. Before Rupilius fet out for Sicily, Lslius, who v/as alTociated with the Confuls in the commilTion, relates in Cicero, that Blofius, who had a great fhareDe Amic. in the feditious enterprizes of Tiberius, came to im- 37/

:

-,

I

4

'

plore

!20
A. R.
^

POPILIUS, RUPIUUS,
62.0.
'

Confuls.

?32.

and earneftly begged that he would pardon him. He did not deny, that he had fupported the Tribune to the utmofc of his power and pleaded for his foie excufe, that his eileem and
plore his afTiftance,
•,

attachment for Tiberiqs were fo gre^t, that he conceived himfclf obliged to a6l in every thing as he thought fit. " But," faid Laslius, " if he had or" dered you to fet the Capitol on fire, would you " have done it?" " Oh," replied Elofius, " he was " not capable of giving me fuch an order." But,
faid

Ljelius,

itill

infilling

" Suppofe he had commanded
f'

obeyed him,"

faid

upon the fame queftion, it ?" " I Hiould have the othen " A wicked and cri-

"

minalalTent!" cries Laelius;

who takes

occafionfrorn

hence to lay

" That never to aflc our friends to do ought we what is bad, fuch things ourfelves, when aflied jior do by them

down

this excellent principle, *

:

for friendfhip never can be admitted

an excufe or reafon for committing any crime whatfoever, and ftill Accordingly lefs for a6ling againft one's country." Lsliuis obferves in the fame pallage, that the friends of Tiberius, and Q^ Tubero among the reft, abandoned him, when they appfeliended, that he was forming defigns againft the State. Fie clearly affirms, that he endeavoured to make him.felf King, or rather Thefe had adually reigned during fome months. terms are very ftrong but undoubtedly mean no more, than the exorbitant power Tiberius alTumed in the Common\yealth, and not the formal defign of taking upon him the name of King, with the diadem and fcepter. Laelius was too judicious to adopt popular rumours fo void of probability.
as
:
I

* Ha:c igitur prima Isx in amjcitia fanciatur, ut neque rogemus T^urpis enim exciifatio eft, mires turpes, riec taciamus rogati. ninie accipienda, cum in ceteris peccatis, turn fi quis contra remp. fe amies causa fecifle fateatur. De Amicit. 40.

&

Ti. quidem Gracchum remp. vexantem, aQ^Tuberone sequalibufque amicis dereliftum videbanius, 37. Ti. Gracchus regnum occupare conatus efti vel regnavit is q^uidenj

pauccs nienfes, 40.

However,

>2i However, the Senate perceiving Lnat it v/as necef- A. R. 620, ^'*' ^' iary to give the People Ibme fatisfaclion, confented,
that the law for the diftribution of lands Ihoiild be put in execution ; and that a CommiiTioner, or Tri^^*

POPILIUS, RUPILIUS,

Confiils;

umvir, lliould be appointed to fupply the place of

The choice fell upon P. Craffus, Tiberius. daufyhter Licina was married to Caius.

whofe

This condud of the Senate however did not app^afe the People, and it v/as evident, that they only waited an occafion to revenge the death of Tiberius. Many publickly threatened to profecute Scipio Nafica
juridically

and as foon as he appeared, crov/ds gathered about him, calling him impious wretch, tyrant, villain, who had polluted the moil venerable
•,

and moll auguft temple of
for a

Rome

with the blood of a
Senate, alarmed

,

facred and inviolable magiftrate.

The

man fo dear to them, faw themfelves obliged, in order to remove him from danger to a place of fafety,

to make him quit Italy, though he was then in the higheft office of the priefthood, being Pontifex Max-

Accordingly he was fent to Afia with a feemimus. ing commiflion, that concealed a real banifhment. The troubles excited in that country by Ariftonicus, after the death of Attalus Philometor the lafl King of Pergamus, fupplied the Senate with a plaufible pretext for lending
there.
life

him

Flis

grief,

thither. He did not live long on account of leading a wandring

after his

out of his country, occafioned his death very foon * Lselius could not arrival at Pergamus.

think of the fad fate of fo illufcrious a perfon, without being fo much moved as to llied tears. Cicero mentions him every v/herc with praife. In his pleading for Milo, -f- he compares him to Ahala, who killed Sp. Mjelius ; and fays, that both of them, by deftroying pernicious citizens, had filled the world with their
* Quid in P. Naficam effecerlnt, fine lachrymis non queo dicere. 41. t Sp. MaErlium Ti. Gracchum quorum interfedtores implerunt

De Amicit.

prbem terrarum

fui

nominis gloria.

— Pro Mil.

72,

glory.

122
A.R.fiao. glory.
^i^'z^'

LICINIUJ, VALERIUS,
2om, and
greatnefs

Confuls.

In another * place he extols his valour, wif-

of foul

;

and

affirms, that

the

beft citizens confidered

him

as the

deliverer of the
difcern in

Commonwealth.

But who does not

thefe

exceflive praifes, given to the author of fo criminal

a violence, the fpirit of party, that injures every thing, and never fufFers men to keep within juil bounds ? Nafica had reafon to oppofe Tiberius ; but his having inhumanly malTacred him, is fo far from
meriting praife, that
Ant.
it is

really inexcufable.

a*

P. LiCINIUS CrASSUS.

'3'«

L. Valerius Flaccus.
of thefe two Confuls is the perfon who been created Triumvir for the difcribution had the lands He was fent of in the room of Tiberius. into Afia againft Ariilonicus, and perifhed there, as has been related. Caius Gracchus, at the time immediately after his brother's death, whether through fear of his enemi*cs, or to turn the hatred of the publick upon them by affefling to fear them, thought proper not to appear But in the affemblies, and to live quietly in private. this retirement was of no long continuance, and this very year he came into the Forum to fupport Carbo, who laboured to reanimate Tiberius's party. C. Papirius Carbo, then Tribune of the People, was one of the moft eloquent orators of his times, and often employed his talent in deploring the death of Tiberius. He propofed two laws, both contrary to The firft introthe defires and power of the Great. duced the method of fcrutiny in deliberations upon new laws. I have fpoke of it above. The fecond met with great diiHculties, though fupported by Lselius, and efpeciCaius, and was at laft rejeded.
firft

The

lately

* Pater tuus (Cicero fpeaks of Fufius Calenus) homo feverus Sc prudens, primas omnium civium P. Naiicas, qui Ti. Gracchum inter* fecit, daie foiebat. Ejus enim virtute, confilio, magnitudiue animi liberatam rerapublicam arbitrabatur. Phil, viii. 13.

ally

LICINIUS, VALERIUS,
ally Scipio Africanus, lately returned

Confuls.

12^
A.R.621,
"^j^^*

fromNumantia,
had very
loft

ftrongly oppofed

it.

On

this occafion Scipio

warm

contefts with the Tribune,

and even

the

favour of the People, tached to him before.
lows.

who had been extremely atThe affair happened as fol-

Carbo continually harped upon the murder of Ti- Val. Max. and in a difpute with Scipio, aflscd him, what ^^' ^* his thoughts were upon that head ? He was in hopes of drawing from him an anfwer favourable to his views, fays Valerius Maximus, becaufe Scipio was the brother-in-law of the Gracchi, having married their fifter or, perhaps, being well apprized of what he would anfwer, his defign was to make him odious to the multitude. However that were, Scipio was much above both thofe confiderations. Whilft he was before Numantia, he had declared himfelf pubiickly on this fubjeft. For on being told the news of Tiberius,
;

berius's death, he repeated with a loud voice a verfe

of Homer's, the
*'

fenle

of which
firft

is

:

*

him

v/ho imitate his deeds."

On

" Perifh like the prefent oc-

cafion, he perfifted in his

opinion, and faid, that

he believed Tiberius had well deferved the death he had fuffered. The people were exafperated by this anfwer and Scipio v/as interrupted by cries of indignation and murmurs, which he had never experienced before. But that great man, with the authority which fuperior merit gives, and only can give, filenced them with a tone of command and as the noife was un>doubtedly raifed by numbers of the loweftof the rabble, probably mingled with ftrangers and (laves, -f " Si:
:

"
*'

lence, yoli

there," faid he, " to

v/hom

Italy

is

but the mother-in-law, not the mother." That haughty tone, and thofe ftrong terms, excited new cries amongft the multitude. But Scipio, far from giving way to them, perfifted more warmly than before in his reproaches. " Do J not imagine," faid

:j;

£2f avoXoiro 3^ a\\o;, trtt roiuvrit yi pt^ou

OdylT. I. 47,

f Taceant quibus Nou efficietis ut

Italia

noverca

eft.

folutos verear

quos

alligatos adduxi.

he;

t24
A.R.52I. he,
"^^I'l!^'

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA,
"
that I can fear thofe

Confals.

brought hither in " chains, though they are now unbound." This lait exprelTion had its efFeft, and made the whole aflembly But from that inflant Scipio began to decline fdent. favour of the people, and continued to do fo in the
I

whom

to his death.
A.R.^is.
Ant. C.
J30,

.

,

C.

Claudius Pulcher, T> M. Perpenna.
TV /r

This year the ceremony of clofrng the Luftrum was performed. The Roman citizens were found by the Cenfus to amount to three hundred and thirteen thoufand eight hundred and twenty-three. The Cenfors were Q^ Metellus Macedonicus, arwl Q^ Pompeius, both Plebeians. Both the Cenfors were originally chofen out of the Patricians. C. Marcius Rutilus was the firlt Plebeian who poflefled this office ; and during two hundred and twenty years, it had been the cuftom to alTociate a Patrician and a PleThis }^ear for the firft time beian in the Cenforfhip. both Cenfors were elefted out of the order of the
People. Metellus, during his Cenforfhip, made a fpeech to Celibathe People, to exhort the citizens to m.arry. praife with of worthy honourable is fo and cy, which
p^rt of the Chriftian World, was amongft the Pagans only an occafion of abandoning themfeives to debauchery with more licentioufnefs, and to fpare themfelves the cares that attend the education of children, a matter .of fo great importance to the CommonThis abufe had already began to be introwealth. duced at Rome ; fuch a progrefs had corruption of manners made there in a Ihort time. Aulus Gellius
1-6.

AvjL Gell. has preferved two fragments of the difcourfe of The one includes a tellus upon this fubjed:.

Mevery

fine refledion, as follows.
It appears, that

in the

preceding part of

it

not

come down

to us, Metellus laments the corruption of

manners, ^nd endeavours to

make

the people apprehenci

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA,

Confuls.

125
the A. R. 62*.
^"I'q^'

hend in confequence that they would draw down wrath of the gods upon them. And to make them fenfible that it was in vain for them to rely upon the divine goodnels, * " The immortal gods," faid he, " are not obliged to will us more good than our fa-

" thers. But fathers difmherit incorrigible children. " What then can we expect fi;om the immortal gods, " if we do not put an end to our diforders ? Thofe " only have a right to promile themfelves the divine *' favour, who do not hurt themfelves by their vices/' He concludes with this principle fo grateful to human
pride
:

-

" For the gods ought to

rcv/ard, but not give

"

virtue."

other fragment is no compliment to the larepeat it merely as an hiitorian, without approving the fatire it contains, f " If human fociety,'*
dies.
I

The

" could fubfift without women, " we fhould all fpare ourfclves the troubles and " inconveniences they occafion. But becaufe nature *' has ordained, that we can neither live with thern " commodioufly enough, nor by any means without " them, it is better to determine in favour of the " propagation of our fpecies, than merely to confult " our convenience, in gratifying a fhort and fleeting " appetite."
fays the fevere Cenfor,

Who v/ould believe, that a man of Metelius's rank, and adually Cenfor, fhouid be in danger of lofmg his life at noon-day, and that by the punifhment inflidled upon the greateft of criminals ? This odious excefs was a nev/ fruit of Tribunitian violence. Metellus had excluded C. Atinius Tribune of the People from the Senate. The latter, aduated by a fran* Dii immortales non plus velle debent nobis, quSm parentes. parentes, ii pergunt liberi errare, bonis exheredant. Qu^id ergo nos a diis immortalibus diutiiis exfpeftamus, nifi malis rationibus finem facimus ? His demum deos pi'opitios efle fsquum eft, qui fibi adverfarii non funt. Dii immortales virtutem approbare, non adhibere debent. t Si fine uxore pofTemus, Quirltes, efle, omnes ea moleftia careremus. Sed quoniam ita natura tradidit ut nee cum illis (atls commode, nee line illis uUo mode vivi poflit j faluti perpetuae potiiis, quam brevi voluptati conrnlendara.

At

tick

176
'

SEMPRONIUS, AQUILIUS,
heat of the day,

Confuls.

A.R.622. tick defire of revenge, havinsr obferved the Cenfor, j' on his return at noon from the field of Mars, in the

when the Forum and Capitol were empty, he >ordered him to be feized, in order to his being carried to, and thrown down the Tarpeian rock. The fons of Metellus, (he had four, all principal perfons of the Senate) being informed of their father's danger, flew to his aid. But what could they do againfl a magiftrate, whofe perfon was facred and inviolable ? The Cenfor was forced to make the Tribune's officers drag him, to gain time by that refiftance. This caufed him to be treated fo roughly, that the blood came out of his ears. But at length a Tribune was found, who took him under his proteiSlion, and faved him from his Collegue's * " Does this refleft any praife upon the manfury. ners of thefe times," fays Pliny, who has preferved an account of this fa6l " or is it not rather new matter of indignation, that in the midft of fo many Metelli, the criminal inlblence of Atinius Ihould have paffed with entire impunity ?"
entirely
;

A. R. 623.
Aut. C,
J29.

c. Sempronius Tuditanus.

M. Aquilius.
The tliree commifiloners nominoted for the diftribution of lands, C. Gracchus, C. Carbo, and M. Fulvius Flaccus, the tv^o latter of which had fucceeded Ap. Claudius and P. Craffus, began to excite great The enquiry to be made by them troubles at Rome. was the mod difficult, moll complicated, and perThe vaplexing, that could poffibly be imagined. rious changes, which had been made in the lands in queftion, by removing of bounds ; by marriages, that had transferred them from one family to another j by fales, either real or pretended, and covered by a long and peaceable pofTeffion ; thofe things would not
* Quod fupereft, nefcio morumne gloriae, an mdignationis dolori accedat, inter tot Metellos tarn fceleratam C. Atinii audaciam femper fuifi'e inultani, Plxn. vii. 4.4.,

admit

127 which of fuch lands belonged to A,R.625, " the publick, and which to particulars ; and which were poffelled under legal titles, or in confequence of unjuft, though ancient, ufurpations. Thefe difficulties, become unfurmountable through length of time, had always, as we have, already obferved, made the wifeft and moll worthy perfons of the Commonwealth condemn new diftributions of lands, which would have occafioned a ilrange and inevitable reverfe in the affairs of moft families, even though the mod intelligent and impartial perfons had been appointed to What then was to be expected from ;nake them.
admit
diftino;ui{hing
*
'

SEMPRONIUS, AQUILIUS,

Confuls.

Commiffioners ele61:ed for this enquiry, who adted only from paffion, enmity, or intereft ? Accordingly, from all the countries of Italy, allies Appian, and citizens, frightened and in defpair through thefe ' enquiries, came in crowds to Rome, to reprefent the exceeding danger and misfortunes that threatened

them

to the Senate.

cipally to

Scipio

They addreffed themfelves prinAfricanus, under whom moft of

ferved, as to the perlbn whom they conceived to have moft credit in the State, and to be the moft zealous for the public good. This is what is fo particularly repeated in Scipio's dream. * " At your return from Numantia," fays the firft

them had long

Scipio Africanus to the fecond, of whom we are fpeaking, " you will find the Commonwealth in ter" rible confufion, occafioned by my grandfon [Tibe-

" rius Gracchus.] It is now, my dear Africanus, " you muft ufe your great capacity, prudence, and " courage, for the defence of your country. The " Senate, all good men, the allies, the Latines, will

"
*'

caft

their

eyes on you alone.
fole

You

will

dered as the

fupport of the State.

be confiIn a word,

curru Capitollum inveftus, offendes remp. perturbatam nepotis mei. Kjc tu, Africane, oftendas oportebit patrias lumen animi, ingenii, confiliique tui In te unum atque tuum nomen fe tdta convertet civitas. Te Senatus, te omnes boni, te focii, te Latini intuebuntur. Tu eris unus in quo nitatur civitatis falus,
coiifiliis

Cum eris

quorum manus

Ac, ne multa, Diftator remp. conftituas oportet, ii impias propinefFugeris. Somn. Scip. in fragm, Cicer,

6

"if

128

SEMPRONIUS, AQUILIUS,
623. «'
tc

Confuls.

A.R.

Ant. c.
*^'

if you can preferve yourfelf from the impious hamJs Qf your nearell relations, invefted with the fupreme " authority of Didlator, you muft re-eftablifh good " order in the Commonwealth." This was his full defign. He could not refufe himfelf to the complaints of fo many perfons of worth, and fpoke ilrongly in their favour in the Senate, without condemning the law of Tiberius diredly and in itfelf, to avoid irritating the People, but contenting himfelf with fetting in their full light, all the difficulties that v/ould attend the execution of that law. He confined himfelf to demanding, that the contefts, which fhould arife on this fubjeft, fhould not be left to the decifion of the three Commiflioners, who were The too much fufpefted by the parties concerned. Senate came into this opinion, and gave the cognizance of all controverted m.atters relating to the diBut flribution of lands, to the Conlul Sempronius. this remedy remained without effed ; becaufe the Conful, who from the firil perceived the difficulty of the commiffion, or rather the impofTibility of bringing it to a good ifl'ue, fet out for Illyricum, which

was
«
.

his province.

People feeing that their hopes were poftponed, and that an anair, m which they were lo much mterefted, began to cool, broke out with violence
ao-ainft Scipio,
ino- all

The

reproaching him, that notwithftand-

the favours with which they had loaded him, havinor chofen him twice Conful without {landing for The three that office, he abandoned their interefts.

Plut.

Apoph-

Rom?'

Commiffioners took advantage of thefe difpofitions of the People, and fpread a report, that preparations were making to annul the law by force, and by the method of arms. Caius went fo far as to fay, fpeak" that it was neceffary jj^g Qf Scipio in the affembly, " to rid themfelves of the tyrant." " The enemies " of their country," replied that great man, " have " reafon to wifh my death for they well know, ** that Rome cannot fall whilft Scipio lives ; nor Sci" pio live, if Rome Ihguld fall." The day before
-,

^

his

!

SEMPRONIUS, AQUILIUS,
liis

Confuls.

129
^- R- ^^h
*

death he was again attacked by Fulviiis, the mofl who inveighed againft him in the aflembly of the People with the utmoll rancour. Scipio, uneafy from the defigns which he knew were forming againft his life, could not forbear complaining of them, and faying, " that he was very ill re^ warded for his fervices by wicked and ungrateful citiinfolent of the Triumviri,

"^'9.

zeal of the good increafed for him in the hatred of the bad with and this may proportion the been moft glorious day to have of his life^ be faid affembly, the the Senators^ the Allies, On quitting and the Latines, condu6led him in a body, and in a kind of triumph, to his houfe. They did not know, that thefe were a kind of funeral honours, which they He was found dead the paid him by anticipation. He was fifty-fix years of next day in his bed; How great was the grief of all good men at age. Rome What * groans did they not vent, when they ^^^. ^^ faw, that the enemies of Scipio could not wait the Mil. 10.^

zens."

The

:

!

natural term of his life, and by the moft horrid of crimes had haftened the death of a citizen, whom they ought to have wifned immortal It is not to be doubted, but this black deed was perpetrated by the faction of the Gracchi ; and it is hard to believe, that Caius had not an hand in it, as all who were moft nearly attached to him were vioPlutarch fays fo exprefsly of cic. ad (^ lently fufpeded of it. Pompey confidered Carbo as undoubtedly ^^' "'^P' Fulvius Sempronia, the lifter of the Gracthe author of it. chi, and wife of Scipio, is charged by the epitome and Appian alTociates their of Livy and Orofus mother Cornelia with her. From the teftimonies of thefe different authors it refuks, that Semproniaj who did not love her hufband, and was not beloved by him, becaufe (he was ugly and barren, having eafily given into the inftances of Cornelia and the Triumviri, either gave Scipio poifon, or caufed aiTalTms to
: :

* Quis turn non gemuit ? Quls non arfit dolore ? Qnem immoi'taiem, fi fieri poflet> omnes efle cuperent, hujus ne n^celi'ariam quideru exfpeftatam eile mortem Cic.
!

.

Vol. VI.

K

enter

i^o
A.R.
"^^'
623.
'

SEMPRONIUS, AQUILIUS,
enter the houfe
in the night,

Conrds.

who

ftrangled him.

Pa-

Aua.

de

terculus adds, that marks were found on his neck, of the violence that had been done to him and the un:

^it. illuft.

ufual precaution taken in carrying him to his tomb with his head covered over, feems to argue that the eyes of th€ curious were apprehended. What much

of

augmented fufpicions, and occafioned the complaints all good men, was, that no enquiry was made

concerning the death of fo great a perfon ; and Plutarch does not leave us in ignorance in refpedl to fo " This was, fays he, befurprizing an omiflion. caufe the people were afraid, that if the affair were
traced to the minal."

bottom,

Caius might be found

cri-

Behold to what horrors ambition is capable of car* Caius was born with a very fine gerying mankind
!

^^

fVm
'

u
'

and the moft happy difpofition to virtue. The boundlefs defire of .aggrandizing himfeif at any price "whatfoever, leads him on to fliare in the moft deteftable affafTination in all its circumftances, that ever was committed, to the murder of an ally, relation, the principal citizen of Rome, and the greateft of mankind. An honour, cuftomary to illuftrious perfons, was however not paid to Scipio. No publick funeral was made for him, that is, decreed by the public authoBut the lively rity, and at the expence of the State. diftinguiflied of the moft citizens afflidlion fmcere and body to its interment, that attended his orders, all of fupp^ic*^ i^"s place. Q^ Metellus Macedonicus, who Scipio, however fent his fons to oppofed had always " duties. Go, fons," faid he to them, pay him the iaft obfequies of a greater man,, fee the you will never " nor of a better citizen." Q^ Fabius Maximus, his nephew, made his funeral oration, of which Cinius,
*'•

cero has preferved us a very memorable ftroke. * " He thanked the gods, that Scipio wag born at Rome.'*
*'

For," added he, " there was an inevitable necef-

* Gratias egit diis immortalibus, quod ille vir in Iiac republica potiffimum natus effet. Neceffe enim fuilTe, ibi efle terrarum impc* Pro Mur.7 jr irium, ubi ille eiiet.

SEMPRONIUS, AQUILIUS,
*'

Confuls.

fp

'**

f which he fhould have been a citizen." The fame Q^ Fabius, on giving a feaft to the I'eo- Clc pro pie according to cuftom, in honour of Scipio Africa- ^"^- 75* nus, defired Q^ Tubero, the nephew of Scipio, to vai. Max, Tubero carried his averfenefs to vii. 5. take care of a table. luxury into the ancient fimplicity, and even to the love of poverty. That zeal, lb laudable in other reAs if he had been to pay fpe<5ls, was ill-timed here. honour to the death of a cynic philofopher, and not
of the great Scipio, he contented himfelf with the moil fimple and coarfe beds for the table, which he and inftead of filver plate, covered with goat-flcins he caufed the provifions to be ferved in eartheil * People were fo much difgufted with that difhes. indecency, that fome time after, when he ftood for the Pr^toriliip, notwithftanding his perfonal merit and lU lullrious birth, his goat-ll<.ins drew upon him the diA Cicero makes a judicious reflecgrace of a refufal. " The Roman People, fays he, tion on this head. hate luxury in private perfons, but love magnificence in what relates to the publick. They do not approve exceffive expences in feafls but hate
:
',

"

fity, that the empire of the world fhould follov/ A.R. 625, * the. fate of that great man, and be the State's of "^"^

indecently fordid and penurious. They are for diflinguifhing times and occafions." Scipio Africanus was rich, but infinitely remote

what

is

P'"^'

expence and pomp which ufually attend riches. It is obferv^d of him, that he never made purchafes, fold, or built. At his death all the filver-plate he had, amounted only to thirty-two pounds, and the gold to only two pounds and an half 5 an evident proof, that thofe who have perfonal merit, and are great of themfelves, can fupport the dignity"

from a

tafte for the

^^'
pifn xxxili. it,

^i'^^'^^n.

* Itaque homo in'tegerrimus, civis optiraus, eum effet L. PauH nepos, P. African! fororis filius, his hcedinis pelliculis pratura dejeftus eft. Odit populus Romanus privatam luxurian'i, publicani magnificentiam diligit. Non r.mat profufas epulas, fordes & inhumanitatem multo minus. Dillinguit rationem 'officiorurai ac tempo*
_

rum.

Cic.

K

2

of

t32
A, R.
623.

SEMPRONIUS, AQUIUUS,

ConfuU.

of the higheft honours and offices, without the glarff magnificence. ^Tzq? ^^ pomp and He was, as we have faid before, the fon of the famous P. ^milius, who conquered Perfeus, laft King of Macedonia. He was adopted by the fon of the firft Scipio Africanus, and called P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus A^milianus, uniting, according to the cuf^om of adoption, the names of both families. He * fuftainedy and even increafcd their glory, by all the great qualities that could adorn the gown and the During the whole courfe of his life, fays an fword. hiflorian, his adtions, difcourfe, and fentiments, had in them but what was highly laudable. And indeed he may be confidered as the moft accomplilhed hero Rome ever produced. In war,, as as Soldier and Genefalj he equally diftinguilhed himfelf in fubaltern employments and the command of arWith intrepid valour, and exalted greatnefs in mies.
his views, he united a conftancy in fupporting
difcipline, that contributed

good

more

to his victories, than

even the force of arms. He knew both how to make His war, and to conquer without coming to blows.
grandfather, the firft Africanus, gained more battlesv But without entering here into a comparifon above my capacity, it is certain, that his taking the cities

of Carthage and Numantia are great and admirable
exploits.

In the management of civil affairs our Scipio fhewed himfelf no lefs an hero. Full of the love of his country^ and always firmly attached to publick good, he made all other confiderations give place to In that point he gave proofs of his that one object. fuperior capacity, conftancy, greatnefs of foul, and contempt of the greateft dangers ; and laftly, met with death from it, which had fpared him in the hazards of war.
* P. Scipio .^milianus, vir avitls P. African'! paternifqu'e L. PauU virtutibus fimillimus, omnibus belli ac togse dotibus, ingeniique ac ftudiorum eminentiiriiTras feculi fui qui nihil in vita nifi laudandum
:

aut

fecit,

aut dixit, aut

feniit.

VtLL. Paterc,

1,

la.

What

; :

SEMPRONIUS, AQUILIUS,
?

Confuls.

13^
*

What fhall I fay of his domeflick and private con-A.R. 643. dud What generofity, elevation of fentiments, and 229.
nius

and geand beneficent, a good fon, a good relation, a good friend ; mild and good-natured without weaknefs, and firm without aufterity. A circumftance that had efcaped us, comes in herecic. li. opportunely enough. When he fee out for Africa, Verr. 28, ^^' a man, who had long been attached to him, and paid
fimplicity, united vyith the greateft fortune
!-

He

was

liberal

ii

him

his court

very afliduoufly, alked him for the poft
:

qf * commander of the pioneers in his army this was a gainful employment amongfl the Romans ; and as Scipio refufed it him, he was very much out of humour, -f- " Don't wonder," faid Scipio, with admirable fenfe and calmnefs, " that you are denied *' by me the employment you defire. J have long " preffed one to accept it, who, I believe, will have *' my reputation at heart, and cannot yet prevail " upon him to take it." He knew, as Cicero obferves, that

perfons in high llations are accountable

employ about them and confequently, if they are nice in point of reputation, they ought to defire friends of merit to accepc offices of truft, and not beftow them as favours. Scipio loved letters and with a foul naturally he* roick, he cultivated the gifts of nature by the ftudy of polite knowledge. As his genius was no lefs folid than bright, he loft none of the fruits of application he was lefs intent on acquiring the agreeable than the ufeful ; lefs the merely ornamental, than what tends to improve the heart, the manners. Perceiving well how much he owed to letters, he was conftantly attached to them and after having devoted himfelf arfor the conduft of thofe they
: :

• Praefeftus Fabrum. f " Noli," inquit, " mirari, fi tu a me hoc non impetras. Ego *' jampridem ab eo, cui meam exiftimalionem caram fore arbitror, " peto ut mecuni prsefeftus profifilcatur, & adhuc irapetrare non pof*' fum." Etenim revera multo magis eli petendum ab hominibus, fi falvi & honefti efle volumus, ut eant nobifcura in provinciam, quaij* Crc. Jioc illis in beneficii loco deferendum.

K

3

dently

T34
fi.'R,6t'i.

SEMPRONIUS, AQUILIUS,
dently to

Confuls.

them in his youth, he always perfifted in his with them, even when in the higheft occommerce i^''

What I have faid on this fubjed: may be cupations. feen where I have fpoke of the private life of this great man. I lliall add here, that * Xenophon was
his favourite author.

He

found

in

him

ail

he could

the moft grateful amufements after cares, with folid leffons both as to morals, and even war, of
defire
:

which he never

lofl fight.

which he deilved from the ftudy of the polite arts, let us add, that he formed himfelf alfo by the fame method for the talent of fpeaking, fo neceffary in a Commonwealth, in which the affairs of the univerfe were decided by the deliberations of the Senate and People, I have already obferved, that Cicero fets no lefs value upon the eloquence of Scipio, than upon that of and he charafterizes it by attributes, that J^selius entirely fuit fo great a man f majefty, authority, elevations and of fentiments. It thoughts, force of who gave the chief, auguft law to the Peofpoke the from them. receive it did not ple, and Scipio united therefore in himfelf alone all the virtues that conftitute the Warrior, the Statefman, the But what is entirely fmgular, Citizen, and the Man. hiftory does not mention one fmgle blot in fo great a it praifes him without exception ; and no part life of his condud: Itands in need of the lead apology. The authority and counfels of Polybius were very
all

To

thefe ineftimable advantages,

:

:

:

ufeful to him, as I have faid before, in attaining fo high a degree of glory. This is a fine example for

young

Polybius's,

They would Hill find perfons of high rank. if they fought them, and might themfelve?

j:)ecome Scipio's.
* Africanu? femper Socraticum Xenophontem in manibus habebatf Tufc. Quseft. ii. 62. fuit gravitas ? (Laelius fays this on f. Quanta ilia, dii immortales Z fpeech of Scipio's) quanta in oratione majeftas ? ut facile ducem populi RoKiani non coniitem diceres. De Amic. n. 96,
!

puring

:

SEMPRONIUS, AQUILIUS,

Confuls.

125

During the two years that fucceeded the death of A-^^-^^j. ° 5cipio Africanus, hiftory is iilent concerning the conj^,*^^ tefts occafioned by the diftribution of lands.

We

only know from Plutarch, that Caius kept the Nobility in continual apprehenfion, by the virtues and taThey faw him inlents that flione out in his perfon. neither giving luxury, finitely averie to idlenefs and acquire riches into debauch, nor taking pains to eloquence, that befides which, he applied himlelf to fupplied him with arms to fuftain the conflifits of the Forum. Every body knows, that at Rome there were * only tv/o methods for attaining the principal dignities, the merit of a great General, and that of a good Orator. Thefe two talents were conceived almoft on a level with each other the one defended the State againfl the enemy abroad, and the other fupported the citizens, and even the Commonwealth, at
:

home.
Caius gave proofs of the progrefs he had made in refped to eloquence, in a caufe which he pleaded for one of his friends called Vettius. The people were fo tranfported with the pleafure of hearing him, that they could not refrain from publickly exprcffing their joy. They thought they faw a fecond Tiberius in him, and a new protecTtor of the Agrarian laws. Accordingly, fays Plutarch, Caius, on this occallon, made the other orators appear like children compared with him. This great fuccefs rendered him ftill more fufpedled and formidable to the Nobility and from thenceforth they agreed, that it was necelfary to fpare no methods for preventing him frof' attaining the TribuneHiip.
•,

* Dilje flmt artes quae poflunt loicare homines in ampIifTimo Ab hoc gradu dignitatis: una impcratcris, altera oratoris boni. enim pacis oriiameuta retineutui' ab iUo beiii pericula repelluntur. Pro Mur. 30,
:

K

4

M. ^MILIUS

136
A.R.626.
Ant. C.
,a6.

^MILIUS, AURELIUS,
M. ^Mii,ius Lepidus.
^ JL,
.

Confub.

AURELIUS ^ (JRESTES.

Caius having been defied Quasftor, the province of Sardinia fell to him by lot, under the Conful The Qusftorfhip was the firft flep in the Oreftes. His enemies were extremely order of dignities. him obliged by his office to remove pleafed to fee from the city and the allemblies of the People; and on his fide, he rejoiced no lefs than they, becaule he naturally loved war, and had exercifed himfelf no Befides which, during lefs in arms than in eloquence. the office of Tribune, which had been fo fatal to his brother, and not finding himfelf capable of refifting the People and his friends, who called upon him to accept it, he eagerly feized this occafion of abfence, which was become" neceflary to him, and much to
his tafte.

cjc. de

Divm.

i.

If we admit this, it inufl: be allowed that he threw himfelf into the affairs of government, rather through It is however certain, that neceffity than choice. For as Cicero. Caius defired it might be thought fo. ^eiis ys, he himfelf related a dream to every body,
that implies a repugnance in
only.

Plut. val. Max.

him overcome by

fatality

»-7

the time when he flood for the Quaeflorfhip, his brother Tiberius appeared to him in a dream, and told him " Caius, it is in vain to fly : *' the fates prepare for you a like defliny to mine."
faid, tha,t at
:

He

Caius, on arriving proof of great merit.
all

in Sardinia,

gave

all

manner of

He diflinguifhed himfelf above

young perfons by his valour againfl the equity and juflice to all under him, his by enemy, affedlion and refped for his General. But his and by regarded temperance, a tafte for fimpliwhat as to love of labour, he excelled even city, fobriety and thofe that were of more advanced years than
the other
himfelf.

The

unwholfome

winter happened this year to be very hard ancl in Sardinia. The General fent to the
citje^i

PLAUTIUS, FULVIUS,
cities to

Confuls.

137
citiesA.R, 6z6,
^^^l'^^'

demand

cloaths for his foldiers.

The

fame time fent deputies to the Senate, to defire this taxation, which exceeded The Senate heard their requefl favourtheir power. ably, and ordered the Conful to feek cloathing for This order did not a little perhis troops elfewhere. becaufe he knew no means of furnifliing plex him the expence, and relieving the foldiers, whom he faw with pain ftiffer extremely from the rigour of the Caius, who was highly efteemed and beweather. loved throughout the whole ifland, went from city to city, and by his eloquence prevailed upon them all to fend habits, and to aid the Romans in fo preiTing a neceflity of their own accord. This example fhews of what importance it is to treat a people well, and to
at the

to be

exempted from

•,

acquire their affection. The news of this being carried to Rome, fo great a fervife feemed an effay and prelude to what Caius would do to gain the affedion of the People, and very much troubled the Senate. Their jealoufy, or rather ill-will, rofe fo high, that Am.baffadors, who

Rome about the fame time from Kins Mihaving declared to the Senate, that the King their mailer, out of confideration for Caius, had fent a great quantity of corn to the Roman General in Sardinia ; they were highly offended, and made the Ainbairadors retire.
arrived at
cipfa,

M. Plautius Hyps^us. M. FuLvius Flaccus.

A.R.627.
"

125,

Fulvius, the Conful of this year, was one of theApp.de
three CommilTioners for the execution of the Agrarian law, a turbulent man, who to confole the allies
for the lofs of the lands taken from them, fupported, with the whole authority of the Confulfhip, the projed fet on foot by Tiberius, as I have faid above, to give all the States of Italy the freedom of Rome. Happily for the publick tranquility, the people of Maflyiia [Marfeilles] fent deputies 19 Rome to de'

^^°

mand

138
*

CASSIUS, SEXTIUS,

Confuls.

A. R. 627.n-jand aid againft the Gauls, their neighbours, who ,2' infefted them. The care of this war, with which Fulvius voluntarily charged himfelf in hopes of a tri-

umph,
Frein"^'

delivered the city for fome time from that fadious man.~ In thcfc circumftanccs, a confpiracy, which had been long forming, broke out on a fudden, by the But it was revolt of Fregelise, a city of Latium. fupprefled in its birth by the care of the Prsetor L. Opimius, who befiegcd the city and took it. If this confpiracy had not been difcovered in time, it might then have occafioned the general defeftion of the allies, which afterwards highly endangered the ComThat Prsetor, who was a declared enemonv/ealth. my of the family of the Gracchi, in the account which he gaVe the Senate of that confpiracy, threw out fome fufpicions of Caius, and reprefented fadts in fuch a manner, as to make him feem the principal jfecret promoter of the enterprize,

^.R.fiaS.

C. CaSSIUS LoNGINUS.
Q^ Sextius Calvinus.

Ant.c.

JH'

L. Aurelius had now been two years in Sardinia, was however continued in the command in the fame province this year, and new troops were fent him to relieve thofe who had hitherto done good ferThe Senate's principal defign in vice under him. continuing the command to Aurelius in Sardinia, was to keep Caius there alfo, in quality of Proqujeftor, and to prevent him, under that pretext, from appearBut ing at Rome, where his prefence was dreaded. Caius did not give into this fnare, but embarked for Rome, where he appeared on a fudden, when he was His enemies did not believed to be ftill in Sardinia. fail to make this a crime, and took this occafion for

He

rendering him odious, as a bold and daring young man, who fet himfelf above the laws. The People themf^ives at firft condemrte4 fp precipitate a retreat,

CASSIUS, SEXTIUS,

Confuls.
to

139
A. R. 62*,
°

md

thought

it

ftrange for a

Qu^ftor

come home

before his General. Being obliged to appear before the Cenfors to give them an account of his conduct, he defended himfelf with abundance of force and modefty. He reprefented to them, " That he had ferved twelve years

"^^

though the laws required only ten. That he had continued two entire years with his General, acting as Qiiaeftor, though the law permitted a * That Qiiseilor to retire after one year of fervicc. during the Vv'hole time he had not received a fmgle obolus as a prefentfrom the allies*, and had not fuffered them to be at any expence on his account. That if it could be faid that any debauched women had enin the field,

tered his houfe, he fubmitted to be confidered as the
laft

and moft contemptible of mortals.

He

added,
car-

that he was the only one of this army,
ried out his purfe full of
;

who had

money, and had brought it back empty whereas all the reft had drank up the wine they had carried out in their flaggons, and had brought home the fame flaggons full of gold and filver." He pleaded his caul'e fo well, that he brought over all that were prefent to his fide and his judges were convinced, that great injuftice had been done
•,

him. After
feveral

this affair,

many

others were fet on foot,

and

heavier articles of accufation were formed againft him. For he was accufed of having follicited
ftill

allies to take arms againft the Romans, and of having had a fhare in the revolt of Fregell^. But he defended himfelf fo well againft the heads laid to his charge, that he entirely removed all the fufpicions that had been propagated againft him. When he had

the

Ita verfatus fum in provincia, ut nemo pofiit vere dicere aflem aut eo plus in muneribus me accepifll- ; aut mea opera quemquam furaptum fecifle Si ulla meretrix domum meam introivit omnium

Itaque, Quiiites» exiftimatote. cum Roma profeftus fum, zonas, quas plenas argento extuli, eas ex provincia inanes retuli. Alii vini amphoras, qnas plenaa tulerunt, jEss argcr-to pkn^s 4°"?^^ reportaverunt. Apud AuL. Gell. xv. 12.

natorum poftremum nequillimamque

purge4

140
A. R.
628. i\nt. c.
I4-Z*

CASSIUS, SEXTIUS,
vaffing for the Tribunefliip.

Confuls.
to can-

purged himfelf of them, he applied himfelf

All the Nobility and Rich in general oppofed him demand, of which they extremely apprehended But the People v/ere fo highly in the confequences. his intereft, that a kind of inundation of citizens came from ail parts of Italy to Ihare in his eledtion. The multitude of tliem was fo very great, that vaft numbers could not find lodging, and the Field of Mars being too little to contain them all, they gave their fuffrages with loud voices from the roofs of houfes. All the advantage the Nobles acquired from the pains they had taken, was the flight mortification they gave Caius, in being chofen only fourth, whereas he expeded to have been nominated firfl. But they did not get much by that. For he no fooner entered upon office, than he became the firft by the fuperiority of his merit to that of all his CoUegues. Cicero * makes no difficulty to fay, that Caius had talents, if he had lived longer, to have equalled his father Gracchus, and his grandfather Scipio Africanus. He extremely regrets, that he chofe rather to approve his zeal for his brother's memory, than piety to his country and he owns, that the State and Letin this
:

I

4

ters

were equally quence, he gives
his

lofers
it

by

his death.

As

to his elor

the higheft praifes.
folid

He

extols

thoughts, rich abundance, and a majeilic gravity and force, that placed him jnuch above all the orators that had appeared till then at Rome, and which were capable of carrying him on to a degree of perfe6lion, that would have left

noble

di<5lion,

him no
perior.

caufe to fear that he fhould ever have a fu^

* Noli putare, Brute, quemquam pleniorem & uberlorem ad difuiffe Damnum, illius immaturo interitu, res Romanae Latinaeque litterse fecerunt. Utinam non tarn fratri pietatem quam pa? triae prasftare voluiflet Quam ille facile tali ingenio, diutius u vixiflet, yel paternam eflet vel avitam gloriam confecutus Eloquentia quidem jiefcio an habuIfTet parem neminem. Grandis eft verbis, fapiens fen-

cendum

!

:

temiis, genere toto gravis.

Brut. 125, la^,

Wh^t

i

CAS'SIOS,

SEXTIUS,

ConfulV.

14

* What particularly animated his eloquence, wasA^R.e^^g. * for his ,;^^ the force with which his refpeft and tenderneis cruel infpired him, the remembrance of his

brother

and affedled death, that was always before his eyes, him with the moft lively affliftion ; and kftly, a viowas the fublent defire of avenging it. For whatever occafion to dejeft of his difcourfe, he always found recalled that plore his brother's death, and inceffantly with the moft idea to the People, which fupplicd him
pathetic

and expreffions. f " Whither " Ihall I fly," laid he, " where iliall I fifid an afy" lum ? Shall I go to the Capitol ? But that temple " is llill w^et with my brother's blood. Shall I go td " myfelf in m.y own houfe ? But there I find a
thoughts
hide

To fuch fpeaking, a movino- dilcourfe he added a manner of tears which drew tone of voice, geftures, and looks, enemies. his of even eyes from the Sometimes to the fanguinary violence committed upon Tiberius, he oppoled the quite different con« mother
inconfolable, and in
defpair."

" Your anceflors," of the ancient Romans. war againft the faid he, " in former times, declared " Falifci, to revenge Genucius, Tribune of the Peothey in words «« pie, whom they had infulted only of one " condemned C. Veturius to die, becaufe, as he " the Tribunes was going through the Forum, " had been the only one who refufed to make way *' Whereas thofe men," pointing to for him to pafs. Tiberius on the the Nobility, " knocked my brother in their fury " with ftaves before your eyes

dud

•,

head

-,

« they dragged his murthered body through the city, « and threw it into the Tiber, to deprive it of func. « ral honours. Without any form of juftice, they « put all his friends to death that fell into their
* C. Gracchum mors fraterna, pietas, dolor, magn'itudo animi, ad Cic. de Harulp. expetendas doraeftici fangulnis pcenas excitavit.
^^

+ Ou5 me mifer conferam

?

quo vertam
?
>

?

In Capitoliumne

?

at fra-

tris fanffulne redundat. tantemque videarn, Si

An domum

abjeaam

C

matremne ut mileaam, lamemGracchus apud Cic. 1. ui. de
*'
,
,

Or. n.

iH-

.

nanus.

;

142
AjR, 628.
'

CiECILIUS, QtJINTiUS,
et

Confuls.
it is

hands.

However," added he, "

a cuflom ob-

,2^.

" ferved in all times at Rome, that when a man is " profecuted criminally, if he does not appear early
*'

in the

morning, an

officer

is

fent to his

door to

" fummon him by found of trumpet ; and

"
"
*'

before that ceremony is performed, the judges never proceed to pafs fentence. Such was the care and precaution of our anceftors in their trials, when the life
citizen

" of a

was

in queftion."

TRIBUNESHIP
^Am". C?'
'*s«

of

CAIUS.

Q^ C^ciLius Metellus.
T. QuiNTius Flamininus.
Caius, after having warned the People by fuch diftwo laws, both tending to attack the enemies of Tiberius. The one was, " That every magiftrate depofed by the People fhould be rendered incapable of Handing for any office." The other decreed, " That the magiftrate, who fliould have
courfes, propofed

banifhed a citizen, without having profecuted him according to the forms, fhould be cited and tried before the People." The firft of thefe laws dirediy regarded 0(ftavius, whom Tiberius had caufed to be depofed ; and the other Popilius, who being Conful, had banifhed the friends of Tiberius, without having very exactly obferved the forms of juftice. Popihus did not wait the fentence of the People, and voluntarily baniflied himfelf from Italy. He was not long an exile. Caius was no fooner killed, than the Tribune L. Calpurnius Beftia caufed Popilius to be recalled bj the fuffrages of the People themfelves. As to what concerns the other law, Caius annulled it at the requeft of his mother, who interefted herfelf for Odavius. The People came readily into this for they highly honoured Cornelia, as much out of confideration for her two fons, as on account of her father •which evidently appeared fome time after by a flatue
:

of

;

CiECILIUS, QUINTIUS,

Confuls.

n^

of bronze, which they ere6led to her with this in- A. R. 62a-. ^^^' ^' fcription, " Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi." Thefe two firft laws were only a prelude to many others that followed ; and Cuius omitted nothing, that could retrench the authority of the Senate, and augment that of the People. He renewed his brother's law for the diilribution of lands: and caufed himfelf to be eftabliihed, or confirmed. Triumvir for that diilribution, with M. Fulvius and C. Craffus. He decreed, that the foldiers fhould be fupplied with habits, without any dedu6tion from their pay and that no citizen fhould be inlifted till the age of
feventeen years compleat. He did not forget the multitude that inhabited Rome, and decreed, that a certain quantity of corn

fhould be diflributed monthly to the poor citizens the foot of fomething lefs than an half-penny of * This law gave the People infinite our money. pleafure, who were thereby provided for, and difBut all perfons of worth oppenfed from working. pofed it firft, becauie it cxhauftcd the publick treasury ; but efpecially, becaufe if it be incumbent on a wife government to relieve fuch as are really poor» and not in a condition to get their living, it is no lefs certain, that by indifcriminateiy taking the inferior people from the habit and necefiity of labour, infinite

upon

:

is done the Commonwealth, which is overburthened with the multitude of the idle and lazy, who give themfelves up to ail kinds of diforders and cxcefTes. This kind of largefTes, therefore, fays Ci- De offic, cero, are laudable, when they are moderate, and re-"-^°gulated by real occafions but exceifive and indefinite, as thefe of Caius were, they muft be deemed very pernicious.

harm

:

* Frumentarinm legem C. Gracchus ferebat.
:

Jucunda

res plebr

'Romanas viftus enim lupprditabatur large fine labore. Repupnabant boni, quod & ab induftria plebem ad defidiam avocari putabant, & wrarium exhauriri videbant. Cic. pro Sext. loj.

The

;

144
A^R.
Ant.
12-3

C^CILIUS, QUINTIUS,
C

Confuls,

629.

The diftributions of corn decreed by Caius Wei-^ For it appears, that it included the really indefinite. rich as well as the poor. The fa6t, which I am going to relate, is a proof of this. L^ Pifo, firnamed * Frugi, that is, honeft man, a peribn then of Conlular dignity, but ftill more venerable for his univerfally acknowledged probity, had been one of thole who had moft ftrongly oppofed the law of Caius, of which we are fpeaking. When this law had overcome all obftacles, and began to be put in execution, Caius, feeing him amongit thofe who came to take the diftribution, called upon him before the whole People^ and reproached him with acting inconfiftently with himfelf, in demanding his fliare of corn in con" I would fequence of a law which he had oppofed. " not willingly confent," replied Pifo, " that you " fhould diftribute my fortune to the citizens. But " if you were to do it, I fhould come at leaft to afk *' my part of it." To talk thus, was publickly condemning tlie law of Caius, as ruining the treafuiy, and exhaufting the patrimony of the publick, of which Caius however boafted himfelf in all his fpeeches but his adtions proved the defender and prefer ver
:

quite the reverfe. He alfo pafTed decrees for fettling colonies, making highways, and building publick magazines ; and he took upon himfelf the dire6tion and management of thofe important works, without ever fmking under

the weight of care, and without feeming fo much as perplexed with fo many and fo great undertakings but on the contrary, executing them all with as much readinefs and attention, as if each had been the
Pifo ille Frugi femper contra legem frumentariam dixerat. Is, lege lata, confularis ad frumentum accipiendum venerat. AnimadQQasrit, audiente povertit Gracchus in concione Pifonem ftantem, pulo R. qui fibi conftet, cum ea lege frumentum petat, quam diffaafe" Nolim," inquit, " mea bona, Gracehe, tibi viritim dividere rat. *' liceat fed fi facias partem petam." Parum-ne declaravit vir gravis C< fapiens, lege Sempronia patrimonium publicum diffipari ? Gracchus cum largitiones maximas feeiffet, & effudiffet serarium, verbis tamen defendebat serarium. Quid verba audiaitt, cum fafta
:

&

videam,

Tufcul. Qusft.

iii. 4.8.

only

!

C^CILIUS, OyiNTlUS,

Confuls.

145

only one he was charged with. The People were ^^•^^,9tranfported to fee him always followed by a crowd of 123' undertakers, workmen, ambaffadors, oilicers, foldiers, and men of letters, with whom he ccnvcrfed familiarly with great humanity, always retaining his gravity and dignity in the midft of his obliging and polite behaviour, accommodating himfelf to their feveral charafters, and talking with each in his own way ; an uncommon talent, but abfolutely necefTary to perfons in high flations The works which he had m.oft at heart, and to which he applied with the greateft attention, were the great highways, in which he confined himfelf principally to conveniency, v/ithout negledling however beauty and ornament. He carried on thefe ways in right lines acrofs countries, paved them with fine hewn ftones wherever there was occafion, or ufed fplinters of ftone and gravel to make the roads firm. He caufed all bogs and hollows m.ade by the courfs of waters to be filled up, or joined them to banks by ftrong bridges. Befides this, he divided all thefe ways into equal diftances, each of a thoufand paces, and caufed a kind of ftone pillars to be erected, on which the number of thefe miles were cut, beginning from Rome. And hence come the words fo common in Latin authors, tertio^ quarto ab tirbe laptde. On both fides he alfo caufed Hones to be placed to afTiit travellers in getting on horfeback for in his time the ufe of ftirrups was unknown. The credit of Caius daily augmented amongfl the People, who gave him the higheft praifes, and declared themfelves ready to add the moft efTencial marks of their affeftion. Caius took the advantage of this good difpofition, to remove from the Confulfhip Opimius, his mortal enemy, who had formerly endeavoured to have him confidered as the author of the confpiracy at Fi-egeila?, and to fublfitute Fannius in his place, from whom he certainly expefted more fupport than he received. For this purpofe he faid one day to the People, in haranguing' Vol. VI. ]_, tiie.ii.
:

146

FANNIUS, DOMITIUS,

Confuls.

A.R.6a9- them, that he had one favour to afk of them the upoa ^^^' ^' the day of the eledlion of Confuls, which fhould be^ if obtained, the fum of all rewards to him, but howif denied, he fhould never complain of it. This declaration gave great difquiet; and particularly alarmed the Senate. Every-one interpreted the inThe day of eledion tention of Caius his own way. he'mcr come, and every body in expeftation of what he would afk, he came to the Field of Mars, leading C. Fannius by the hand, and folliciting with all his The People did not hefitate, friends in his favour. and created Fannius Conful, giving him Cn. Domitius

ever,

Befides this, they continued Caius for Collegue. himfelf in the Tribunefhip, though he had neither
afked, nor made any intereft for vaffed fuHiciently for him.
A.R.fi^o^''^' ^'
122.
it.

His adions can-

C. Fannius.

Cn. Domitius.
Caius, always intent upon weakening the authority of the Senators, and feeing that the privilege of having

the Ible adminiftration of juflice gave them great power, did not content himfelf with affociating the

Knights with them

in

adjudging caufes, as Plutarch

fays, (v/hich the learned Manucius fhews, he was jniflaken) but he deprived the Senate entirely of it, and transferred it to the Knights. * Many changes

were made in this refped in the fequel. The flagrant iniuftices committed on trials, in which criminals, mofb notorious for opprefTions and extortions, found afllired proteftion by corrupting the judges with prefents, ferved Caius as fpecious pretexts for propofing his law, and the people for eflablifhing it by their fufThe fame reafon made the Senate afhamed frages. to oppofe it.
* The Knights retained tlie power Caius granted them during feeteen or feventeea years, till the Confulfliip of Csepio, who aflbciated the Senators with them. The Knights were afterwards in full pofleirion of the ii'.dicature ; which was again divided between them and the Senators fometiine after, till Sylla deprived the Knights entirely

of

it.

Whsa

FANNIUS, DOMITIUS, Confuls.;^ When Caius had pafil-d this law, he publickly
,.,^„,

I47
A.R.
6^50
*

boafted, that he had utterly ruined the power of the The Knights, Senate ; and he v/as not miftaken.

^^^'^^^

Anoia;i.

now

fole mailers in

adjudging caufes, made themfelves

Bdi.civ.
^"

They foon imitated, and formidable to the Senators. even furpafied, thofe they had fucceeded in corruption As the farmers of the publick reand iniquity. venues were of their order, their new power gave them the means of boldly committing peculation, and of robbing the Commonwealth with entire imThey did" not content themfelves v/ith repunity. ceiving prefents for acquitting the guilty they went
:

'*

fo far as to deftroy the innocent.

We

of
it

this kind,

which

will prove, that to

fads reform abufes,
(hall fee

juftice

was necefiary not to transfer the adminiftration of from one order to another, but to reform the whole State, which was univerfally corrupted, and to revive, if that had been pofiible, the fentiments of honour and probity of the ancient Romans. Another change, which he either introduced, or * revived, though flight in appearance, difcovers the real intentions of Caius, and fhews, that his plan was entirely to change the governm.ent of Rome, to make it degenerate into a mere democracy, and to deprive the Senate of the principal rank and authority. It was the cuftom for thofe who harangued in the tribunal, to turn towards the Senate, and the place Caius, in fpeaking, afFe6ted to called theComitium. turn towards the other end, which v/as the Forum ; and after he had began this, he always perfevcred in to fhew, that the Ibvereign power was vefted in it the People, and that it was to them, and not to the Senate, all who fpoke of publick affairs ought to
',

addrefs themfelves.

Caius feeing, that the Conful Fannius, notwithilanding his obligations to him, was extremely cold
;n;
iu.'

ti:^

* Cicero and Varro mention one ticmius, Tribune the 607th year of Rome, ss the author of this practice. To reconcile Plutarch with tliem, we may conjer^ure, that the example of Licinius had not been followed by his fuccellbrs, and that Caius revived it.

L

2

in

148
A.R.
^

FANNIUS, DOMITIUS,
630. in
'

Confuls.

322.

his affairs, neglesfled nothing; to conciliate the Accordingly he proPeople, and made new laws. pofed the fending of colonies to Tarentum and Capua, and undertook to have the freedom of the city, and the right of voting, granted to all the ftates of Italy, almoft to the Alps, which would have enabled him to have palTed whatibever he pleafed in the affembly. The Senate, terrified with the power of Caius, which became more exorbitant every day, and apprehending, that it would at length attain to an height, which would make it impoffible to oppofe it, conceived a

method

entirely

new, and hitherto unheard

of,

for

exceedingly weakening his credit with the People. This was to render itfelf ftill more popular than Caius, and to grant the People, without much regard to right and juft, whatever could be agreeable to them. Amongft the Collegues of Caius, there was one This v/as Livius very capable of becoming his rival. Drufus, whofe happy natural parts had been cultivated by the moft excellent education ; befides which, he was rich, eloquent, and one of the principal citizens of Rome in every refped. The Great applied to him, and preffed him to oppofe Caius, and unite with them, not in violently contending againil the People, and refilling what they defired ; but on the contrary, in ftudying to pleafe them in all things, and even in thoie for v/hich it had been glorious to have incurred It was no lons;er a time for a Conful their hatred. " I fliould be very glad, Roto fay to the People mans, to pleafe you ; but I chufe much rather to preferve you, whatever difguil you may conceive for me This conftancy feemed no longer in confequence." and it had cofl the great Scipio Africanus in feafon his life, for deliring to follow thefe ancient maxims. The Senate therefore gave way on this occafion, and thereby attained their ends ; but it mufl be confefTed, it is at the expence of their glory. An impulfe of jealoufy, common enough, and in a manner natural, to thofe who fee fome one of their Collegues 8
: :

FANNIUS, DOMITIUS,
Collep-nes raife himfelf above
his merit or creait,

Confuls.

149
A- ^- ^3
j^^.

and

in

over the reft, determine Drufus to give into the propofal made to him. The publick utility put into his hands, the honour of reftoring the tranquility of the State, and reconciling both parties, feemed alfo reafons v/orthy of a good citizen. He therefore gave himfelf up to
to lord
it

him

all the others, either by lome mealure take upon was a Rifficient motive to

the Senate he propofed and pafied laws, which had nothing meritorious, or of real ufe, in them, but of which the fole end was to do ftill more for the People than Caius did, and thereby to deprive him of the The approbation given affeftion of the multitude. by the Senate to all the enterprizes of Drufus, fhews plainly, fays Plutarch, that it was not fo m.uch the laws of Caius, as his perfon itfelf, and too great authority, that had difpleafed them. Accordingly, when Caius decreed the eftablifliment of two colonies, for which he was for havi-ng the moft •worthy of the citizens chofen, the Senate rofe up againft him, and treated him as a flatterer of the People and v/hen Drufus eftablifhed twelve, and fent three thouftnd of the pooreft citizens into each of th'^'m, they fupported him with their whole power. They did the lame in every thing ; and Drufus never failed, in propofing his laws, to declare, that he aded by the advice of the Senate ; which much abated the People's rancour againft the principal perfons of that body, and almoft entirely extinguiftied the animofity which the Gracchi had fomented be:
:

tv/een the

two orders. Such was the undoubtedly falutary effedl of the Sean cifcd:, nate's policy, and of the laws of Drufus
:

whicii manifeftly gave the fuperiority to the caufe of

the Great over that of the Gracchi, as

all

the

mea-

sures of the tv.'o brothers tended only to fowing divifion, whereas thofe of the Senate reftored concord. Let us add, that if it was for the good of the State, as cannot be denied, that the principal authority of ^he government fnould remain in the hands of that

.

L

3

auguil;

t50
^1^22.^'

FANNIUS, DOMITIUS,

Confvjls,

A.R.63Q- augvift body, rather than be

abandoned to the caP"ce of the multitude, the end which the Senate propofed in the laws of Drufus, was good and lauthough the means they employed were below dable
;

their dignity.
PKxt,

App.p.85. clined.

Caius might have perceived, that his credit deAn action of his at this time gives reafon to doubt, whether he was aware of it, or not. Q^Rubrius, one of the Tribunes, not to continue idle whilir his Coliegues were fo buly, and to diflinguilh himfelf alfo by fomething memorable, caufed it ro be decreed by the People, that Carthage, which had very lately been deftroyed by Scipio, fhould be rebuilt, and a At the time of its deftrudion, colony fent thither. jt had been forbidden to inhabit it for the future in the name of the Roman People, with horrible imprecations againfl fuch as, contrary to this interdidion, Caius was not terihould undertake to rebuild it. rified by them, and to make his court to the People, (perhaps alfo to remove the trophies of Scipio,) he undertook to re-people it, and carried a colony thither confifting of fix thoufand citizens. To remaove from Rome in the prefent (late of affairs, and to leave his rival there, was not acting; like a good politician, Drufus accordingly, taking advantage of his abfence, made new efforts to engage the People, and conciliate their favour ; wherein he was exceedingly aliiited by the bad conduct of Fulvius. He was the particular friend of Caius, and commifTioner with him for the diilribution of lands a man of a feditious and turbulent fpirit, hated by the whole Senate,
-,

and fufpetled by all good citizens, as promoting infurrections amongft the allies, and fecretly exciting Thefe were only reports, the dates of Italy to revolt. fupported were by no certain that and evident proof: by it his condud made them probable ; for he never took the right fide of a qucilion, and always declared This was what contributed moft to againft union.
the ruin of Caius
:

for all the hatred conceived

for.

Fulvius,

fell

by reHcxion upon him.
CaiuSj

FANNIUS, DOMITIUS,

ConfviU.

151

Caius, however, was employed in re- building and A. R. 630, •re-peopling Carthage, of which he changed the name, '^"f; ^'

Junonia, that is, " The City of Juno," the tutelar goddefs of ancient Carthage, as Virgil * has obferved almoft an hundred years after. The Tribune found obftacles to his projeds, as I have related in He however perfifted, and the preceding book. and ordained every thing in the fpace regulated having re-imbarked and returned to Rome. of feventy days, motives other which induced him to haften Amongft of the principal return, one was his apprehenfion his of Opimius, whom Confullhip he had fet afide of the preceding year, but adlually who flood the now, and was eledled Conful for the year enfuing, Caius found a change of difpofition at Rome, which

and called

it

might have made him fenfible of his fault in reTo omit nothing that might regain moving- from iL the People, he thought it neceffary of favour him the
to change his habitation. Inftead of refiding on Mount Palatine, he removed to below the Forum ; a much

more popular

place, becaufe

it

was the quarter of
:

the inferior people,

and pooreft

citizens.

conceived another more effeftual means this was the promulgation of feveral new laws. It is very probable, that the laws which he propofed on the prefent occafion, were thofe which were intended for communicating the freedom of Rome, and the right •of lufFrage, to the Latines and other ftates of Italy. The allies in confequence flocking to Rome from all parts, and furrounding Caius continually, the Senate perfuaded the conful Fannius to make all perfons, that did not inhabit Rome, retire, and to leave none but citizens in it. An order almofl: unheard of till then, and which feemed very ftrange, was publifhed by found of trumpet, " prohibiting every-one, who was not a citizen, to remain in Rome, or to approach oiearer than five miles to the city, during the whole 01 iiom ujliidojnro iRr'i * Quam Juno fertur 'ierris magis omnibus unam
Polthabita coluifie

He

Samo

^k.

I.

20.

time

152

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,

GonlHs;

A.R. 63o.time that the new, laws Hiould be in deliberation." on his fide, aifixed papers on all fides, com'iz2." Caius, plaining of this unjiift proclamation of the Conful's, and proniifing to aid all the allies, who fhould continue in Rome, with force. 'He however did not keep For feeing one of his friends and gueils his word. infuked by the Conful's officers, on account of dif-

pbeying that prohibition, he went forv/ards, and gave him no aid ; whether, perceiving his credit diminiflied, he was afraid to expole himfelf on the occafion, or, as.'he faid himfelf, he was unv/iliing to give his enemies the pretext they fought of comjng to blows, aa4, drawing on fome combat. He happened at the fame time to differ exceedingly, with his Cbllegues, on the occafion I am going to reThe People were to be prefent j^t a combat of late. gladiators to be exhibited in the Forum. Moll of the magiftrates caufed fcaffolds to be erected round Caius gave them orthe place in order to let them. ders to take them down, that the poor might hav€ci thofe places to fee the fhew without paying. As nobody obeyed his command, he flayed till the night before the games, and taking along v/ith him all the carpenters and workmen at his difpofal, he made thern demoliHi all thofe fcaffolds himfelf, and thereby rendered the place free for all the citizens indifferently. This a6tion m.ade the multitude confider him as a man of refolution and courage ; but his Collegues •were diffatisfied, and taxed him with boldnefs an4
.;

violence,
/"''I^ucius

A.R.

631.

OpimivS.

Ant. c.
521.

.Q^Fabius Maximum.
failed of the Confulfliip the year be-, have already obfcrved, through the credit of Caius, who at that time caufed Fannius to be He was revenged on him this year,i elected Conful. and Caius, in his turn, who expected to be chofen Tribune for the third time, was excluded from that

Oplmius had

fore, as I

office.

'

office.

£53 According to fome authors, he however llid A;R; 6^iAnt. C.
:

GPIMIUS, FABIUsVtonifuTs:

but his Collegues, perhaps in concert with Opimius, through envy and revenge, afted very unjuftiy in making their report of them. This point was not cleared up in time, and remained The enmity between Caius and Opimius,' doubtful. which had appeared before, then broke out with more violence than ever, and was carried to the iaft
the plurality of voices
excefTes.

Opimius no fooner faw himfelf Conful, than he undertook to cancel feveral of Caius's laws. He infilled principally on that which regarded the re-eftablilhment of Carthage ; ftrongly reproaching Caius with having formed and cxecuited that enterprize contrary to prior prohibitions to rebuild the walls of that rival of Rome, and notwithitanding the will of the gods, who had manifeftly declared themfelves by-' fmifter omens and prodigies, which ought immediately,' to have made him defift from that defign. A Tribune, fupported by the authority of the Senate and Conful, accordingly propofed the abolition of the law concerning the colony of Carthage, and perhaps of fome other laws of Caius. The day for the affembly was declared for proceeding to deliberation upon thefe points. Caius at firft fupported all thefe affronts with patience, and feemed difpofed to employ no meafures againft his adverfaries but thofe of peace and juftice ; whether he diffided in his credit with the People, or prudentially avoided giving the Conful the occafion he fought to excite trouble, and proceed to violence. But his friends, and particularly Fulvius, animated him fo llrongly, that he drew his partizans together to oppofe the Conful. He thereby aded very wrong, as, bemg only a private perfon, he refiftecl the publick authority with force. The day the alTembly was to be held, Opimius on ene fide, and Caius on the other, occupied the Capitol in the morning. The Conful having performed the facrifice, one of his officers, called Q^ Antyllius, who was carrying awa^^ the intrails of the victims,
faid

'^

154

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,

Confuls.

A. R. 63i.faid to Fulvius, and the great multitude round him. Ant. c. t« Make way, bad citizens, and let honeft men pafs."

This

offenfive

die bodkins (or Jiyli) of their tablebooks, which, it is faid, they had purpofely made larger than ufual, in order to ufe them as arms upon This murder occafioned a great tumult. occafion. Caius was extremely afflidted at it, and flew out againft his followers, reproaching them that they had given their enemies an handle, who had long fought Opimius, on the only a pretext for fhedding blood. contrary, confidering this event as favourable to his defigns, prepared to take the advantage of it, and But an heavy rain excited the People to vengeance. happened to fall, which obliged them to feparate. The next day the Conful aflembled the Senate; and whilli he was fpeaking, certain perfons by his own diredion, having placed the body of Antyllius

that they fell the fpot with

word enraged them to fuch a degree, upon AntylHus, and killed him upon

a bier, carried it acrofs the Forum to the SenateOpimius, on hearing houfe with great cries of grief.

upon

and all the Senators went was the matter. what The bier having out to fee middle of the Forum, in the they furrounded been fet as the murder great a difafter miit, and lamented ferable comedy which with reafon excited the People's
this noife, feigned furprize,
:

\

indignation.

*'

They
;

miaifacred

Ti. Gracchus, the

" Tribune of the People," faid they, " and threw his *' body into the Tiber and now when a Lidtor, who
*'

perhaps did not deferve his misfortune, but at leaft *' drew it upon himfelf by his imprudence, is expofed " upon the Forum, the Roman Senate furrounds his '1 bier, raifes lamentable cries concerning his death, ^' and attends v/ith pomp the funeral of a pitiful fellow, ** in order that they may fucceed in deftroying the *' laft furviving defender of the Roman People. "/ja* 3") The Senate having afterwards returned into their houfe, paffed a decree, by v/hich the Conful was dire6ted to provide for the fafety of the Commonwealth
:

Uti L. Opimius Consul Rempublicam defenDERET.

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,
DERET.

Confuls.

i^^

This form gave him an unlimited power. A. R. 631. The Conful then ordered all the Senators to take ^^l\^' arms, and all the Knights to attend him the next day App. civ. in the morning, each with two fervants well armed. ^' ^* ^^s* At the fame time he caufed Caius and Fiilvius to be cited to come in perfon, and give an account of their condu6t to the Senate. They were far from complying with this fummons, that is, from delivering themfelves up to their eneFulvius drew together and armed as many mies. people as he coujd. Caius feemed to have no thoughts of his defence but on returning from the Forum, he itopt near his father's ftatue, looked at it a great while without fpeaking a word, and could not help fhedding fome tears, and venting fome lighs, perhaps regretting too late his not having followed the example of fo illuflrious a father, who had always adhered to the party of the ariftocracy, and had been fo happy in effed. The People, who faw Caius in this condition, were moved with compafTion. All of them, reproaching themfelves with cowardice for abandoning and betraying fuch a protedtor, followed him home, and paffed the night before his doors. They kept guard there ; but mournfully, and with filence, refiedling upon the publick calamities, and thofe which
:

threatened them in their private condition. At Fulvius's, on the contrary, nothing was feen but feafthe made himfelf drunk firfl, and ing and revelling when heated with wine, there was no kind of rhodomontades, either in words or in a6tions, by which he did not endeavour to fignalize himfelf. The next morning it was not eafy to awake him.
-,

He however rofe ftill intoxicated with the fumes of wine ; and his people being armed, they all fet forwards with great cries and haughty menaces, and feized Mount Aventine. As to Caius, he refufed to arm, and went out in his robe, as if to a common affembly, taking only with him a little dagger. When he was going, his wife Licinia flopped him^ and threw herfelf on her knees at the threlhold, lifting up

one

J

56
651-

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,
reprefented to

Confuls.

^•P-

iz'i.

one hand, and holding her fon in the other. " She him in a voice mingled with fobs, the certain danger to which he cxpofed himfelf, in going in that condition before the murderers of his brother Tiberius. She praifed his generofity in not being willing to take arms againft his fellow-citizens but fhe exhorted him at leait to provide for the fafety of his life. And laftly, if he was infenfible to his own death, v^^hich would leave the Commonwealth without a defender, ilie conjured him in the name of the gods to have compafTion on an unfortunate wife and tender infant, who would lofe their all in loling him, and were upon the point of being expofed to all the indignities that v/ere to be expected from fuch furious and inhuman enemies as thole who perfecuted his family." Caius difengaged himfelf gently from between her arms, and vv^alked' on in profound filence, furrounded by his friends. Flis wife defiring to follow him, in order to hold him by his robe, fell upon the ground, v/here ilie continued without voice or fenfe, till his dom.efticks, feeing her in a fwoon, took her up, and carried her to the houfe of her brother
•,

Craffus.

When the followers of Caius and Fulvius were affembled on the Aventine, Caius, that he might have nothing to reproach himfelf with, prevailed upon Fulvius to fend his fecond fon with a caduceus in his hand to the Forum. He was a youth of fmgular beauty, and the graces of his afped: were exalted by the humble and modeft air with which he approached, and by the tears which he Ihed in making the propofals of accommodation, with which he was charged, The majority of the Seto the Conful and Senate. nators were not averfe to treating. But the Conlul Opimius would hear nothing. " It is not," faid he, *' by heralds, thofe rebels are to explain themfelves. " Let them come in perfon to undergo their fentence " as criminals, to afl< grace in that condition, and " difarm the wrath of the Senate offended by their revolt." At the fame time, he ordered that young
,','_
.,

man

157 and exprefsly forbade him to come A.R. 631, back, except he brought with him the lubmifTion of '^":'^ Caius and Fulvius to the Senate's orders. The young man having made his report, Caius v/ould have obeyed, and appeared before the Senate, to vindicate But all the reft having oppofed it, Fulvius himfelf. fent his fon back again to make the fame propofals a Opimius, who only defired to terminate fecond time. the affair by the method of arms, impatient to come to blows, caul'ed young Fulvius to be feized, and having put him into the cuftody of perfons he could confide in, he fet forv/ards againfc the fmali army of Fulvius with a good body of infantry, and fome

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,

Confuls.

man

to return,

'

Cretan archers, v/ho difcharging upon that troop, and wounding many, foon put the reil into diforder. The flight immediately became general. Fulvius retired into a publick bath that had been abandoned, where he was found foon after, and killed with his In this fkirmifh and flight two hundred eldeft fon. and fifty were ilain on the fide of Fulvius. Hiftory does not tell us whether there was any lofs on the other fide. We only know, that P. Lentulus, Prince of the Senate, received a confiderable wound
in
it.

Cic. pi

ii.

^'""

'"^'

he was neither fcen to fight, nor to Highly afflided with what pafl^ed, he retired into the temple of Diana. He there would have killed himfelf with his dugger ; but he was prevented by Pomponius and Licinius, tv/o of the moil faithful of his friends, who took it from him, and prevailed upon him to fly. Caius, before he quitted the temple, fell on his knees, and lifting i^p his hands towards the goddefs, implored her, that the Roman People, as a ipunifhrnent for their black treachery and ingratitude, (for moft of them had abandoned him on the firlt proclam.ation of an amne/by) might never fhake ofi^ the vile fiavery, into which they voluntarily precipitated thcmfelves. I'hofe who purfued Caius, overtook him near the wooden bridge. Flis two friends, who had not quitted him, made head at the
to Caius,

As

draw

his fword.

entrance

OPIMIUS, FABIUSr&Yfiiis. 158 A.R. 631. entrance of it, to give him time to efcape, and fought Ant. C. yaliantly till they both fell dead on the fpot. But what is entirely ftrange, all that multitude who were prefent, all thofe thoufands who were under fuch great obligations to Caius, behaved nov/ like fimple fpedtators ; encouraging and exhorting him to make off, as if the affair had been only a common race, whilft not one amongft them dared, I do not fay take vipon them to defend him, but to give him an horfe,
to enable

him

to fly with

more

fpeed.

A

flrong ex-

of the infidelity and cowardice of the multitude ; which ought to teach every man of fenfe, that popular favour is a very frail fupport, which gives way immediately under thofe who confide in it, when the danger becomes ferious. Caius, in the mean time, had retired into a wood facred to the His enemies were juft at it, when PhiloFuries. Haves, killed him, and then crates, one of his

ample

this

himfelf.
•Ujpon the

Senate had not been afliamed to fet a price heads of Caius and Fulvius, and to promiie, by proclamation, to whomfoever ihould bring them One of Opiin, their weight in gold as a reward. mius's friends, called Septimuleius, having taken away the head of Caius from the foldier who had cut it off, carried it to the Conful at the end of a pike. He had even the bafenefs and barbarity to take out all the brains, and to fill up the fcuU with melted lead. It was found to weigh feventeen pounds eight ounces,

The

(about fourteen pounds Troy) which were immediHe was reproached with this ately paid him in gold. ftroke of wit, which is not after by a aftion fometime hers. He afked Scfevolaj^ repeated unworthy of being for an employment in in Afia, appointed Proconful
his province.

*

"

Why

vola.

" There

are fo

you mad," replied Scsemany bad citizens in Rome,
are

tibi

? Tunta malorum eft multitudo civium, vit ego hoc confirmem, fi Romse manferis, te paucis annis ad max* imas pecunias efle venturum. CiC, de Or. ii. 269,

* Quid tibi vis, infane

6

"

that

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,
**

Confuis.

i^^

you, if you llay here, A. R. 631. " you cannot fail of making a great fortune in a fliort '^"^' ^* 121, " time." Thofe who brought Fulvius's head had nothing, becaufe they were of the loweft o^^.t^g
that I

may

venture to

afllire

rabble.

_
_ _

--Jf-b

1'^--.;^

The bodies of Caius and Fulvius, and of all thofe who had either been killed in this tumnlt, or executed
by the Conful's order, to the number of thoufand, were thrown into the Tiber. All Their wives were fortheir eftates were confifcated. bade to wear mourning. Licinia, the wife of Caius, was deprived of her dowry. ^Fulvius's fecond fon, he who had been Hopped by the Conful's order, wherj he came to propofe conditions of an accommodation-, a youth of only eighteen years old, and very innocenc of all things laid to his father's charge, who had nei-, ther fought, nor could fight, as he was a prifoner atthe time of the fkirmilh, was however inhumanly put All the favour Ihewn him was to chufe his to death. But as he could not refolve on any, he was death. ftrangled in prifon, notwithflan.ding his prayers and
in

prifon

three

tears.

ple,

fenfibly fnocked and afflidted the Peowas the infolence of Opimius in building a temple to Concord in memory of this event. For he feelmed thereby to afTume glory to himlclf from his cruelties, and to confider the murdering of fo many citizens as matter of triumph. It is from hence, that fomebody, under the infcription upon the front of

What moll

the temple, cut the following verfe in the night, the

which is " This temple of Concord is the work of fury and difcord." The allufion and elegance either of the Latin or Greek is not eafily prefenfe of
:

ferved in another language.
Concordia,

Vecordia opus ^demfacit
'zs-oul.

^'^^yov ATrovomi vaIv 'Ouovoictf

People, who had fo bafely abandoned the Gracchi to the fury of their enemies, after their deaths rendered them barren honours, and too late regret. Statues were erefted to them in publick : the places

The

where they were killed were confecrated, and the

firfb-

fruits

:

.i6o
•^•^"

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,
'

Confuls.

121.

^*- fruits of each feafon were carried to them. Many -C^ven offered facrifices there every day, and faid prayers on their knees, as in the temples of the gods. The Great did not oppofe thefe vain expreffions of honour and refpedl, that had no tendency. But they applied themfelves to abrogating the Agrarian laws, which really hurt them. They proceeded therein by

degrees. They firft caufed the prohibition pafTed by Tiberius to be taken off by a Tribune ; " that thofe to v/hom the lands of the publick had been diflributed, fhould not Tell them •/' which gave the Rich an opportunity of buying them of the Poor, and even Another Trifometimes of feizing them by force.

bune pafTed a decree, that all enquiries and diflributions of the public lands (hould ceafe, and that they fhould continue in the hands of thofe who poffeffed them, paying a quit-rent to be diftributed amongft the poorer citizens. This was at leaft a conBut foon after a folation and relief for the poor. third Tribune difcharged thofe lands from the quitThus the rent that had lately been laid upon them. great defign of the Gracchi was reduced to nothing and a proje6t fo fatal to its authors left no trace of any utility either to particulars, or to the Commonwealth.
It remains for me to fay fomething of Cornelia and Opimius. The body of Caius, having been taken out of the Tiber, no doubt by fome friend of the

Gracchi, v/as carried to Mifenum, whither Cornelia had retired after the death of Tiberius. She there pafTed the remainder of her life in a country-houfe, Her without any change in her manner of living. her the befl about drew extraordinary merit always perprincipal or the company either of the learned,

Commonwealth. She charmed all that came to fee her, when fhe related particularities of the life of her father Scipio Africanus, and his manner of living. But fhe filled them with admiration, when,
fons of the

without the leafl fign of grief, or fhedding a fingle tear, fhe gave the hiflory of all her children had done
or

Confuls. i6i had been fpeaking of perfons ^;^;^^' or fufTercd, as if fhe Ant. C. It was even iifual with her entirely indifferent to her. to fay, fpeaking of the confecrated places where they were killed, that they were tombs worthy of the This conftancy feemed lb extraordinary to Gracchi. fome, that they imagined her age and misfortunes had Weak impaired her judgment and underftanding.

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,

people, fays Plutarch, who did not know how much an excellent genius and a good education can exalt the foul above fortune, and enable it to triumph over
forrow.
"^

h'^-^n.-i

As to Opimius, his Confullhip was no fooner expired, than the Tribune P. Decius accufed him before the People, for having put to death citizens without being tried or condemned according to the forms of law. Carbo, then Conful, the very perfon lb inti^ mately united with Caius, who had been Commif* fioner with him for the diftribution of lands, who had
carried his violence for that party to fuch an height, as to imbrue his hands in the blood of Scipio Africa-

very Carbo was the defender of Opimius. What is ftill more furprizing, a criminal fo defervedly Carbo odious to his judges efcaped condemnation. orators eloquent of his moft time. But was one of the however, all that he had to fay, and could actually aliedge in vindication of Opimius, amounted only to infilling, that he had done nothing but by order of fo that his caufe was that of the Senate the Senate This, one would think, was a reafon for the itfelf. People to condemn him he was however acquitted. Perhaps the multitude had not yet recovered the terror which the recent examples of the dreadful revenge of the Senators had given them. But if Opimius extricated himfelf out of this danger, it was only to fmk under a more ignominious acHaving been fent Comcufaiion fome years after. milfioner to the court of Numidia, he fuffered himfelf to be corrupted by Jugurtha, and at his return was He palTed his old age in obformally condemned. defpifed and abhorred by the People. fcurity, equally Cicero Vol. VI.

nus

;

this

•,

:

M

i62
jg

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,
f^ii-prizing.

Confuls.
praifes.

A.R. 631-* Cicero every where, gives Ant. c. j^Qj.

him great

This

Befides the general intereft of the ariftocratical party, Cicero had a perfonal one in the He had been banifhed himfclf for caufe of Opimius. having caiifed the accomplices of Catilina to be put
to death without obferving the juridical forms. Opimius's cafe had too much refemblance to his own, not

to intereft

him much. Befides which, the judges who condemned Opimius were the Roman Knights eftablifhed in the judicature by Caius Gracchus
:

and murtherer of Caius had a great fhare in the condemnation of that unfaithful and avaricious CommilTioner. This is what authorizes Cicero to tax this fentence with injuftice. I cannot make an end of the hiftory of the Gracchi, without looking back a little upon them ; and running over their different qualities with a general The mild and infmuating eloquence of the view. one, the warm and animated of the other, both excellent in the higheft degree, was the leaft part of They both gave glorious proofs of their their merit. valour and condu6t during their fervice in war ; and were capable, according to Plutarch, of becoming equal to the greateft Captains if they had lived longer. They were equally beloved and efteemed by the troops, and lived familiarly with them, without thereby leffening the refped: due to their birth, and The glory, of their family ferved fuperior talents. only to infpire them with noble fentiments and inclinations, and an ardent defire to fupport the luftre of They had all the qualities neit by their behaviour. cefTary in government ; an air of authority tempered with mildnefs ; an happy penetration ; a great extent of views and defigns ; indefatigable application to a generous difmtereftednefs, in effed: of which, affairs kept their hands unfullied in the higheft always they
their hatred for the
-,

* Hunc (Opirnium) flagrantem invidia pi-qpter interitum C. Gracchi femper ipfe populus Romaniis periculo liberavit. Alia quafdara civem egregium iniqui judicii procelUt pervert't. Pro Sext. 140.
a

employments j

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,
;

Confuls.

163
*

and laftly, employments good, and an avov/ed abhorrence for all injuftice. l^^^ It muft be alfo owned, and their greateft enemies have confelTed jt, * that amongfb the many eftablilhments they undertook, and laws which they palTed, there were fome of real utility to the Commonwealth. Some circumftances, v/hich I could not conveniently infert in their hiftory, will fuppiy us with a proof of what I advance. For inflance, every body muft approve the ereding of pubiick granaries, by the means of which the city of Rome would always have a fufficient provifion of corn, and never be expofed to the The law paffed by Caius for calamities of famine. the fecurity of the citizens perfons againft the violence of magiftrates, and to lubjed; thofe to the greateft penalties, who ftiould caufe them to be whipt, or put to and we fee, in Aa. Adeath, was the afylum of the weak the Ads of the Apoftles, the ufe St. Paul made of it l°^\l^'' more than once, and the terror he gave thofe who had and xxii. violated it. He was alfo the author of another very^' ^^• wife law, againft fuch as by cabals and intrigues cluent. fliould caufe an innocent perfon to be condemned, ^yThe Senate itfelf was obliged to him for a law, by Domo& which their body alone were authorized to determine de Prov. the provinces of Generals and Magiftrates, and v/hich '^^^' ^' prohibited the oppofition of the Tribunes to be admitted in refpe6t to the provinces of Confuls. Plutarch tells us, that the fame Caius frequently opened excellent counfels in the Senate ; and cites an example of this kind. Fabius, Propr^tor in Spain, having fent corn, which he had levied in his province, to Rome, Caius perfuaded the Senate to fell it, and return the money to the cities of Spain that had fupplied it, and at the fame time to reprimand the Propraetor feverely, for rendering the Roman government odious to the fubjedls of the Common-!
:

a great love of pubiick A. R. 631.

wealth.
*

(Gracchorum)

confiliis, fapjentia, legibus,

multas

efie

video

ReU

publicae partes conftitutas.

Cic. inRuU.

ii.

lo,

M

2

.

What

364
A.R.631.
*

OPIiMIUS, FABIUS, Confuls. What a pity it was that fo many noble
!

qualities

j^j^

and great actions fhould be dilhonoured by a fingle Ambition rendered the Gracchi, not ufelefs, vice " An * inordinate thirft but fatal to their country. of glory, and an unbounded defire of raifmg themfelves, and lording it over others, is," fays Cicero, *' the great danger of thofe, who pique themfelves upon elevation of fentiments and greatnefs of mind, and this often makes them commit great injuflice." To what excelfes did not the Gracchi run on ? Tho* equity had been the motive of Tiberius in his fcheme of the Agrarian law, how fhall we excufe his, and his brother's inveteracy for depreffing the Senate, which was the foul of the Commonwealth, and depriving that auguft body of its moll valuable and legitimate rights ? Should not the murder of Scipio Africanus, which was the effedt of thefe divifions, and of which
Caius cannot be fuppofed innocent, infpire horror for thofe who perpetrated fo black a crime ? Accordingly, all the wifeft and moft judicious perfons have been lavifh in ftipmatizing the Gracchi with the terms of fadious, feditious, and wicked citizens: and their deaths have been confidered as punilhments juftly deLet us conclude, that there can remain no lerved. doubt, either in refped to the merits of the two brothers, or the ill ufe they made of it. However, I do not entirely approve the condu6b

of

The Senate, on this occafion, their adverfaries. degenerates in a ftrange manner from the mildnefs and wife condefcenfion, that in former times had remuch honour upon
we
it

flefted fo

in civil dilTenfions.

In this light

difcern a fanguinary violence

teftable cruelty in them, to

and dewhich the Gracchi, and

efpecially Caius, oppofe only a moderation, that can-

.

who were

Thefe two brothers, not be fufficiently commended. fo brave againft the enemy, have no courage

* Illud odiofum eft, quod in hac elatione magnitudine animi faFacillime cillime pertinacia, & nimiacupiditas principatus inndfcitur autem ad res injuftas impellitur, ut quifque ell altiffimo animo,

&

&

glorije

cupido

:

qui locus

eft

fane lubricus.

Cic. de

Offic. I. 64, 65.

to

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,
to
filed

Confuls.

165
R. 631,
"!',

blood of their fellow-citizens. The A. Gracchi defend a bad caiife in a manner the Senate ought to have employed in the defence of a good one*
the

J2I.

SECT.
occaftoned hy

II.

JVines cf the Confulfbip cf Opimius. Africa ruined hy grafooppers, and ajter'ujards mfeftcd "xith a plague^
their dtad bodies. Seniprc/iius triumphs over the Japcdes^ and Metelius over the Dalmatians.

War

againjt the Balearians^

'J'ranfalpina.

and fame Slates of Gallia Fulvius triumphs firji over the Tranfaland builds The Allcbroges and Arverni drazv the

pine Gauls.

Sextius fubjeSis the Sulluvians^

the city of Aix.

Opulence of the latter agai>:Ji them. EmbdJJy from the King of the Arverni to Domitius. The Allobroges and Arverni are defeated by Domitius. Great vinery gained by Fabius over the fame people. Perfidy cf Domitius in refpe^ to Bituitus.
people.

Roman arms

Roman province
victors.

in the Gauls.

Trophtes ereSled by the
againfi the Sccrdifci.

Their triumphs.

War

Lepidus noted by the Cenfors for living in an houfe of too great a rent. Thirty-two Senators degraded by the
Cenfors\

amoig

the refi Caffws Sabaco^ Marius^s friend.

Beginnings of Scawus.

Charadler of his

eloquence.

His probity ffpe5fed in matters of gain. He had wrote his life. His Ccnfulfbip. He is ekoied Prince Good fortune of Metelius Macedonicus. cf the Senate.
Surprizing accumulation of digm:ies in the hcufe of the Metelii. Three Vejtals fuffer ihcmfelves to be corrupted.

The oratcr Marcus Antor.ius involved in this affair, and acquitted. Te?nple erected to Venus Verticordia. Human vi^ims. Carbo ac^
They are condem'^ed.
cufcd hy L. Craffus.
Generofiiy of Craffus.

His

ti-

midty.
.

Single occafwn on

which Craffus
a gold ring.

oppofes the

Senate.

C. Cato condemned for extortions.
to

Scrupulous

exa^nefs of Pifo in refpe£i

M

3

DETACHER

[166]

DETACHED THE*

FACTS.

'

defire of relating all that concerns the Gracchi together, has obliged me to omitmany fafts, to which it is now time to return. To thefe I Ihall add the events of the years elapfed between the death of C. Gracchus and the war with Jugurtha which were nine. The whole affords only very dry and barren matter. The monuments come down to us of the fads I am going to relate, we have either from writers of fo little value, that their works deferve rather the name of Gazettes than of Hiftories, or from fome detached fragments of more eftimable authors. Freinfhemius, in his fupplement to Livy, has collefted all thefe difperfed fragments, to form the matIn this he has done liteter and feries of the hiftory. rature great fervice, and has fupplied me with a very
-,

*

ufeful aid.

Romans during

Plin. xiv.

4'

begin to relate the wars, made by the the fpace of time I propofe to run over, I am going to infert here two fmgular circumftances, entirely diilind; from any thing elfe, and which may be confidered as fads of natural hiftory. The firil is, that the year Opimius was Conful, was fmgular for wines, all fpecies of which came in it to the higheft degree of ripenefs and good perfecEvery body knows, that the Romans kept tion. but thofe of Opitheir wines during many years Some of it was in mius's Confulfhip fubfifted ages. being in Pliny's time, almoft two hundred years after but it was of the confiftence of honey, it was made bitter, that it was impoffible to drink it, withfo and with In conit mixing a great quantity of water. out to ufed only little of it was was drank. It fequence was it which flavour to other with wines, give a It is eafy to judge mixed in very fmall portions. F. Harthat the price of it was become excefTive,
Before
I
: :

Editor's.

* All this part of the hiftory to the war with Jugurtha, is the Mr. RoUin had omitted the fads contained in it, no doubt with defign to recur to them,

douia

DETACHED
doiiin deduces

FACTS.

i^%

from the text of Pliny, (which to me feems very obfcure) that an hundred and fixty years after the Confullhip of Opimius, this wine was fold for about four pounds ten fhillings an ounce. The other event is fome years prior to this, and of In the Confullhip of M. Fula quite different kind. vius Flaccus, the 627th year of Rome, a dreadful multitude of graflioppers overfpread all Africa, that is, what we now call the coafts of Barbary, and did not only eat up the corn in the blade, herbage, and And leaves of trees, but even the bark and wood. this was but the leail part of the evil which the counA great wind carried them try fuftained from them. But the all into the fea, v/here they were drowned. waves driving their dead bodies upon the coails, immenfe heaps of them accumulated, which infedled the air to fuch a degree, that a peftilence enfued Orof. v, amongft men and bealls. I do not know, whether "* Orofus is to be believed on this head. But that writer alTures us, eight hundred thoufand men perifhed in the kingdom of Micipfa, or Numidia, and two hundred thoufand in the province of Carthage. He adds, that an army of thirty thoufand men, which . the Romans kept in Utica for the defence of the province, were deftroyed hj the contagion, fo that not a and that on one day fifteen hunfingle man furvived dred dead bodies were carried out through one of the ^iv. Eplt. I fear there is fome exaggeration gates of that city. j^jq^j^^ But that there was a peftilence ocin this account. cafioned by the dead bodies of graflioppers is certain, and fufRces to fliew, that when it is the will of God to punifh mankind, the leaft and vilell infe6ts may become dreadful fcourges. Livy, in fome parts of his hiftory, mentions great havock caufed by clouds of graflioppers ; and he even tells us, that in the year 579, a Praetor was fent into Apulia to afiemble the country people, to make war upon this new kind of enemies. But the example, which I have related here, is the moft extraordinary we find in the hiftory of any times..
:

M

4

:^

AR

S.

1^8

WARS:

WARS.
Amongft
confiderable.
Appian.
^^y^''

the wars of v/hich I

am now

to fpeak,
little

tliofe againft rhe

Japodes and Dalmatians were

The Japodes were a nation mixed with Illyrians and Gauls, who inhabited .almofl the fame, now called Croatia, between the Sava and the Adriaticlc Sea,. Thefe people having offended the Romans by incurfions and ravages made upon the lands of the Com^^ monwealth bordering upon them, were attacked and conquered in one campaign by the Confui C. Sempronius Tuditanus, the 623d year of Rome. The viftor was granted the honour of a triumph. That honour cofl L, Csecilius Metellus ftill lefs to
be true, as Appian tells us, that the Metellus were only having marched an army into the country of the Dalmatians, againft whom he had caufed war to be declared without any juft caufe, and having paiTed the winter without acting at * Salona, into which he had been received as a The LXII. epitome of Livy fays, neverthe^^ friend. However that he fubjefteu the Dalmatians. lefs, having Metellus, been Conwere, Cscilius that L. over the Dalmatians in triumphed fui in 632, 634, and afliimed the firname of Dalmaticus. Q^ Metellus, his near relation, had fome years before fet him the example of feeking eafy conquefts, by which a name might be acquired without much He had attacked danger, or much regard to juftice. the Baleares, a people hitherto almoft favages, and wlio had never appeared in wars, but as auxiliaries to
acquire, if
exploits
it

of

this

Diod.

Sic.

strabfl.
iii.

the Carthaginians. Xhe Baleares inhabited the two iflands we now call Majorca and Minorca. As they lived almoft with all

A

city

now

in ruins,

which

aie

ftiewn

at four
^

miles from

Spolatro.

the

WAR
under the rocks, or holes
in

S.

1^9

the fiinplicity of grofs nature, they had undoubtedly no ambition to make war with the Romans. Caves

the earth, which they
for habitations.

dug

themfelves, ferved

them

They

were almoft naked, except that during the cold'nefs of winter they covered themfelves with fheepThey found in their country, of which the Ikins. except only foil is 'fertile, the neceffaries of life ; wine, of which they were very greedy. Accordingly, fuch of them, as had ferved in the Carthaginian
armies, did not
fail

at their return to lay

out

all

the
al-

money they had

left in

wine.

For they were not
their country
j

lowed to bring that money into

the

ufe of it being prohibited in both iQands. They faid, 5s Diodorus tells us, that Geryon's riches had of old

been fatal to him, in drawing Hercules upon him as an enemy and that, taught by that example, they had from the moft remote antiquity always apprehended introducing a metal amongft them, capable of exciting the avidity of other nations, and thereby dangerous to their repofe.
:

famous for their dexterity in and they took a certain method for attaining it. They were exercifed in it from their infancy and m.others did not put bread into their children's hands, but made them beat it dowVi with
are particularly
:

They

the ufe of the fling

:

They united force with this addrefs, and the befb tempered arms were fcarce proof againfl: the ftones they difcharged. When they went to battle, they carried three flings with them of unequal
their flings.

length, according to the different diftances, at

which

they might have occafion to ufe them againfl: the

enemy. This people were pacific, as we have faid. However, fome individuals having leagued themfelves
with the pirates that infefl:ed the feas, nothing more was wanting to give Metellus a pretext, who was Conful the 629th year of Rome, for carrying the war into their country. They were delirous to oppofe the defcent of the Roman army. But the Conful

I70
ful

WARS.
rendered their flings ufelefs, by placing fldnS upon the fides of his decks, which deadened the As foon as the Roman troops landed, they blows.
fled,

that

it

and difperfed on all fides was more difficult to

in

the country, fo

find,

than

defeat,

them.

To
lonies,

fecure his conqueft, Mctellus planted two coPalma and Pollentia, the one at the eaft, and

the other at the weft. He triumphed in 6^i, and afthe firname of Balearicus. The family of the Metelli feem to have been very fond of thefe pompous firnames. The father of him I am now fpeaking of,

fumed

had alTumed that of Macedonicus, though what he had done in Macedonia was incomparably fhort of the conqueft of that kingdom by P.- i^milius, who however took no new firname on that account. We fee here the fon and nephew of Macedonicus, who adorn themfelves with the titles of Balearicus and Dalmaticus. We fhall foon fee in the fame family thofe of Numidicus, Creticus, &c. We fee from the truth of Livy's obfervation, that the example of the firft
for the vanity of thofe adorn itfelf with the like titles, without having deferved them like him. The war againft fome ftates of Tranfalpine Gaul was more confiderable than thofe of which I have fpoke hitherto, and incurred by juftercaufes. The Romans had not yet made any conqueft in Gaul beyond the Alps. They had before palTed thofe mountains^ in the 598th year of Rome. But this expedition, which we have related in its place, had no other confequence than to fecure the tranquility of the people of MafTylia, [MarfeillesJ at whofe requeft it had been undertaken, againft the incurfions and infults of their neighbours. It was again at the requeft of the fame MalTilians that the Romans, at the time of which we are fpeaking, paffed the Alps. But they did not content themfelves with having aided their allies. They eftablifi^d a iaftiag fettlement in the Gauls, aud

Scipio Africanus

made way

who came

after,

to

C^CILIUS, QUINTIUS,
and began
try,

Confuls.

171

to

form

a province, or

conquered coun-

there.

M. Plautius Hyps^us. M. FULVIUS FlaCCUS.
Gaul, in whofe -f had been built, had always confidered the augmentation of that foreign colony with a jealous eye. The Maffilians, harrafTed and fatigued by them, had recourfe this year to the protection of the Romans. Rome had then Fulvius for Conful, the friend of Caius, a turbulent and feditious man, whofe unfortunate end we have related. The Senate was very glad to remove a fadious Conful ; and Fulvius no lefs to have an occafion of acquiring a triten"itory Maffilia

A.R.

627,

Ant. C.
la^.

The

* Salhivians, a people of

umph.
as that
a,q;ainfc

To

his

great fatisfaftion therefore, as well

of the Senate, he was charged with the war
the Salluvians.
A.R.SzSe
Ant, C,
134.,

d

C. CaSSIUS LoNGINUS.
L. bEXTIUS LaLVINUS.

Gaul were not very however obtained the honour of a triumph either through the favour of the People, or becaufe the Senate itfelf believed a triumph over the Tranfalpine Gauls an happy prefage. C. Sextius, Conful of this year, was fent to relieve him. But he did not fet out till towards the end of his Confulfhip,
exploits of Fulvius in

The

confiderable.

He

or the beginning of next year in quality of Proconful.

Q. CvECiLius Metellus. />• T. QuiNTIUS FlaMININUS.
Sextius finding the war rather juft began, than advanced, by Fulvius, carried it on with vi-

A. R.

629,

Ant. C.
1*3*

much

* This people is called Salyi, Salvii, and Salluvii. Some authors make this people Ligurians by origin were fettled in Gaul.
•f-

:

but they

gour.

,^2 A.R.

6*9-

'^"^' ^'

gour. them, and at length a confiderable viftory near the place where the city of Aix now ftands. This General, by
a wife moderation, highly necelTary in

FANNIUS, DOMITIUS, Confuls. He gained feveral fmall advantages over

new conquefts,

Diod. ap.
^^^^^'

had the addrefs to unite lenity with force and the terDiodorus relates, that at the time he ror of arms. had ordered the inhabitants of a city of the enemv to be fold, which he had taken, one Crato, who was in chains, amongft the reft, came to him, and told him, he had always been a friend of the Romans, and on account of his attachment to their interefts had fufSexfered much ill treatment from his countrymen. tius, on being affured of the truth of the fad, not only gave Crato and all his family liberty, but fuffered him to deliver nine hundred prifoners at his choice from flavery. The Froconful took up his winter-quarters in the place where he had fought the battle ; and as the country was good, and abounded with fprings, of which fome were hot, he built a city there, which from thofe waters, and the name of its founder, was This is now the city of Aix, called AqusE Sexti^. Provence. the capital of He alfo cleared all the coaft from Marfeilles to Italy, by driving away the Barbarians to a thoufand or fifteen hundred paces from the fea and he gave the whole extent of thofe coafts to the MafTiUans, The following year he returned to Rome, and triumphed, having been fucceeded by Cn. Domitius, of whom we fhall now fpeak.
:

A.R.

63**

C. Fannius.

122,

Cn. Domitius Ahenobarus.

were fubjefled, but the war was not and no doubt the appre^ over fate, engaging other powerful like the of henfion neighbouring ftates in their caufe and Domitius on arriving in Gaul, found more enemies than Sextius had overcome. Teutomalius, the King of the Sal-.

The
;

Salluvii

their

misfortune,

•,

luvii^j

173 country of the Allobroges, ^^'^'o. * "^^^ who openly took upon them his defence and Bituitus, King of the Arverni, who had given refuge in his dominions to many of the principal perfons of the conquered nation, fent even Ambafladors to Domitius
luvii,

FANNIUS, DOMITIUS,
retired into the

Confuls.

had

:

to

demand

their re-eftablifhment.

ftates united formed a very confiderable power. The Allobroges inhabited the whole country between the Rhone and the Ifara, as far as the lake of Geneva and the Arverni not only poffefled Auvergne, but, if we believe Strabo, almoft the whole strab.l.ii, fouthern part of Gaul from the Rhone to the Py- P- *9»The opulence of the Pofidon. renees, and even to the ocean. lalt was in proportion to the extent of their territory ; ^"^ and it is faid of Luerius their King, the father of Bi- y^ c^^'^. tuitus, who then reigned, that to Ihew his riches, and gain the favour of the multitude, he crofTed a large plain in a chariot, throwing on all fides pieces of gold and filver, which thoufands of Gauls gathered, as they followed him. It is added, that being defirous to give a feaft, he formed an inclofure of fifteen hundred paces fquare, in which he caufed tuns to be placed full of coflly liquor, and fo prodigious a quantity of provifions of all kinds, that during feveral days, as many as pleafed were entertained at table, without the leaft interruption of the feaft. have faid before, that Bituitus fent an embafly App. ap. '^^to Domitius. It was magnificent, but of a fingular ^JJ^^kind, that amazed the Romans. The Ambaflfador fuperbly dreft, and attended by a numerous train, had alfo a great pack of dogs with him, and one of thofe Gaulilli poets, called Bards, whofe employment was in his verfes and fongs to celebrate the glory of This the King, the Nation, and the Ambafiador. embaflly was ineffe6lual, and probably ferved only to inflame the divifion on both fides. A new fubje6t of war was fupplied by the JEdui, who inhabited the country between the Saone and the Loire, and whofe principal cities were thofe now Thefe called Autun, Chaalons, Macon, and Nevers. people

Thofe two

:

We

174
A. R.
6;o.

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,
^'

Confuls.

^^'

people were the firft of Tranfalpine Gaul, that fought They deemed it a great the alliance of the Romans. honour to be termed their Brothers ; a title which was often given them in the decrees of the Senate. The Arverni and they had been very warm rivals in all times, concerning the firft rank and principal power At the time of which we are fpeaking, the in Gaul. JEdui, attacked on one fide by the AUobroges, and on the other by the Arverni, had recourfe to Domitius, who heard them favourably. Accordingly everything was prepared for the war.

A.R.631.
Ant. C.
xii.

L. Opimius.

Q^Fabius Maximus.

The AUobroges and Arverni fpared the Roman General the pains of marching in queft of them : they advanced againft him, and incamped at the confluence of the Sorgue and the Rhone, a little above Avignon. The battle was fought there. The Romans were victorious but they were principally indebted for their fuccefs to their elephants, whofe llrange and unufual form terrified both the horfes and The fmell of the elephants, infupporttheir riders. able to horfes, contributed undoubtedly to this difOrofus tells us, that twenty thoufand reorder. mained on the fpot ; and three thoufand were taken
:

prifoners.

people.

So great a defeat did not difcourage the two allied They made new effbrts and when the Conful Q^ Fabius arrived in Gaul, the AUobroges and Arverni fuftained by the Rutheni (people of Rouergue) marched againft him with an army of two hundred The Conful had only thirty thouthoufand men. fand and Bituitus defpifed the fmall number of the Romans fo much, that he faid they were not a match The event ftiews on this for the dogs in his army.
: :

occafion, as
titude.

as many others, how much adorder vantage good and difcipline have over mul-

well

The

175 A.R.ejw, the Ifara of The armies met near the confluence " and the Rhone. The accounts come down to us, ^^'^^ teach us little in refped: to the circumftances of this The Gauls did not fuftain the firft great a(^ion. charge of the Romans, if it be true, as we find it in hiftorical monuments, that they loft at leaft an hundred and twenty thoufand men in it, and that only The fifteen were killed on the fide of the Romans. with of General the fundions Conful difcharged amazing good condud: in this battle, though he was actually fick of an ague, or, according to others, ftill weak from a wound he had received fome time before. He caufed himifelf to be carried in a chair from rank to rank or, when it was neceffary to be fet down, fupported under the arms, he gave his orIt ders, and animated his foldiers to do their duty. either that enemy is to be prefumed, he attacked the whilft they v/ere paffing the Rhone, or immediately after, without giving them time to draw up and form their line. A vigorous charge prefently put this army into confufion, which its multitude, far from being But the flight an advantage, ferved but to augment. was exceedingly difficult. The Rhone was to be pafi!ed over two bridges, one of which had been built in hafte with boats, and with little folidity. It broke under the weight of the multitude that fled, and thereby occafioned the lofs of an infinite number of Gauls, who were drowned in that river, which every body knows is excellively rapid. Some undoubtedly were prefixed hard, and pufhed into the river. Many more periflied in the water than by the fwords of the vidors. This great vic5tory was gained by the Romans on the 10th of Auguft and the Conful, according to Pliny, even gained in it the reco- Plin. vu. very of his health, and was rid of his fever from the 5°* day of battle. The Gauls cruflied by fo great a blow, refolved to aflc peace. Nothing remained, but to know to which of the two Roman Generals to apply for Domitius was ftill in the province. Reafon was for preferring yal- Max,
•,

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,

Confuls.

:

:

Fabius,'"'

'

176
A. R.
631.

OPIMIUS, FABIUS,
Fabius,

Confuls.

^^^' ^'

Conlul, and whofe viftory was .far more glorious than that of Domitius. They did fo: but Domitius, a proud and haughty man, revenged himfelf for it upon Bituitus, by a black treachery. He engaged that Prince to come to his camp under the pretext of an interview ; and when he had him in his power, he caufed him to be laden with chains, and fent him to Rome. The Senate could not approve fo criminal an z£t ; but would not lofe the advantage of an ufeful perfidy fo much did what politicians call Reafons of State, prevail at that time in the Roman Bituitus Senate over the rules of honour and juftice. was kept prifonen It was alfo decreed, that his fon Cogentatius fhould be taken, and brought to Rome.
:

who Was

Diod. ap

^^^\k
^* ^
'

Cjef. de 3eU. Gail,
*'

kind of half-juftice was however done that young After great care had been taken in his education, he was fent back to the kingdom of his forefathers, where he faithfully cultivated the amity he had fworn to the Romans. It appears, that the conquered ftates were differently treated by the Romans. The Allobroges were made fiibjedts of the Commonwealth. As to the Arverni and Rutheni, Cxfar tells us, that the Roman People pardoned them, did not reduce them into a province, and impofed no tribute upon them. Henc& it is probable, that the Roman province in the Gauls at firft included only the countries of the Salluvii and Allobroges. The following years do not afford any more confiderable events though it is not unlikely, but that the Confuls of thofe years were fent into Gaul, and perhaps extended the Roman province It is however along the fea as far as the Pyrenees. certain, that three years after the viftories we have juft related, the Conful Q^ Marcius founded the colony of Narbonne, to which he gave his name, Narbo cannot better exprefs the defign of this Marcius.
Prii^ce.
•,

A

We

lettlement than in Cicero's terms,

who

calls

Narbonne ^

* Narbo Marcius Golonia noftrorum civium, fpecula populi Romani, ac propugnaculum iftis ipfis nationibus oppolltum & objeitum. Pro Fpnt. n. 3.

the

WAR
wark
I

WITH THE

SCORDISCL
People, and their bul-

177]

the watch-tower of the

Roman

againfl: the Gaulilli nations.

in

return to Domitius and Fabius, who continued A. R. 63^. Gaul part of the year 632. They both eredted ^^^•^*

trophies, adorned with the fpoils of the enemy, on the fields of battle, where they had defeated them.

This was a novelty to the Romans, who, as an hiftorian * obferves,' never infulted the ftates they fubjedled with fuch monuments. Pompey alfo ereded a trophy on the Pyrenees, after having quieted Spain, and was blamed for it. It has been farther remarked,
as an inilance

of pride and arrogance

in Dotnitius,

upon an This kind of circumftances, which denote charaders, ought not to be omitted in an hiitory intended to promote the knowledge of men. On their return to Rome, both Fabius and Domitius obtained triumphs. That of Fabius was both Bituitus was the the firll and the moll fplendid. principal ornament of it. He appeared in it fitting in the fame filver chariot he had ufed oij the day of battle, and with his arms painted with different colours. In confequence of his viftory, Fabius aflumed the name of AUobrogicus, and thereby augmented the glory- of the houfe of Fabia, of which he had been the difgrace by his ill condudt in his youth. An uncommon example but which proves hov/ever, that, though the early part of life paft in debauchery gives reafon to apprehend the fame for all the reft of it, it does not however determine that abfolutely as a neceiTary confequence. Fabius AUobrogicus was the fon of Q^ Fabius, Scipio's eldeft brother, and confequently the grandfon of Paulus ^milius. It remains for me to fpeak of the war againll the Juflin. ^^•"^'" ^' Scordifci, a f Gauliih nation by origin, but tranfthat he

made

the tour of the province riding

elephant.

!

*

Nunquam
I

populus
iii.
j

Romanus

hoftibus domitis vi6loriam

fuam ex-

pi-obavit.

Flor.

2.

f

follow Juftin

but do not pretend to warrant the truth of what

he advances.

Vol. VI.

N

planted

178
*

WAR

WITH THE SCORDISCI.

A.R.63a. planted to the
j2Q^

banks of the Danube, Their forehad accompanied Brennus in' plundering the temple of Delphi. After the horrid difafter which ruined that army, as has been related elfewhere, the remains of it difperfed into different countries. Fart of it fettled about the confluence of the Danube and the Save, that is to fay, in the country where Belgrade now flands, and took the name of Scordilci. Their natural ferocity, increafed by the rigour of the climate they inhabited, and by their commerce with the barbarous nations around them, carried them on to a6ls of cruelty, which the Roman FIor.in.4. j-jj£5;Qj-J3j^s cannot mention without horror. They tell us, that they facrificed human vidtims to Bellona and Mars, drank out of the fkuHs of their enemies, (this was cuftomary with the Gauls) deftroyed their prifoners with fire, or ftifled them with fmoke ; and laftly, which can hardly be told without trembling, ripped up women with child, and deflroyed at once both mothers and the fruit of their wombs. The occafion of the war between the Romans and thefe Barbarians is not known but C. Cato, the firft Conful who commanded againft the Scordifci, was entirely defeated the 638 th year of Rome. He fuffered himfelf to be drawn on by the enemy, who united ilratagem with force, into forefts and mountains, where the Roman army was entirely deftroyed. The viftors fpread like a torrent into the provinces of the Commonwealth, as far as Dalmatia and the Adriatic fea. That barrier ftopped them but in rage and refathers in antient times
:

:

venge,

if

we may

believe

Florus, they difcharged

their darts againft the waves, that

oppofed an invinci-

ble obftacle to their progrefs.

The Roman
more fortunate
dius,

M.

who fucceeded Cato were and hiftory mentions three, T. DiLivius Drufus, and M. Minucius, who
Generals
:

gained feveral vi6lories over the Scordifci, after whicli little is faid of this nation.

AFFAIRS

Map of the Romaic
For 31'' Rollins
Jiy

Province in
rutUimie^

Gjl

ul

,

Roman

'tiii\iQTY,

h/MrC&EVlER.

Air DIAnvtllE

Oevfr(^/ier to the K.cfFrance, Jj.-f-^

JiW.jMlf/e"j"i

DETACHED
AFFAIRS
Two
The
Cenforjfhips

FACTS.
and
other

1^9

of the

CITY,

DETACHED
firft

FACTS.
617-

give us feme great examples A. R.

of feverity.
Cenfors Cn. Servilius Gsepio, and L. Caflius M. ^milius Lepidus before their tribunal, as guilty of luxury and profufion, for paying fix thoufand fefterces a year (about 35I. flerling) for Velleius Parerculus, who rethe houfe he lived in. " In * thefe days, lates the fa6b, adds this reflexion were to pay fo little for an habitation, if any of us So fudden he would fcarce be owned as a Senator. is the fall from good to bad, from bad to depravity, and from depravity to the greatefl excefles." The fame Lepidus had alfo at the fame time, or not long before, another affair as Angular upon his hands. He Val. Max. was accufed before the People, and fined, for having ^"'- *• built a country-houfe too high at fome diftance from

Longinus, cited

:

Rome.
All remedies were too weak againft the corruption A.R. of manners, which continually gained ground and ten years after the time of which I have jufl fpoke, Metellus Dalmaticus and Domitius Ahenobarbus being Cenfors, degraded thirty-two Senators to find fo many perfons worthy of being noted in that illuftrious body, was a thing without example. Amongft thefe degraded Senators was one of Confular dignity, C. Licinius Geta, who was Cenfor himfelf fometimc after j whether he had retrieved his reputation by a change of condudV, or perhaps the very vices that had drawn that difgrace upon him, ferved to recommend him to a great number of citizens, who might
: :

637.

*

At nunc

fi

quis tanti habitat, vix ut Senator agnofcitur.
ii.

Adeo
[

rtiature a reftis in vitia, a vitiis in prava, a pravis in praecipitiu

er-

venitur.

Vell,

lo.

,8o

DETACHED

FACTS,

have good reafon to defire to have a Cenfor perfonall/ interefted in not carrying feverity too far. Another note of infamy, inflifted by the fame Cenfors, Metellus and Domitius, fell by reflexion upon Marius, then Praetor, but ftrll far from the greatnefs^ and glory to which he afterwards attained. It was pretended, that to raife himfelf to the Prsetorfhip, he had nfed faife fiiffrages and what authorized this fufpicion v/as, that a flave of Caffius Sabaco, the intimate friend of Marius, had been feen amongft thofe who voted. The Prsetor eled was accufed in form, and his judges interrogated Caflius, who replied, that being very dry, he had made his flave bring him a The afglafs of water, who immediately withdrew. but the Cenfair went no farther before the judges fors thought that Caflius deferved to be noted, either for his intemperance, if he had fpoke the truth, or for perjury, if otherwife ; and degraded him from the rank of a Senator. The fame year M. Scaurus was Conful, an illufl:ri'ous perfon, whom we fliall have occafion to mention
: :

For that reafon I take the frequently in the fequel. introduce to him. He was a Patrioccafion prelent i^milia, branch fallen inta houfe but of a cian, of the that father been repoverty, his had fuch extreme dealing himfelf by ia charcoal. duced to maintain He himfelf vv^as fometimes in fufpence whether he Ihould not take up the profefllon of a banker. But being confcious of merit, he threw himfelf in the way of honours, and refoived to labour with courage to overcome ill fortune, and to renew the almofl: cxtin6b He applied himfelf to the fl:udy glory of his name. of eloquence, and pleaded very much. The character
of
his eloquence fuited that of his manners: it was have the grave, auiiere, and void of ornaments. following picture of it from the hands of Cicero.

We

" The

* eloquence of Scaurus, a wife
hominis
;

and upright

* In Scauri oratione, fapieiitis

Sc re6ii,

r.aturaiis qiiKcUin inerat auctoritas

non

gravitas fumma, ut caufam, fed ut idtimo'-

&

man.

DETACHED
man, had
ral

FACTS.

,

iBi

in

it
-,

a fingular gravity, and kind of natufo that in

pleading for a client, he Teemed rather a witnefs than an advocate. This manner of fpeaking was thought not fo proper for the but for giving opinions in bar and before the people the Senate, of which he was long the chief and leadFor it not only implied ing man, it was admirable. prudence, but what is more important, it carried with it an air of truth, highly adapted to engaging conauthority
:

It appears, that he very early acquired Auft. de the great authority in the Senate, of which Cicero ^"'•i^'i^^^"' fpeaks as many years before he was Conful, it is faid,

fidence."

•,

that the decree

which armed Opimius againlt C. Gracit is

chus, was palTed by his advice.

As
in a

to probity,

certain he

had the outiide of

it

Cicero praifes him every where as a man truly virtuous but we muft own that other authors, as Salluil and Pliny, are not quite fo favourable to him upon this head, and accufe him of not being over nice in the means of enriching himfelf. His reputation was not clear, efpecially in refpedl to the gold of Jugurtha. fhall fpeak of it in the fcquel. It may alfo be looked upon as another blot in his life, to have been accufed of caballing by P. Rutilius, the moft worthy man of Rome in his times if the perfonal intereft of Rutilius in that profecution had not diminifhed the v/eight and authority of his accufation. They demanded the Confuifhip at the fame time, and the preference having been given to Scaurus, it may be believed that animofity and revenge magnified things in the eyes of Rutilius. What is uncommon in this, was, that Scaurus having been acquitted, accufed Rutilius in his turn of the fame crime. But what may be thought more for the ho-

fupreme degree.

:

We

.

•,

Hoc dicendi genus ad dicere putares, quum pro reo dlceret. patrocinia mediocriter aptum videbatur: ad Senatoriam vero iententiam, cujus erat ille priuceps, vel maximc,, Signilicabat enini, nop. prudentiam folum, fed, quod maxime re:n continebat, fidem, Cic. Brute, III, HZ.
nium
I

N

3

Aour

i82

DETACHED

FACTS.

nour of both, and perhaps moft true, is, that both were wrong in their accufations. For the reft Scaurus, full of a noble confidence in himfelf, and as well as Cato major, between whom and him there is a great fimilitude of charadlcr, * not being in the leaft inclined to abate any thipg of the praife he might defervc, wrote his own life in three Tacitus obferves, that neither he, nor books and Rutilius, who did the fame, were either cenfured,
:

-f-

or difbelieved. Scaurus did not negled the art military, and made fome campaigns in his youth. When he was ^dile,
entirely to the fundlions of his charge, that regarded the government of the city j and in the games which he was to give the People, he did not pique himfelf upon a trivial magnificence, which was equally ip.compatible with the fmallnefs of

he applied himfelf

his fortune

and

his natural difpofition.

His PrastorI

fhip

is

entirely

unknown

;

and

as to his Confuliliip,

we have fome detached
going

circumftances, v/hich

am

to relate.

v^rith haughtiwho was Prastor, Decius, having conand P. nefs as he paffed by, Scaurus commanded tinued fitting him to rife, ordered his robe Prastexta to be torn, and his curule chair to be broken in pieces, and prohibited all peifons whatfoever to appear before his tri:

He

fuftained the rights of his dignity

bunal.

Frontin.
btrav.iu 4-

He had Gaul for his province, and gained fome advantages over people little known, which however acquired him the honour of a triumph. But the exact difcipline which he caufed to be obferved in his army it was fo ilridt, that, as he is much more eftimable tclls US himfelf, a fruit-tree, which happened to be
:

within his camp,
that the next day,

was

fo fecure

from the

foldiers,
it

when the army decamped,

had

fane tktrc6Vator laudum fuarum. Ljv. xxr.iv. 15. Plerique I'uam ipii vit.iGi narrare fiduciam potiiir. moiLjm, qiirm arrogniitiam arbitrati Cunt ; neque id Rutilio ic Scauro citra .fidejn, aut obtrectationi fuit. Tacit. Agric. n, 1,

Haud

•f

not

DETACHED

EACT

S.

iS^

not loft one of the fruit, wkh which it was laden the night before. As the war did not engrofs him during the whole campaign, he employed the leifure of his troops in ufeful works, and caufed the marflies to be drained, which the inundations of the Po had formed in the countries of Placentia and Parma. For this purpofe he caufed vents to be opened, and canals of luificient depth cut to carry off the water from the lands overflowed before. Scaurus, during his Confulfhip, was elected Prince of the Senate by the Cenfors Metellus and Domitius, in the room of Q^ Metellus Macedonicus, who died

fometime before.

Many

writers,

in

emulation of each

otiier,

have

Vel.

I.

u.

good fortune of this Metellus MaceIf we were to trace back the hiftories of all donicus. ages, and conditions of the world, fays Velnations,
celebrated the
fliould fcarce find a fingle perfon to be compared for good fortune with Metellus, If weconfider him as a publick perfon, v/e fee him

leius

Paterculus,

we

adorned with triumph, and the mod exalted dignities ; we fee him enjoy, during a long life, the iirfl: rank amongft his countrymen, and maintain warm contells in refpect to the public affairs, without the leaft biemilh of his reputation. As a private pcrlbn, never was father of a family more happy. He had four fons, all of whom he faw arrive at tlie age of maturity, and at his death had the confolation to leave all of them alive, and in the higheft dignities. His bier Vv^as carried by his four fons, of whom one had been Conful, and was a6lua]ly Cenfor ; the fecond had alfo been Conful ; the third was then Conful; and the fourth had been Prsstor, and was raifed to the Confulfhip two years after. Add to thefe his fons-in-law (for he had three daughters, all honourably maiTied, and had borne him grandfons) two of '* Is this dying," cries thele were Confuls afterwards.
the hiflorian,

" or

^

quitting this

A

thought of

little

with happinefs ?" folidity, a frivolous diflindion with 4
life

N

i84

DET ACHED FACTS.
with men, who having no certainty of another life, could fee nothing in death, but the annihilation of It is to thofe, who have eternal glory all felicity. in view, that death is really an happy removal from life, according to the force of the word migrare^ ufed by Patercuius. Hoc eji nimirum magis feliciter de vita
migrare^

Plin. vii.

•H-

quam mori. This good fortune itfelf, which Metellus enjoyed during his life, was not fo compleat as Velleius reand Pliny, who fometimes carries his prefents it rnifanthropy too far, is not wrong, when he obferves upon the fubje<ft in queilion, that two things made a
:

The confiderable breach in this fuppofed felicity. one is the unworthy and cruel adventure by which he
was very near perifhing through the fury of the Tribune Atinius: the other, his having been the enemy of the great Scipio Africanus. And might we not add, the extreme mortification he experienced, when Q^ Pompeius, his enemy, was elefted to fucceed him, and the n-arrownefs of ipirit and injuilice of the refentment he expreffed upon that cccafion ? This laft fact proves both tl^at his happinefs was neither without
•cloud, nor his virtue
-

without

ftain.

It may however be faid, that the good fortune of Metellus Macedonicus was indeed exceedingly fingular and that good fortune feems to have extended For in the fpace of twelve itfelf to his whole fam.ily. ^'<ears we Mnd more than twelve Confuhhips, Cenforand in the year ihips, or Triumphs of the Metelli 630, two Metelli, brothers and both fons of Mace-r iloni'cus, triumphed on one day, the one over Mace^ This amazing donia, and the other over Sardinia. immber of Conlbiniips in one and the fame houfe,
:
:

occdfioncd the poet Nsevius to fay
fjiKt Ccnfuks
^'

:

Fato Metelli

Roma
makes

:

"-^

It is fate,

it

is

deftiny, that
:"

V/ords that of-r fended the family, as if extolling their good fortune) were depreciating their merit.. A*K. 638.- The O'^b'th year of Rome gives us an example of corruption amongft. the.veltals,; never heard. of befor^i
the Metelli Confuls at
lr\

Rome

DETACHED
their

FACTS.
:

185

In the preceding times it had very feldom happened and the day of that a veftal had been found faulty

punifhment was a day of "univerfal mourning at Rotr.e. But this year, of the fix, which they were in all, three were proved criminal, two of which had even almoft publickly abandoned themfelves to diiToThis unhappy event was believed lute pra6lices-. to have been foretold by the misfortune of a young maid, v/ho, being on horfeback with her father, was killed by thunder, and her body thrown one way, and the horfe another. The Augurs having been confulted upon this accident, replied, as is faid, that this pretended prodigy threatened the vcftals, and the order of the Knights, with great infamy. Perhaps thofe Augurs had fome fufpicion of what became publick foon after. But let the predidion be as it will, the fad is as follows. One L. But^tius Barrus, a Rom.an Knight, a profeffed debauchee, weary of too eafy conquefts, was defirous to exalt the guft of his infamous pleafures by the charm of difficulty and danger. He therefore attacked a veftal, called Emilia and when he had
:

fucceedcd in feducing her, the contagion foon fpread, and two other veftals, Licinia and Marcia, followed their companion's example. There was however this difference, that Marcia erttered into an intrigue only with one ; whereas Emilia and Licinia admitted a multitude of gallants ; becaufe when they had once began to extend their criminal amours, and faw that their fecret took air, they engaged all thofe to filence, whom they apprehended as v/itnefTes, by making them
.accomplices.

Ail this infamous myftery, after having been long concealed, was at length brought to light by a flave, whofe mafter was one of the guilty. This flave was one of the confidents, and liberty, with many other rewards, had been promifed him. As he faw they did not keep their word, he went and difcovered the whole. The college of Pontiffs, which by the conititution

of

Numa

were judges of

this

affair,

a<5ted

with

ig5

DETACHED

FACTS.

with great indulgence. Only j^milia was condemned ; a favourable fentence was pafTed upon Marcia and Licinia, for which they were probably indebted, the

one to her being lefs criminal, the other to the eloquence of the famous L. CrafTus, her relation, who being then twenty-feven years of age, defended her in an oration, of which Cicero fpeaks with praife. But the affair did not reil there. The whole People cried out againft this lenity of the Pontiffs on an occafion wherein the crime was equally evident and odious ; and the Tribune Sex. Peduceus having put himfeif at the head of thofe who complained of the
fentence, caufed an extraordinary commiffion to be voted by the People, for re-hearing the caufe of Marcia and JLicinia, and at the head of that commiffion placed L. Caffius, who for that purpofe was created Prastor a fecond time, after having been Conful and He was a perfon of rigid virtue and inflexiCenfor. ble feverity ; and one, as * Cicero obferves, who had rendered himfeif agreeable to the people, not by politenefs and popular behaviour, but by an aufterity of manners, which acquired him refpeft. He entirely anfwered the expedation of thofe who had chofen him j for he not only condemned the two veftals, but Val. Max. a great number of others, fo that his tribunal was i^j- 1' called the rock of the accufed jcopulus reorum.
:

It however is not probable, that a perfon fo much praifed for his virtue, iliould confound innocence with Dloapud g^"^t ; and that, according to Dio's expreffion, not vaipf. only thofe who were convifted, but all that were acp. 626. The example of M. Antocufed, were punifhed.

nius, the illuftrious orator, of whom we fhall frequently have occafion to fpeak in the fequel, is a proof, that to be accufed did. not fuffice for being reputed a criminal. It is true, he behaved with fuch courage and refolution, as highly prejudiced his judgment in favour of his innocence.
*

Homo, non

ij'oeralitate,

nt

alii,

fed ipfb

triftitia 5r TevcrJLate
^

po-

puijyis.

Cic. Brut. 97.

'

He

;

DETACHED
was
a(5tually

FACTS.

1S7

Qusflor, and having Afia for his He province, was upon the point of fetting out from BrundifiurR, when he Vv^as informed, that he was acThere v;as a law to exempt cufed before L. Caffius. were abfent on the fervice profecution who from thofe But M. Antonius would Commonwealth. of the not take the advantage of it, and returned from Brundifium to Rome to appear for himfelf, and anfwer the His trial came on : accufations brought againil him. and one circumftance rendered the offence very dilB-

The profecutors demanded, who they pretended had carried a torch before him in the night, when he went to the criminal rendezvous, Ihould be delivered up to
cult for the accufed.
that a Have,

them, in order to his being put to the queftion. This Have was very young and Antonius was in extreme apprehenfions, both from the weaknefs of his years, and the violence of torments. But the flave himfelf exhorted his mafler to deliver him up without fear affuring him, that his fidelity was proof againft the moft cruel infli6lions. He kept his word i and the queftion, which was very rigorous amongft the Romans, whips, racks, and red hot irons, could not overcome his conftancy, nor make him fpeak in a manner prejudicial to the accufed an example which proves, that virtue, and confequently true Nobility, is of all ranks and conditions. Antonius was acquitted, and fet out for his province with honour and tranquility of mind. The Senate beheld this degeneracy of manners as a .publick calamity and had recourfe, as had happened before on the like occafions, to religion. The books of the Sibyl were confulted, and in confequence of the anfwer they were fuppofed to give, it was refolved, that a temple Ihould be ereded to Venus, under the new firname of Verticordia, which implied, that fhe was invoked to change the heart. It was alfo added, that the ftatue of Venus fhould be placed, and dedi-r cated, in this temple, by the moft virtuous woman of Rome a fingular regulation in a matter not a little .delicate. In order to this choice, the Ladies nomi- Val. Mas, nated""^-^: :
-,

:

i8,S

DET ACHED FACTS.
nated an hundred amongft them
:

out of

this

hundred

ten were chofen by lot, by whofe voices Sulpicia, the daughter of Sulpicius Paterculus, and wifeof Q^Ful'

This fadt no doubt puts vius Flaccus, was chofen. the reader in mind of that concerning Scipio Nafica, declared by the whole Senate the moft v/orthy and
upright man of Rome, and deputed with that glori* cus title to receive the mother of the gods, juft arrived from Peffinuntum in Phrygia. Another fuperftition was alfo put in pracSlice, with the fame view of appeafmg the wrath of the gods, but a cruel one, and highly unworthy of Rome, efpecially at a time when philofophy, and the arts of Greece, had begun to enlighten the minds of the Romans, and to reform their manners. In one of the publick places of the city they buried a male and female Gaul, and a Grecian man and woman. And what is entirely odd, whilft they praftifed thefe abominable facrifices themfelves, they prohibited them feverely to fome barbarous nations, amongft whom they were authorized by law and cuftom. I proceed now to relate two famous trials, that ruined two illuftrious perfons, invefted with the principal dignities.

have fcen C. Carbo a6l very different parts. Though he had been friend to C. Gracchus, even to madnefs, he afterwards took upon him the defence of his murderer. On the expiration of his ConfulA.R.'^33. fhip, that is, the 633d year of .Rome, he xvasaccu fed, it is not faid of what crime, by L. CrafTus, who was then but one-and-twenty years old, and who made for his oration for this caufe his firil trial of fl<ill the veft-al L-icinia, of v;hich I have fpoke above, wa$ Auct.de fix years later than this. It was much the cuftom of Caui.corr. y^^^j^g pcrfons who afpifcd at the glory of eloquence^ 'to endeavour to make themfelves known by fome ren. 3^". markable accufation, that gave them opportunity to difplay their talents, and at the fame time to prove their zeal forjuftice, and their hatred for bad citizens: Carbo, whom CrafTus attacked, was certainly highly capable
:

We

jj

"

DETACHETD FACTS.
capable of defending himfelf. With credit, power, and honours, he united great eloquence, which occafioned him to be confidered as the beft orator of But it had probably happened to him as to his time. other * deferters of their party, who make themfelves odious to thofe they quit, and are fufpe6led by thofe He was undoubtedly not to whom they go over. fupported by the fadlion of the people, which he had abandoned, and the partifans of the ariftocracy did The young accufer omitted nonot confide in him. thing to lefTen the merit of his return to the party of the Nobility, in repeating to the judges the excefTes he had been guilty of during his attachment to the Gracchi. He proceeded againft him with fo much vigour, that Carbo, to prevent an inevitable condemnation, poifoned himfelf, as was believed, with
cantharides.

189

CraiTus acquired g-?eat honour by this aifair. It fwas thought very glorious, that at an age when thofe

who

exercife themfelves

deferve praife, this

young
ilill

orator iTiould praftife at the bar what he might

be only ftudying in his clofet with honour. But his eloquence was not the only thing that gained him applaufe. An adt of juftice and generofity in refpeci: to his enemy was more admired, and with reafon. One of Carbo's flaves brought his mafter's papers to •Craflus, which might have been ufed for convicting him. Craffus conceived horror for this treachery, and fent back the flave to the accufed in chains, with the cafe of papers, v>'hich he would not fo much as open. He knew that this kind of v/ar, as well as that made with arms, has its laws, which ought to be obferved even between enemies. But his too great timidity was upon the point of making him lofe the whole fruit of his labours,
* Transfugje

nomen

execrabile veteribus fociis, novis fufpeftum.

Liv. xxvil.

17.

oftendit, id fe in foro optirnc

t Qua state qui exercentur laude affici folent ea sftate L. CrafTu's jam facere, quod poterat dorni cum lauds
Cic. de
Off. II. 47.

meditari.

and

190

DETACHEt> FACTS.
and of faving Carbo. When he began to fpeak he was quite difconcerted, and loft ground. He would have been under the necefllty of retiring with confufion, if the PreTident of the tribunal had not come in to his aid. Q^ Maximus (this Prefident was fo called) took compaflion of the condition in which he
faw the young orator, who promifed infinitely. He broke up the afiembly, and put off the caufe to ano^ Craffus by this means had time to recovef ther day. himfelf, and not only terminated the affair againft Carbo with fuccefs, but in the fequel, both pleaded and fpoke before the Senate and People with all the refolution neceffary , retaining of his former timidity only an * amiable modefty, which not only did no hurt to his difcourfe, but ferved to recommend it, from the advantageous idea it gave of the orator's This modefty rofe to a kind of fear and probity. Cicero, juft at the end of his career, introduced it again ; declaring, that he never fpoke in publick without changing colour, efpecially at the beginning of his difcourfe, and trembling all over, -f The more tafte and eloquence any one has, the more he perceives the greatnefs of the art of fpeaking, and the difficulty of fucceeding in it. L. Craffus, the year after he had caufed Carbo fo be condemned, feemed defirous to make trial of the party of the People, in the affair of the colony of Narbonne, of which he pretended to be, and really was J one of the founders. It appears, that the Seand nate oppofed the eftablifhment of this colony Craffus, in a difcourfe which he made upon this fubje6t, and which Cicero praifes, as being of § greater
:
•,

* Fuit mirificus quidam in CrafTo pudor, qui tamen non modo non obelTet ejus orationi, fed etiam probltatis commendatione prodeflet. Cic. 1. I. deOr. n. 122.
i"

Ut quifque optime

dicit,

itp.

maxime

dicendi difficultatem, va-

TJiofque eveutus orationis, exfpeCtationenique Cic. ibid. n. lio.

hominum

pertimefcit.

X It was the cuftom of the Romans when they founded a colony, to nominate three diftinguiflied perfons to prelide in fettling' it. Thefe Vitre, called, " Triumvin colonias deducendae."

§ Senior, ut ita dicam, quam
^
'

ilia setas

ferebat, oratio.

Cic Brut. n.

160,

^-4

maturity

DETACHED FAGT

S.

i^jj

maturity than could be expeded from the orator's years, warmly attacked the authority of the Senate, and fpared no pains to reduce it. This is the only flep of this kind that could be imputed to him. All the reft of his life he was a zealous defender of the
ariftocratical party,

and died,

as

we

Ihall fee, in de-

fending

it.

who was accufed in two iirft Roman orators, that Cicero thinks, can be compared with the We may fee what has been faid upon that Greeks. head at the end of the Antient Hiftory.
L. CrafTus, and
Antonius,
the affair of the veftals, are the

M.

We

have not

fo large a detail to

make concerning

the condemnation of C. Cato. have feen him fhamefully defeated by the Scordifci in 638. It was faid, that he behaved no better in tiie civil govern-

We

province Macedonia, and at his return to accufed and condemned for extortion. A, of this kind which he had done the fubjedls of the Commonwealth, were however but very inconfiderable, as they were rated in the trial at onlv eighteen thoufand fellerces ; about an hundred and ten pounds fterling. For a perfon of Confular dis;nity, the grandfon of Cato the Cenfor, and Paulus ^milius, and the nephew of Scipio Africanus, to be condemned for fo fmall a matter, is an inftance of
his

ment of

Rome he was The damages

R. 635,

*

great feverity. But * in tliofc days, fays Velleius, the will of doing ill, and not the quantity of the ill done,

was confidered the intention v/as the rule of judging and the quality, not the extent, of the injulticc was enquired into. Perhaps alfo C. Cato's bad con^ dudl in the war, and his defeat, were the real motives
:

fadls

;

for the fentence pafled againft him.

Let us conclude this fedtion with a circuitiftance more capable of pleafing a reader who has a regard

About the beginning of the war with Jugurtha, L. Pifo, the foh of him who
for the glory of Manners.
* Adeo illi viri magis voluntatem peccandi intuebantur, quam modiim faftaque ad confilium dirigebant be quid, non ia quantum, ad.-' miirum foret, selUmabant. Vell, ii, 8. p-rrs.'..
:
.

.

pafled

jgz

DETACHED FA C T

S.

paffed the firfl law againft public extortions, was fent with the authority of Prastor into Spain, where fome commotions had arole. There, whilft he was exercifmg himfelf in the ufe of arms, he happened to break the ring he wore on his. finger. The queftion was to make another. Pifo, who piqued himfelf upon fhewing that he was worthy of his father, and of the honourable firname ofFrugi, or man of probity, which he had tranfmitted to him, and being unwilling that any body fhould fui'peft the ring he ufed to be a prefent received in his province, had recourfe to, a very AnHe fent for a goldfmith into the gular precaution. forum of Cordova, where he then was, and weighed to him the gold in the fight of all that were prefent, of which he ordered him to make a ring upon the Thus, fays * Cicero, who fpot before every body. " though only half an ounce preferved this fadl, has was Pifo defirous that all of gold was in queftion, Spain fhould know whence it came ; and that it was part of his own property, and not the gift of any body." This nicenefs, which perhaps abundance of people amongft us would think exceflive, cannot difIf there be pleafe thofe who judge rightly of virtue.
excefs in
.

it,

how
to

much

were

it

laudable is that excefs and how be wifhed, that men would err in
•,

having too

much refpe6l for the laws, and too much eare in preferving their reputation clear of blemifh
!

This Pifo was killed
Ille in

in Spain,

it is

not

known how.

•aonulus

fieret.

auri remuncia totam Hifpaniam fcire voluit, uncle Prsetori Cic. iv. iu Verr. n. 57.

THE

[

^93

]

THE

ROMAN HISTORY.
BOOK
THE

TWENTY-NINTH.

WAR
HIS

WITH

JUGURTUA.
af-

book begins from Jugurtha's

cending the throne, and contains about fourteen years^ from the 634th to the 647th year of Rome. It contains the war with Jugurtha> and fome detached fa6ts.

SECT.!.
Preamble.

-3

Abridgment of the hijlcry of MaJin'Jfa. Praifi Partition of his dominions after his of that Prince. Character and great qualities of'JugUftffM death.

the fiege of Numantia.
there.

Micipfa, fon of Mafimffa^ fends Jiigurtha to ferve at He acquires great reputation
Scipio fends

home Jugurtha with a

letter

to

Micipfa^ at his return^ Micipfa full of his praifes. adopts him. Being at the point of deaths he exhorts his
three fons to live in great unity.

Hiempfal^ the youngefi
caufes

fon^ quarrels
killed.

with Jugurtha^ who
eldefl^
is

him

to

he

Adherbaly the

defeated in a battle by

Jugurtha.,

and Vol. VI,

takes refuge at

Rcme.
.

Jugurtha fends
Deputies

O

s

^94
Deputies

^ R £ A
to

M

B L

IT.

the Senate.

Rome^ and corrupts the principal perfons of The Senate fends Commiffionef s to Numidia,

,

to make a nezv partition of that kingdom between Jugurtha and Adherbal. Jtigurtha attacks Adherbal^ and obliges him to take arm.\. He defeats his brother* arniy^ and bcfteges him in Cirta. The Senate^ by their Dtputiesy order them to lay down their arms. Jugur-

tha^ notwithjtanding

thofe

orders,

continues- the ftege

wiih vigour.
its aid.

Adherbal writes

to the Senate to implore

nothing
is

Deputies are fen t to Jugurtha, who conclude Adherbal furrenders, and is murdered. War
to

declared againfi Jugurtha.

Deputy

Rome, who

is

He fends his fon as a ordered to quit Italy. The

the army.

Conful Calpurnius arrives in Nmnidia at the head of Jugurtha corrupts him and alfo Scaur us^

Calpurnius and makes a pretended treaty with them. Ithe Trireturns to Rome^ and is univerfally blamed.

bune Memmius animates the People by harangues againfi L. Cajftus is deputed "Jugurtha and his accomplices. to Jugurtha, and perfuades him to go to Rome to give an account of his condu5i. Jugurtha arrives at Memmius Ro?ne, and corrupts the Tribune C. B^ebius.

Jugurtha juridically before the People. Babius forbids him to anjwer, and breaks up the affemhly. Jugurtha caufes Mafjiva to be affaffinated at Rome. He receives orders to quit Rome and Italy.
interrogates

PREAMBLE.
THE
to
relate,

my

war with Jugurtha, which I am going to and which I Ihall continue, according cuftom to the end, without interrupting the
;.

feries

of it with foreign events, fubfifted only fix years* but gave the Romans great occupation and difquiet their armies fuffering the moft fhameful defeats. Whac

rendered it more confiderable was, its being in a manner in the bofom of this war the civil diffentions between Marius and Sylla took birth, which coft the Commonwealth fo much blood, and fpread defolation throughout all Italy.
Ic

Brief
It
is

HISTORY

of

MASINISSA.

Vp^

no doubt a great advantage to have luch an His Uthor as Salluft for my guide in this hiftory. tncrit, univerfally admired for fo many ages, itands in no need of my praifc. But I cannot omit Qiiintilian's judgment, who in that excellent chapter wherein he gives us the characters of all the ancient authors, thinks it enough in refpc6t to Livy, to fay, that " * by the different kinds of beauty which he knew how to unite in himfclf, he had acquired the immortal glory Salluil had merited by the brevity of his ftyle, and was rather equal to, than like, him." If the f brevity and concifenefs of Salluft's ftyle,' which contains aImo(t as inany thoughts as words, as has been faid of Thucydides his model, muft extremely pleafc an intelligent reader, it muft alfo be the dclpair of one who lliould attempt to preferve its Let no one therefore beauties in another language. be furprized frequently to find the copy infinitely
I might, to ihort of the perfet:tion of the original. fpare myfelf the comparifon, fupprefs the Latin but
:

I

am

far

from being willing
1

to deprive

my

readers of

fo great a pleafure.
j ugurtha, I muft go and give a brief idea of the hiftory of Mafiniffa, from whom he was defcended.

Before

enter into the war of

back a

little,

Brief

HISTORY

of

MASLNISSA.

Princes, Syphax, and Gala the father of Mareigned at the fame time in Numidia, but The fubjeds of the firil were over different ftates. called Mafrcfuli, and occupied the weftern part as The others were called Maffyli, far as Mauritania. fituated at the eall of the former, and bordering upon
finifla,
* Ideoque

Two

immortalem illam

Salluftii

confecutus

elt.

Nam
quam

niilii cgrt-gic dixille

velocitatem diverfis virtutibus videtur Servilius Novianus,

piires eos m:ia;is

fnuilts.

Quintil.

SalKiltiana brcvitas, qua niliil ajjiid aures vacuus atque eruIbid. tlitai j.)utcit die pert'c(^tius.

t lUa

O

2

the

\g6

Brief

HISTORY
The

of

MASINISSA.

the dominions of the

Commonwealth of Carth^'gc

The name
is

of Numidians, which was

more known.
;

common to both, principal force of their armies

Gonfifled in cavalry.

They rode their horfes without and many guided them without bridles ; from which they are called in Virgil, Numid^ infaddlcs

of the fecond Punic war, Syphax to the party of the Romans. Gala, to prevent the progrefs of a neighbour already too powerful, thought it neceffary to ftipport himfelf with the alliance of the Carthaginians, and fent a numerous army againft him under his fon Mafmifla, then only feventeen years old. Syphax was defeated in a battle wherein thirty thoufand men were killed, and fled into Mauritania. But in the fequel things very much changed afpe6t. Liv. xxix. Mafmifla, after the death of his father, experienced 29— 34* ^\\ |.j^£ viciflitudes and rigors of fortune deprived ; of his kingdom, re-eftabliflied, dethroned again, warmly puriued by Syphax, and every moment upon the point of falling into his enemy's hands, without
fixth year

Liv. xxiv.

Xhe

*

'

*^'

had attached himfelf

In thefe fad circumftances, his valour and the amity of the Romans were his rcfource. Having attached himfelf to the firft Scipio Africanus, he fliared in his victory over From thenceforth his the Carthaginians and Syphax. life was one continued feries of profperity, without He not being interrupted by any unhappy accident. only recovered his kingdom, but added to it that of Syphax his enemy 5 and became the mofl: powerful Prince of Africa. As he owed every thing to the Romans, he continued firm in that honourable alliance with inviolable He retained a very robufl: ftate of zeal and fidelity.
health to the end of his
cffeft
life, which was partly the and reward of his extreme fobriety in eating and drinking, and of the care which he took to inure Polybius himfelf continually to labour and fatigue. obfcrves, (which pafiage we have from Plutarch) that

troops, arms, or a fecure afylum.

An

feni

SrKerp.
V' 7s^».

the

BiiiEF

HISTORY

OF

MASSINISSA.

197

the next day after a great vi<ftory over the Carthaginians, he was found before his tent, making a meal of
a piece of brov/n bread.

Scipio the younger, who afterwards ruined Carthage and Numantia,' was fent to MafmifTa by Lucullus, under whom he ferved in Spain, to afk elephants of him. He arrived exaftly at the time that Prince was going to give the Carthaginians battle. He was fpeftator of it from the top of an hill near the place where it was fought. I have already obferved elfev/here, that he was very much amazed to fee MafmifTa, then more than fourfcore years old, mounted on an horfe without a faddle, according to the cuftom of the country, giving his orders on all
fides,

and

like a

young

officer,

fuftaining the greateft

contrafted a particular friendfnip with that Prince, who was extremely pleafed that he was prefent at his vidory, and paid him all the honours
fatigues.

He

due

to the

worthy heir of

Some few
under

his benefactor. years after, MafmifTa falling fick, andval. Max.

finding himfelf near death, wrote to the Proconful,

whom

^

p'

,

Scipio then ferved at

the fiege of Car-

thage, to defire him to fend the latter to him ; adding, that he fliould die contented if he could expire in his arms, after having made him the depofitary of his laft will. But perceiving that his end approached before he could have that confolation, he fent for his children, and told them, " That he knew no people upon earth except the Romans, and of that people only the family of the Scipio's That in dying he left Scipio ^Emilianus abfolute power to difpofe of
:

and divide his kingdom amongfl his chilit was his will, whatever Scipio fhould decide, fhould be pundlually executed, as if himfelf had fo appointed in writing." After having fpoke this, he died * at a very advanced age, having rehis eftates,
:

dren

That

• Mofl- authors, when they fpeak of his death, make him at leaJl ninety years old. But, if in the fixth year of the fee )nd Punic war he was but feventeen, as we have faid after Livy, wh-n he died, he could be only in his fourfcore and third year.

O

3

tained

198
:ic.

Brief

HISTORY

of

MASINISSA.

de

tained the whole ftrength of his mind and body to Cicero tells us, that even in the laft years the laft.

Jen. n. 34.

Qf his ],:fe, if he had fet out upon a march on foot, he did not mount on horfeback ; that 'if he was on horfeback, he did not difmount to walk ; that neither cold nor rain§ could oblige him to cover his head in a word, that he enjoyed a very robuft ftate of health, fo as to difcharge ail the funclions and duties of the He lefi behind him a prodigious numfovereignty. (fome fay forty-four) of which one children, ber of years old, and three only born in lawful four was but Guluila, and Manaftabal. Micipfa, marriage, be deemed one of the greateft may This Prince has preferved the memory. hiftory Kings, of whom politician, he knew how both As a warrior, and able to acquire and preferve a powerful ftate, which he o-overned during almoft fixty years v/ith great wifdom. Refpedled by his numerous family, he always maintained peace and good intelligence in it and his houfe was exempt from aii i.hofe jealoufies, thofe violent enmities and horrors, with which the courts of the Kings his cotemporaries abounded. His fuperior genius raifed him above the barbarity of his nation, and made him even labour to eftablifh good polity, and to civilize his people, who had been almoft favages till his time, and lived by hunting, and upon the milk of their cattle. He difciplined them and from robbers, which they were before, he made them fol; ;
-,

diers.

He made
it,

agriculture

flourifti,

or rather intro-

Numidia was not cultidominions. duced for a barren couneven paffed and him, before vated was wanting to the the land that was not But it try. who negle6led inhabitants the a ferinhabitants ; but to prey beafts chufing ; tile foil, and v/ho left it for a Mafirather to rob and pillage from one another. nifla knew the goodnefs of the land, and caufed it to be cultivated ; and Numidia by his care and pains became as rich in grain and fruits as any other nation
in his

of the world.

His

BEGINNINGS

or

JUGURTHA.

1^9

His eftates and dominions were divided by Scipio, whom he left abfolute arbiter in that refpedt. Scipio decreed, that the name and authority of King fhould appertain in common to the three legitimate Princes,
and gave the
reft

confiderable eftates.

According to

Diodorus, each of them had a thoufand acres of land, In with all that was necefiary for cultivating them. fovereignty bethe the partition of the fundions of tween the three Princes, he had regard to the chaMicipfa, who was the rafter and genius of each.
eldeft,

of pe^ace and letters. He gave him the capital city and the finances. Guluffa, who was a warrior, had all that related to war and the Manaftabal, a great lawyer, was troops for his part. charged with the adminiftration of juftice to the peoBut Micipfa foon united the whole authority in Diod ap. ple. He ^^^^^^ his own perfon by the death of his two brothers.

was

a lover

'

reigned thirty years, always in peace, making the ftudy of letters and philofophy his delight, and taking great pleafure in the converfation of learned men,

whom

he invited from Greece to
his perfon.

his court,

and

at-

tached to

BEGINNINGS

of

JUGURTHA.
:

Micipfa had two fons, Adherbal and Hiempfal and caufed his nephew Jugurtha, the fon of Manaftabal by a coRCisbine, to be educated in his palace, and took as much care of him as of his own children. The latter had excellent qualities, that acquired him He was well made, of a beautiful general efteem. afpeft, abounded with wit and fenfe, and did not, as give into luxury and is ufual with young perfons, with thofe of his years himfelf He exercifed pleafure. and riding the warjavehn, in racing, daJ-ting the
horfe.

Hunting was

his

fole

amufement
beafts.

;

elpecially

hunting of lions"and other
*

fierce

*

Though
efTe.

Cum omnes
facere,

gloria anteiret,
ipfe

omnibus tamen carus
fe

Pluri-

pium

& minumum

de

loqui.

Sallust.

O

4

he

;

200

BEGINNINGS
he was luperior

of

JUGURTHA.
to his companions,
their afFeftion
:

in all things

had the addrefs to acquire

he he was
praife
-,

more

intent

upon

deferving, than receiving,

doing much, and fpeaking little of himfelf. So fhining, and fo generally approved a merit, began to give Micipfa difquiet. He faw * himfelf far advanced in years, and his children very young. He knew of what ambition is capable when a throne is in and that with mtich fewer talents and lefs queftion moderation than Jugurtha had, it was eafy to be allured by fo afFe6t*ng a temptation, efpecially when fupported by circumftances entirely favourable. He difcerned with grief, that he had brought up a fecret enemy in his houfe, and one v/ho would perhaps be
•,

its

deftroyer.

In order to remove fo dangerous a rival of his children, he gave him the command of the troops he was going to fend to the aid of the Romans, then before Numantia, under the command of Scipio iEmilianus. He flattered himfelf that Jugurtha, brave as he was, might precipitate himfelf into lome dangerous action That young prince acthat might coft him his life. quired fo much reputation by his adiduity in the fervice, his exadt obedience, and his ardour to fignalize himfelf on the moft hazardous occafions, that it was hard to judge, whether he was more efleemed by the Romans, than dreaded by the enemy. And -f wha|: is very extraordinary in his age, he was not only intrepid in battle, but of Angular prudence in council of which the one is apt to occafion a too cautious timidity, and the other a too rafh boldnefs. Accordingly the General, having difcerned all his merit, treated him with more and more regard, and profeffing peculiar amity and confidence for him, he ufually
* Terrebat eum natnra mortalium avida imperii, & praeceps ad explendam animi cupidinem prasterea opportunitas fure liberorumque a.tatis, quae etiam mediocres viros fpe prsedas tranfverfos agit.
;

Sallust.
t Ac
fane,

quod difficiilumum
:

h bonus

confilio

quorum

in primis eft, prjcllo ftrenuus erat, alterura ex providentia timorem, altermn
folet.

&

c^ audacia tejneritatera adferre pkrumque

SallOst. chargecj

;

BEGINNINGS

of

JUGURTHA.

$qi

charged him with the moft difficult and dangerous Befides this, Jugurtha was liberal and commiffions. magnificent, was very engaging in his manners, and poflefTed the art of infmuating into favour in a fupreme degree, fo that he gained the hearts of a great number of Romans, who contraded a very Uriel: and
intimate friendfliip with him.

There was at that time many in the army, as well of the Nobility as of lefs confiderable families, who
fet a

much

greater value

upon

riches than probity

j

thefe were of a turbulent

and fadlious

difpofition,

and by their intrigues had acquired credit at Rome and with the allies but had a more extenfive than advantageous reputation. Theie dangerous fpirits, to kindle Jugurtha's ambition, which was but too ardent before, gave him to underftand, that when Micipfa died, he might have the kingdom of Numidia alone that his valour made him worthy of it ; and
;
:

for the reft, every thing was fold at
difmifs the auxiliary troops,

Rome.

Scipio, after the taking of Numantia, defigning to

himfelf, gave Jugurtha great praifes,

him with

miilitary

rewards in

and to return to Italy and honoured the prefence of the whole

army. He afterwards took him alone into his tent and as he was not ignorant of the dangerous intimacies he had contracted, and the pernicious counfels of the young Romans mentioned above, he gave him falutary advice in refpe6t to his condu6t, well worthy of that wifdom and virtue which rendered Scipio ftiU more admirable than the glory of arms. He told him, " That the amity of the Roman People was to be cultivated rather by methods of honour, than by dark praftices, and by attaching himfelf lefs to particulars than to the body of the State itfelf. That it was dangerous to defire to buy of fome citizens by gifts what belonged to the public. That if he perfevered in the paths of virtue, as he had hitherto, he could not fail of glory and the royal dignity, which would in fome fenie meet him half way whereas, if through a precipitate ardour, he propofed to obtain
:

202
it

PORCIUS, MARCIUS,
by

Confuls.

/

dint of prefents, his very money would prove of his ruin." caule the After having given him this advice, with which he mingled abundance of expreffions of friendlhip and efteem, he fent him back to his own country with a " Juletter for Micipfa, conceived in thefe terms " gurtha, your nephew, has extremely diftinguifhed " himfelf by his valour and wifdom in the war of " Numantia. I know that this news will give you " extrem.e pleafure. His merit has made him very
:

*'

*'

endeavour fo to ad, as to make him alfo beloved by the Senate and People of " Rome. I fhould believe myfelf wanting to our
dear to me.
I

Ihaii

" friendlbip, if I did not congratulate you upon " having in the perfon of Jugurtha, a nephew worthy " of you, and of his grandfather Mafmiffa."

When

the

King faw
faid

that

all

the

good things pub-

lick report

had

of Jugurtha were confirmed by

the Roman General's letter, moved vv^ith fo authentic a teftimOny, he refolved to change his condudt for the future, and entertained no thoughts but to win

him by force of favours and obligations. He began by adopting him and by his will he appointed him
;

joint heir with his

two

fons.

A.R-634*
^iii?'

M. PoRCius Cato. Q^MarciusRex.
Micipfa feeing himfelf at the point of death, fent
for the three Princes together, and made them ap« There, in the prefence of the prinproach his bed.
cipal perfons of his court, he fpoke as follows.

" You " remember, Jugurtha, that having loft your father " at a very tender age, you were left without hope *' or fupport, when I received you into my houfe, " believing that I fhould not be lefs dear to you on " account of my favours, than if I had given you " life, and that you would do great honour to our
*'

family.
tion.

^'

I have not been deceived in my expedaFor, not to mention many others of your ^[ anions.

«*

"
" "
*'

"
*'

" " " "

Confuls. 203 laft behaviour at the War of Nu- A.R. 634* your by ^ ^ -Vnt. ^• -^^^c mantia you have acquired the higheft glory forme 118. and my kingdom from declared friends, as the Romans were before, to us, you have induced them by your merit to become ftill more fo you have given new birth to the name and memory of our houfe in Spain and laftly, which is very extraordinary and difficult amongft men, you furmounted envy by the luftre of your glory. * Now, when I fee the end of my life draws nigh, I call upon you, I conjure you, by this right hand with which I adopted you, and have aiTociated you in
aftions,

PORCIUS, MARCIUS,

------

•,

:

:

" the fovereignty with my fons, fmcerely to cherifh " them, who are your near relations by birth, and " are become your brothers by my favour, and that " you will not do them the injultice to chufe rather " to attach ftrangers to you, than to retain the af" fedtion of thofe who are united to you by blood.
*'

"
"
*'

" " " " "
'*

It is neither armies nor treafures that are the fupport of a kingdom ; but friends, who are neither acquired by arms, nor gold, but by real fervices and inviolable fidelity. Now can one have better friends than one's brothers ; and what faith can he expect from ftrangers wjio becomes an enemy to his near relations ^ I leave you a kingdom, ftronoif you behave with virtue; but weak, if otherwife. For the fmalleft ftates augment by unity ; and the greateft are deftroyed by difcord. For the reft,

* Nunc, quoniam mihi natura finem vite facita per hanc dextram, per regni fidem moneo obteftorque, uti hos, qui tibi genere prooinqui, beneficio meo fratres funt, caros habeas ; nee mails alienos adjungere, quam fanguine conjuuftos retinere. Non exercitus, neque thel'auri, prccfidia regni funt, verum amici quos neque armis cogere, neque auro parare queas: officio & fide pariuntur. Quis autem amicior, quam fratres ? aut quern alienum fidum invenies, fi tuis hoftis fueris ? Equidcm ego regnum vobis trado, firmum fi boni eritis li mail, imbecillum. Nam concordia res parva: crefcunt, difcordia maxumae dilabuntur. Ceteriim ante hos, Jugurtha, qui attate & fapientia prior es, ne aliter quid eveniat, providere decet. Nam, in omni certamine, qui opulentior eft, etiamfi accepit injuriam, tamen, quia plus poteft, facere videtur. Vos autem, Adherbal & Hiempfal, colite, obfervate talem hunc virum imitamini virtutem, & enitimini, ae ego mcliores liberos funnpfilTe vidcar, quam genuifle. Sallust.
:

:

:

*'

Jugurtha,

204
A.R.
634..

PORCIUS, MARCIUS,

Confuls.

Ant. C.

" Jugurtha, as you have more years and capacity " than my other two fons, it is incumbent on you to " fee this rule duly obferved. Remember that in all " difputes, he who is ftrongeft is always fufpeded to

" have done
*'
it,

the injury, even though he has received

more power and Adherbal and Hiem-pfal, be careful to efteem and refpeft the great " merit of Jugurtha. Imitate his virtue, and en*' deavour to prevent it from being faid, that my " children by adoption were better than thofe I had ^' from Micipfa concluded with recomnature." to continue faithful to their enall them to mending Roman People, and to confider with the gagements patrons, and m afters. benefadors, as their them always that the King had perceived rightly Jugurtha, who and that real fentimcnts, not fpoken according to his had more the conduft of that Prince in refped to him of fear than good-will in it, returned him feint for feint, and concealing his thoughts vv'ith profound diffor the very reafon, that he has
it.

" "

occafion to do

As

to you,

fimulation, he replied with fuch profefTions of affedtion and gratitude as the conjuncture of affairs required.

As foon as the m.onths after Micipfa died. honours were paid him with a royal magnificence, according to the cuftom of the country, the Princes met to deliberate upon the prefent ftate of affairs. Hiempfal, the youngeft of the tvyo brothers, a Prince of a proud and haughty difpofition, and who had always expreffed great contempt for Jugiirtha, on account of the meannefs of his birth on the mother's fide, on this occafion took his feat upon his brother's right hand, to hinder Jugurtha from taking the poft of honour in the and it was not without great difficulty, that middle Some few
iaft
;'

Adherbal prevailed upon him to go to the left, by reprefenting to him, that fome regard was to be had to
feniority.

After
unity,

this

many

beginning, which did not promife much things were brought upon the carpet
:

concerning the adminiftration of the ftate and amongft other propofals made by Jugurtha, he faid, that It
,wa5

CiECILIUS, MUCIUS,
all

Confi-ls.

fo^

made by the late A. R.654. ^'as neceffary to annul ' five iaft years of his reign, becauie ^"'g. King, during the
the decrees

mind had fhared in the Hiempfal body. haftily replied, that infirmity of his that opinion, of becaufe his father he was entirely three but years Jugurtha before his death. had adopted home was too a ftroke not to be fenexpreflion That and left deep a by Jugurtha, wound behind fibly felt From thencefoKth he gave himfelf up to the imit. preflions of the moil violent rage and difquiet; fcudied nothing night and day but means for deftroying Hiempfal, and endeavoured by different methods to Hiempfal, on his fide, did not fpare enfnare him. to take pleafure in aggravating his feemed him, and did not lafllong ; for the next year JuThis hatred. means to have him murdered. gurtha found
havino- been fuperannuated, his

_ ^_ L. C^CILIUS MeTELLUS.

A. R.63SAnt. C,

Q^MUCIUS SCMVOLA.
The news of the murder of Hiempfal foon fpread throughout Africa. Adherbal faw from thence what he had to fear for himfelf. Numidia was divided into two parties between the two brothers. Great armies were raifed on both fides. Adherbal, after having loft moil of his flrong towns, was defeated in a battle, and forced to take refuge at Rome. Jugurtha, having effeded his defigns, faw himfelf mafter of all Numidia but he had reafon to fear from Rome. The remembrance of what he had heard of the avarice of the Nobility, capable of any thing for money, gave him hopes. He immediately difpatched Ambaffadcrs with great fums, and orders to fparc nothing, and to corrupt the Senators at any price. They foon found the reality of every thing being venal at Roip.e. They prefently acquitted themfelves of their commiffion, and made an almolt inflant change in people's fentiments. The caufe of Jugurtha, fo notorious and fo hateful in itfelf, and againft which at fxrii all
:

the

206
A.R.
635.

C^CILIUS, MUCIUS,
the world
afpedt.

Confuls.
different

were prejudiced,

foon wore a

Ant. C.
J17.

When the Senate gave both parties audience, Adherbai related, " the unhappy condition to which he was reduced, the injuftice and violence of Jugurtha, the murder of his brother, the lofs of almoft all his fortreffes, and the fad neceflity he was under of abandoning his kingdom, and of feeking an afylum in a city that had always conceived it for her glory to protect Princes unjuilly opprefTed. He infilled principally on the lait orders his father had given him at his
place his fole confidence in the Roman Peowould be a more firm and fecure fupport for himfelf and his kingdom, than all the troops and riches in the world." His fpeech was long
death,
t?

ple,

v/hofe amity

and

pathetic.

" That Hiempfal had been

words in few by the Numidians on account of his cruelty. That Adherbal had been the aggreflbr ; and that after having been conquered, he complained of not having done all the ill he could have defired. That their mafler defired the Senate to judge of his conduct in Africa by that which he had obferved at Numantia, and to have more regard to his adlions, than to the reports of his enemies. They had ufed, as I have faid before, an eloquence in fecret, more perfuafive than that of words ; and it had all its effeft. Except a fmall number of Sena^ tors, who ftill retained fome fentiments of honour, and were not fold to injullice, all the reft inclined to The deliberations of the Senate favour Jugurtha.
Jugurtha's

Deputies

anfwered

:

killed

terminated in appointing ten CommifTioners to make a new partition of Micipfa's kingdom between JugurAt the head of this commiffion tha and Adherbal. was L. Opimius, whofe authority was then great in the Senate, after the fervice he had done that Order, by the murder of C. Gracchus, M. Pulvius, and by the many other violences he had committed againft the Plebeians. Jugurtha gave him the moft honourable reception i and knowing his great avidity, took

him
7.

;

C^CILIUS, MUCIUS,
him
in his foible,

Confuls.

207
635.
'^^!'„^' 117.

made him

great prefents, and dill A.R.
at

much

length fucceeded lb effeftually in bringing him over, that he engaged him to prefer his interefts to his faith, reputation, and hoHe- acled in the fame manner with the other nour. CommifTioners, amongft whom he found few that had more regard for their duty than for mioney. The partition was made as Jugurtha wifned, however with
greater promiies.

He

He had for his {hare the fome appearance of equity. provinces adjacent to Mauritania, which were peopled with the belt men, and were the bed cultivated and molt fertile. Adherbal had thofe which, tho' more
ports,
tages.

adorned with buildings, and more abundant in feahad not fo many folid, as feeming, advanJugurtha,

fears,

could not be without fome a manner rewarded, and having thereby experienced what his friends had told him at Numantia, that all things were venal at Rome, no doubt became more bold in his endeavours to compleat the defign he had fo happily begun. He however continued five years without moving, whatever realbns he had for it. But at length, tired of that reftraint, he determined to invade Adherbal's kingdom. This feemed eafy to him. * He was active, enterprifing, and well fkilled in the art of war Adherbal, on the contrary, was indolent, tranquil, and pacific and as he had little experience of war, had little talte for it ; and confequently was more expofed to infult, and more liable to fear others, than to be feared himfeif. Jugurtha accordingly entered his brother's territories with a confiderable body of troops, carried ofF great numbers of captives and cattle, burnt towns and villages ; and after having committed all kinds of holtilities, returned into his own kinodom with great fpoils. This palTed in the Confullliip of Drufus and
at firft

who

feeing his

guilt in

•,

Pilb.
_* Ipfe acer, bellicofus at is quern petebat, quietus, imbelHs, pla•ido iiigeiiio, opportunus injuriae, metuens magis quam metueiidus.
:

M. Livius

;

io^j
A.R.640.
Ant. e.
Ii2.
J^.

LIVIUS, CALPURNIUS,

Confuls,

M.

Livius Drusus.

Calpurnius

riso.

Jugurtha was in hopes that thefe hoftillties would induce Adherbal to ufe reprizals, and thereby give' him occafion to purfue the war with vigour, and even to juftify himielf to the Romans, if neceffary. But that Prince, though highly enraged by fuch an infult, perceiving himfelf the weakeft, and relying more upon the amity of the Romans than the fidelity of his fubjefts, contented himfelf with fending Ambaffadors with complaints to his brother, who brought back only a difobliging anfwer. Notwithftanding this new afFront,^ Adherbal refolved to fufter every thing rather than undertake a war, in which his iirfl trial had fuceeeded too ill. His timidity, fo openly avowed, ferved only to increafe Jugurtha's boldnefs. He took the field, not with only a flying camp as before, but with a numerous army. He ravaged all the places through which he paffed, putting all to fire and Iword, in order to fpread terror amongll the enemy, and to encourage his own troops. Adherbal, forced by neceflity, and having no other choice to make, but either to abandon his kingdom, or defend it, raifed troops, and marched againft Jugurtha. The two armies met near Cirta, not far from the fea J but they did not come to blows then, becaufe it was late in the day. When the night was far advanced, but before day-light appeared, Jugurtha's foldiers, on the firft fignal given them, attacked the enemy's camp, and finding fome half afleep, and others taking arms, they prefently put them to flight. Adherbal efcaped to Cirta with fome cavalry ; and if the * Romans and Italians, great numbers of whom were then in that city, had not fl:opt the purfuit of the Cirta had been vii^lors, the bufmefs had been over
-,

# All the

cities

of ti-ade either fubjcft
Italians,

to,

or in alliance with

Rome,

were full of Romans and induced to fettle there,

whom commerce drew thither, and
taken.

LIVIUS, CALPURNIUS, Cohfuk;
'taken,

209
Princes A. R.
"

and the war between two powerful v/ould have begun and ended in one and the lame
to

•540,
*

"/^^

day. Jugurtha, without lofing time, laid fiege
place, and

the

machines advance to attack it He loft no time to prevent the efFeft of in form. the embalTy, v/hich he knew Adherbal had fent to
all his

made

Rome

As foon as the Senate rebefore the battle. ceived advice of the war between the two brothers^ three young Senators were appointed to go and declare in the name of the Senate and People of Rome, the honour of that they ihould lay down their arms
-,

the

Commonwealth,
it.

and

their

own

intereft,

re-

quiring

Thefe Deputies ufed expedition, and the more^ as
fet out, a report fpread at Rome of the and fiepce of Cirta. Jugurtha, after having " That he had the higheft heard them, anfwered regard and refped for the authority of the Senate^ That from his earlieft youth he had made it his ftudy to deferve the efteem of the moft worthy perfons of That it could only be by virtuthe Commonwealth. ous actions that he had been fo happy as to pleafe fo That the fame motive had great a man as Scipio. induced Micipfa to adopt him, as he had children of That for the reft, the more he had acled his own. with prudence and generofity, the lefs he was difpcfed That Adherbal had ufed the moft to luffer injuries. and that fo prefodious expedients to dcftroy him Than fing a danger had reduced him to take arms. the Roman people v/as too wife and equitable to tie up his hands on fuch an occafion, and prevent him, from taking juft precautions for the fafety of his peribn, which would be contrary to the law of nations. And laftly, that he fnould immediately difpatch Ambaftadors to Rome to inform the Senate and People of the true ftate of things." After this difcourfe they parted, without tlie AmhalTadors being able to obtain permiffion to fee Adherbal.

before they
battle

:

-,

Vol. VI.

P

As

2 Id

LWIUS, CALPUIiNlUS,
C
*

Confuls,

A. R. 640.
Ant"
jfr,j^

be out ©"f ^s foon as Tuo-virtha believed they mio-ht o Africa, feeing that Cirta, in effed of its fituation,. defended itfelf with eafe againft all his attacks, he drew a line of circumvallation ftrengthened with tow^-^

>*

'crs,

and fufficient troops to guard them. He adted continually night and day, either by open attacks, or Sometimes he endeavoured to bring over ilratagein. the garrifon by promifcs, and fometimes to intimidate

k by

threats.
all

He

inceflantly

animated

his

own

troops,:,

difpofing

things, and being himfelf the

foial

of his

cnterprize.

Adherbal, reduced to extremities by whom he had no quarter to expeft, of aid, and the fcarcity of provifions him to fuftain the fiege long, faw no
,

an enemy from' without hopes not permitting

Romans. fbme Numidians to
hut in the

By

other refource great promifes he engaged

pafs the enemy's

works

in

the

ftight, in order to gain the fea-coaft, and carry a It was read in the full letter from him to Rome.

affembly of the Senate,
follows-.

and

its

contents

were

as-

"
**

**
««

It is

not

my

fault, Fathers, if I

to you,

by

fo often

feem importunate imploring your aid it is Ju:

gurtha's violence and injuftice, that force me to do is fo determinately bent on my deftrucfo.

He

tion, that

«'

*'
*'
**

**
*' *' •' *'

**
*'

"
**

fets both you and the im-mortal Gods only my blood can fatiate his cruel Pie has kept me befieged five months,. ambition. in contempt of the alliance and amity by which I am united with the Roman People. Neither the benefaftions with which my father Micipfa loaded him, nor your decrees, are of any lupport to mc, I cannot tell whether I am moft diilreffed by arms, The prefent ftate of my fortune* or by famine. prevents me from faying more in refpedb to Jugurtha : I have experienced how little credit is 1 given to the complaints of the unfortunate. plainly perceive, he has not my perfon only in view ; he carries his fchemes and defigns higher. He has no hopes of retaining my kingdom and

he
:

at

nought

i.\

^

".youi?

LIVIUS, CALPURNIUS,
**
:

Confuls.

21 r

640. your amity at the fame time ^' ^^^' to be not tv/o advantages he has mofi: at heart, is '* doubted. began killing HiHe by my brother *' empfal. He afterwards drove me out of my do" minions. Be infenfible to our perfonal evils £

but which of thofeA.R.

"

-,

But the queflion here is a kingdom *' dependant upon you, of which he has poffefTed *' himfelf by force of arms it is the perfon whom " yourfelves efcablifhed King of Numidia that he now " keeps befieged. The fituation I am in fhews the *' regard he has for your orders which have been. " fignified to him by your Am/bafiadors. What re" mains then that can make him return to his duty, " except the force of your arms ^ For, as to me, I
*'

confent to

it.

:

•,

" Ihould chufe much rather, that the complaints I " now make, and thofe I have made before in full

" Senate, were without foundation, than to convince " you, by my misfortunes, that they are but too
*'

true.

But, as

I

am
I

born to be the evidence of Ju-

*'
""

gurtha's crimes, preferve

afk no longer that

you would

mifery or from death ; but only *' that you would prevent me from falling into the " hands of fo cruel an enemy, and that he may not *' degi"ade me fo far, as to inflid all kinds of tor*' ments and cruelties upon my body. Difpofe as you " pleafe of the kingdom of Numidia, that is your *^' part but extricate me out of the hands of this im" pious wretch, I conjure you by the majefty of the
•,

me from

*'

and by the rights of am>ity. If you any remembrance of Mafinifla, fhev/ it in. *' prcferving his grandlon." After this letter had been read, fome Senators faid, that it was neceiTary to fend an army directly into Africa, and not to defer aiding Adherbal that they Ihould afterwards deliberate upon the punifhment Jugurtha deferved, for not having obeyed the orders which had been fignified to him. His friends prevented this relblution from pafiing and * private in*'

Roman Name,
retain

:

:

* Ita
'

bonum publicum,
-

ut In plerifque negotiis folet, privatagi-atia

ideviftum.

P

2

tereft.

a.A2,

LiVIUS,
'

CALPURNPUS,

Confuls^

A. R.

640. tere-ft,

'^siz.

as happens in moft affairs, prevailed, over tl-m Ferfons of age and birth, who had publick good. paffed through the greatefl: offices, were however no-^ minated to go to Africa. Of this number was Scau-r rus, then a perfon of Confular dignity, and Prince of the Senate. Salluft, who is by no means favour-r able to him, as we have before obferved, gives us this defcription of him. " He * was a man of high birth j of a warm, enterprizing, fa6lioU£ difpofition ; greedy of power, honours, riches j to which may be added, great cunning in difguifing his vices under the appearance of virtue." As the affair was notorioufly vile, they fet out three days after they were appointed, and foon arrived at Utica, and from thence ient Jugurtha orders to repair to them as foon as pof? This at firfl: gave him great perplexity, and fibie. the more as he knew that thefe deputies were illuftrir ens perfons, and of great authority. On the one fide, he was afraid of irritating the Senate if he rer on the other, he could not refolve to fufed to obey After much reflexion, he der quit his enterprize. termined to make a general affault on the city fuddenly, in hopes of carrying it, and thereby terminating the affair, before new orders from the Senate But not to the contrary fhould be notified to him. apprehending that Scaurus, and of fucceeded, having afraid, might take offence at his was moil whom he affected delays, he at length refolved to repair to the place appointed by the Deputies with a fmall efcorte of horfe. They made him warm reproaches, with great menaces, in the name of the Senate, for not do not know what reahaving raifed the fiege. fons he could give to juftify himfelf Hiftory fays noIt only tells us, that after much difthing of them. courfe on both fides, the Ambaffadors returned withr out having concluded any thing an extremely fufpicious condu6l, which gives room to think, that from thenceforth Scaurus was not wholly inacceffible to Ju:

We

:

:

'tcntis,

^milius Scaurus, homo honorum, divitiarum

nobilis, impif^;r, faftiofus, avidus
:

pocccterum vitia fua caliide occultans.

gurthalj

SCIPIO,
gurtha's prefence.
the
rity,

CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

^ij
\^\^

characStcr

For nothing is more of haughrinefs and inflexible aufle-

contrar}" to A. R.64P.'

which he fliewed upon all occafions, than this eafinefs, with which he fuffers a Numidian Prince to treat the orders of the Senate, delivered by himfelf* with contempt. Fiorus afKrms pofitively what we adVance here only
as conjefture.

However it were, this gave Ad herbal his mortal wound. The Romans fettled in Cirta, who had the
principal part in defending the place, feeing that
tarther aid was to be expcfted

no from Rome, and not

apprehending much for them.felves, becaufe they con^ eluded, that the majefty of the Roman name would be a fafeguard for them., perfuaded Adherbal to capitulate, on condition only that his life fhould be faved.

That unfortunate Prince faw plainly, that this was delivering himfelf up to (laughter but forced by ne:

he furrendered himfelf, and was immediately' pat to death by Jugurtha in the mod cruel torments. Notwithftanding the horror this news excited at Rome, Jugurtha's money (liil found him defenders in the Senate ; and the affair, by delays, obftacles, and the falfe pretexts, with which endeavours were ufed to cover and embroil it, took a turn that gave reafbn
celTity,

would again efcape the puniiliBut C. Memmius, Tribune ele6l, a warm man, and the declared enemy of the Patricians, told the People, that there was a powerful cabal formed, which employed their whole credit to fave Jugurtha; and ftrongly reprefented what a fhame it would be, if fo many atrocious crimes, known
to fear the criminal

ment due

to his crimes.

to all the world, fliould be fuff^ered to pafs with im-

The Senate apprehended the confequences of the People's juft indignation ; and v/ar was declared
punity.
againft Jugurtha.

P. Scipio Nasica.

A.R.
-

641.

L. Calpurnius Bestia,

^?!* ^'

nil

The Conful Calpurnius was charged with thi^ war> ^^^K^n Juf^unha faw that Rome was actually preparing

P

3

^^

2 14

SCIPIO,
^^

CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

/k.R.64.i.to attack

him, he was exceedingly furprized.

For

lii^'

^^^^ alTured himfelf that

money would

lalve every

thing.

He however did not lofe courage, nor fuffer himfelf to be difconcerted. He made his fon, with two of his intimate friends, fet out immediately, with orders to fpare no money for fecuring the Senate in When they approached Rome, the Conhis intereft. ful Calpurnius aflced the Senate, whether they judged The anfwer it proper that they fhould be admitted. was, that if they did not come to deliver up the King and kingdom of Numidia to the Romans, they fhould This anfwer was quit Italy in the fpace of ten days. fignified to them, and they returned without having
done any thing. The Conful however made But as he propofed rather to
tenants, whofe authority
all

preparations for war.

inrich himfelf, than to

conquer, he chofe perfons of great credit for his Lieumight ferve to fcreen him, and infure him impunity. Of this number was Scaurus, who returned in confequence into Numidia, to compleat the lofs of his reputation. * Calpurnius He v/as laborious, had great did not want merit. penetration of mind, and forefight. He was not ignorant in the art of war, and neither dangers nor ambufcades could daunt him. But the love of money fpoiJed all thefe good qualities, and rendered them iifelefs. When he was arrived in Numidia, he atfirft made war with vigour, and took fome towns and a great number of prifoncrs. Jugurtha's firft care was to inform himfelf well of the genius and charader of the General he had to deal with. He fent Deputiesto him, who artfully founded him, and, after having reprefented to him the difficulty of this war, Jugur* fha being both able and determined to defend himfelf well, infinuated at a diftance, that their Prince dicj jnot want gratitude for thofe v/ho rendered him fervices.
• In Confule noftro multas, bonaeque
fjuas
fatis

omnes

avaritia prapediebat.

providens, bell; baud

artes animi & corporis erant i Patiens laborum, aero ingenio, ignarus, fii'miflumus contra periciUa

&

iafidias.

.

SCIPIO,
thins;

CALPURNIUS,
to

Confuls.'

2-15

T^ie * Conful underdood this language well; and no- A. R. 64.2^

more was wantino-

awaken and actuate

his

-^'^^

^*

ruling pafiion.

Scaurus entered into this infamous nesrotiation, to to have been the more averfe, as. in the beginning, after the murder of Hiempfal, he had fliev/n himfelf one of the warmef^ of Jugurtha's adverfaries. But Salluft makes no difficulty to fay, that even then his zeal was mere hypocrify ; that he feared difcovery, not injuftice and that, c{i the prefent occafion, the greatnefs of the fum offered him, took the

which he ought

;

however in a manner lefs difrefpedtful for Scaurus^ and which even im" Jugurtha," plies that he had an high idea of him. fays he, " triumphed over the Roman virtue in the perfon of Scaurus.'* §uem in Scauro ifJos Romani int'
Salluft, expreffes himfelf
pe7':i

made off fad with

his falfe virtue.

Florus,

who

agrees in the

mores eicpugnaffet

at firfi: had not thoughts but of gaining time, in order to give his friends opportunity to ad: in his favour at Rome, and to ftrengthen his party there. But when he was affured of Scaurus, and had brought him into his interefts,. he was in hopes of obtaining peace, and in order to that demanded an interviev/. It was granted him, and even an hoftage was given him for his fecurity. This was the QLijeltor Sexcius, who was carried to a city of Numidia, called Vacca. It was pretended, that he went thither to bring provifions from thence, which Jugurtha had en-

The Numidian

.

.

.*-

gaged

to furnifli.

therefore to the Conful's camp; council of v/ar was affemblcd. He preiefited himfelf to it, and after having made a fliort apology

That Prince came

The

condud, he concluded with protefting, that he put himfelf into the hands of the Senate and Peopk of Rome. The reft of the negotiation v/as concerteci in fecret with Calpurnius and Scaurus and the next 4?iy the council, after an appearance of deliberating,
for his
:

^

Apimug

sfger avaritia facile converru3

eft.

.

..

P

4

^

concluded.

6

:

21

SCIPIO,
641,
'

CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

A.R.

iao.

concluded, that the offer of Tiio;urtha, to deliver him^^1^ "P ^^ ^^^ Romans, fhould be received. Jugurtha immediately, as partly in execution of the treaty, caufed thirty elephants, a great number of cattle and horfes, with a next to inconfiderable fum of money, Thus the peace was to be delivered to the Qua^ftors. concluded in Numidia without the authority of the Senate and People and the Conful returned to Rome His Collegue P. Nafor the creation of magiftrates. fica died during the year of his ConfuKhip, as much efteemed as Calpurnius had made himfelf defpifed and Nafica, defcended from an houfe in which hated. virtue feemed hereditary, fupported the honour of his name by ilrid: integrity, and was always proof againft His mind was improved by philofophy corruption.
•,

:

but

in his application to that ftudy, his chief attention
:

was to form his heart fo that he v/as more a philofopher by his manners than his learning. For the reft, his philofophy had nothing of rigid and auftere in it This appeared both it was even polite with gaiety.
in his familiar converfation
tie. Brat, a, 128.
,

and publick difcourfes, in which, as Cicero tells us, he united elegance of Ian? guage v/ith the fait of humour and pleafantry. I return to his Collegue, who reftmbied him fo little iri condu6t: and fentiments. When the manner in which things had been carried in Numidia was known at Rome, the Conful's conduct was univerfally condemned, and v/as the whole The fubject of converfation throughout the city. People loudly declared their rage and indignation. The Senators were at a lofs, apprehending, that if
they ratified fo fliameful a peace, they fhould difgrace themfelves ; and on the other fide, were not inclined to annul a treaty concluded by a Conful who was dear to the party of the Great. For it was this Calpurnius, who, being Tribune of the People, had recalled P. Popilius, banifhed by the faftion of C. Gracchus. Befides which, the authority of Scaurus, by whofe advice it was knov/n that the Conful had aded throughout this whole affair, flopped thofe who

SCIPIO,

CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

ov

were beil inclined, and prevented the taking of a vUA..'R..64jj^f Ant C gorous refolution. ui." However, the Tribune C. Memmius, in all times the declared enemy of the Patricians, harangued the People in the ftrongeft terms, and exhorted them not to fuffer both the glory of the Commonwealth and their own liberty to be annihilated ; letting before their eyes an infinity of haughty and cruel a6lions of the Nobility, to inflame their zeal, and to infpire them with courageous fentiments in the important affair of which we are fpeaking. Sallull in this place inferts an harangue which, he fays, he chofe out of feyeral of that orator's, who was very famous in his cic. Brut, time, efpecially for accufations ; which gives reafon to"- ^jSbelieve that
*'

*'

*'

Memmius's. Romans, would prevent me from prefenting myfelf before you at this time, if my zeal for the publick good did not outweigh all
it is

really

Many

reafon s,

" other motives
'*

:

the credit of the fa6lion that pre-

of your indolence, the opea " violation of the laws and of juftice, and, which " moil affefts me, the grief to fee that innocence, " far from being honoured as it deferves, only incurs " dangers. I am afliamed to repeat in what manner
vails here, the excefs
*'

you have been
bafenefs

for fifteen or twenty years the fport

" of
" " " " " " "

men ; with what you fuffered your defenders to perilh v/ithout avenging their deaths ; to how great a degree indifference and infenfibility have taken"' rooc amongft you, and debafed your ancient courage and laftly, even now, when your enemies give you the jufteft caufe to lay hold of them, in whata manner you negle6t the advantage of their down*' fal for your rife, and continue to fear thofe to whom *' you ought to make yourfelves dreadful. Though " all thefe confiderations fhould check me, yet the " impulfe of courage, and zeal for the publick good *' within me, force me in a manner tooppofe this
the pride of a few powerful
t^

'

powerful cabal,

i fhall ftill

endea\'ouf to ufe vhe
*'

liberty

si8
^.R.64.1.
'

SCIPIO,
cc

CALPURNIUS,
me
:

Confuls.

liberty

my

father left

whether

my efforts

arc

^Ti'i.

"

effedual, or not, depends on yon.

"

" " " "

juftice

do not exhort you, Romans, to repel the inand violence of your adverfaries with arms, There is no occafion as your forefathers often did. Their for ufing force, or abandoning the city.
I

work of their own hands. After Tiberius Gracchus, who, as they tell the ftory, " was for making himfelf King, had been killed, *« cruel enquiries were made againil the People. The *' murders of C. Gracchus and M. Fulvius were " followed with the imprifonment and deaths of many " of you. It was not the authority of the laws, but " the mere caprice of your enemies, that determined " thefe two bloody executions. Admit, that to un^ " dertake to re-eftablifli you in your rights, was adu-" ally a defign formed to make themfelves Kings. " Admit alfo, that not being able to prevent that ef*' fe6t without fhedding abundance of blood, they did '* fo legally. But with what pretext can they colour ** their rapines and depredations ? Do you remember " with what fecret indignation you have feen for *' years paft your revenues diiTipated, Kings and free
ruin fhall be the
'*

"
*' «'

States

pay tribute

to a

few Patricians, and the fame

men

" "
«'
*'

*'

"
*« *'
«'

"
''

" "

alTume to themfelves both riches, and the They did not ftop there. fplendor of dignities. Impunity rendered them ftill more bold and enter^r In a word, the laws, the majefty of the prizing. Commonwealth, all things facred and profane, have been given up to the enemy, And the authors of all thefe excelTes know neither Iham.e nor repentance of them. They ftrut before you, tofling up their heads, with pompous and magnificent trains, dif^ playing their Pontificates, Confulfliips, and fome as if all this argued true of them their triumphs merit, and not infatiable ambition. Slaves, bought for money, cannot bear the unjufl rule of their and you, Romans, born to command, mafters But who then are puffer ilaycry without emotion.
:
:

"

thofe

SCIPIO,

CALPURNIUS,

Confub.

,219
A. R.
6415,

thofe that have thus ufurped the

Commonwealth?

enor" mous avidity for money difputes the preference *,' with inhuman cruelty and barbarity ; and v/ho, with *' all this, are putfed up with pride and haughtinefs :
vileft

The

of v/retches, murderers, in

whom

"jl IJXv

"
*'

>"

"
*'

"
^'

"
^'

*'

*'

" "
*'

"
"" *'

" " "
*'

"
*'

*'

"
<*'

"
^'
*'

"
"
^'

^' ff

faith, honour, probity, of every thing, even of the who make a traffick moft facred duties. Some of them have killed your Tribunes ^ others have perfecuted you with opprefllons and mercilels profecutions ; moft of them have imbrued their hands in your blood : and they confider their crimes as their flirength and The moft criminal of them are great defence. that very reafon believe themfelves thofe, who for fecure. Inftead of their crimics keeping the moft ought, under continual dread, your them, as they given them occalion indolence has to make terror fide. the United by famx defireSj, go over to your the fame enmities, and the fame fears, they conBut what is amity tinue firmly attached together. amongft the good, ought to be called confpiracy amongft the vile. If you were as zealous for preferving your liberty, as they are for eftablifhing their fway, the Commonv/ealth would certainly not be given up to be plundered as in is, and your favours would be the reward of true merit, not Your anceftors rethe prey of audacious guilt. tired twice to Mount Aventine, to eftablifh their rights, and fecure the dignity of their order and will not you, by their example, fpare no efforts for preferving that liberty which they have tranfmitted down to you ? You are the more obliged to this, as it is moft fhameful to lofe that we poiTefs, than never to have pofTefTed it at all. *' Somebody may afl<, what then I conceive it necefiary to do } It is, feverely to punilh thofe who have betrayed the Commonwealth, not by employing violence againft them ; they v/ell defervc it, but methods of force do not fuit the Roman People. There are tribunals aad laws. Decree

in

a word,

men void of

:

J

^

enquiries,

.

%2o
R. 641.
III.

SCIPIO,

CALPURNIUS,

Confuls.

%•

Ant. c.

" enquiries, in order to aflure yourfelves of the truth a by certain proofs, and the teftimony of Jugurtha
*'

If he has made his fubmifTion in earneft, himfelf. " he will obey your orders if he defpifes them, you " will know from thence what you ought to think of
:

*'

this

pretended peace and fubmifTion, which will

" only have ferved to fecure Jugurtha's impunity for " his crimes, to enrich confiderably a fmall number " of the Nobility, and, not to mention the infinite *' evils which will be the effeft of them, to cover the *' Commonwealth with lliame and reproach. " And are you then not yet tired of their unjuft
*'

fway

?

You

have, during
ail

many

years, feen king-

" doms, provinces, ' peace, in a word, " the hands, and at *' men whilft you,
•,

laws, judgments, juftice,

war,

things

human and

divine, in

the mercy, of a fmall

number of

hitherto invincible in refped: to.

fr'

«'
'f

*'
«'

your enemies, Lords of all nations, (for that is thQ idea we have of the Roman People) you, I fay, are contented to be fuffered to protradt an obfcure and languifhing life. For as to any thing of flavery, which of you has dared to refufe complying
reft, though I am convinced that it is extremely fhameful for a man of courage to fuffer injuries with impunity, I lliould willingly confent, that you pardoned thefe vile wretches, becaufe they are your fellow- citizens, if I did not forefee that your clemency would prove fatal to you. The love of their crimes are too deeply rooted in them. They will not be contented with impunity for the paft ; and if you do not deprive them of the power to do ill for the time to come, you will live in eternal difquiet, always between the two extremes, either of being reduced to fuffer a fhameful flavery, or of employing the force of arms in defence of your liberty. ** For do not imagine, that you can ever rely their fidelity, or that any fincere iand folid upon union can ever fubfifl between them and you. They
.
'

« with it? " For the
«'

" " "
*'
*'

**

"
>'

.

" "
*'
**

*
•'
"^

V

" wiU

:

SCIPI0,
!*

CALPURNIUS,
will

Confiils/

2«'«^

will reign,

and you

be

free.

They

pretend A. R.

e^r^^

*'

*'

and you are deto exercife all kinds of In fhort, they treat termined to oppofe them. your allies as enemies, and your enemies as allies.
injuftice,

^^^' ^*

*'
*'

your fentiments are fo oppo-, live together in peace and a Ihould fite, that you *' good underftanding ? 1 invite and exhort you there*' fore not to fuffer fo deteftable a fact as that which " has lately been perpetrated in the affair of Numidia *' to pafs with impunity. " The queftion at prefent is not peculation nor " extortion, certainly very great crimes, but become " fo common that they are now reckoned as nothing. " The authority of the Senate, and the majeily of
Is
it

pOiTible, whilfl

" the Roman People, have been proilituted to an " audacious enemy. The good, the honour of the, " State have been fold for money in your army, and " in the midit of Rome itfelf. If a commiffion be " not appointed to enquire into this whole intrigue^ *' if the guilty are not punilhed, what have we left " to chufe, except to fubm.it to tyranny ? For tq " commit v/hatever crimes one will, is to be a tyrant. " It is not for the fake of having the pleafure of re" " " " " "
venge, you ought to defire that your feliow-citi-. zens may rather be found guilty than innocent but you ought to fear, that whilft you are for faving the bad, you fhould dtflroy the good. And further, the oblivion of good acStions is not of fo dangerous a confequence in a State, as the oblivion of bad ones. The man of probity, when he fees himfelf neglefted, becomes only iefs warm and but the villain from thence beadlive for good comes more bold and determinate for evil. Nothing is of greater importance than to check crimes by feverity. If violence and injuftice were not comnnitted, there would be no occafion for any aid in order to live in peace."
:

" " "
*'
*'

" " "

Memmius, by
Pri£tor, fent into

often

making

the like reprefentations

to the People, prevailed to have

L.

CafTius, then

Numidia, with

inftruftions to

brmg

Jug^artha

mT
*

^ClPiO,

CALPURNiUS,

Confufe;

A.R.«4i' Jugurtha to Italy, under the guaranty of the RomaR JPeopi^? ^^ order to his being interrogated ; and that
''^jiif

from

his

Scaurus

anfwers the truth of the fads, of which and the others were fufpefted, might be
.

cleared up.

Whilft thefe things pafled at Rome, thofe whom the Gonful had left to command the army in his abfence, imitated the condud and example of their Ge neral, and committed all kinds of extortions and enor-

Some, corrupted by Jugurtha's gold, reothers gave him up the turned him his elephants made him pay a great which they deferters, for themfelves by plundering peoinriched many price were not at they war ; fo * much ple with whom h'ad avarice, like a peflilential difeafe, infefted them
mities.
:

:

all!

The

decree

of the People,

which commiffioned

Caffius to bring Jugurtha to Rome, had fpread conHe foon arrived in llernation amongil the Nobility.

Numidia, and found Jugurtha himfeif very much He however perfuaded him, without much alarmed.
difficulty, to

chufe rather, as he had fubmitted to the

Romans, to make trial of their clemency, than to draw their arms upon him. He f promifed that Prince an afiurance entire fecurity in his own private name
-,

on which Jugurtha relied no lefs than on the publick So great was the general opinion, fays Salluft, faith. of Caflius's probity. Let us add and it is in this manner that even vice and guilt cannot help paying homage to virtue. The manner in which our hifto:

rian fpeaks of this Caffius, gives us reafon to believe

he was the fame perfon who was appointed to rehear the caufe of the Veftals, of which we have fpoken above though there is fome difficulty in refpeft to
;

thefe Prsetorlhips fo often reiterated.

Jugurtha arrived at Rome, not with the magnificence of a King, but in the mournful equipage of a
• Tanta vis avaritisE in animos eorum, veluti tabes, invaferat! f Privatim pra:terea fidem fuam intei'ponit, quam ille non minorij, quam publicam ducebat.

perfoa

SCIPIO, CALPURNiUS, Confuk However intrepid he was in himfelf, perfon accufed.
and whatever proteftations of
protectors could
fervice his friends

W^
A. R. 641;
"

and

^*

IXI.

make him, he could not help being But having been anxious for the event of his affair. fo fuccefsful to bring over the Tribune C. Bsbius by prefents of money, one who had impudence enough to fupport him againft the evidence of truth and juftice, he was entirely at eafe. Memmius aiTembled the People, who trembled with indignation againft the King. Some were for having
him dragged to prifon others demanded, would not difcover his accomplices, he
:

that if
lliould

he be

punifhed according to the laws as an enemy to the The Tribune, far from giving in to the imState. petuous emotions of a People inflamed with rage, adled with great dignity, appealing their fury, checking their violence, and protefting that he would never fuffer the pubiick faith to be infringed. When filence v/as made, and Ju^urtha had been ordered to appear, the Tribune repeated the crimes committed by that Prince both at Rome and in Numidia, whether againft his father by adoption, or his brothers ; and, addreffing his difcourfe to him, he

That though the Romans well knew his ac-complices, they were defircus to be asjain allured of them from his own mouth. That if he declared the truth, he might hope every thing from the faith and clemency of the Roman People but if he concealed it, he would not fave his accomplices, and would
added
:
:

When Memmius had made an end of he ordered Tugurtha to reply. Bsebius, on the other hand, (the Tribune corrupted by Jugurtha, as we have faid above) forbade him to fpeak. The People, extremiCly incenfed, teftificd by tumultuous cries, menacing looks and eeftures, and ail Other marks of rage, the impatience v/iiih which they JTuffered this proceeding of the Tribune. Basbius auruin himfelf.
his difcourfe,

dacioufly perfift-ed in

his firft condu(5b. Thus the People, infulted by their own magiftrate, and become '^t fport of an impudence that had no example, faw th* afiembiy

4^4
:'|^^-^^^'

MfNUCIUS, POSTUMIUS, Confak
afiembly break up without concluding any thing^i This was a triumph for the King, Calpurnius, and all the reft, who extremely apprehended the confequence of this information. The boldnels with which
this fuccefs
itfelf.

j,i.

had

infpired Jugurtha^ foon manifefted

A.R.

64Z.

M. MiNUCIUS RUFUS.
_ bp.
_,
.

Ant. C.
zio.

rosTUMius Albinus.

at that time a Numidian Prince at Roijiei MafTiva, the fon of GulufTa, and grandfon of Mafinifla, who had openly declared againft Jugurtha in the quarrel of the Kings, and who, for that reaibn, after the taking of Cirta, and the murder of Adherbal, had fled, and quitted Africa. The Conful Albinus, to whom the province of Numidia had fallen, and

There was

callied

who for that reafon defired that the war there might break out again, advilcd that Prince to demand Jugurtha's kingdom. The latter was apprized of this, and caufed Mafliva to be afTafTmated in the midft of Rome. The murderer was feized, and put into the hands of jufcice. He confelTed every thing to the Conful Albinus, and particularly, that it was Bomilcar, Jugurtha's near relation and confident, who had engaged him to commit this murder. As Bomilcar had come to Rome with Jugurtha, the law of nations
fcemed to refuge him againft profecutions. An accufation was however laid againft him, and it was believed that the laws of juftice would take place on this occafion againft all other confiderations. Fifty of the King's friends offered to be fecurity for him, obliging themfelves to appear for him when it ihould be. necelTary. Jugurtha, convicted as lie was of fo black an adtion, had however the boldnefs to keep his ground ttill for fome time, always afTuring himfelf, that he ftiould extricate Bomilcar by the help of his friends. But he found, that the crying enormity of fuch a murder was above all his credit, and all bis gold' and Til vef. He made- Bomilcar fiy, and foon
i

J

It.

.'

'

followed

MINUCIUS, POSTUMIUS,

Confuls.

Hi's
*

followed him; the Senate having fignified C hat he fliould quit Italy immediately. He accord- Ant ,,^^ ingly fet out ; at which time he faid feveral times, looking back upon the city, " * That Rome wanted only a purchafer to fell herfelf, and would foon perilh if fuch an one could be found."

CD

to him, A. R. 642,

SECT.
tellus is

II.

Jtigurthd eludes the attacks of the Ccnful Alhinus^ flexion of Salluji upon the prefent fiate of Rome.

Re-

Memakes'

charged with the

war

of Numidia.

He

choice of

Marius for one of
firji

his Lieutenants.

On

his

arrival in Africa, his
pline in the army.
lus
:

care

is to re-ejiablijh difci-

Jugurtha fends Deputies

to

Met el-

who

engages them to deliver up their mafier to him,

Metellus marches his army into Numidia with great pre-

Jugurtha, finding himfelf amufed, refohes to Battle, in which that Prince He is defeated. Metellus ravages raifes a new army. whole country. the Jugurtha furprizes part of the flat Roman army. Great joy at Rome for the viSlory gained over Jugurtha. New vigilance of the Conful to prevent being furprizcd. Jugurtha continues his Jkirmifhes.
caution.

defend himfelf by arms.

Metellus bejieges Zama.

he endeavours to bring over Jugurthd's confidents.
difcretion to the

During the winter-quarters The
Deprived of every thing, he
is

King, betrayed by Bomilcar, confents to furrcnder at

Romans.

again takes up arms.
conimand.

Metellus

continued

in

the

Jugurtha prepares for the war. The inhabitants oj Vacca maffacre the Roman garrifon. It is put to fire andjword by Metellus. Origin of the enmity between Marius and Metellus. Beginnings of Marius, His birth. His education and character. He makes his firft campaigns under Scipio Africanus, and acquires his efteem. He is created a military Tribune and afterwards Tribune of the People, He caufts a law to
;

fafs, notwithfianding the oppojition of the Senate.
*

He

Urbem

venalefn,

&

matuJe perlturarn,

il

eraptorem invenerlt.

Vol. VI.

Q

jreventi

-26

MINUCIUS, POSTUMIUS,

Confuls.

prevents a largefs^ which one of his Collegues is for He fuffers two repulfes in one day. giving the People. He is chofen Prat or ivith great difficulty y and acciifed

of caballing for that
fortitude agaiyifi pain.

offxe.

He

marries Julia.

His

He

is chofen

Lieutenant General

by Metellus.
Ins refufes

him

His conduH in that employment. MeteU permiffion to go to Rome to demand the
decries

Confuljbip.

Marius

Metellus.

Confpiracy

cf
to

Bomilccir againfl Jugiirtha difcovered. death.

He

is

put

Extreme dread and trouble of Juguriha. MeMarius is eletied tellus grants Marius his difcharge. againjt is confided to his war 'The Jugurtha Conful. Cicero* s opinion of the mea}:s ufed by Marius for care. attaining the Confulfioip. Jugurtha' s perplexities. BatHe retires to Thala^ and tlcy in which he is defeated. ^he place is befteged., and taken by quits it foon after, Jugurtha arms the Gatuli. He engages the Romans. The two Kings declare to againfi the Romans. Bocchus thither alfo. repairs Cirta. Metellus towards march Marius receives advice that when he Grief cf Metellus a He holds conference with is appointed to fucceed him.
Bocchus by Deputies.

A. R.

64.2.

^-|-^

Ant. C.
xio.

HE

war

is

renewed, again.

The Conful Al-

binus, who was to return to Rome to prefide at J_ the eledion of magiftrates for the year enfuing, haftened his departure for Africa, in order to terminate the war as foon as poflible, either by arms, a But Jugurtha, on his treaty, or fome other way. fide, expeding every thing by gaining time, fought

only

furrender, and then profefTed diilruft.

Sometimes he promifed to Sometimes he fled before the Romans, and at others, not to difcouThus,, rage his army, harraffed them vigoroufly. between delays, and the (low alternative of negotiation and war, he amufed the Conful, and eluded all
to

how

protrad

it.

his efforts.

Whether through

negligence, or conniit,

vance, for he was fufpeded of very ill.

i\ibinus fucceeded

The

MlNUClUS, POSTUMIUS,
The approach

Cdnfuls.

li'j
A.R.6.V3.
^^'"'t-.c^

of the time for the elctSlioiis obliging him to return to Rome, he left his brother Aulus to command the army in quality of ProprcEtor. Jugurtha had much more advantage from him than from the
Conful,
defire

He

had no merit, and
his

his

felf-fufficiency

made him unconfcious of

incapacity.

The

blind

of enriching himfeJf induced him to form the fiege of SiUul in the midft of winter, a very ftrong place, fituated upon the brow of a deep mountain, and furrounded with a marfh, in which the King kept part of his treafures. The diflembled fear of that Prince, who fometimes caufed propofals of accommodation to be made to him, and fometimes fled before him, ftill more increafed his blindnefs. Jugurtha, long accuftomed to artifice and ilratagem, a6led his part fo well, that he induced him to raife the fiege of Suthul, in order to follow him into a remote region, where he gave him hopes of tranfa6]:ing in fecret with him. And, what is almofl incredible, he brought over by his emiffaries not only part of the Proprietor's auxiliary troops, but even fome of the Romans, who promifed to ferve him on occafion. Accordingly, upon Jugurtha's attacking the camp of Aulus in the night, fome companies of Ligurians and Thracians went over to his fide and a Roman officer, the iirft: Captain [PrimipilusJ of a legion, delivered up to the enemy the part of the intrenchm.ent where he commanded. The camp was taken and plundered and all that Aulus could do, was to retire with part of his troops to an adjacent eminence. The next day it was necelTary to come to a compofition. Jugurtha, not contented with having overcome, was alfo for infulting ; and in a conference which he had with the Proprsetor, with feigned moderation, he told him, that though he had him inclofed on all fides, and it was in his power to deftroy both himfelfand his whole army, either by famine or the fword however, refleding that the fuccefs of arms was precarious and
: :
.

•,

tranfitory,

tudcs, if

and human things fubjeft to many viciiTiAulus would make peace, he would difmifs

Q^ 2

them

228
A-R-fi42-them
Ant. c.
j-i^^j^

MINUCIUS, POSTUMIUS,
all

Confuls.

with their lives faved, after having made under the yoke, and upon condition thac they fhould quit Numidia in the Tpace of ten days. However hard and ignominious thefe conditions were,
p^fg

the fear of death,

which feemed inevitable, made
in Rome, it occafioned Some lamented the difgrace of

him accept them.

When
the

this

news arrived

great confternation.

Roman name by fo fhamcful a peace ; and others even apprehended the confequences of the advantages All in general, and efpeo-ained by the Numidian. cially the military perfons, cenfured Aulus with contempt and indignation, for having chofe rather to owe his i'afety to cowardice than to courage, whiift he had arms in his hands. The Conful Albinus, apprehending that he Ihould be made accountable for his brother's conduft, propofed to the Senate to deliberate upon the treaty which had juft been concluded. It was declared void, as having been made without the The Conful, authority of the Senate and People. not having it in his power to carry the troops he had levied along with him, becaufe the Tribunes oppofed His army, in execuit, fet out however for Africa. He found tion of the treaty, had quitted Numidia. it in fuch diforder and irregularity, occafioned by the licentioufnefs that prevailed in it, that he was afraid to make it march againft Jugurtha, though he much defired it, to obliterate the difgrace of the treaty concluded by his brothers. At Rome, hov/ever, the Tribune Mamilius Limetanus propofed to the people the decreeing a comniiffion, for informing againtl thofe who had erhboldeiied Jugurtha to defpife the orders of the Senate who had received money from him whiift Ambafiadors, or in the command of armies ; who had reftored' him his elephants and deferters.j and laftiy, who had made conventions with the enemy concerning war and peace. Many, who were under apprehenfions for themfelye's or their friends, underhand and fecretly oppofed this law ; for to have done it openly, would have been to have
;

MINUCIUS, POSTUMIUS, Confuk

229

have confefTed themfelves guilty. But the People A. R. 642fhewed an extraordinary conftancy upon this occafion ; \ ^^^ lefs through zeal and affeftion for the publick good, than hatred for the Nobility, who dreaded this law fo violent was then the diflenfion between the two orders. It was therefore decreed, that three Commiffioners fhould be ajppointed to prefide in preparing the proceedings againit all fuch as fhould be within the cafes mentioned ir| the law, and to bring them to
:

trial.

Scaurus had fumcient credit to get himfelf admitted into the number of thefe Commiflioners, though he ought rather to have appeared as one of the acbut the affair was cufed, than as one of the judges however carried on with no lefs vigour. Four perfons of Confular dignity were condemned ; CalpurNeither Salnius, Albinus, Opimius, and C. Cato. iuft, nor any other author, tells us what part the laft have alhad adled in the intrigues of Jugurtha. ready ie^n him condemned on account of extortions but, without making much interefl, only flight peOn this occafion he nalties had been laid upon him.
:

^

We

:

was banifhed, as well as the three others firft named. There were alfo many others condemned of a lefs illuftrious rank, but however perfons of diftindion ; and in particular C. Galba, who was the firft citizen, inverted with a publick priefthood, who had been found guilty on a criminal accufation. Thefe were a kind of reprizals taken of the Nobility by the order of the People, who from the death of the Gracchi had not been able to furmount opprefTion. It is no wonder that Cicero exclaims againft thefe condemnaas Salluft, who tions, and treats them as* iniquitous the People againft the always favours the party of rumours, and the capopular Nobility, agrees, that the judgments multitude, fhare in had a price of the This is not to infer, that given upon this occafion. innocent. He has himwere condemned all who were of fome. But in dealings the bad particularized felf of party, that directed the fpirit the was general it
-,

Cic. Brut,
^^'''

^*^*

0^3

judges,

2

go
'

MINUCIUS, POSTUMIUS,

Confuls.

A.R.64i.jyjges, more than the love of juftice. The reader to the end back of turn the hiftory of the Gracmay ji^^ chi, for what we have obferved concerning the con-

demnation of Opimius. This event gives Sallufl occafion to make a digrefiion upon the origin of the furious anjm.ofities which tore the city, and at length became bloody wars. We mull firfl obferve, as that hiftorian has done elfewhere, that the civil diffenfions are as angient But befides that the quarrels of in Rome as liberty. ancient times always terminated w^th m.oderation and concord, there had been a very long calm, in which the two orders perfeftly concurred in their endeavours That time, which may well for the publick good. Golden Age of the Roman Commonthe called be wealth, continued from the fecond Funic war to the

The fadions then not only betaking of Carthage, revive, but became more violent than ever. gan to It O the reflexion, IS this period Sallull has in view in which I proceed to give the reader. " It ,is," fays he, '* only fome years fmce furious divifions arofe between the Senate and People, and faftions carried to the laft excefies on both fides and thcfe evils have no other origin than the leifure of peace, and the abundance of ail that men confider as Before the deflruc^ion of Cartheir greatell good, thage, the two bodies of the State, treating each other without violence and pafilon, were in good intelligence v/ith refpe6t to the management of affairs. Neither the love of glory, nor the defire of rule, armed the citizens againfl each other. The fear of When the enemy kept every thing within bounds. Rome was no longer under that check, licentioufnefs and pride, the ufual effefls of profperity, were Thus the tranquility aqd introduced into the city. leifure which adverfity had made her defire with fo much ardor, when Ihe had obtained it, became more The Nofatal to her than all the calamities of war. bility on one fide made their preheminence, and the people on the other their liberty, ferve as pretexts
:

...

6

.

for-

MINUCIUS, POSTUMIUS,
for their
unjuft the
pretenfions.

Confuls.

2^1
each
it all

So

that whilfl
in

A. R. 64'

aimed
to

at the maftery,

and was for engrofling
fituated

"J^^^

itlelf,

Commonwealth,

a

manner

between the two fa6lions, was torn in pieces by that For the reft, the party of the Nobility divifion. continuing always united, had molt ftrength whereas
:

that of the People, divided into an infinite

number

of heads, and not having any
iefs

common

tie,

was

much

war and peace, every thing paffed through the hands of a fmall number of the They had the difpofal of the publick reNobility. venues, of the governments of provinces, the great Whilft offices, honourable rewards and triumphs. the Generals divided the fpoils taken from the enemy with a few perfons, the People were depreffed under the fatigues of military fervice, and the miferies of poverty ; and it often happened, that the fathers or children of foldiers, if they had the misfortune to live in the neighbourhood of the Great, were driven out of their houfes, and deprived of the little lands
powerful.
in

Both

they had.

.

Thus avidity, continually inci"eafmg with Every power, knew neither bounds nor meafure. The Nobithing became the prey of the ftrongeft. lity violated the moft facred rules, and facrificed all things to the defire of gratifying themfelves, till by their exceiTes they drev/ upon them avengers out of their own bofom." By this Salluft means the Gracchi, of v/hofe views and after having related he fpeaks with great efteem " muft own, that their unhappy end, he adds the defire of getting the better of their adverfaries •carried them too far, and that they did not aft with For * it is better to be worfted moderation enough. with the right, than to overcome injuftice by bad means. The Nobility, on their fide, tyrannically abufing their vi6lory over the Gracchi, either put to the fword, or banifbcd, a great number of the citi.zens ; and by thofe violences made themfelves more
: :

We

* Sed boi>a vinci fatjus

eft,

quam mala more

injuriam vincere.

Q^ 4

dreaded,

.

23a

C^IblUS^ JUNIUS,
dreadied, than they

CitmMs:

A.

R.64.2. Ant. c.
*^-'

The ab^ fQimely reducing enemies at any price whatfoever, and after having fo reduced them, exercifing the utmoft
augmented
their power.

vengeance pofTible upon them, is,.what.occafions,the ruin of the moft powerful States," -Hi nt "^Idhcrmsjr It is remarkable that hiftorians, as if in concert, afcribe the ruin of manners and difcipline in Rome to its too great power, the increafe of its riches, and ta They luxury, the inevitable confequence of them. this fatal at the deftru6tion epocha of change the fix of Carthage. I have repeated in the hiftory of the third Punic war a pafTage from Velleius Paterculus, entirely conformable to w,h4t 3^^Uull,<?b|ervC5.shere^,,.^ return now to my fubjedr*. r.',rrT ^'Hv// r T>niv-t3H<"> ,?mn
.
.

A

R-643-

Q^C.tciLius Metellus,,.

.l-'UiV^' J

Hit

'^"00!^'

M. Junius

SiLANus.

^'j'^ir}^

i^-^rjv^A^

&
.11.!; ii

People * began to conceive great hopes of the wa(i? of Numidia, when the condu6t of it was given to That Conful had all the qualities that can Metelius. but particularly a perfecft, render a man eftimable and abfolutely incorruptible difmtereftednefs ; the mod effential quality at that time againft fuch an enemy as Jugurtha, who hitherto had made more ufe of money than the fword for conquering. The choice Metelius made of two excellent Lieutenant-Generals, Marius and Rutilius, confirmed the idea conceived and the happy prefages People formed in his favour And indeed, the beft to themfelves of his fuccefs. concerted defigns often mifcarry through the bad .choice of officers, when intrigue and cabal direds it. fhall foon give fome particulars of what relates to Marius. We.^af^ now going to follow the thread of our hiftory*
:
-,

We

.

* In Numidiam proficifcitur, magna (pecivium, cum proptei^'artes bonas, turn maximt-, quod adverHun divitias invicSlum animum gerebat &. avaiitiu magiliratuum ante id tempus in Nuinidia noitrse oWes -"> i'-y^''-'^^^ '•'** contufae, hoiliumque audtas erant,
.

'>eJii'..a7 fi;i

:

C^CILIUS,

JllNIU^S, Confuls;

2^^-

Metellus arrived in Africa, he found the A. R. 64.3' * army in a deplorable ftate, plunged in idlenefs, little "g" enured to war, fearing both danger and labour, more valiant in word than a<5tion, dreadful to the allies, contemptible to the enemy ; in a word, without either This difpofition of difcipline, rules, or obedience. the army gave the new General more pain than the number of the troops did confidence. Though he knew that Rome impatiently expe6ted the news of what pafled in Africa, he however refolved not to begin the operations of the war, till he had reformed the army according to the rules of the ancient difciHe * ad;ed in this like a man of fuperior gepline. nius, obferving a wife medium between exceifive rigour, and popular indulgence. The iirft orders which he gave, were in refpefl to retrench whatever conduced to intemperance and efHe forbade his foldiers to have either feminacy.
fervants to follow

When

camp or upon a march; and all perfons whatfoever to fell either f bread or meat ready drefl within the camp. As to every thing elfe, he reduced it, as
flaves or carriage-horfes in the
it
;

much

as poffible, to

the fmiply neceflary.

He

did

not keep his troops long in one place. He made them countermarch, and incamp and decamp continually. He obliged them to intrench themfelves with as muchcare as if they had always been in view of the enemy. He often relieved the guards, which he vifited in perfon with his principal officers, to keep every body In marching, he was feen every where, in their duty. in the front, the centre, the rear ; taking care that the foldiers fhould keep their ranks, march always vinder their colours, and carry both their arms and provifions. J By this means, he foon re-eftablifhed
* Sed in ea difficultate Metellum non minus,

quam
:

fapientem virum fuifTe comperior libus, magnum tia inter ambitionem fsevitiamque moderatiim.

&

in rebus hoftitanta imperan-

f Every foldier carried corn for twelve or fifteen days, and ground and made bread of it himfelf. X Ita prohibendo u deli^tis m^gis, quam vindicando exercitunx
brevi confirniavit.

difcipline.

234
A. R.
64-3-

C^CILIUS, JUNIUS,
difcipline,

Confuls.

making

ufe of an admirable principle; ra-

^lo

^

^^^^ ^^ prevent, than punifh, faults.

'

When Jugurtha was informed how Meteilns behaved, he was exceedingly anxious. Befides which, he had been told from Rome, that prefents would That refource be of no effedt with that General. failing, which had hitherto been of fuch fervice to him, it was neceffary to try other methods. He fent Deputies to Metelius, who afked no other conditions but life for that Prince and his children, adding, that for the reft, he fubmitted entirely to the Roman The Conful had already experienced that People. there was no truft to be repofed in the Numidians, who were naturally capricious, inconftant, and treacherous. He thought, that with a deceitful perfidious Prince, He it Was allowable to ufe fraud and ftratagem. founded his Deputies feparately, and finding them all inclined to do what he defired, he propofed, and effedlually perfuaded them, to deliver up Jugurtha to This condudl was little generous, jhim alive or dead. and ihews that in the times of which we are Ipeaking, the moftdeferving perfons had fome tinfture of the Metelius, the better to cover corruption of manners. his defign, gave the Deputies a favourable anlwer in publick, and room to amufe their mafter with good hopes. Some days after he fet out from the Roman province, that is, the part of Africa fubjeft to the Romans, and marched his army into Numidia. He found every thing there in the fame ftate as if there had been no war ; no houfes abandoned, the flocks and herds with their keepers, the hufbandraen in the midft of their fields, and the Prince's officers coming from the towns and villages to offer corn and provifions, and to do every thing they fliould be commanded. Metelius, notwithftanding, fpared nothing of his vigilance. He marched in the fame good order, and was no lefs upon his guard, than if the enemy were in view. In a word, he took all poflible precautions, knowing that thefe appearances of peace
might

;

C^CILIUS, JUNIUS, Confuls. 255 might cover ftratao-ems and ambufcades. And in- ^- ^' 64•^ Ant. c. <deed Jugurtha was of fuch ability and art, that it was hard to fay, whether he was more to be trufted at a diftance, than when near ; when he made war openly, or feemed to defire peace. Metellus continued his march, and arrived near a It was the greateft place of trade city called Vacca. Fie put a garrifon into it, either to in all Numidia, take the advantage of the place, or to know, by that
j

ftep,

the real difpofition of Jugurtha.
that

However, new envoys came perpetually from
Prince,

and, as before, offered to furrender every thing to the Romans provided they would grant himfelf and his children their lives. The Conful received them as he had the firft ; that is, perfuading them to betray their mafter after which, he fent them back to Jugurtha, without either promifing or refufmg him peace and in the intervals, he expefted the fuccefs of what he had negotiated with thefe envoys. The artificial Jugurtha perceived that his own example was followed againft himfelf, and that he was attacked with his own arms, that is, by flratagem and deceit ; as in reality Metellus's words did not agree with his aflions ; and at the fame time he was given hopes of peace, a cruel war was made againlt him. He therefore determined, as he had no other refource, to defend himfelf with arms. He affembled numerous forces, and obferving the march of the Romans, polled himfelf fo as to be able When they came to to attack them with advantage. a battle, the Numidians had the fuperiority at firft from the fituation of the place, where they lay in ambufh ; but the Romans foon refumed courage. The King and the Conful fliewed all the bravery and ability that could be expeded from two of the greateft Captains of thofe times. Metellus had the fuperior valour of the foldiers on his fide, but the difadvanEvery thing favoured Jugurtha^ tage of the place. jExcept the nature of his troops, which were much inearneftly
:

who

foUicited peace,

ferior

;

236
*

A.R. 645-ferior to the
^i©o

length valouf'^t^vailed, and the Conful remained mafter of the field of battle. At the fame time, and at a fmall diftance from thence, there was another aftion, between Bomilcar and Rutilius, and with the fame fuccefs fo that the Romans were entirely viftorious^.

GJECtLldbryy^ldS, Roman legions. At

Conffils-

Metellus encamped four days upon the place where he had given battle. He took care of the wounded, honoured thofe with gifts who had diflinguifhed themfelves in the adtion, highly praifed the whole army, and exhorted the troops to finifh the campaign with the fame courage ; adding, that they had done enough in refped: to viftory, and that all that remained was to gather the fpoils, which were the jull reward of it. However, he fent out fpies to know where Jugurtha was, what his defigns might be, what reminder of troops he had, and what afpe6t they had They brought advice, that he was after his defeat. retired into places covered with woods, and of difficult accefs ; and that he was raifmg an army there more numerous than the firft, but little enured to war, and compofed of hulbandmen and Ihepherds. It is no wonder that he was reduced to make new levies. Amongft the Numidians only thofe who formed the King's guards followed him in the defeat. All the reft difperfed as they thought fit, without being deemed criminal ; for that was the cuftom of the
nation.

When Metellus faw that he was upon the point of being obliged to begin a war again, in which he would have enemies to deal with, who always took ^advantages from the knowledge they had of the country, and who even, when defeated, loft lefs than the vidtors ; he conceived that it was necelTary for him to change his plan, and not to come to a battle. But he entered the richeft provinces of Numidia, ravaged the whole flat country, took and burnt abundance of towns and caftles little fortified and without garrifons, put all to the fword that were capable of bearing

C^CILIUS, JUNIUS,

Confuls.

25^

bearing arms i and for the reft he abandoned- every A. R. $4 j. The terror "^"^'f* thing to be plundered by the foldiers. which he fpread by thefe cruel hoftilities, occarioned Corn and hoftages to be fent him from all parts. munitions of all kinds were fent him in abundance,

according to his order, and ceived every where.

Roman

garrifons were re-

Jugurtha, more terrified by this new manner of making war, than the defeat which had preceded it,
courage, and had recourfe to He left the greateft part of his army in his camp, and with the flower of his cavalry, The better to furfollowed Metellus in the rear. prize him, he marched in the night, and through byways ; fo that whilft the Romans believed .him far diftant, and were difperfed in great numbers about the country, he fell fuddenly upon them with great Moll: of them Vv^ere unarmed. He killed vigour. Then, m.any, and took a great number of prifoners. with as much circumfpe6tion as valour, he retreated to the neighbouring hills with his Numidians, according to the defign he had formed, and the orders he had given before the battle. Whilft all this palled, the news of the Conful's firft It was heard with great fuccefs arrived at Rome. joy, that Metellus had reinftated the ancient difcipline in his army ; that he had gained a vi61ory in a difadvantageous poft ; that he was in polfeflion of and that Jugurtha, fo elate bethe enemy's country fore from the defeat of Aulus, now faw himfelf reduced to feek his fafety by flight. It was decreed by the Senate that folemn thankfgivings fhould be made to the gods, and the whole city univerfally praifed the merit of Metellus. This made the Conful more intent upon his duty. He knew that glory generates envy. The more rer putation he acquired, the more he laboured to fuftain He made hafte to terminate the war ; but howit. ever took no falfe meafures through impatience, and gave the enemy no room to take advantages. Since Jugurtha's

however did not

lofe

his ufual ftratagems.

-

-,

2^8

CiECILIUS, JUNIUS,

Confuls.

A.R.6A3. Jugurtha's laft liirprize, he did not fuffer his trooijs Ant. c. j.^ ftraggle. When it v/as neceffary to bring in fo-

rage or proviiions, thofe who were fent for them, were always fupported by a good body of infantry with all the cavalry. He had divided his forces he commanded one part of them himfelf, and gave the Thus there were always two bodies other to Marius. of troops, at a fmall diftance from each other. They joined when it v/as neceffary to give battle ; but without that, they kept different routes, in order to carry terror and defolation into a greater extent of counFor the reft, they burnt every thing in the try. country, and fcarce gave themfelves the trouble to plunder it. Jugurtha followed the Romans upon the hills, and fought times and places for attacking them with ad^ vantage. He laid wafte the country wherever he forefaw the enemy were to pafs. He burnt the forage, and fpoiled the water of the fprings, which are very He fometimes incommoded rare in thefe regions. He charged their Metellus, and fometimes Marius. rear-guards from time to time, and immediately after He made feints of fometimes atre2;ained his hills. then the other. Thus, without body, and one tacking form, he kept them in continual battle in hazarding a them, and breaking all harraffmg inceffantly alarm,
:

their meafures.

finding himfelf fatigued by the ftratawas obliged to think of Numidian, gems of the battle. But Jugurtha induftrioufly a coming again to him to it, Metellus refolved to avoided it. To force

The Conful

attack Zama, a very ftrong place, fituated in the weftern part of Numidia ; conceiving that Jugurtha would at any rate prevent the taking of fo important That a place, which might bring on an aftion. Prince, having difcovered the Conful's defign by deferters,

marched with

fo

much

diligence, that he

was

He went to Zama to exhort the there before him. inhabitants to make a good defence ; and to reinforce their garrifon, he left them all the Roman deferters in
his

C^CILIUS, JUNIUS,
his

Confuls,

2,^9=

army, entirely relying on their fidelity,, becaufe A.R.645, Be- ^^^- ^• they could expect no quarter from Metellus. °^° fides this, he promifed the people of that great city, that, at the proper time, he would not fail to come to their aid with powerful forces. After having thus given his orders, he retired into places out of the common way, watching the motions of the enemy. He was informed, that Marius was detached from the grofs of the army with fome cohorts to fetch in corn, and convoy it to the camp. He fell iliddenly upon him. But the valour of the Roman troops, and good conduft of their commander, prevented confufion and Jugurtha miffed
•,

his aim.

Marius arrived before Zama. It was a city fituated a plain, lefs fortified by nature than art, but well furnifhed with all things neceffary for fuftaining a fiege. Metellus invefled it, and having pofted each of his Lieutenant Generals, he affaulted the place. The Roman army, according to cuftom, began by raifing great cries on a fudden, and on all fides. The Numidians were not daunted by them. They feemed The attack was prepared to make a good defence. begun. The Romans difcharged abundance of darts and ftones. Sometimes they endeavoured to fap the wall, and fometimes to fcale it. They were eager to join the enemy, and come to blows with them. The befieged, on their fide, fhowered great pieces of ftone, beams, javelins, and melted pitch mixed with fulphur, upon them. Such of the Romans, who kept a diftance through fear, were not fafe from wounds. Darts either difcharged with the hand, or by ma* Thus chines of war, reached them every where. the cowardly fliared the danger with the moll valiant, but not the glory. Whilfl: they were fighting in this manner around the walls of the city, Jugurtha, well attended, came fuddenly on to attack the Roman camp, where noin
* Parique periculo, fed fama imparl, boni atque ignavi erant.

thing

240
*

CtECILIUS, JUNIUS,

Confuls.

A. R.643. thing was lefs expeded, and having pufhed the guardj he forced the gates. The troops were foon in dif^g

and wounded. The greateft part Metellus, who was aflaulting the place ardour, with hearing the noife of fighting behind him j immediately faced about, and faw the troops flying towards him. He infliantly detached all the cavalry to the camp, and made Marius follow with part of
order.
killed
fled.

Many were

the Latine infantry.
retired.

Jugurtha, on their approach^

next day, Metellus, before he gave a new afthe place, polled all his horfe around the lines he then advanced to Zama. Jugurtha returned to the charge. But as preparations had been made to give him a good reception, his attack did not interrupt the afiault v/hich the Romans were giving th^ place, who fought at the fame time on both fides with vigour. The befieged, from the top of the walls, faw all that paflTed round the lines, and with anxiety watched the advantages and difadvantages of JugurMarius, who remarked this from the fide where tha. he commanded, deflring entirely to turn their attenfault to
:

The

tion to the objeft

for

on which it already was partly fixed* fome time abated the efforts of his foldiers, as if defpairing of fuccefs. Then on a fudden he caufed the ladders to be planted, and attacked the walls with more vigour than ever. The Romans had almoft carried the parapet, when the inhabitants poured a This ftorm of fliones, fire, and darts upon them. was not all. Some of the ladders being broke, thofe who were on them were daflied to pieces in their fall* and the reft: got off as well as they could, moft: of them wounded. Night put an end to this affault, and alfo obliged Jugurtha to retire. Metellus confidering that the fummer drew towards an end ; that the city feemed ftill in a condition to defend itfelf a great while and that Jugurtha fought only by fkirmifhes and ambufcades ; re-,

folved to raife the fiege.
cities that

He put garrifoos into the had revolted from the King ; after which he
weJic

;

C7ECILIUS, JUNltrS, CbnMsl
\vent

.

... ^ut,
^

Upon

winter-quarters in the the; frontier of Niimidia.
into

Roman

province,

^^^;'^^'^' Ant. C. ic9.

did hot devote this interval to idlenefs jlnd pleafures, as other Generals often did and keeping
:

He

Jngurtha always

in view,

he formed new defigns for
'

effedually putting an end to 'the war.

He

would

have been highly praife- worthy if he had employed only honourable methods. But we have feen that he was not fcrupulous in that point. Every means for fucceeding was juft to him. He therefore propofed to furprize an enemy he could not reduce by force iand in order to that, to bring over thofe in whom he placed moft confidence, and to engage them to be^tray him. Bomilcar, who was the intimate confident of the King, feemed to Metellus more capable of ferving him in his defign than any other. He caufed propofals ro be made to him he had even a fecret interview v/ith him and as that Numidian had actually incurred the juflice of Rome, been profecuted as a criminal, as v/e have faid above, for the murder of Maffiva, and had efcaped by flight, the Conful promifed him, that if he would deliver up Jugurtha alive or dead, the Senate would not only pardon his crime, but affure to him the pofleffion of his whole Bomilcar fuifered himfelf to be eafily pereftate. whether his genius was naturally inclined to fuaded pbrddf, of that he feared, on the concluding of a peate, his puhifliment woiild be one of the con: :

;

ditions.
flip' the firft occafion that day, perceiving Jugurtha anxious about the prefent ilate of his affairs, he accoited him, "and with;

He

therefore did not let

offered.

One

" to take pity on himwhole Numidian nation, who hadferved him fo well. He reprefented to him, that the events of all their battles had been fatal to thetn that the country was laid wafte that great numbers had been killed and taken prifoners and tRat the whole kingdom was either impoverifhed or ruined. That he had made fufficient proof of the Vol. VI. valour R
tearsin
his'

eyes; conjured him,

felf,

his

children, and the

•,

,

;

;

242

CiECILIUS, JUNIUS,

Confuls.

A. R. 6+;3. valour of his people, and fufEciently tried fortune-*. Ant. c. 'pi^^j^ in a word, it was to be feared, whilil he was

deliberating,

that the Numidians would chufe for themfelves, and make an accommodation/* Jugurtha hefitated no longer. He difpatched Deputies to declare that the King made an entire fubmilTiOn, and refigned without condition, both himfelf and his kingdom to the faith and difcretion of Metellus.

The Conful immediately
:

aflembled

all

the per-

fons of the order of the Senators who were then with, him and in the council, which he held according to,

cuftom, with them, and fome others, whofe prefenc( he thought proper at this deliberation, it was decreed, that Jugurtha fhould pay two hundred thoufand pounds weight of filver, about five hundred thoufand pounds flerling that he fhould deliver up all his elephants, with a certain quantity of arms and horfes. When this was executed, Metellus again ordered him to fend him all the deferters in chains. Moft of
-,

the reft, as foon as v/ere aftually delivered up they were informed that Jugurtha intended to furrender himfelf, had efcaped to King Bocchus, in MauThey had done wifely. For Metellus rofe ritania. upon the rigour ufually exercifed againft deferters by

them

:

Many of them, as Appian tells us, he the Romans. caufed to be fixed in the ground to their middles, and in that condition to ferve as marks for arrows and darts, and then to have fires made around them, whilft they were ftili alive. When Jugurtha had been deprived in this manner of money, men, and arms, the Conful fent to him, to come in perfon and receive the orders which were At that moment, all the horror of to be given him. crimes prefenting itfelf to his imagination, his pafi
he began to fear, that the Romans would inflid the punilhmcnt upon him he dcferved. Full of thefe fad thoughts, he -was feized with terrible agitations and There was no retreat from the confufion of mind. To refume diftrefs to which he faw himfelf reduced. arms after all the blows he had fuftained, and in the defencelefs

'

;

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,
^encelefs condition he

ConRiis.
all

243
things A.
R. 64-5.
*"'

was

in,

leemed of

the leall pra6licable.

wretched

Itate

thoughts alone of tlie into which he was about to fall, from

The

^"^^'

the throne into flavery, made him tremble. After having pafled fome days in thefe cruel uncertainties, he at length determined to renew the war.

Servilius Sulpicius Galea*

A-R-

^44.

M. AuRELIUS SCAURUS.
Metellus was continued in the command of the in Numidia, with the charafter of Proconful. Jugurtha prepared for war with great attention^ without lofmg a moment's time. He alTembled his endeavoured, either by hope or fear, to bring troops

Ant. C.
loS,

army

',

which had quitted his party, to put thofe which had not revolted, into a condition of "defence ; caufed the old arms to be mended, and new to be bought ; follicited the flaves of the Romans, and even the foldiers, with money and fpared nothing that could conduce to a good

back the

places^

their duty

;

defence.

have faid that Metellus, in the beginning of the preceding campaign, put a garrilbn into Vacca* The principal inhabitants, at the King's earneit re-

We

and befides having always been well difpofed regard to him, formed a confpiracy againft the Romans. It broke out upon the day of a folemii feftival, when all the city were making merry, and the burghers had invited all the officers of the earriThe maflacre was general. fon to entertammcnts. All the Roman officers and foldiers in the place were Only Turpilius, the Governor of the butchered.
queil,
in

city,

found means to efcape.
of
fet

The news
tellus.

He

this maffacre extremely afflifled Meout at fun-fet with the legion that was

cavalry.

with him in winter-quarters, and 2.11 his Numidian The defire of revenging fo cruel a treachery, and the hopes of plunder, made them fupport the fatigue of a forced march with great fpirit. They

R

2

arrived

:

244
A. R.
644..

'

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,

Confuls.

arrived about three in the morning before the city, ^"08^' which expctled nothing ib little. The puniHiment in Every a manner trod upon the heels of the crime. The place, which thing Vila's put to fire and fword.

was very rich, was abandoned to the foldiers. Turpilius was then cited before the council of war, as fufpeded of treafon, and holding intelligence with The the inhabitants of Vacca, who had fpared him. and he defended himfelf cafe was not in his favour Accordingly, though he was the particular friend ill. of Metellus, who did his utmoft to fave him, he was condemned to be whipt with rods, and to lofe his
-,

head.
It was on this occafion, that the mifunderftanding between Marius and Metellus broke out. Marius was violent for the condemnation of Turpilius only And lome time becauie, the General protected him. aft<!r, the innocence of that unfortunate officer appearing, when every body declared the fhare they had in the ProconfuTs grief, Marius took a malicious pleafure in infulting him, and boafting of having drawn down the wrath of the gods, aveno-ers of the violated rights of hofpitality, upon the head of Me-

tellus.
Pint.
iii

Mar.

The * origin of this enmity was of a prior date. Marius, who was confcious of his fuperior merit, with which he united unbounded ambition, when Metellus had chofe him one of his Lieutenant-Generals, did not confider himfelf as obliged to the Conful for an important employment, but as placed by
fortune on a great theatre, where his talents might
'

iliine forth,

and raife him to whatever was highefl of labouring, like the other officers, for and inftead glory, he toak no pains but for his own the General's acquire endeavouring to efteem, and to turn the eyes upon himfelf, in order tliereby to raife of the army himfelf to the Confullhip, which was the height of I believe it will not be diiaG-reeable to liis wiffics. &
-,

* This account of the begiunings of MariuS;

is

the editor's,

the

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS, Confub.

245
*

64.J. the reader, if, after Plutarch, I brief account of the firft years, and rife of a man, who ^ "^'g^ is going to have a great and illuflrious part in our hiftory, and is equally famous for his virtues and vices, for profperity and adverfity. Marius was, as every body knows, a foldier of fortune, born * of very indigent and obfcure parents. The place of his birth was Arpinum, or fome village in the territory of that city. He paffes in hiftory for a native of Arpinum ; and Cicero, who was of the fame town, in more than one place, takes great honour, to himfelf from fuch a countryman, and boafts the glory of his native city, which had given two de- Cic.de ^^S-^^- ^• liverers to the Commonwealth, Marius and himfelf. The education of Marius fuited the fortune of his parents. They worked for their living, as he alfo did, during the firft years of his youth, as a day'l•

give in this place a A.R.

labourer in huftDandry. It is eafy to judge from thence, that he had no tin6lure of the Greek letters: and afterwards, when he was fettled at Rome, he affefted to defpife what he did not underftand. Engrofled by the ambition of power, he even thought it ridiculous to ftudy the arts and fciences of a people who were
in fubjeclion to a foreign yoke. He had however, fays Plutarch, great need to facrifice to the Grecian graces and mufes and if he had learnt by the ftudy of phiiofophy and the polite arts, to foften the ferocity of his character, and to m.oderate his paffions, he would not have diflionoured the moft glorious military exploits, and the moft important fervices rendered his country, by perpetrating cruelties and barbarities, that give horror only to hear them nam.ed. But even in the moft fliinino; and moft glorioiis times of his life, a kind of rufticity and ferocity

adlually

:

* Velleius
elfewhere
origin.
(i.

is

the only one
(1. ii. c.

.Roman Knights
ii.

22.)

c.

128.)

know, th:^t makes Marius defcend from Nor does lie agree v.-itii himfelf for he gives him ai\ obfcure and unknown'
I
j

f Arpinas

alius Volfcoruna in monte folcbat Pofcere mercedts, alieno iaffas arairo. Jvv, Sat.

8.

R

3

was

24^
A.R.
64+.
'

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,
^as always remarkable
gooii ^s
in

Confuls,

him.

He

had
:

all

th?

108.

well as

all

the bad of a ruftick education.

His manners were always rude and grofs but he * was Ibber, auftere, inured to labour and fatigue, de^ fpifing riches and pleafures, and only greedy of glory. As to the probity afcribed to him by Salluft, he could only have deferved that praife by the regularity of his manners. For he never knew either integrity, fmcerity, or

gratitude,

whan

were

in

qucftion.

He

the purfuit of his views was a man that had but one

pafllon, the defire

of aggrandizing hjmfelf, to which

he never made any fcruple to facriiice every thing. it was this ambition, that made him quit the plough, to take up the profeflion of arms, by which He had the good lie was in hopes of raifmg himfelf. He made fortune to be formed by a great mafter. his firft campaigns at the fiege of Numantia, under

That great man, who fpared no Scipio Africanus. pains to know his foldiers, and had the greateft penetration with the mofV unerring judgment, diflinguiflied young Marius from the reft. He obferved, that he gave more readily than any one into all the reformaof

camp, and the re-eftablilhment of his bravery on an occafion w^herein Marius killed an enemy in his fight. In confeqiience, he attached him to himfelf by praifes and honourable rewards and it is even faid, that :Scipio being one day at fupper with feveral officers, the difcourie happening to turn upon Generals, one of the company, either to make his court to him, or in fimple fincerity afked him, who was the perfon capable of fucceeding him } Scipio, ftriking Marius foftly on the llioulder, faid. Perhaps this will be the man. If this fadt be true, it undoubtedly proves, as
tions he
in his

made

dilcipline.

He

w^as a witnefs

:

Pkitarch obferves, a great fuperiority of genius, both in him who fo early appeared lb great, and in the perfon lyho from the firft beginning judged fo well of
* TiiduIlrSa probltas

—animus

lubidii\is Sc cliYitiarum

victor,

tan-

tumniodo glori* avid us,

tJALLu jt,

the

'

'fhe

ISULPlCrUS, AURELIUS, CorJuls. 247 The hiftorian adds, that this faying ofA. R. 644. future.
"^g_

Scipio's was catched up by Marius as an oracle, which exalted his courage, and emboldened him to •enter the path that led to honours and offices. He was at firfl Tribune of the foldiers and Salluft * obferves, that when he was chofen into that office by the People, his adions alone follicited in his favour. For he had appeared much more in camps and armies than in the Fo'um ; and moft of thofe who voted for him, did not fo much as know him by
:

fight.

He afterwards became Tribune of the People the 633d year of Rome, not without having before expeixienced a refufal, according to Valerius Maximus,
who
even
fays, that

Vai.Max.
^'

he had received the fame affront ^'' in his little tovv^n of Arpinum, where he could not But nothing w?- capable obtain any municipal office. and the confcioufnefs of his of difconcerting him own merit, joined with his ambition, fupported him -againfl all the events that were molt capable of difcouraging him. He was affifted in attaining the office of Tribune by the credit of one Metellus, to whofe houfe himfelf and his forefathers had been attached
•,

many

years.
i"

Salluft

fays, that in all the inferior offices, thro'

which Marius pafTed, he afled fo as to fhew himfelf worthy of the greateft. This he particularly confirmed in his Tribunefhip, in which he adled with a
dignity, conftancy, and loftinefs, above his prefent condition and fortune. His great exploits afterwards, and moft fplendid profperity, could fcarce have infpired him with a more noble pride. He propofed a law, which inftituted a new pre-

^

caution againft cabals in the alTemblies of the People,
• Stipendiis faciundis, non Graeca facundia, neque urbanis mundiexercuit Ergo uhi primiim Tribunatum militarem a populo petit, pleriique faciem ejus ignorantibus, facile (or rather fa6tis) aiotus per omnes tribus declaratur. f Semper in poteltatibus eo mode agitabat, ut ampliore quam gerebat dignus baberetur.
tiis fele

R

4.

and

248
A. R.
644.
*

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,
and
in the

Confuis:

manner of giving

fuffrages.

This law

dif-

^^"oof

pl^afed the Senators, whofe credit it leemed to abridge 5 and the Coniul Cotta pafied a decree in the Senate, for citing Marius to give reafons for his conduct. He

obeyed, and appeared before that anguft alTembly, not as a fubaltern, that was to jnftify himfelf before and fuperiors, but as a mafter, that gives the law that, the Conful, if the which had to decree declared cancelled, not were he would commit iufc pafied, They were not much terrified by. him to prifon. that menace, and Metellus, who gave his opinion Upon that, Marius made firft, feconded the Conful. his Serjeant enter, and ordered hirn to feize Metellus, and carry him to prifon. Metellus implored the aid of the other Tribunes, but ineffedtually. The Senate was obliged to give way, and the law pafied. This vigorous aftion did the Tribune great honour and the People confidered him as a defender, ready to,
•,

:

efpoufe their party on
nate.

all

occafions againfi: the Se;

They were miftaken

and had foon proof

of

it.

One of his Collegues brought on a law for difi:ribntion of corn to the citizens. Marius rofe up againft this largefs, and continuing firm to the laft, preBy this condu6t, vented the law from being pafied. he made himfelf equally efteemed by both parties, as not feeking to pleafe either the one or the other, and having the publick good folely in view. After the Tribunefiiip, he ftood for Curule ^Edile. But, as * Valerius Maximus obferves, he could only make his way into the Senate by dint of fufi^ering many repulfes. The adventure is fingular, ^nd without example. When he faw he was upon the point of lofing the Curule ^dilefiiip, he renounced it But the fame day the Plebeian through necefllty. were eleded. He offered himfelf for this feiEdiles to the other and was again recond charge inferior
:

* Patientia repulfurum irruplt

magis

in

Curiam quam

vejiit.

Val.

Max.

vi. 9.

je(5led.

jelled.

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS, Confuls; Thus he was the only Roman that had

249
ever A. R.
644*
*

He however experienced two repuh'es in one day. loft nothing of his hanghtinefs or hopes, and foon after ftood for the Prstorlhip. He was not rejeded ; but was very near it. For of the fix Prsetors, which were elefted, he was the laft chofen, and not without great diinculty. He was prefently after accufed of cabalhng. I have fpoke above of Caffius Sabaco, who was noted by the Cen^^ As to Marius, he fupported fors on this occafion. the hazards of a trial with his ufual loftinefs. The accufers having demanded that Herennius fliould be heard as a wjtnefs, the latter pretended, that he ought to be difpenfed with, as Marius and his relations
were
his clients.
It

j^j^

,

was the

intereft

of the accufed

to fuffer the thing
;

to pafs in this

manner without

noife and to fpare himfelf a witnefs againft him. But that his pride could not admit. He role up, and declared, he was not any perfon's client, from the moment he had been a magiitrate. This however, as Plutarch remarks, was not ftriftly true. For only the Curule officers difcharged clients from their dependance upon their patrons. Now Marius had not yet filled a Curule chair. However it were, the affair at firft went very much againft him. But at laft, the

judges being divided in their fuffrages, he thereby elcaped condemnation, and continued in pofteflion of
the Prstorftiip.

He

exercifed

it

great reputation.
robbers.

the 63 7th year of Rome with no The next year he was fent into

Hifpania Ulterior, where he chaced fome troops of

At his return to Rome, as he had neither riches nor eloquence, he wanted the two advantages which at that time attracted moft confideration. However, the virtues of ancient times, which were feen to ihine out in him, a lofty foul, a courage fuperior to all fatigue and danger, a perfect fimplicity in his way of living, and, in a word, his feverity of manners, did not fail to make him honoured. He married at this
time,

£5^

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,

Confuls.

A- R. 644.. time, and made a good alliance, his v/ife being Julia? vvho was Casfar's aunt; and this was the firft ^l^^^' '
'

engagement that brought Caefar

into

the popular

fadion. Plutarch gives us here a remarkable inftance of Marius's courage in fuffering pain. He had fwollen
veins (varices) which disfigured his legs, and refolved

In confequence, he had one of to have them cut. them treated by a furgeon, whom he would not permit to tie him, and lufFered the operation without moving, or crying out in the leaft, with a calm counThe pain was howtenance and profound filence. ever cruel, (fome fay it was fearing with hot irons) and he would not fuffer the furgeon to operate upon faying, that the cure was not worth the other leg Thus, fays * Cicero, he bore pain like a the pain. nian of courage-, but thought it was not confiftent with human nature to fuffer it unneceffarily out of
-,

i

choice.

Marius had pafied five years fince his Prastorfliip, without making any new advances towards foruine. The queftion with him now was to attain the ConfulBut the Nobility barred the entrance to it fiiip. They fometimes permitted them againft new men. the other offices in but they referved this to lliare
:

fupreme dignity to tliemfelves, which they would have thought difgraced, if it had fallen into the nands of a man of mean birth. Metellus, againft his in-

Marius with the means of forcing this barrier, by making him his Lieutenant-General in This was putting him into the army of Numidia. his own element and in this employment he behaved in the moft proper manner to deferve univerfal efteem and admiration. No labour or danger, though ever fo great, were capable of difmaying him ; nor any uietul funftion fo low and minute as to be difdained by him. He took place of all of his own rank by
tention, fupplied
:

Ita

&

tulit do'.orem, ut vir

:

& ut homo majorem
53.

fcrre fine caufa

.acccllaria noluit.

Tulc. Quscll.

;i,

prudence.

:

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,
in

Confuls:

25 r

A. ^^•^«prudence, and fuperiority of views ; and for fimplicity ' vyed ^^3^ eating and drinking, and patience in fatigues,

with the meaneft of the foldiers and thereby he made For, fays * Plutarch, himfelf extremely beloved. nothing confoles thofe who are- obliged to undergo great fatigues, than feeing others Ihare voluntarily in them. This in fome meafure removes their neceffity Accordingly, the moft agreeable and conftraint. Roman foldiers, was a General the to fights all of
:

eating

brown bread with them, lying upon leaves, and lending a hand in opening a trench, or fixing the They did not efteem the commanders fo palifades. much who fhared glory and riches, as thofe who condefcended to Ihare in fatigues, with them and to
:

fhare in labours with them was a more certain means idle. to gain their affedion, than to fuffer them to be

Such was the condud of Marius and this method of attaining the Confulfhip had undoubtedly been highly laudable, if he had not added dark contri:

vances,

bad pradlices, and at length declared enmity againft a General of the greateft merit and virtue, and one to whom he had obligations. Metellus indeed did give him fome caufe of comThat General had excellent qualities but he plaint. proud, haughty, and contemptuous ; a fault was
:

very

t common

to the Nobility.

Marius therefore afked to be difmifled the permiflion to go to Rome, to (land for the and fervice, ConfuKhip, Metellus feemed amazed at that propofal, as a as at fomething extraordinary, and advifed him friend, " not to embark in fo ftrange an enterprize, and form defigns above his condition. He told him, firfl that it did not fuit every body to afpire at the

When

t Inerat contemptor animus, lum. bALLUST.
/;

&

fuperbia,

commune

Nobilitati5

ma-

offices

T^
A. R.
'544*
'

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,
offices
:

Confuls:

^lo'sf

^^^ fortune

ought to be fufficiently fatisfted with and laftly, that it would argue prudence in him not to demand that of the People, which would draw upon him the fhame of a juft repulfe. That for the reft, he would difcharge him, as foon as the pubAs he found himfelf exlick affairs would admit." tremely perplexed by Marius, who afterwards repeated the fame demand, he anfwered him with infuit, " That he fliould not be in fuch hafte to fet out That it would be time enough for him to for Rome Confulfhip, when his own fon fhould do fo." the afk young Mecellus, who then ferved under his faThis only twenty years ther, was old ; and a perfon could forty-three. not be Conful till So declared a contempt only ferved to increafe the ftrong defire Marius had to attain the Confulfhip, and to exafperate him againft his General. He * hearkened from thenceforth to nothing but his refentment and ambition, evil and dangerous counfellors. His fole care in the winter-quarters, where he commanded, was to gain the foldiery, by abating in the fe verity of the difcipline,,and treating them with more
that he
:
:

than

common

indulgence.

Befides which, as there

were a great number of Roman merchants at Utica, he never ceafed decrying Metellus to them, as a man of greater lliew than merit ; whofe pride was infupportable, and who exprefsly fpun out the war, to have
the pleafure of
eafily take

commanding
in a

the longer.

That

as for

himfelf, with half the troops Metellus had, he could

Jugurtha

bound hand and
were weary of
all,

foot to

the greater imprefTion
as well foldiers as

few days, and bring him Rome. This difcourfe made upon thefe merchants, as they

Thus,merchants, in hopes of feeing the war foon terminated under another General, in
a v/ar that ruined their trade. their
letters to

their friends

at

Rome, made

great

complaints of Metellus, and highly extolled the merit of Marius.
* Ita cupidine atque
ira, peflupjis

confultoribus, ginfTari.

Faftious

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,

Confuls.

255
*

Fa6lious perlbns make ufe of every aid. Mariiis A- ^- ^44. Nnmidian even a Prince, named Gaiida, gained to "^g^ his interefts ; he was Mafiniffa's grandfon by ManaHe allured him by the hopes of the kingdom liabal. of Numidia, which could not fail of being his, as foon as Jugurtha fhould be killed, or taken. The fpirit of that Prince was damped by great and contiBefides which, he was diffatisfied with nual ficknefs. Metellus, who had refufed his fervices upon feveral chimerical and ridiculous pretences. Ganda in effedl was eafily perfuaded by Marius, and joined thofe who follicited the Confulfhip for him. In the mean time Jugurtha found himfelf in danger of being deftroyed by the artifices of the Roman General, and the treachery of feme of the principal per-

have faid before, that Bomilbrought over by Metellus, had advifed that Prince to furrender to the Romans. Jugurtha having only followed that counfel in part, and ftopt juft when it was to be put in final execution, conceived a diftruft of the perfon who had given it him. Bomilcar difcerned this ; and to prevent the revenge of a violent Prince^ who fpared nobody, was refolved to compleat his work, and to fave his own life by killing his mafter. He brought a Numidian Lord into his deiign, who was highly confidered by his country, on account of his birth, employments, and riches, and in great efteem with the King. Unhappily for them the conlpiracy was difcovered it cofl: Bomilcar his life the juft reward of his perfidy. But the alarm which a confpiracy, formed by the deareft and moft intimate of his confidents, gave Jugurtha, afi^efted him fo much, that he had no longer a moment's tranquillity. He thought himfelf lafe no
fons of his court.
car,
:
•,

We

wliere.
all

The

made him

night, the day, the citizen, the ftranger, tremble. He never flept but by ftealth,

frequently changing his apartment and bed, without regard to the decorum of his rank. Sometimes ftarting up, he would feize his arms and raife great cries,
fo

much had

fear got the better of his reafon.

When

254
A. R.
644*

SULPICIUS, AURELIUS,

ConfuU.

When

Metellus knew, by the report of defertefs^

^^^^ ^^^ confpiracy had been diicovered, and Bomilcar ^il'i^' put to death, he prepared to renew the war. Marius continually demanded to be difmifled. As he

much fervice from a mart who believed himfelf injured, and was difagreeable to him,
Gould not hope
at length permitted him to retire. Marius was received at Rome by the People with great marks of efteem and affedion. What had beeri wrote thither from Africa, had made great imprelTion The high birth of Metellus, which in his favour. had before acquired him refped, ferved no longer' and, on the con^ but to excite enmity againft him trary, the obfcurity of Marius's extraftion recommended him to the People, who thought themfelves defpifed in the contempt exprefled for that new man, The Tribunes, on their as the Nobility termed him. fide, laboured inceffantly to animate the People, and never harangued, without giving Marius the greatelt For praifes, and loading Metellus with reproaches. it was not by the good or bad qualities of the reft, either the one or the other, that the affair was determined cabal, and the fpirit of party, were the Iblc

he

•,

:

motives in

it.

The credit of the Nobility was very much funk^ fmce many of them had been condemned, as vve
have feen, for the crimes of peculation and extortion, and the power of the People much augmented. This appeared fully in the eledion of Confuls. The People declared openly for Marius, and, what had not happened for many years, * a new man was elected L. CafTius Longinus was given him into this office. This was not all at the requeft of for Collegue. one of the Tribunes, the command of the army of Numidia, v/hich had been continued by the Se-' nate to Metellus, was conferred by the People upon Marius.
:

* Qi Pompcius is believed to have been the laft new man, tended the Coniulrtiip four and thirty years before.

who

at»

We

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls,
:

^55
A. R-i+i.

We now fee the new Conful fatisfied and triumphant

but he attained all this greatnefs folely at the expence ^[^^^' of probity and gratitude. It will not perhaps be difagreeable to give Cicero's opinion of fuch a conduct a He begins with a brief account of the inplace here. trigues and artifices ufed by Marius to difcredit Me" He * was at length ele<fted telTus ; and then adds Conful ; but he departed fronj the rules of honour and jultice, in calumniating an excellent and illuftrious citizen, who had made him his Lieutenant General, Can we, fays he, aftpr this confider him as an honefl
:

the motive of intereft,. and defraud others of their Is there upon earth any adCertainly, No. right vantage, however defirable it may appear, for which it is allowable to facrifice the name and repute of an honeft m^an ^ Wherein will this imagined utility compenfate the lofs fuftained by renouncing juilice and probity ? Is it not transforming one's felf into a brute beaft, when under the form of a man are concealed the avidity and violence of a brute ?" Could the moft fevere cafuift exprefs himfelf with greater energv ?
?

man

Can an honeft man, from

lye, calumniate, deceive,
.?

C. Marius.
J-..

A.R.e+j.
Aiit.C.
107.

LASSIUS.

Metellus did not yet know what had pafled at not doubting but that he {hould be continued in the command in Numidia, he applied to the war with vigour.

Rome, and

quidem Conful, fed a fide juftitiaque difceflit, qui graviffimum civem, cujus legatus fuerat, in invidiam falfo crimine adduxerit. Poifumufne Marium virum bonum judicare ? Cadit ergo in virum bonum, mentiri emolumenti fui causa, criminari pra?ripere, fallere ? Nihil profedo minus. Eft ergo ulla res tanti, aut commodum ullum tam expetendum, ut viri boni & fplendorera & nomen amittas. Quid eft quod afferre tantum utilitas ifta, quas 4icitur, poHlt, quantum auferre, fi boni viri nomen eripuerit, fidem juftitiamque detraxerit ? Quid enim iutereft utrum ex homine fe quis conferat in belluam an in hominis figura immanitatem gerat belluK ? Cic. de Offic. iii. 79, 81, 2z,
eft ille

* Faclus

optimum

&

Jugurtha

25^
A.R.645.
'

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls,

^o'

.

Tuo;urtha havino- loft his friends, mofi: of whoni he had put to death himfelf, and had reduced the reft to take refuge either amongft the Romansjj or with Bocchus, King of Mauritania, was in ftrange perplexity. He could not make war alone, and without officers. And having lately experienced the perfidy of his old fervants, how could he rely upon the fidelity of fuch as were but jiift entered into his ferHe vice ? Every thing was fufpicious to him. Sometimes .changed his route and officers every day. he feemed to intend to feek the enemy, and fometimes he retired into his iblitudes. He often fled,
.

.

coming to a upon the fidelity nor valour of his fubjeds. Wherever he turned his thoughts and defigns, he could fee nothing that was not
and foon
battle.

after exprefied impatience for

He

relied neither

finifter.

Whilft he was flu6tuating in thefe uncertainties, Metellus appeared on a fudden v/ith his army. Jugurtha, in this furprize, drew up his troops in as good order as the little time he had would admit. The battle began, and in the place where the King was there was fome refiftance. All the reft gave way, and were routed at the firft charge. The Romans remained mafters of the colours and arms but they
•,

took few prifoners, becaufe moft of the Numidians efcaped by flight. For, fays * Salluft, that they
better how to do, than to fight. After this defeat, Jugurtha again defpaired of the fuccefs of his affairs. He fied to the deferts with the From thence he redeferters, and part of liis horfe, paired to Thala, a great- and rich city, where he kept moft of his treafurcs, and his children were educated. Though, in order to arrive there, it was necelTary to crois fifteen leagues of a fandy country without water, Metellus followed him thither, in hopes of terminating the war by the conqueft of that
*

know much

Nam

ferme Nujuid^s iu omnibus

prjeliis

magis pedes

quam arma

tutata funt.

place,

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls.

257
^^' ^'

place, and caiifed water to be carried thither in leathern A. R. 645.

bags. The fudden arrival of Metellus extremely furThat prized both Jugurtha and the inhabitants. Prince, feeing that nothing was capable of flopping the Roman General, efcaped by night from Tliala, carrying with him his children, and the greateft part of his treafures. The flight of the King did not preit v/as vent the city from making a good defence
:

107.

The fiege very well fortified both by art and nature. continued forty days, at the end of which the Romans, after many fatigues and dangers, made themBut they loft the whole felves mailers of the place. plunder of it. The deferters, feeing that the rams had made a breach in the waHs, and they had no rcfource left, carried the gold, filver, and every thing of moft valu^ in the city, into the King's palace. There, after filling themfelves with wine and good cheer, they {et fire to the palace, and deftroyed themthereby felves with every thing there in the flames condemning themfelves to a greater punifhment, than they could have apprehended from their enemies. Jugurtha, after the taking of Thala, feeing that nothing could withOiand Metellus, removed, with few followers, through great deferts, into the country of the Getuli, a favage and barbarous people, who He did not fo much as know the name of Roman. degrees keep them, to aflembled accuft:omed them by their ranks, follow enfigns, execute the orders of their com.mander, and, in a word, to perform all the duties of war. On another fide, he fupported himfelf v/i:h the alliance of Bocchus. That Prince, at the beginning of the; war, had fent Ambafladors to Rome, to demand to be received into the alliance of the Roman People. This was a confiderable advantage in refped to But the avathe war undertaken againft Jugurtha. this affair of made rice a fmall number of Senators mifcarry ; whether they were bribed by Jugurcha's pioney, or were for making Bocchus buy the alliance of the Commonv/eakh. For Salluft is not very
-,

-

Vol. VI.

^

S

expllcuc

,

2^S
A- R.64-J. explicit
" "^*

MARIUS, CASSIUS,
^'

Confuls.

upon this head. This refufal had prejudiced King of Mauritania againft the Romans, and made him the more ready to hearken to the folhcitations of
the
his

kindred and friends, who, gained by the Numihim to unite with him. Befides which, Jugurtha was his fon-in-law. But indeed, thefe alhances had no great weight with the African
dian, determined,

Princes,

who had many

wives.

The two Kings

They agreed upon a place for joining their armies. Jugurtha there gave each other their faith in form-. animated Bocchus, by rcprefenting to him,, " That the Romans were the mcft unjull people upon^ earth, of infatiabie avarice, enemies to all manThat as it was kind, and in particular to all Kings. ambition alone that made them arm, they fucceflively attacked all Kings and States, now him (Jugurtha), heretofore Perfeus and the Carthaginians, and as fooii
Bocchus himfelf." allied Kings marched" together towards the city of Cirta, where Metellus had' laid, up his plunder, and kept his prifoners and the baggage of Jugurtha judged,, that taking the city his army. or that,, if the Romans would be a great blow
as pofllble

The two

;

fhould

come

to

which he much
fignal action, to

defired.

there would be a battle, For his view was, by fome engage Bocchus on his fide in fuch a
its

relief,,

manner,
recede.

as

fhould

make k

impofllble for

him

to

Meteilus having received advice of the alliance and jundion of the two Kings, marched to incamp near the city of Cirta, and took care to- intrench himfelf His defign was not immediately to offer well there. Jugurtha battle, as k had been his cuflom before. He thought it neceffary to change his conduft, in order to know previoufly to all things what kind of enemies the nev/ ones were, who had lately joined the others ; after which he would be more capable of taking his advantages in a battle. It was here that he received the news that Marius was appointed to fucceed him he knew before, that
:

he

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls.

259

he had been chofen Conful. Whatever force ofA.R 64.5. mind Metellus had in other refpe6ls, he could not ^"'^" ^" fupport this unforefeen ftrokc^ which made him llied tears, and fay things little worthy of fo great a m..n. It wa'? indeed a mortifying thing, to have an allnoil certain viftory, which he had fo much advanced, torn out of his hands. But what affe6led him moft, was that the honour of it fhould be transferred to his enemy. For, had the command been taken from him to be given to any one but Marius, he would have been
under, prevented him vigour befides which he thought it madncfs for him to forward an enterprize at his own peril, of which another was to have ail the advantage and glory. He contented himfelf with reprefenting to Bocchus by his envoys, " That he Ihould not make himfelf an enemy of the Roman People without caufe That he had a fair occafion of making an alliance and amity with Rome, v/hich were much preferable to war for him. That, whatever confidence he might have in his forces, it was not prudent to hazard certainty for uncertainty. That it was eafy to engage in a war, but often highly difficult to extricate one's felf out of it. That the entrance of it was open even to the moll cowardly, but to quit it depended only on the viftor. That therefore he fhould maturely confider what fuited him and his kingdom ; and not compound his prefent fiourilhing fortune with the unhappy fate of Jugurtha." Bocchus replied, " That peace was his defire ; but that he pitied Jugurtha's niisfortunes ; and that if Metellus thought fit to make' his ally the fame offers as had been made to himfelf, all parties would foon come to an agreement." The General fent again to Bocchus, who approved fome of the propofals made to him, and rejedted others. Thefe negotiations took up time, and prevented both fides from adtiqg, as Metellus defired.

much lefs fenfibly affliJled. The concern Metellus was
his ufual

from afting with

-,

:

S

2

SECT.

s

^66

CONTENTS.
SECT.
arrives in Africa.
III.

Maritis prepares every thing for his departure. He harangues the People. He fets out from Rome, and Metellus
is

perfectly well received
is

at Rome.

The honour of a triumph
accufation

granted him.

Upon an

to of examine the journal of his adminiflrat ion. Maritis begins by forming and enuring his troops for war. He He hefieges and takes Capfa, a place of importance. hefieges a caflle which was thought impregnable, and is

extortion, his judges refufe

almofi difcouraged by the difficulties he finds at
'

it.

A

Ligurian climbs up the rocks, and gets to the top of He reafcends it again with a fmall detachthe fort.

ment given him by Marius.

'The detachment enters the

Sylla arrives in fort, and the place is taken. character that Birth and famous Roman. of

the camp.

jcins Jugurtha with his troops.

Bacchus They attack Marius, and have fome advantages at firfi. They are afterwards dtfeated and put to the rout. Marius^ s care in marching. New battle, in which the Romans are again victorious. Bacchus fends Deputies to Marius, and then to Rome. Marius, on the injlances of Bocchus, fends
di livers

-

Sylla to him.

up Jugurtha
:

into

After much flu^uation, he SylWs hands. The latter

afcribes the glory

Marius* of this event to himfelf. Detached of Jugurtha. Facts. Cenforfhip of Scaurus. The fon of Fabius Servilianus bamfhed the city, and then put to death by triumph
miferable end
his father for his infamous conduEl.

The fon of Fabius
Singular cha-

Allobrogicus interdicted by the Free tor.
raster of T. Albucius.

His vanity.

He

is

condemned

for extortion.

Scaurus accufed before the People, and ac(iuitted not without great difficulty. The Tribune Domitius transfers the ele^icn of Pontiffs and Augurs
to the People.

J

WHILST

;

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls.

261

WHILST
rius

thefe things pafled in Africa,

Ma- a. R. 645.
^^^^- ^•
''*

took extreme care to provide every thing that was necelTary for the war configned to him. He levied recruits for the legions ; and demanded auxiliary troops of the Allies, States, and Kings he invited the braveft of the Latines to join him, and even perfuaded thofe who had ferved out their time in war, and been difcharged, to follow him in this expedition. Every body was eager to give in their names for ferving under him. They allured themlelves of victory, and did not doubt but they fhould return laden with booty. This declared zeal for Pv^arius mortified the Nobility very much. On his fide, he treated them with haughtinefs, dipt no occafion for attacking and decrying them pubiickiy, and boafred frequently, that the Confulfbip was a trophy he had gained over the effeminacy and worthleflhefs of the Nobility. The vehemence of his harangues to the People may be
:

'

judged from that which Salluft has preferved, or perhaps lent him, and I proceed to repeat here. " I know, Romans," faid he, *' that moil of thofe " whom you raife to dignities, behave in a quite dif" ferent manner after they have obtained them, from " what they do when they follicit them. At firft they '* appear laborious, fuppliant, and modeft but af" terwards, as foon as they are invefted with your " favours, they abandon themfelves to floth and
:

'*

pride.

In

my

opinion, the reverfe of this beha-

" viour ought to be obferved. For as the intereft of " the publick is infinitely to be preferred to the Prse" torfhip and Cenforfhip, more attention ought to
*'

"
*' *'

"
*'

of the State, than in folliciting offices. 1 am not ignorant how heavy a burthen that is which you have conferred on me. To labour in making preparations of war, and at the fame time to be frugal of the pubiick money
in the adminiftration

be had

" one would not
*f

oblige perfons to enter into th€ fervice, whom to have the care willingly offend of aU things at home and abroad ; and to acquit
to
•,

S3

*'

oneleU

262

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls.

A.R.64S-" onefelf of all thefe duties in the midft of the invi^' " dious, the faftious, and declared enemies, is a "^l' " more rude and arduous fituation, than can well be " imagined. To this add one more inconvenience, " which is peculiar and perfonal to me. If others

" commit a fault, their ancient Nobility, the glo" rious aftions of their anceftors, the credit of their " families and relations, the great nuxmber of their " clients, all thefe, in a manner, come in to their aid,
*'

and fecure them whereas ail my refources are in " myfelf, and I have no fupport but what I am to " find in virtue and innocence: for all the reft are " wanting to me. I fee that the eyes of all the worl4 " are upon me. The equitable and judicious favour
:

" me, becaufe they
«'

view

in all

my

are convinced that I have nO but adicns but the publick good
:

"
"
'^

the Nobility feek only occafions to difcredit and This is one reafon that induces mc prejudice me. to make new efforts that I may not fruftrate your

" expedation, and may render their bad defigns in" effedual. From my earlieft youth I have ac" cuftomed and enured myfelf to labour and danger.
**

"
<*

" "
'*
*'

"
" "
*'

have hitherto done from the mere love of ought now with more reafon to do out of gratitude, fmce you have laden me with your faand this is entirely my refolution. It is vours hard for thofe who, to attain dignities, have affumed the ma{l<: of virtue, to continue long in that As for conftraint, when their ambition is fatisfied. me, who have exercifed myfelf in it all my life, I can fay, that long habit has in a manner rendered it You have charged me with the war natural to me. and tliis is what gives extreme againft Jugurtha
I

What

virtue, I

:

:

"
*'

Now I defire, Romans, offence to the Nobility. you will confider with yourfelves, whether, inftead

" of the choice you have made, it would be better " for you to take, out of that troop of the Nobility, " to fill up the office in queilion or fome other the
*'

*/

like, a m>an of an ancient family, and one adorned with having borne all the great ofnces of the State, " but

MARIUS, CASSrUS,
^'

Confuls.

263
*

"
*' *'

" "

"
*'

" " " " "
"

"
" "
*'

"

" "

but without fervice and experiencs ; in order that A. R. 645. in the conduft of fo important a war, perplexed j^* for want of pradlice, and entirely difconcerted, he may take out of the very people he deljpifes a guide and monitor, to fhew him his^duty. And indeed, happens, that a man whom you have it often chofen General to command an army, has more need of another General to command him, and to I know fome, who, be ;to him inftead of a mailer. when elefted Confuls, have began to read our hiftories, and to ftudy the art military in the books of This is manifeftly reverfmg the order the Greeks. of things. For, though they do not command till after they have received authority ; before they have authority, they ought to learn to command. Suffer me now, Romans, to compare with thefe proud Nobles your Cojiful, whom they are for letfening with the title of Nev/ Man. What they learn frem reading and precepts, I have learnt by pradice and experience themfclves. The inilruftion they have from books, I have from many years of
aftual fervice.
to fet

"
*'

And now judge on which you moft value, on words or adlions. They " delpife the meannefs of my birth ; and I that of " their valour. I am reproached with my fortune,
ought
*'

they with the unworthinefs of their condud.

But,

" after all, I know that men are all of one and the " fame nature and that, confequently, the molt
5

-"

worthy are the moil noble.

And

indeed, could w,e

" a;fk at prefent the forefathers of Albinus or Cal" purnius, who they would rather have for fons, " thofe adlually defcended from them, or me, is it to <' be doubted but they would anfwer, that they al" ways defired to have children virtuous and eftima" ble for their own merit ? If they think they have
**
*'

a right to defpife me, they mufl then defpife their
their
:

anceftors, who began " They envy my dignity
•^^

nobility

by

virtue.

my
life,

labours,

don't .they alfo envy dangers, and the innocence of my

why

'

that are the fteps

by which

I

attained it?

But
thefc

S 4

"

264
/int. C.

'"""

MARIUS, CASSIUS,
thcfe

Confuls.

A. R. 645."
jc;.

men,

whom

their perverfe pride has blindec>,

" behave as if they defpiled your dignities, and aili " them with as much boldnefs and confidence, as if
" they had deferved ihem by

the

wifdom and
in

virtue
a very

of their condud:.

They

are certainly

" " "
*'

great error, to think of uniting in themfelves things fo incompatible, and to pretend to the rewards of
virtue, whilfl they enjoy the pleafures of idlenefs.

When

they fpeak before you, or in the Senate,
their anceftors,

" they take extreme care to celebrate " and believe repeating their glorious
*'

exploits refleds,
this is juft

great honour

upon themfelves.

But

the

" revcrfe. For, the more the lives of thofe great " men abound with noble a6lions, the more thefe of " their defcendants, if without them, deferve con" tempt. The glory of anceftors, it mufl be owned,
«*

"

but a light that equally As for me, I cannot " boafl m.y anceflcrs, but I can repeat my own ex" plcits, which is undoubtedly more glorious.. Ob" ferve, I i>eg you, how unjuft they are. They pre^: " tend to derive luftre from the merit of others and, '^ will noc admiit me to derive any from my own, be" caufe I have not thofe ancient ftatues at home, with *' which they adorn their houfes, and becaufe my " glory is recent. But is it not better to be one's felf " the author of one's own nobility, than to difhonour *' that derived from anceftors ? I know, if they " lliould undertake to anfwer me, they would not; " fail to employ fine v/ords, and to make very eipT " quent difcourfes. This is a glory I do not pre*' tend to difpute with them. But as, whilft yoy " take pleafure in doing me honour, they fpare nq " calumnies on all occafions againft you and me, I '* tliought it incumbent upon me not to hold my " peace, left rriy filence fliould be taken for admitting "what they fay. For, at bottom, I have nothing Ko *' fear, and no difcourfe can hurt me. If it be true, " it can be only to my praife ; and, if falfe, my " adions fufficiently bely, and refufe it. But, Ro" mans.
is

a light for their pofterity

:

iliuftrates

vices

and

virtues.

-,

;

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls.

265
A. R.64S,
^'
"^lo*

« mans, as all this is intended againft you, and they " prefume to cenfure you, for having firft confided " the fupreme dignity of the Commonwealth, and " next the command of a very important war, to me;
*'

" any
" "

conjure you, whether you have it. I cannot, to affure you of what you are to expedl from me, produce the Starefled: ferioully, I

caufe to repent

tues, Confulfliips,
if
it is

and Triumphs of
;

my anceftors
you military
:

" but,
** *'

neceflary, I can fet before

" rewards of every kind

pikes, enfigns, crov/ns

I

*'

" " "
*'

"
*'

" "
<'

" "
*'

" " "
<<

"
*'

" " '
*'

"

"
*'
^'
**

can fhew you the fears of iionourable wounds all reThefe are my ftatues, thefe the ticeived before. ties of my nobility, which have not fallen to me by inheritance, as to miy adverfaries, but which I. have acquired by my labours and dangers. You that is an art find no art nor order in my words upon which I neither pique myfelf, nor fet much, Virtue makes itfeif known fufficiently by value. others may Hand in need of fine difcourfe to itfeif cover the Ihame of their adlions. I have not applied myfelf to the fi:udy of the Greek literature ; as I faw that thofe who have, did not become betBut what I have learnt, and ter men in efrefl. which is of more value for the fervice of the Common wealth, is to ufe the fword, to keep my poft, to attack or defend a place well, to fear nothing but infamy, to fufi^er cold and heat alike, to have no other bed but the earth, and at the fame time And thefe to fupport both hunger and fatigue. are things I ihall teach my foldiers. I will not let them live in want, vvhilfl: I riot in plenty. I will not afllime all glory to myfelf, whilit they have only toil and labour, Such a conducl ought not To live one's to be obferved in refpe6t to citizens. felf in floth and luxury, and exa6t: rude fervice and fatigue from the foldier, is to adl as a mafter over flaves, not as a General. It was by a quite different condu<5l our anceftors acquired themfelves fo
:

:

much

glory, and did the

Commonwealth

fo

much

honour.

Now the Nobility, after

having entirely de" generated

; : :

2^6
A.R.
645. <^

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls,

Ant. c.

generated from their glory, defpife us; u.«, who « endeavour to tread in the fteps of their ancellors " and exadt dignities from you as their right, withH out taking any pains to deferve them. I repeat it
thcfe

*'
i'
*'

men,
it

fo

upon
that

thjemfelves.

proud of their birth, impofe ftrangely Their anceftors left them all

was

in nature to tranfmit, their riches, fta-

"
" " "
**
*^

tues, the glory

« but

of tlieir names and great aftions they have not left them their virtue, nor indeed could they do it ; virtue, of all good things, being the only one that can neither be tranfmitted nor inherited.

They
I

fay I live in a grofs m.anner, and

what they call elegance and politenefs^ have no great ficill in fetting out a feaft " make no ufe, at th^ entertainments I give, of co" medians and buffoons-, and that I give no more
-without

becaufe

•,

*^

for a flave that

is

to be

my

cook, than for one to

*'
'^
*•*

v/ork in
confefs

*^

" "
**^

**

" " " "
^'
''

"
'*

"
*'

"
*'

and I freely from my father, and other per-^ fons of virtue, that ornament is for women, as iabouf is for men that men of worth ought rather to afpire at giory, tiian at riches: that arms ciq more honour than the moft magnificent robes. As they ttiink quite otherwife, let them follow their Let them pafs their days in wine and detafte. bauches ^ let them' end their lives as they have began them and leave us to dull, and tweat, and military fatigues, which we prefer to all their voluptuoufnefs. But they do not a6t in this manner. After having wallowed in Ihamefui pleafures, they come to deprive us of the rewards of virtue and valour. Thus, through infupportable injuftice, depravity of manners, and luxurious eafe, which ought to exelude them from all offices, does them no hurt, and are Only fatal to the Commonwealth, in giving it unworthy leaders and magiflrates.
field.

my

All

this is true,

it.

I learnt

:

•,

" After having anfwered my enemies, not fo much as their infamous conduft, but as my own cha^ " radler required, I Ihali add a few words upon the *' publick affair§. Above all things, Romans, you " lhoul4 4

MARIUS, CASSIUS,
^'

Confuls.

267
-


'*

"

" "
" " " "
*'

"
" "
*'

"
''

Ihould expe6t, with a kind of afiurance, good fuc-A.R. 645, You have removed all ^^" ^' cefs of the war in Numidia. the obftacles that formed Jugurtha's ftrength I mean avarice, ignorance, and pride. You have ari army in Africa that perfectly knows the country, that has all the courage neceflary, but that hitherto' great part of the has not had good fortune, troops are periihed either by the avarice or temerity you then, who are of of their commanders. age to bear arms, come and join your efforts with mine, and fuftain with me the honour of the Commonwealth. Do not be difcouraged by the exampie of paft misfortunes, nor fear, that your Generals will treat you with pride and infolence. After I have given you orders, you fhall fee me, in marching, in battle, divide fatigue and danger with Except in point of command, I fhall make you.
:

A

O

" no
f'
^*

difference between

you and myfelf.

You may
.

conceive, that with the afUflance of the gods, victory, fpoils, and glory wait for, and feem to in-

" vite, you. But though you had not all thefe ad" vantages to hope, the interefl only of the Com" monwealth would fufHce to induce good citizens, " as you are, to defend it with valour. Cowardice *' never exempted any one from death. Never did

"

father defire that his children fliould be immortal,

" but that they fhould become men of great honour " and probity. I fhould fay more on this head, " Romans, if words could make cowards brave for " as to the valiant, I think I have faid enough."
:

Plutarch gives reafon to think that many ftrokes of and the thing is not this fpeech are really Marius's
:

improbable
charadler
is

in itfelf.

At

leafl

it

is

certain, that his

wonderfully fuftained in it, his vanity as a foldier, his antipathy to the Nobility, and his contempt of polite learning. fhall fee him throughout his life jufl what he appears here, a great warrior, but with nothing elfe to recommend him. He put himfelf into a condition to make good his He embarked with the utmoft promifes by effedts.

We

dilieencc

26^
A.R.
6+5,
'

MARIUS, CASSIUS,
c>ther things neceiTary for the

Conluls.

"07.

diligence the provifions, arms, military cheft, and the army. at the fame

He

time made Aulus Manlius, one of
out.

his Lieutenants, fet

As

to himfeif, in the

mean

time, he

made hade

to compleat the levies, without confining himfeif to

the ancient cuftom, which admitted no citizens to ferve in the legions but thofe who had fome eftate ; in

order that the

Commonwealth might thereby have fome fecurity for the zeal and fidelity of her foldiers. Marius accepted all that offered themfelves indifferently, even the pooreft, and thofe who had nothing Thefe dregs of the multitude were always exat all. tremely attached to him ; and ambitious as he was, he conceived that with their aid he fhould form a con-

fiderable party at Rome. He put to fea with a much greater body of troops than he had orders to raife, and

arrived in a few days at Utica.
njint

him

•,

Rutilius, the LieuteGeneral, refigned the command of the army to for Metellus had induilrioufly avoided feeing a

fucccffor,

the fight of whom only would have been extremely mortiiying to him.

That Genera], on
to find every

his arrival

at

Rome, expeded

body highly difgulled with him ; knowing how much his adversary, by his inveterate and calumnious hg,rangues, had laboured to render him
odious to the miultitude. He v/as agreeably deceived. firil heat of djfpleafure being over, he was very honourably received^ not only by the Senate, bat even by the People. Tribune however oppofed his triumph and Metellus on that occafion made a fpeech to the People, of which Aulus Gellius has preferved us a paffage entirely noble, and of the utmoft' " Romans," * faid he, ^' as elevation of fentiments.

The

A

:

" it is " men * who

a conftant

maxim,

that

it is

more

eafy for
this

good

to fuffer, than
is

Tribune, to do, injury j triumph, does for having you refufe me a

* Quanto probi injuriam facillus accipiunt, quam ajteri tradunt> tanto ille vobis, quam gratiam milii, pejorem honorem habult. Nam me injuriam ferrc, vos facere vult, Quirites ut hic conqueftio, iftiC vituperatio relinquatur. A. Cell. xii. 9.
:

« you

MARIUS, CASSIUS,
:

Confuls.

269

« you more wrong than me. For I fliould fuffer in- a.r. 645. ^* " juftice, and you would do it fo that though I fhould ^"J." " have caufe to complain, you would deferve to be " blamed." Metellus obtained a triumph, and affumed
the firname of Numidicus, which perpetuated the remembrance of his exploits in the war of Numidia.
is very probable, that it was alfo at this time, * being accufed of extortion, he received a teilithat

It

mony in his favour, from his judges, more glorious For, when he produced the than the triumph itfelf. regillers of his adminiflration in his defence, not one of the judges would fo much as caft an eye upon them, nor feem to doubt a mom.ent, whether what Metellus advanced were true or not ; declaring loudly, that to be afllired of his innocence, there was no occafion for any other proof than that of his whole life,
and univerially acknowledged integrity. The Conful Marius, after having compleated his legions and the auxiliary troops, marched his army and diftributed all the pluninto a plentiful country der he took in it amongft the foldiers. He attacked and took fome towns and caflies of little ftrength, and fought fometimes, or rather fkirmiihed, in different places. By this means, the new-raifed foldiers accuftomed themfelves to ftand firm upon occafion. They faw that thofe who fled were either killed or taken that the braveft have leaft to fear ; that arms are the fource of glory and riches, and the fupport of their country, their liberty, and all that is deareit amongft men. Thus, in a fhort time, there was no difference between the old and the nev/-raifcd
:

:

troops.
* Audivi hoc de parente meo puer quum Q^ Metellus cauftm de pecuniis repetundis diceret quum ipfius tabulae circumferrentar infpiciendi norainis caufa, fuifle judicem ex illis Equitibus Roniaals. graviffimis viris, neminem, quin removeret oculos, & fe totum 'averteret, ne forte, quod ille in tabulas publicas retuliilet, dubitall'e quitquam, verum-ne an falfum eflet videretur. Cic. pro Ealbo, it, Non in tabulis, fed in vita Q^ Metelll argumenta llnccre adminillratK provincise legenda fibi judices credideruat. Val. M^x.
:

ii,

10.

Maria?,

276

MARIUS, CASSIUS;
after

Confuls;

having difciplined his foldiers In this A.R.645. Marius, Ant. C various advantages over the enemy, and gained manner,
107

feeing himfelf in a condition to form fome great ehterprize, refolved to furprize Capfa. it was an im-

llrong both by art and nature, defended by numerous inhabitants, and provided witH The horror of the country munitions of every kind. in which it was fituated, rendered the conqueil of it Except the places around the ftill more difficult. city, the whole country was defert, uncultivated, barren fands, and infefted with very venomous ferpents.. This fituation feemed to render the accefs to Capfa But Marius juilly imprafticable to the enemy. thought, that would undoubtedly be the very thing that would make them lefs upon their guard, as having nothing to fear. He therefore concealed his defign with the utmoft care, and in other refpedts took his meafures with abundance of prudence. He began by carrying off all the cattle in the country, which he gave to the care of the auxiliary cavalry, with orders Every day part of to drive them on with the troops. thefe cattle were diilributed to the army ; and of their The ikins Marius caufed leathern bags to be made. fixth day he arrived on the banks of the * Tana. After a fhort ftay, he left all the baggage there, and loaded the carriage-horfes only with the bags filled with Each foldier was ordered to carry one. In water. this condition they moved forwards about fun-fet. They marched all night, and halted in the day. The

portant place,

third night, before day-break, they arrived at a place abounding in valleys and fmall eminences, which

were only two miles
his troops as

Marius kept diftant from Capfa. concealed as poffible between thefe little hills J and at day-break, many Numidians, who fufpe6led no danger, having quitted the city, he made his horfe, with the nimbleft of his foot, advance on a fudden towards it to feize the gates. The inhabitants immediately furrendered ; either through the

much

* Gcograghers do «pt mention this viftory,

amazemeac,

271 by fo unexpe8:ed an A.R.64. ^* '^^* attack, or becaufe they faw many of the people had JOJ, been furprized without the walls, and had already The city was burnt. fallen into the enemy's hands. All the Nuraidians capable of bearing arms were pjoc to the fword ; the reft were fold, and the fpoiis were This rigour, fays diftributed amongfl: the foldiers. However^ Salluft, was contrary to the laws of war. neither avarice, nor cruelty, induced Marius to corri:mit it. He confidered this place was of great advanamazement and
terror oc cafloned

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Ccmruls.

,

tage to Jugurtha : that the Romans could not apit without great difficulty : that he had an inconftant and perfidious nation to deal with, which it was impolTible to keep within bounds either by lenity Could all thefe reaibns fuffice to juftify a or fear. cruelty contrary to the law of nations, exercifed upon inhabitants who had furrendered without deceit ? Was it not fufficient to demolifh the place ? But the motives of interefl^ in war, had long taken place of juftice, and ferved inilead of reafons. So extraordinary a fuccefs did Marius great honour, and highly increased his reputation. His leaft prudent enterprizes were however attended with glory, The becaufe they palTed for efFeds of his courage. foldiers, charmed with the mildnefs with which diey were commanded, and at the fame time inriched with fpoiis, extolled their General to the fkies. The Numidians dreaded him, as if there had been fomething in him more than human. In a word, both allies and enemies believed that the gods diredted and infpired •him in all his undertakings. ^" After this happy event, he advanced towards other places fome of them he forced many others he burnt, which the difafter of Capfa had induced to defert and putting all to fire and fword, he filled the country of the enemy with defolation and horror. Thefe conquefts coft the Romans very few men. He formed another enterprizc, the execution of which was very difficult. Not far from the river of

proach

:

•,

:

Mulucha, which feparated the kingdoms of Jugurtha and

;

2

72

MARIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls.

A. R. 645. and
J07,

EoGchiis, in the midft of a vaft plain, was a mountain, or rather a rock of great circumference

'

and prodigious height, upon the top of which flood a caftle of moderate bignefs, to which there was but one very narrow avenue ; all the reft being nothing but precipices, as fteep^s if they had not been the work of nature, but cut and levelled by human induftry. The garrifon wanted nothing they had provilions in abundance, and a fpring of water in the rock. Jugurtha had depofited his treafures in this fort. Marius was very defirous to make himfelf mafter of it. It was extremely difficult to carry on approaches, to cut the foil, and to make ufe of machines againft it. Whgi they had gone fo far as to make the batteries advance with great pains and danger, the befieged either broke them to pieces with ftones, or fet them on fire, and reduced them to afhes. The foldiers could not ftand faft at work, on account of the unevennefs of the ground. The braveft of them were left upon the place either dead or wounded, and the reft loft
:

^

courage.

Marius, after having fpent many days ineffeftually,

and without advancing his works, was extremely perHowever, plexed, and djd not know what to refolve. the extraordinary good fortune which had attended

'

He expefupported him. Ligurian foldier gathering fnails, which he faw in the clefts of the rocks, arrived infenfibly almoft at the top of the mountain. Curiofity, natural to man, induced him to advance ftill farther and Ibmetimes. by the help of oaken branches, which fortunately grew there, and fometimes by the rocks that afforded moft hold, he got up to the platform of the fort, and faw, that it was entirely abandoned ; all the Numidians being pofted on the fide the befiegers attacked. The Ligurian immediately defcended, and gave Marius an account of what he had feen. The Conful being alTured of the truth by other foldiers, whom the Ligurian condufted to the fame place, refolved to take the advantage of fo lucky a
him
in ail his enterprizes,
it

rienced

again here.

A

_

difcovery.

MARIUS, CASSIUS, Confuis. 2^3 R. A. ''dJiTcovery. He chole five of the mod adcive trnmpeHe detached four Centurions with ters of the army.
^l'.

64.5.
'

their

companies to fupport

theiil,

and commanded

them

to obferve the Liguriarl's orders;

The next day they fet out, after having provided The foldiers, themfelves with every thing necelTary. by their guide's dirediion, left every thing behind that might- retard them^ took of? their helmets to fee the better, and bared their feet to be the !efs expofed to 'Their fvvords were tied behind their backs, iliding.
as v/ell as their fhields,

which

v/ere

of leather,

after"

Numidian falliion, and confequently lighter, and not lb apt to make a noife. The Ligurian went foremoil, and when he found either points of rock, or
the
roots of trees, that projected, he took care to

make

them with running knots, on v/hich the foldiers might lay hold in order to climb with lefs difiiculty. He lent his hand from time to time to thole v;hom fo itrange a way daunted. In the roughell parts of it, he made them go one by one before him, and difburthened them of their arms, which he Carried after them himfelf. When a place feemed dangerous, he made the firlt trial of it. They faw him afcend and defcend feveral times ^nd by that means he encouraged the whole troop under his
cords
fail

to

;

direftion.

They

arrived at

laft,

after

many

fatigues

and daiig-^rs, on the top of the mountain, which they found abandoned on that fide becaufe the Numidians Were all employed at the place which the Romans at;

tacked.

Marios had hartralTed the enemy all day. But when he was informed by couriers, that were difpatched to him diredly, of what the Ligurian had done, he exhorted his troops anew, led them on to the attack in perfon, and commanded them to cover themfelves with their bucklers joined together. To terrify the enemy at a diftance as well as nearj he ordered the archers, flingers, and machines^ to difcharge all together. The Barbarians, who had fucceeded feveral times irt throwing down and burning the batteries of
Vot.

VI

T

the

:

274
A-.

MARIUS, CASSIUS,
'

Cqnfuh.

R.

64.5.

107.

the befiegers, were full of confidence. Far fror^i k^^pi"g behind their parapets, it was their cuftom^to fhew themfelves day and night on the fide of the wajlg-, proudly infulting the Romans, reproaching Marius with the folly of his enterprize, and threatening

the foldiers to

make them

fpeedily the (laves of J;U-

Accordingly at this time feeing the befiegers rc^double their efforts, they alio redoubled their con^ But on a fudden, whilft >this ftancy and courage. paffed, they heard a great noife of trumpets behind them. The women and childre^i, whom curiofity had brought upon the rampart, immediately fled: thofe who were neareit the danger foon followed them and not long after, all in general betook themfe)v^ to flight, as well the armed as the unarmed. The

Romans

feeing their diforder, prefled tliem with ftiU

down all before them, put all ta the fword, and advanced continually fighting, witjiout the dcfire of plunder's being capable of flopping Thus Marius's temerity, corr a fingle man of them. reded by a lucky effed of chance, made bis fault-regreater vigour, bore

dound
L.

to his honour,

--.r/')^

Sylla, the Qiiseftor,

arrived at thi§ time
horfe.

ifi 4:|if

Marius had left Jijlm cavalry to raife that in Latium, mi(^ at Rome in order amongft the Italian allies. This Quseftor is the%mous Sylia, of whom fo much will be faid in the^ff^ For this reafon I think it necefl!ary to ii)ake quel. him well known. He was of the houle of Cornelia* fo produdive of great men, and fo abounding ^widi honours. But the branch from which he defcended had fallen into obfcurity. I have related elfewhere the caufe of the fall of this branch, where "^Icfpoke of the note of infamy inflided upon P. Cbrhcflius Ry.hnus, who was the ftem of it, and after having .beca twice Conful and Didator, was expelled the Senate by the Cenfors in the 477th year of Rome, foi* hayifig Hbove ten pounds of filver plate in his houfe. What is Angular, this nOte'of infamy ih" foiflb'ineafur'e'ej^-

camp with

a great

body of

-

,

,.

6

tended

MARIIJS, CASSiUS,
knded to

Goriflifs.

-^275

his deicendants, none of whom attained the A. R- 64.5* Confulfhip, though fonie of them had been Prstol-?. -^^^^-J^This decline in point of dignity was attended Vv'ith Sylla inherited but a very fmali fortune indigence. from his father, and paffed his youth in great llraits. He was afterwards reproached with this by a man of fenfe and virtue, who hearing him boafr very much .,

Numidia, faid to him " And hoy/ can you be an honeil man, you, whom your father " left nothing, and are however fo rich ?" For, adds iPlutarch, though manners in thofe days had not prefdrved their ancient feverity, and were already much changed and corrupted by luxury, the perfon who
of
his exploits in
:

*'

ipeaks thus to Sylla * feems to confider as equally Ihameful, the fquandering of a great patrimony, and not continuing in the poverty of one's anceftors. For the reft, if on the fide of riches, Sylla's lot at firft was hard, on that of great talents and genius, he had
all

that was neceffary to

reinftate

the glory of his

name.
"Sylla

This

is

his

pidure as

.Salluft

has

given

Greek and and was perfectly mafter of both. He had a great heart, loved pleafure but glory more. In times of leifure, he gave himfelf up to his tafte for pleafures 'and diverfions however, fo as his He was eloquent, Infinuaaffairs never fuffered by it. ting, an eafy friend, and of incredible addrefs in concealing and difguifmg his defigns. He loved to give, and when his circumftances would admit of making prefeiits^ he gave of all kinds, but particularly mocarefully inftrucfted in the

f was

Roman

letters,

;

;

f Sulla Uteris Grfecis atque Latinis jux|a atque doclifliTTie eruditus, animo ingcnti, cupidus voluptatum, glorise cupidior otio luxuriofo effe, tamen ab negotiis nunf^uam voluptas remorata ficundus, calliad fimulanda negotia altitude ingenii incremultaruin rerum, Sz maxime pecunia: largitor atque fxliciffimo cmnium ante civilern viftoriam nunquam fuper induthiam fbrtuna fait; multique dubitavere fortior an felicior eilet. Nam qua: poftea fecit incef tuin iiabeo piideat an pigeat difierere.
dus,
amicitia faciils
:

&

:

dibilis

:

;

T

2

ney,

2^6
A.^R. 645. ney,
*^'

IVlARItJS, CASSIlis, Cohfufe
with profuHqn., 0(?.,Was always fortunate^ ind even the moft fo of mankind, rill ,t)ie vidory by which he terminated the civil war i however, his merit was never below bis fortune arid it has been doubted, whether' it were more juil to term him brave, or happy. But after that fatal epocha to his virtue, he was no longer the fame man and perhaps profperity never produced either more fudden, or more yiolerit>
•,

'^"o"

:

effefts.
\
.

Sylla arrived in Marius*s camp, he was iapof the art of war but he was nor ignorant folutely himfelf a perfedt mailer of it. he made before long particular care, amongfi: other things;, his He made it
:

When

to gain the foldiers favour by his pohte and obliging took pleafurc in fcrving every body bchaviouh

He

that defired it;

and often anticipated requefts!' When he received any good office from others, which he
fliunned as much as poflible, to avoid laying hirrifelf i7nder obligations, he confidered gratitude as a debt, which he was defirous to difcharge on the firil occafioh.

the contrary, when he had done a favour, he reand the miore of this kind of quired no return He made debtors he had, the better he was pleafcd. himfelf familiar, whether in ferious: affairs, or at games and exercifes, v/ith perfons of the lowed rank. As to .inilitary fundions, works, marches, guards, he cfif..(charged them with ardour, and was prefent every Far from cenfuring the Conful's condu<5l to where. gratify a mi'ftaken ambition, his only care was liot to ;/be furpaffed by any one in prudence and courage, and Such fine -jcven to furpafs every body if he coifld. ^/squalities at firft gained him the hearts both of the Ge:
.

Qn

fo that Sylla and Marlus were ^neral and the troops But a good underftanding friends for fom.e time.
:
,

couki not long
bition.

fubfilf

between two men of their am'
,

We

fliall

foon fee a declared enmity' iugceed
fefle<5lihg

__;jheir friendO'iip.

upon the Jugurtha, in the mean time, part of his greateH towns, and the -.^Jlofo -of his bell,
,:

i/eaiures, perceived that

lie

was not

in a condition to

fupport

MARIUS, CASSIUS,
Support the
'

v/ar,

and that

it

Coafuls; 277 was abfolutely neceflary A,R.645.
battle, or lee himfelf
"q*
*

either to conquer in a pitched

»

deprived of his whole kingdom. But Bocchus, without whofe aid he could do nothing, was averfe to this condu(fl. To make him come into it, he employed ulual arts, corrupting with prefents of money liis thofe who had molt afccndancy over tne King of Mauritania. On his fide, he promifed that Prince the third part of Numidia, if they iliould drive the Romans out of Africa ; or if a peace (hould be concluded, that iliould not coll him any part of his doThefe offers determined him. minions. He joined Jugurtha with a great army-, and at a time when Marius leaft expeftcd it, and was upon a ]lliarch retiring into his winter-quarters, they both atThey 't:acked him almoft at the lalthour of the day. purpofely chole that time, becaufe the darknefs of' tifhe night might very much difconcert the enemy, to 'whom the country was unknov/ja ; whereas on their Tide, whether victorious or defeated, night was in The furprize at firil caufed forae contheir favour. the Romans, who had not time either amongft fufion themfelves in order of battle, or to take their ^to form ]^tifual ftations ; the infantry being mingled pell-mell in the midft of the horfe. They loft abundance of men in this firft attack, notv;ithftanding the great vaJour with which they behaved.. They were furrounded ;pn all fides by the Numidians, whole number greatly Exceeded theirs. However, the old foldiers, taught by long experience, and the new orics by their example, forming different companies, as chance brought them together, drew themfelves up in a circle, and fronting on all fides in clofe order and well covered, -fuftained the .charge of the Barbarians with intrepid
"

^^oravery.
fo warm ,an adion, capable of difconr moft experienced Generals, retained all With the company of horfe ^ his codlnefs of temper. '-'ihat never quitted his perfon, and which he had com^ ^"^poicd, not of thofe moft nearly attached to Kimfelf, but ::r^ ; 3

r_ Marius,

in

•certing the

t

I

27B
A- R645,13,^11;
'

MARJUS,

e:AS31U5, eonfuls.
,

,C7.

of the moft brave, he fupported his tr6ops j threw himlelf every moment into the thickeft of th^ enemy, and not being able to makp his voice be heard to give the neceffary orders, he endeavoured to makig himfelf underfcood by difterejit figns with his hand. The day v/as now pafTed, and the Barbarians did not ceafe fighting on the contrary, conceiving that night gave them a great advantage over the enemy^ Marius, intent upon they redoubled their ardour. fecuring his army a retreat, feized two hills at a fmall diftance from eaqh other, and by degrees drew off his The two Kings troops thither, and intrenched there. then, from the difficulty of following him upon thofc They howevet eminences, pyit an end to the battle. did not remove their armies, but made them continyie at the bottom of the hills, which their nunfibers efiif
i.

:

|3led

them

to furround.

<

A.

Barbarians, drunk in a manner with their pro^" perity and fuccefs in the battle, paffed a great part of the night in, dancing and rejoicing, raifmg great cries

The

Marius, who attentively according to their cuilom. obferved all that palled amongft the enemy, comr nianded his army to keep a profound filence, and for that purppfe, ordered the different fignals, ufually made by. the trumpets for the watches of the night, But as foon as day approached, not to be founded. commanded the trumpets he to found the charge all troops to march out of their ifttogether, and the cries on all fides. The Maiitrenchmenrs with great ritanians and Getuli, fatigued with their nocturnal exercifes, had hardly began to deep. In cpnfequencc, awakened fuddenly by this terrible noife, they could neither take to their arms, efcape by flight, nor deSeeing themfelv^s termine upon any thing falutary. prefTed by the enemy, without any body to encourage and draw them up, the tumult, furprize, and terror, in a manner ftupified, and put them out of their fenfcs. They were entirely difperfed, and abandoned moil of their enfigns and arms ; a greater flaught(fr y/as made of them in this battle, than- in all the reft;
drowfinefs

MARiUS; CASSmsrConfuk
di^CfWlimefs

279
64.5.
*

and

fear"

having deprived them of the A. R.
^"^"

means" of efc aping. Marins, after this vidlory, continued his march to take up' his winter-quarters in the maritime cities. The great advantage he had lately gained, had made him neither lefs circumfpe6t, nor more prefumptuous. He marched with as much caution as if the enemy had been always in view. After having given the officers all the neceflary orders, he however a6led with as much care, as if he had nobody to fecond him. He was fecn on all fides, and praifed and reproached every one as they defcrved. He was no lefs vigilant in the camp than upon the march. * He went the rounds himfelf, not through any diftruft that his orders were not obeyed, but to make the foldiers love fatigue, by Shewing them that their General ihared in it with them. And indeed JMarius, during this whole war, kept up thedifcipline rather by the fenfe of honour and emulation, than by chaftifement and feverity. And this inethod fucceeded. The Commonwealth was as well •ferved under his mild and indulgent command, as if -iichad treated his foldiers with more rigour. '". After a march of four days, the Romans arrived
.

107.

Jugurtha and Bocchus came thither to do ,fo in four different places at the fame time. But Ma:ftus::was upon his guard againft all furprizes, and the Numidians and Moors were entirely defeated. Sylla diilinguifhed himfelf in this battle. Jugurtha did wonders in it: and having killed an enemy with his ,own hand, he even went up to a confiderable body of ^Roman infantry, and fhewed them his bloody fword crying out to them, that they fought in vain and that he had juft killed Marius. This lie was very near Ip reading terror and dilbrder amongft the Romans. But Sylla, and Marius hiiT^Telf, coming up
ft^ar Cirta,

attack them

again, having taken their meafures to

-,

;

* Ipfe clrcuire,- non tarn dluidentia quam uti milltjbus exasquatus imperatoie labos voientibus elFet. Marius pudore magis quuin Iftralo.exercitum toercebat Nifitameu refpublisa pai*icer, ac igeviffimo imperio, bene atque decorc gefta. -ij ;;_ ;i';;;i.,'

cum

'

T

4

to

2^0
i^.

1^4ARiyS,-;0ASSlUS,
^^
^^^^

€ojilliis,

R. 645. tQ restnimate
jp7

'10^.-'*

them, Jugurtha, after having cxhaniloc^ addreis and courage, anci fought tenacioufly,^ till, he remained ahiioil alane, efcaped with great difficulty. 1 his fecond dekat diiccuraged Bocchus, and mad^ him think of feparating his mterefts from thole, olf He accordingly let Marius know that he Jugurtha. dcfircd an accommodation, and that he would fend two perfons of trufi:, with whom he migh^ enter, in^ Sylla and Manlius were charged with a conference. comm.iffion. Sylla was eloquent, as w:e hay<j this gained him the hpoour iSisf which advantage faid " He exprelTed fpeakcr upon this occafion. being to the King the joy he conceived tbat the gods had a.c length cpened his ey,es,; by inlpiring hip \y.ith the rer He repiefentcd foluticn of preferring peace to war. to him, that the alliance of a Prince, whole, crimes were.fo great as Jugurtha's, was unv/orthy. of him:: That on the contrary, that of the Remans vv.as equally honourable and advantageous. He gave him XQ vnderiland, that he had in his hands the means of ..pur-' chafmg it; and concluded with faying, that as. the Roman People knew hov/ to repel injuries, they alfo knew how to reward feryices and that tliey. never.. fuffered themfelves to be outdone in generofuy. and Bocchus, on his fide, to juftify.his conr gratitude." dud, complained, that he had been refufed at Rome the alliance vl:ich he had demanded by his Am.baffadors he offered however to fend others, thither, if Marius approved it. Accordingly, fome time after, he chofe five out of thofe in whom. he repofed moft confidence, and made them fet out with, full ^powen^ to conclude a peace at any price whatever,. TKefe Ambaffadors were m^t by. Getuliaji robbers, who ftripped them of every thing, and treated thern. with great cruelty. .They accordingly came to Sylla'
relburces of his
:

:

:

-.

in a very

fence of Marius,

bad equipage, who commanded in the abwho was then employed in attacking
and remote places.
Sylla,

a fort

in dei'crt

who was
the

naturally generotis andmagnific'ent, inilead of dcfpififtg:

9mot

ATILIUS, SERVILTUS,

Confuls.

iH.

the Mauritanian Ambafiadors in the fad condition A. R. (^45'. ^' wherein they joined him, gave them a very good re- ^'^' t:eption, and treated them fplendidly during forty By this means he days, till the General returned. gained their confidence, and by them that of their mailer, of which he made fuch great advantage in the When Marius arrived, the Mauritanians, difequel. redled by Sylla's advice, demanded a fufpenfion of arms, and perm:ffion to go to Rome. Their demands and immediately tvv'o of them returned v.'cre granted to Bocchus, to give him an account of their negotiation, and the other three fet out for Rome. When they arrived there, they applied to the Senate, and, according to their inftrudcions, faid, that , Bocchus had been furprized by the artifices of Jugurthat he repented of his fault; and that he afked tha alliance and amity of the Romans. They were the anfwered in thefe terms " * The Senate and People " of Rom.e forget neither fervices nor injuries. As '*' Bocchus repents his fault, they grant him pardon. ** As to their alliance and amity, he will obtain them " when he iliall have deferved them." What a flile,.
:
•,

:

what haughtinefs

is

this

!

Could we believe that
.f*

it is
:

to a powerful King this anfwer is addrefled The new Confuls were undoubtedly in office, wheo"
this paiTed.
,;T10>i':c

^
A.R.
646.

C. Atilius Servanus.

Q^
that of

r^

c r^ Servixius L^pio.
for the birth of Cicero,

Ant. C.
,06.

This year

is famous Pompey.

and

When
mand,

he wrote to Marius,
to defire

Bocchus had received the Senate's anfwer, who had been continued in com-

him

to fend Sylla to him, in order to

Marius made him fet out of a fmall body of horfe and foot, with with an efcort
their confen-ing together.
Ceterum Bocp. Q. R. beneficli injuria: memor efle folet. pcenitet, dilefti gratiam lacit, Fcsdus Sc ainicitia dabanttir,. qutjti nierutrit.
*
S.

&

cho,

quoniam

A

fome

^

2U
A. A. M-

ATILIUS, 5Ek VILI us;
fome light-armed
troops.

CanfiiTs.

He

had

feveral

fubje^ts

difquiet in his march, at firft through the unex'^^k6^' for pected meeting of Volux, the fon of Bocchus, who

appeared with a thoufand horfe ; and foon after of JuSylla believed himfelf betrayed by gurtha himfelf. Volux, when he faw the King of Numidia with forces He confiderably fuperior to his own fo near him. however was neither difcouraged, nor conceived thoughts of revenging himfelf upon the Moorifli and this proved well for him. Volux adted Prince with fidelity and they pafled together quite through Jugurtha's camp, without the latter daring to attack the Romans, whom he faw efcorted by the fon of him Sylla, in coiife* in whom all his hopes were placed. quence, arrived in fafety at the court of Bocchus. In the fecrec conference they had together, the King of Mauritania at firft, in order to deferve the alliance of the Roman People, feemed to confine himfelf to the offer he had made, to intermeddle no farther in Jugurtha's affairs, and not to aid him with eithet Sylla gave him to underftand, troops or money. " that the Romans would not be fatisfied with that kind of neutrality. That to obtain their amity, it was that he had neceffary to do them an efFc6tual fervice the pov/er in his own hands, and that to deliver up Jugurtha was at his difcretion. That in that cafe the Romans would have an obligation to him that their arid alliance and amity would be affured effects of it that they would add to his dominions the part of Nt^ midia, to which he pretended to have a right." Bocchus exprefled great repugnance to this propofal. Whether he was really fhocked at it, or' tb' prefetvfe fome outfide of probity, which the mofl'witked do not avowedly renounce-, or laflly, to fell his' ^rfi^ie the dearer, he reprefented, " that there wa§ alt' alliance fubfilling between him and JugurfhaV S's well^^ a very near affinity both by birth and marriage Urtd ithat if he fliould break his faith with 'him, he fhOtiM rifque alienating the affe6lion of his own fubjedts, W^^o * hated the Romans, and loved Jugurtha very much
: : :
-,

-,

:

Sylla

;

ATILIUS, SERVILIUS,

Confuls.

z^.
io6.

Sylla was not difcouraged by this refufal, and renewed A.R. 64.61 ^^^^' ^' the attack fo often, that he at length extorted a pro-

mife from him, to do what was necefiary for deferving the amity of the Romans. .'^qcp Whether Bocchus made this promife fincerely, aw§ with a refolution to keep it, is matter of great doubt for at the fame time he was aftnally treating with Jugurtha, at whofe court he had an AmbafTador. He even promifed to deliver up Sylla to him, upon the J^Jumidian's having remonftrated, that that was the only means to bring the Roman Senate into a good peace, which would never leave an illuftrious perfon Jong in chains, that had incurred them by expofmg himfelf for the fervice of the Commonwealth. Thus did this Barbarian engage himfelf in a double treachery, giving good words both to Sylla and Jugurtha's Ambafladors ; promifmg the Roman to deliver

Numidian, and the Numidian to deliver up A conference was accordingly agreed upon, under pretext of treating of peace but neither Sylla nor Jugurtha came to it, becaufe each was afiiired that his enemy was upon the point of being delivered up to him. b. The night before the day fixed for the interview, Bocchus was in a ftrange perplexity. The nearer the rnoment for deciding approached, the more his uncertainties increafed. His inclination was for favourbut fear reduced him to efpoufe the Jugurtha ing Romans. The agitation of his mind appeared in his countenance. His adtions, his air, his whole deportpntnt^ which changed every moment, fpoke the dif-

up

the

the

Roman.

•,

-,

ferent fentiments he felt within.

At

length fear, the

all-powerful motive of

little

abjedt fouls, prevailed.

for feizing the

and concerted meafures with him Numidian. The conference was held ; and Jugurtha being come to it without arms, and with little or no guard, perfons placed in ambufcade
fent for Sylla,

He

that attended him, feized himfelf, loaded with chains, and iq chat condition put him him
killed all

Ijum

•'{liv

£ri3i!;2u\ bsvol

bn£ gensmoX ana

'
'.

into

28 4

RUTILIUS> JM AiLLlUS,
him
to

4-k:-%6- into Sylla*& hands, wlio iinmediatdy carried
%

Thus ended

the wa^arv

'a-

manner wholly forxihe

lionour of Sylla, if there can be honour in conquering by the perndy of another. However it were, Marius, in jull: return for having deprived Metclhis of th^

Plut. ia
"

IviT]'

glory of compleating the conqueft, was himfelf,..^ prived of that of the lad a6l that determined it. -.-" This adventure was the more alfeding to him,^ ^^ Sylla openly triumphed upon it without any refcrv?^ He acted on this occafian, fays * PJutarch, like a yotmg man immoderately greedy of, -and fluihed with, glory, of which he now firft began to tafte the charms. Inftead of afcribing the honour of this event to his General, as he was obliged to do by his duty, and as he ought to have made an inviolable rule, ^e afTumed the greateft part of it to himfelf, and had a ring madp, v/hich he always wore, and ufed as a ieal, on which he v/as reprefented receiving Jugurtha from the hands of Bocchus. Marius, ftung to the And Jieart by this kind of infuk, never forgave it. jhis, was the origin of that implacable hatred which afterwards broke out between thofc two Romans, and which coll the Comrr^onwe^lth fo much blood.

A.R.647105.

RUTILIUS RUFUS. Cn. MAL},iys Maximu5.
P.
'"UL'^'J-

"^
vrl

01 'iTilab^inab
^^

,

f,

.r-h'-M

Marius pafled the greateft part of this year mu m Africa, no doubt employed in regulating his new conIt is not eafy to fay exadly what thofe regulaqueft. But Numidia was not then reduced into ;tions were. *.a Roman province, and we fliall again fee Kinj^s of
jlJMafinifra's race rife
.

|>-<0'

j'C.t

/-

t

!

..•;ri';

!-•; L'rrnr .r»^if~ ^ffj •jq'+

iTX

'ir<=i5

up.

.

,^1.^'^

Marius was ftill in Africa, when he r<2celyeg niws The that he was eledted Conful for the fecond time. extreme danger of Italy, which .was threatened with
H'^W-i'lc ^d JSiU quil.'

Plut. precept.

jreip.

ger. p. ao6,

^'j,,lii

aan J A T a a

RTJTILIUS, MALLIUS,

Confuls,

^^

an invafion by the Cimbri, after th-e bloody defeat of A,R.'647i C^pio and Mallius in Gau), had made it necelTaryto '^"^\*^'' break through ail rules and party interefts, to reinftate a perlbn in office at the end of three years, who had found fo much difficulty to attain the Confullhip for the firft time, but who was then confidered as the fole refource of the Commonwealth. '''-^U

He
entered

therefore

imimediately returned to Italy, aild

triumph on the firft day he entered upon office, that is, on the firft of January-, exhibinng a fight to the Romans, which they could fcarce believe even when they faw it, Jugurtha, a captive and in chains that formidable enem.y, during whole
in
:

Rome

'^

-^wJ^

1%,^

they could not fo much as flatter themfelves that they Ihould fee an end of the v/ar ; fo united in him was valour with arts and ftratagems, and fo fertile was his genius in refources, even in the midft of the moll defperate misfortunes. His two fons followed
life

mournful ceremony. It is faid, that in appeared like a man out of his 4bnfes. He was thrown into a dungeon, where the 'goalers, in their hafte to ftrip him of his fpoils, tore his robe to pieces, and pulled off the tips of his cars for the fake of the pendants he wore in them. He palTed fix whole days in that horrid prilon, ftruggiing with famine, and retaining to the laft moment an ardent' defire to live a fit end, adds Plutarch, a due reward for his atrocious crime. It is of good example, that fuch vile wretches as he do not efcape the divine vengeance even in this life. Marius, either through abfence of mind, or haugh- pim. in tinefs, entered the Senate, after the ceremony, in his Mario, "robe of triumph, which was without example. He perceived, that the whole prefence was furprized -and
in this
i"the

him

proceffion, he

:

,

He quitted the hall that ^ihocked at that innovation. -inftant, and returned in the ufual habit, that is, the robe bordered with purple. He however had ftill on piin. a fimple iron ring ; it was not till his thirds Cpnful- xxxm. Ihip that he alTumed a^ geld one. 'r'^^'-l:-'^' ..\'

j.

DETACHED

z$6

D E T A € H^EiIk
:,!

TACT^
F A C

D E T AO K E D
Before *
I

T

S.

A.

R.fi'".

proceed to relate the war with the C'lm^ fome fads a place here, which have little connexion with the hiftory in general, and however deferve not to be omitted. Scaurus in his Cenforlliip, which was during the ?: Confulfhip of Metellus Numidicus and Silanus, furnifiied a new proof of his obftinate and iintradable For his Collegue, M. Drufns, being difpofition. dead, he pretended, contrary to invariable cuftom, to continue in office, though in the like cafe the furBut the Triviving Cenfor was obliged to abdicate. bunes of the People, by threatening to put hirri in prifon, compelled him to fubmit. His Cenforihip, though abridged in this manner, was however famous for works that do him honour. He made a great highv/ay, which began at Pifa, and £Xtended acrofs part of Liguria. The building alfo^ or at leaft the rebuilding, of the bridge Milvius, now called Ponte Mola, over the Tiber, at a fmaU diHance from Rome, is afcribed to him. iv/ no zaisbi
bri, I Ihall

give

'

The fame times almoft give us two examples of the exceifes into which vice ibmetimes hurries young perfons, even of illuftrious birth, and of the misforThe Ion of Fabius Servilia*tunes that attend them. to the moft infamous himfelf abandoned having nus,
c.

his father firft baniflied him into the caufed him to be put to death by then country, and two flaves, whom he made free, in order to exempt them from enquiries. He * v/as however profecuted

courle of

life,

on that account, and
pania.

baniflied

to

Nocera

in

Cam-

* This article of Detached Fafts
-|-

is

the Editor's.

Romulus had given

children. But it that the exceflive rigour of fathers was fubjeft to the ea(juiries of the
hiVfi

power of life and death over their however appears from this example and fome others,
to fathers

and magiftmtes.

The,

D E T^€ HEDi
The
fecond example
is

F

ACT

S.

of another Fabius,

who having

imitated the irregular conduft of his father' Fabius Allobrogicus in his youth, did not follow his example He carried the excefles of dein his amendment.

bauchery and extravagance

to fuch

an height, that the

Praetor was forced to interdict him, and appoint him Thus the State fupplied what paternal aua keeper. thority ought to have done ; and the perfon * whom
heir of his fortunes, the fe verity of the
difinherited.

the too great indulgence of his father had conflituted magiftrate

-The exa6t date of thefe two fa6ls is not certain, but cannot be far from the times of which we have now been fpeaking.
I Ihall

give two
in

trials a

place here, that are at leafl

refped to the perfons they concern. The firft regards one T. Albucius, a fingular man, and one who proves, that if learning adorns and improves folid geniuffes, it only hurts little minds, or weak heads. This Albucius was Greek mad, fo much as almoft to renounce his mother tongue, and ehofe rather to pafs, as the poet Lucilius reproaches The fame poet liim, for a Greek than a f Roman. relates on what oceafion he was very agreeably turned into ridicule upon this caprice. J Sc^evola, on his way to ,his government of Afia, palled through Athens. Albucius, who was in that city, coming to ^^ay his refpefts to him, Scaevola ialuted him in Greek; at the fame time his whole train, all his officers, even to; the Littors, did the fame, fo that Albucius heard nothing around him but the word Xa4f>i (fave you) re*
iv.

memorable

Quem
-f

nimia patrls indalgentia haeredem>i"eliquerat, feveritaspub.*
'

lica exhasredp.vit.

Val. Max. iii. 4. Graecum re (Scsevola fpeaks) Albuci, quam Romanuki atque Sabinum. Maluifti dici. Gr^cc ergo prsetor Athenis, Id quod maluifti, te, quum ad me accedi', faluto. ^ liftores, turmaomni', cohorfquei;4 ^ X«7ps, inquam, Tite ^'" K "XaTfE Tite, Hinc hoftis mi Albucius, hinc inimicii^. LuciL. apud Cic. I, de Pih.'^.' "''J This rs ScrsEvda the Aug\i'r, Xasllus's Ton-in-law, who is oneof tlie fpeakers iu the dialogue de Amicitia, and book I. de Oratore.
••
•,

:

'

'

-

«^.;-|

peated

288
lenfibly

DETACHED FAGTi
peated by
;

This jell flung him all that were prefent. and as all the philofophy he had lludied in the Greek books had taught him neither more moderation, nor made him a greater mailer of his temper, he conceived ib much refentment upon the occafion,

When Scsevola reBut turned to Rome, he accufed him of extortion. the probity of that irreproachable perfon eafily refuted-^ this accufation, which turned only to the confufion of its author. He was not fo fortunate himfelf when he was in the Albucius was Prsetor about the 647th or like cafe, 648th year of Rome, and being fent into Sardinia, he gave chace to fome wretched bands of robbers. After which, with as much pride as if he had gained fome important vi6lory, he exhibited in his province the ce-^ remony of a kind of triumph. At the fame time he wrote to the Senate, to demand that public thankfgivings fhould be decreed at Rome for the advantage.^ he had gained over t!ie people of Sardinia. Till then there had been no example of refufing a General the like requeil. But befides that the exploits of this luch an honour, the vanity, with little deferved perfon crowned himfelf with his own hands, which he had drew upon him a dilgrace which nobody had expeHe was rejected and that was rienced before him. On quitting his province, he was accufed ot not all. extortion by the people of Sardinia. He had evidently not learned in the fchool of Epicurus, whofc opinions he followed, highly to refpedl virtue, and to
that he refolved to be revenged.
-,

prefer his duty to his interell.

fie was

condemned

in

little adconfequence, and banifhed to Athens. Albucius v^as verfity does fome people much good. of this number. He bore his banifhment more honourably than good fortune. He confoled himfelf with philofophy, fomeflmes alfo amufmg his time in compofing fatires after the manner of Lucilius. Afc.Ped. About the fame time, Scaurus, Prince of the Se^ who had been Conful and Cenfor, was accufed r^^t^» proM^' Scauro. before the people by Cn. Domitius, who v/as Triburle during

A

m
DETACHED
F AXC^T
5.

289

during the third Confulihip of Mariils. The matter in qneftion was *a very great crime ; but mentioned only in indefinite terms by the fingle author that Domitius accufed Scaurus of a kind of fpeaks of it. profanation of certain facrifices of the Roman People, and in particular of thofe celebrated in honour of the> Dii Penates fhoufhold godsj of Troy, brought, as was faid, into Italy by .ffineas. The accufer was very warm : for he had caufe of perfonal enmity to Scaurus,^ . who had prevented him from being chofen to fucceed his father in the office of Augur. However, he liad generofity enough to refule the fecret memoirs one of Scaurus's (laves brought him againit his mafter. He conceived horror both for the traitor and the treafon, and fent that wretch back to his mailer. have feen a like circumftance of the orator L. CralTus in And thefe two examples give Varefpe6l to Carbo. lerius Maximus occafion to cry out: " How* muft..:. juftice have been obferved in thcle days between friends, when it took place to fo great a degree between accufers and the accufed ?" Scaurus was acquitted, but not without great difficulty. Of the thirty- live Tribes three condemned him and even of thofe who favoured him, the number of the fuffrages for acquitting him did not much exceed thofe againft him. Domitius not being able to revenge himfelf on Scaurus, attacked the whole body of the publick Priefts of Rome, whom he deprived of a very fine privilege. The publick Priefts, that is, the Augurs

We

,

:

and

Pontifi^s, were in pofTeffion of a right to the vacancies in their colleges by co-optation.

fill

up

The
tranf-

irritated

Tribune caufed
religion did
title,

a

law to

pals,

which

ferred that right of eledlion to the People.
refpedt: for

But

as Cic
'

ii

in

Ihould confer the
*

not perm.it that the people Domitius regulated that ac-

^^^^g"'"'

Quo
!

quum

pafto igitur inter amicos viguifTe tunc juf^itiarn credirnns, inter accufatores quoque reos tantum virium obtinuilfe vi-

&

deamus

Val, Max.

iv.

4..

Vol.

VL

U

eordlni

"

""""'*

290

DETACHED
:

FACTS,

cording to the cuftom already eftablilhed in refpeft to The leaft half of the People the Pontifex Maximus. were alTembled, that is, feventeen Tribes only, drawn by lot and the perfon who had the plurality of fuffrages in this alTeinbly of feventeen Tribes, was chofen by the Pontiffs. The Tribune caufed it to be decreed, that the fame thing fhouid be done in refpedt to all He was well the other places of Pontiff and Augur. rewarded for his trouble ; for loon ^fter he was de(?:ed Pontifex Maximtis himfelf.

THE
i

C

291

]

THE

ROMAN HISTORY,
BOOK
THE

THIRTIETH.

i I A HIS book, to begin at the Confulfhip of Rutilius, contains the fpace of fourI teen years, from the 647th to the 660th year of Rome. It contains principally the war with the Cimbri, thefecond revolt of the flaves

-

in Sicily, the fedition of Saturnius, the banifhment and recal of Metellus Numidicus, and feveral

memorable

trials.

SECT.
Of
the Cimhri

I.

and Teutones, German

nations,

Incur-

fions of thofe nations into different countries. attacked in Noricum by the Conful Carbo,

They are

him.

and defeat move into the country of the Hclvetii. The Tigurini and Tugeni join them. They heat the The Tigurini gain a great Conful Silanus in Gaul. victory over the Conful L. Caffms. The Conful Co'pio
They

Cn. Mallius^ a man of no merit, is made Conful., and fnt into Gaul to fupport Capio. Diffenfion between dspio and Mallius.
plunders the gold of Touloufe,

Aurelius Scawus defeated and taken by
Terribly defeat of the

the

Cimbri,
re-

Roman

armies.

The Cimbri

U

2

folvs

igz

INCURSIONS
folve to

OF THE CIMBRI.
exercifes

march the Romans.
cond time,

to

Rome.

Rutilius

Alarm and conjiernation cf and difciplines the
e.le£ied

troops pcrfeofly.

Marius is ihe Cimbri fet

Conful for the fe'The

out towards Spain.

marching of the Cimhri into Spain leaves Marius time Generous a^ion of Marius. to frm his troops. He He is ele£ied Conful 4igs a 'riezv canal for the Rhone.
Sylla perfuades the Marft to enter for the third time. The Cimbri are into an alliance with the Romans.

defeated in Spain.

fourth time.
'

Marius is elected Conful for the The Cimbri and Teutcnes feparate, and Marius declines fighting with the the Confuls alfo. Martha^ a Syrian woman^ given cut by Teutones. Marius for a prophet efs. Marius rejufes a Jingle cornThe Teutcnes continue their marchy and adhat.
vance
hy

.

towards the Alps.
city

They are
of Aix.

entirely defeated

Marius ftear the frefents Marius with
fold at a very loiv

The Roman army-

who caufes them to he Marius^ whilfi eraploycd at dfacrifice^ receives advice that he is eletled Conful for The Cimbri enter Italy. They force the the fifth time. Adige. Marius joins his army with that of the of fafs The Cimbri Catulus. Battle fought near Vercell<e.
the Jpoils,
pric...

Jions incredible joy at

The news of this villory occaMarius triumphs jointly with Catulus. Misfortune of Capio. He makes himfelf agreeable to the Senate by a law which rejiores the
are entirely defeated.

Rome.

He is udminijlration of jujiice in part to that order. He divejled of co?nmand^ and his ejiate is coyififcated.
is

afterwards excluded the Senate.

He

is

again con-

demr.ed hy the People

fr phmdering the gold of Touloufe,
who made
the

Confequeftces of tleat fentence.

and before whom R.ome trembled at the time of its greateft power, were a people that came from the north of Germany,
fuffer the bloodieft defeats,

THE Romans
*

* Cimbri and Teiitones,

^

i

The beginning

of this book, to the Confulfhip of Rutilius,

is

the

EJltor's.
'
.

and

J

INCURSIONS
aind the coafts

OF TrtE

CIMBRI.

295

of the Baltick fea. I do not enter into the antiquity of thefe people, which is foreign to my
it

fubje6t.

times

It fuffices to obferve, that from the earheit had been the cuftom of the Celtick and Ger-

manick nations, to tranfplant themfeives with their wives and children, and to go in queft of fettlements in remote countries. Europe and Afia were full of
their colonies.

The

northern nations were always the

terror

of the fouthern.

Thofe-of whom we fpeak having advanced at firft towards Bohemia, were repulfed by the Boii, inhabitants of the country,

who

ftill

retain that

name

*.

afterwards approached the Danube, which they paffed, and went on as far as the country of the Scordifci, who are placed upon the banks of the Save.

They

From thence, turning weftward, they entered the country of the Taurifts or Taurifci, which anfwers to that we now call Stiria. All the nations, through which we have juft traced the route of the Cimbri and Teutones, were Gauls by origin. It does not appear that they either could, or would, fix in any of thefe regions. Therefore, continuing their march, they entered Noricum, v^here they had made their ufual and it was here they hrft found themfeives ravages embroiled with the Romans.
:

This country, which contains very near what weA. underfland by the names of the Upoer Auftria, and the Circle of Bavaria, placed the Cimbri at too fmail a diftance from Italy, not to give the Romans jealoufy. The Confiil Cn. Papirius Carbo polled himfelf in the paffes of the Alps to intercept them.. But perceiving that the Barbarians feemed to have quite different defigns, he became bolder, and fent Deputies to aflc with menaces, why they rr.vaged the territory of the Norici, who v/ere the friends of the Romans. There was hovvever no treaty fubfifting by which the Romans were obliged to take upon them

R. 639.

now

*

From

the

name

Ecii,

Boiohenum was formed,

vvlilch

we

call

Bohemia.
~

*

U

?

the

:;

294

INCURSIONS

of the

the defence of that people. Ambafladors to carry back their anfwer, which was conceived in very moderate terms. They protefted, *' That they refpedted the Roman name : That they v/ould not attack any nation in alliance with Rome That they were going to quit Noricum, and feek a fettlement in countries about which the Romans would

CIMBRI. The Cimbri appointed

have no reafon to concern themfelves." The Conful probably taking that for fear, which proceeded from the moderation of thefe Barbarians, who were more equitable than himfelf, believed it highly prudent to endeavour to furprize them. He gave their Ambaffadors
guides,

who conduced them much round

about, and marching his army by fhorter ways, he advanced againft the Cimbri, whom he found incamped near Norcia, a city which Freinlhemius beHis ftratagem lieves to be Goricum in Carinthia.

proved unfuccefsful. prized and attacked
their courage.

The
in

Barbarians,,

though

fur-

the night, found refuge in

The Conful was repulfed with lofs a great rain had not put an end to the battle,, the Roman army would have been entirely cut in pieces. The vigors did not take any advantage of their fuccefs ; and, for what reafon cannot be faid>
and
if

turned towards Gaul and the Helvetii.
j^trnb.l.iv.

The

latter,

now

the Swifs, far different then fronj

V. I9S-

& what they are

^^11'^'

were very rich, accordBut ing to Strabo, and had great quantities of gold. as they faw their new guefts were become richer thart themfelves by the plunder of fo many countries, they liked the trade, particularly the Tigurini (the people of Zurich), and the Tugeni (thofe of Zug). The natives of thofe two cantons joined the Cimbri but it
in thefe days,
:

is

A.

R

64.3.

hard to fix the date of this junction, which might perhaps not have taken place till fome years after the defeat of Carbo, as we fhall foon fay. ^"^^^ fight of the Cimbri for three or four years, end the of which they appear again in Gaul, deat manding lands of the Conful Silanus to fettle in ; and

^^

on that condition, offering

to ferve the

Romans

in war.

They

INCURSIONS

OF THE

CIMBRI.

iz^^

'They were far from accepting thofe offers. The Cimbri therefore refolved to obtain that by force which had been refufed to their requed. They attacked the Conful, and gained a fecond vitSlory over
the
tof

Romans.
64.5.

years after, the Tigurini crofTed the country a. r. the Allobroges, in order to join the Cimbri, arid defeated another Roman army, commanded by the

Two

That Conful fell in the battle Conful L. CafTms himfelf, with L. Pifo, his Lieutenant, a perfon of Confular dignity. The other Lieutenant, whofe name was C. Popilius, could not fave the remains of this unfortunate army but at the expence of its honour* Their lives were granted them only, upon condition of paffing under the yoke, and leaving all their baggage at the difcretion of the enemy. Popilius, at his return to Rome, was accufed before the people, and prevented an inevitable condemnation by banifhing
himfelf.

So many repeated defeats were only the prelude of one more horrid and bloody, which the Romans foon fuflained from the fame enemy, and of which a more particular account is come down to us in the ancient monuments.

The principal author of the dreadful difafter I am going to relate, was Servilius Csepio, a rafh, arrogant man, and of fuch avidity, that to enrich himfelf, peculation and facrilege were nothing with him. Being Conful the year after the defeat of L. Caffius, and going into Gaul againft the Cimbri, he fignalized the beginning of his military expeditions by plundering the gold of Touloufe, a place fo famous in the The inhabitants of that city, who ancient world. were before the allies of the Rcni.^ns, having been drawn into a revolt by the prom iff d of the Cimbri, furprized and laid the Roman ^arrifon in chains. Csepio marched againft them, and v/ith the afTiftance of intelligence in the place, entered Touloufe, and abandoned it to be plundered by the foldiers. Noall things facred and profane v/ere thing was fp'ared
:

^^

j^

^ g^

y

4

the

296

INCURSIONS

OF THE CIMBRI.

But the moll extraordinaiT' the prey of the troops. booty was an immenfe weight of gold part of the a lake near the place, of the temples, and taken out
which
is

faid to

amount

to at lead the value of fifteen

Pofidon.

thoufand talents, or about two millions two hundred and fifty thoufand pounds llerling. This gold, authors fay, was originally taken out of the temple of Delphi, and brought from thence to their own country by the Tedbofages, who accomBut the moft jupanied Brennus in that expedition.
dicious writers confider this tradition as a fable. cording to them, the Gauls being very rich,

apud
p!'^88.'^'

Aclittle

addicled to luxury, and extremely fuperfcitious, confee rated treafures to their gods, and often depofited them in lakes and marfhes, into which they threw
their gold

and

filver in ingots.

And when
it

mans became mafters of
letting thefe lakes to

the country, on

particulars,

the RofeUing or frequently hap-

pened that thofe who bought or farmed them, found
golden bars
in

them.

Orof. V.
^5-

Cspio, when pofieffed of fo rich a prey, converted Very little of the greateft part of it to his own ufe. it was brought into the publick treafury of Rome. "And Orofius even tells us, that the Conful having firft fent away thefe treafures under a guard to Marfeilles, fecretly caufed that guard to be aflaffinated on their v/ay, and in that manner feized the whole. He was
feverely punifhed, as

we

iliall

fee in the fequel, for his
life

horrid avidity. His whole future
Aul. Cell, feries
"'• ^"

was one continued

of misfortunes

:

and

all

thofe

who had

fhared in

the facrilege

came

to fuch miferable ends, that to ex-

prefs a man fupremely unfortunate, it became a proverb to fay, he had ftiared in the gold of Touloufe. It had been a part of wifdom in the Romans to have recalled fuch a General after the expiration of his year, and to make choice, againft fuch formidable Reenemies, of Confuls capable of oppofing them. gard was had neither to the one nor the other of thofe Caepio objects, at once fo important and fo fimple. and as to ,was continued in the command in Gaul
:

the

RUTILIUS, MALLIUS,

Confuls.

297

the ele(5tion of Confuls, the caprice of the multitude Amongft others, two candidates who decided it.

merited the whole efteem and confidence of the Rothefe were Rutilius offered themfelves and Catulus. Rutilius was the moft virtuous citizen of Rome, and after having ferved under Scipio Africaniis at the fiege of Numantia in his youth, he had formed himfelf entirely in the art military under Metellus Numidicus, whofe Lieutenant-General he had been with Marius. Catulus was infinitely deferving in every refpeft, and we fhall fee him in the fequel Ihare the glory of the lafl vidlory over the Cimbri with Marius. Rutilius was a6tually eledted Confui .but a perfon was preferred to Catulus, whom Cicero defcribes in four words, that he was not only * of mean birth, but had neither merit, genius, nor morals. His name was Cn. Maliius. And as if chance had been of intelligence with the caprice of the multitude, of the two provinces allotted to the Confuls, the one in Italy, the other in Gaul, Rutilius had the jfirft ; and the fecond, which related to the Cimbri, ..fell to Maliius, who was accordingly fcnt into Gaul with a new army to fupport C^pio. Thus of the two armies fent by the Romans againft the Cimbri, the one had a rafh man at its head, and the other one of no capacity. And to compleat tiie misfortune, difcord arofe between them.

man People

;

-,

P. Rutilius.

A.R.547*
Ant. C.
105,

Cn. Mallius.

Never had union
affairs
:

betv/een Generals been

more

ne-r

cefTary than in the prefent conjundlure

of the
:

Roman

but never were Generals fo iil-fuited to them. Csepio was proud and contemptuous and Maliius was unfortunately too worthy of contempt. He was .however Confui in oiHce, and in that quality had a
*

Non folum
contempta

ignobilem,

verum

fine

virtnte,

fine

ingenio,

vita

etiaiu

&

Ibrdida.

Cic. pro

Piaiic. n. iz,

right

298

RUTILIUS, MALLIUS,

Confuls.

A.R. 64.7. right to take place. But the Proconful regarding o^"^^y ^^^ unworchinefs of the perfon, and not the au"^loc^" thority of his office, would do nothing in concert with him. He pretended that his was a feparate pro* vince, and placed the Rhone between him and the
Confiil.

This was the v/orft condu(5t he could have chofen and he had foon reafon to be convinced of it. M. Aurelius Scaurus, a perfon of Confular dignity, and one of the Conful's Lieutenants, was defeated by the Barbarians, with a confiderable detachment, which he commanded, and remained prifoner in the hands of vi6lors. Immediately after this blow, the Conful fent to defire Ca?pio to join him as foon as poflible
:

-

with his army. The latter brutally anfwered, that each of them ought to keep within his own province But foon after, fear, left the for the defence of it. Conful ihould have all the glory of the vi6tory, which he confidered as certain, induced him to change He therefore approached the Conful, his opinion. but did not encamp in the fame place, and had no communication with him. He placed his camp between the army of Mallius, and that of the Cimbri, in order to be ready to attack the enemy firft, and not to divide with any one the glory of their
defeat.

,

When
the two

the Cimbri were apprized of the jun6lion of

Roman

armies,

fuppofmg

it

the cfFe6t of a

had been informed of the difcord that prevailed between the Generals, they fent Crepio, Deputies to the Romans to treat of peace. into whole camp they firft entered, feeing that it was not to him, but to the Conlul, they had orders to addrefs themfclves, conceived a mean and ridiculous jealoufy of it, arrd far from giving them pacifick language, was very near ordering them to be put to
reconciliation, for they

death.

This violent manner of treating the Deputies, was What fatal conextremely condemned in his camp. the might have, diflfenlion Generals of fec^uences the were

299 were perceived ; and it was apprehended, that it A. R. 647. * might occafion the entire deftrudion of the two ar- "^' Such ftrong remonftrances were made in conmies.
fcquence to Csepio, that he repaired, in a manner

RUTILIUS, MALLIUS,

Confuls.

~

through force and againft his will, to the Conful's camp. The council of war was aflembled, to deliberate upon the meafures it was proper to take. NoThe whole time pafled, thing was concluded in it. and grofs afdifputes, reproaches, on both fides, in Generals more embroiled parted The two fronts.
than ever. So wretched a condufl had the deferved iffue, and Liv. Epit. drew upon the Romans the moil horrible defeat they ^^^,^^ ^ had ever fuilained. No particulars of this bloody 16. even do not know adtion are come down to us.

We

exadly the place where it happened ; which we may however conje6lure not to have been far from Orange.

We

are only told by fome abridgers, that the flaughter was dreadful, and almoft incredible. The two armies were entirely cut to pieces, and both camps were taken. The number of the flain is faid to have amounted to fourfcore thoufand foldiers, as v/eil Romans as allies, in which are included two fons of the Conful, and forty thoufand fervants and followers of

the army.

Some

affirm, that only ten perfons efcaped

to carry the news of the flaughter.

fore the battle had

made

a

days v/ith gods, and to deilroy all that (liould fall into their hands. They punftually performed this barbarous vow. Tlae gold and filver were caft ijjto the Rhone ; the baggage v/as torn in pieces the arms, cuiraffes, and bridles, were broken ; the horfes were drowned, and the men hanged upon tree^. The famous Sertorius, who was then very young, and ferved in Csepio's army, had fufficient ftrength and courage to fwim over the Rhone, armed as he was with liis'cuirafs and buckler. Eutropius and Orofms mention four nations who Ihared in this vidlory j the Cimbri, Teutones, Tiguin thofe
facrifice to the
•,

enough

The Cimbri bevow, which was common the Gauls and Germans, to

2

rir)i»

;

300

RUTILIUS, MALLIUS,

Confuls.

A.R. 647-nni, and Ambrones. Plutarch afcribes the principal Ant. c. glory of it to the laft, who appear to have been one of the Swifs Cantons. He fpeaks of them, as of the bravell and moft terrible of the whole allied army. They were thirty thoufand in number. After fo great a vidory, they deliberated on the neceffary means for improving their advantage. They were not divided in opinion. It was agreed, that it was not proper to give the enemy time to look about them. The Barbarians, having fo eafily defeated thofe they had attacked, refolved not to flop, nor fettle any where, till they had ruined Rome, and- ravaged all Italy. They were however previoufly for confulting Aurelius Scaurus, whom they had taken They caufed him to be brought in the firfl battle. into the afiembly, to which, according to the cuftom of the nation, they repaired compleatly armed. The chains, which he had on his hands and feet, did not bind his tongue. Being afked his thoughts concerning their defign to pals the Alps, in order to march againft Rome, he endeavoured to divert them from it, as from a chimerical and impradicable proje6l exalting the power and greatnefs of the Romans, which no human force was capable of fubduing. Boiorix, one of the Kings of that nation, a young and violent Prince, could not hear a captive continue fpeaking with fo much freedom and boldnefs, and thruft his fword through him. It is not cafy to conceive the alarm and confternation which fo terrible a lofs occafioned at Rome, that threatened ftill more dangerous confequences. dreadful cloud of Barbarians were at the very gates of Italy, three hundred thoufand men bearing arms, and follovv'ed by their wives and children, not fo much

A

to

make war
in
its

againft Italy, as to
cities,

fettle

poffefs

its

lands,

moft of its inhabitants. Fame had fpread terrible things of their ftrength, great ftature, and valour, or rather ferocity, that bore down and ravaged all before them like an impetuous torrent
:

fubjed it entirely, and extirpate from the beginning

8

'

RUTILIUS, MALLIUS,
rent
:

Confuls.

^oi

and the
firft

effefls

flill

exceeded

all

hitherto faid of them.

that report had a.r. 64.7, ^^^' ^'
105.

thing done was to recal C^pio, who had not been afhamed to furvive a difafler of which himfelf^ had been the principal caufe. I Ihall make the different fentences palled upon him a feparate article in the fequel. As to the Confiil Mallius, nothing
niore is faid of him in hiftory. Rutilius, his Collegue, was appointed to make new levies for oppofmg the Barbarians, and he perfe6lly acquitted himfelf of that

The

commifTion.
ercifed

For he not only them with infinite care.

raifed foldiers,

He

but exeven introduced

the cuftom
to teach

unknown

before, of giving

them

to fence, in order that they

them mailers, might be

capable of uniting addrefs with courage on occafion. this purpofe he employed the mafters of the gladiators ; thereby converting an art, that had hitherto been dellined only to the inhuman diverfion of tlie multitude, to the utility of the Commonwealth. This pradiice was adopted by fucceeding Generals and in later times, mention is made of thefe fencing mafters

For

:

under the name of Campi dotlores. ellablifhed by Rutilius in his alfo be judged- from the condufl he obferved in refpe6l to his own fon. Inftead of keeping him about his own perfon, v^^ith greater conveniences and diftindion, he made him only a private legionary foldier ; in order that he might form himfelf for commanding by learning to obey in the lowell rank of military life. It was in this manner that Rutilius prepared foldiers for Marius, and conquerors for the Cimbri. For it was this army that Marius, when appointed to a6l againft the Cimbri, chofe, in preference to that with which himfelf had conquered
for the feldiery,

The good army, may

difcipline

'

Jugurtha.

have already faid, that Marius, whilft Hill in Africa, and only three years after he had been eleded

We

preme

time, was again railed to that futhough it was not the cuftom to eleft an abfent perfon, and the laws required an interval of
firft

Conful for the

dignity,

ten

[02

MARIUS, FLAVIUS,
years between a
firfl

Confuls,

this occafion the

and the laws.
his Collegue.

and fecond Confulfliip. But on publick utility took place of cuftom F. Flavius Fimbria was given him for

C.
Ant. C.
i04.

Marius

II.

C. Flavius Fimbria.

Pint, in

Mar.

The Romans, always wife in adverfity, had at laft taken the moll effedual meafures againft the ftorm But thofe meafures would perthat threatened them. haps have been too late, if Providence, that was watchful for the prefervation of Rome, and which-i had deftined that city to be the capital, and miftrefs! of the univerfe, had not taken care early to removed The time was not yet come when the the danger. Roman empire was to be the prey of Barbarians. Wei left the Cimbri in the refolution of marching againft] Rome and if they had immediately put that relblu-j But,j tion in praflice, every thing was to be feared. without any kno>vn reafon, they turned their backs upon Italy, and after having ravaged the whoM country between the Rhone and the Pyrenees, theyJ entered Spain. The Romans in confequence had time] to recover from their terror, and Marius to exercifej and form his foldiers, to enure them to labour, toj exalt and confirm their courage, and above all to] make himfelf acquainted with them, and to accuftomJ them to his difcipline. For inftead of the indulgence] and lenity afcribed to him by Sailuil, in refpedl to thej troops of Numidia, as we have {cen, Plutarch de4 fcribes him here as very rigid v/ith regard to thofe nowj under his command. " His rough and fierce demeanour," fays he, " which they coulu not endurcj
:

at firft, and his inflexible autterity in punifhing, as foon as they were accuilomed to rule and obedience,,] feemed not only juft, but falutary. They grew fa-j miliar witli all that was terrible in him ; the fharpnefsj of his anger, the am.azing roughnefs of his voice, thej

haughtinefs of

liis

looks,

and the Hern

air of hisf countenance

MARIUS, FLAVIUS,

Confuls.

303
-^.1^.648. ,0^.

countenance-, and conceived all this ought not to give them, but his enemies, terror." An adion of juftice and equity much conciliated every body in his favour. His nephew, C. Lufius, who ferved under him as a legionary Tribune, an officer of corrupt manners, having at different times ufed great foUicitations to debauch a young foldier Holder his command, and finding him always inflexible, bad at length recourl'e to violence. * The foldier,

P'ut. in

ehufing rather to expofe himfelf to the danger of death, than to confent to fuch an infamous crime, He was cited ran Lufius through with his fword. before Marius, as deferving death for killinc^ his officer. When that General had heard what had paffed from the foldier's own mouth, for nobody had dared to take upon him his defence, and had been aillired by the evidence of fome witneffes, that Lufius more than once had made the young man infamous propofals, he caufed one of the crowns, ufually given as a reward of the moft glorious aftions, to be brought, and crowned the foldier with it himfelf, exhorting him always to retain the lame fentiments of probity and

honour. This was however not a year of entire leifure to But the Romans in refped to military expeditions. the accounts of them come down to us are fo little circumfiantiai, that all we know of them is, that Sylla, who was then Marius's Lieutenant, beat the piut. Te(5lofages, a people on the banks of the Garonne, of Syllwhom we have fpoke before, and took their General
Copillus prifoner.
I tl.ink

it

we may

afcribe to this or the enfuing year

the

new

canal of the Rhone,

made by Marius, though

Plutarch does not fpeak of it till his fourth Confullhip. Such a vs?ork Teems to agree with the leifure the BarAs he had moft of his probarians gave him at firft.
* Interfeftus ab eo eft cui vim afFerebat. Facere enim probus adoquam perpeti turpiter maluit. Atque hunc ille vir fummus [Marius] fcelere folutum, periculo liberavit. Cic. pro
lefccns periculose,

Mil. 18,

vifions

304
A. R.
648,
*

MARIUS, AURELIUS,
mouths of
were

Confuls.

jo^^

vifions from the lea by the Rhone, he obferved that the entrance of that river was difficult, becaufe the
it

full

fand, brought thither by the fea.

of mud, and vaft quantities of He therefore caufed

a new canal to be dug by his foldiers, which beginning at the Rhone below Aries, croffed the plain of Crau, as far as the village of Foz, the name of which is a monument fubPifting of that ancient work, which the Romans called Fofla Mariana, and which probably ended at the tower of Bouc or Embouc. After the
vi6lory, Marius abandoned the canal to the Maflylii, (people of Marfeilles) in reward for their good and faithful fervices. That people drew a confiderable

revenue from
again
filled

But it has been it during- fome time. up with fand for many ages. Honorius
his

chorography of Provence, fays, that of it. This is a lake which empties itfelf into the fea, and formerly communicated' with the Rhone by a canal called Bras mort for fourfcore years paft it has been Ihut up with large paliin

Bouche,

the Galejon

is

a remainder

:

fades.
Plut. in
^^'

The time for elefting new Confuls being arrived, every body were again inclined in favour of Marius. The Barbarians were expedled, and the Romans feemed determined to fight thofe terrible enemies only under his command, and with him at their head. He was accordingly elefted Conful by the people for the third time, and the Senate again decreed the province of Gaul to him, contrary to cuflom, and without drawing lots ; and that witli the advice of Scaurus, In great dangers the Metelli, and all the Nobility. the intereft of the publick prevailed over private refentment.

A.R.649.
Ant. C.
103.

C.

Marius

III.

L. AuRELius Orestes.
did not return fo foon as was expefted, Marius's third Confulfhip pafTed without any confiderable event. Syila however acc^uired new glory
2,nd

The Cimbri

in

it.

MARIUS, AURELIUS, Cortfiils; ^05 He ferved this year as a legionary Tribune^ A. R. 649,
"
*
'

and brought over the numerous nation of the Marfi to the Romans, who mufc have been a German people in alliance with the Cimbri, and other Barbarians.

_

Marius

which continually increafed, gave more and more jealoufy. Seeing therefore that that General fullered him with pain, gave him no longer any honourable commiffions, and on the contrary oppofed his advancement on all occafiohs,
Sylla's

glory,

ftill

he quitted him, and attached himfelf to Catulus, who the following year was elefted Marius's CoUegue in
the Confulfhip.

The Cimbri were not fuccefsful in their expedition Liv. The Celtiberians defeated them. But their in Spain. lofs could not have been confiderable. They returned
and prepared at length to atwhole force. Before the Barbarians were rejoined^ Marius was His Collegue, elefted Conful for the fourth time. dead, being he obliged to go to was L. Aurelius,
to join the Teutones,

Epiti

tack Italy with their

Rome

to prefide in the affemblies, leaving his

army

under the
turnius.

command of Manius

Aquillius.

Many per:

fons of great merit flood for the Confulfhip

but Safhall

Tribune of the people, of

whom we

foon have occafion to fpeak largely, having been gained by Marius, endeavoured in all his harangues to induce the People to cleft him Conful for the fourth time. As Marius afFeded diHiculty, and declared that he could accept that ofHce no more, Saturnius, affuming a tone of reproach and indignation, called him traitor to his country, for refufing the command of the army in fo prefllng a danger. Every body perceived the game they played, or rather comedy, in which Marius afted the mofl unworthy part in the world for a man of honour, and the moft capable of drawing univerfal

contempt upon himfelf.

But

there was occafion for a General of experience and
reputation.

Marius was accordingly eledled Conful

for the Fourth time, and the fame Catulus was given

Vol. VI.

X

him

306
him

MARIUS, LUTATIUS,
for Collegue, to

Confuls.

Cn. MalHus had been He was, as we have laid before, a man of true merit, and had abundance of credit with the Nobility, without being difagreepreferred three years before.
able to the People.
A.R.650.
Ant. C.
102.

whom

C.

Marius IV. Q^LuTATius Catulus.
Coniiils,

every thing for as they bad received advice that the Barbarians v/ere upon their march. The latter, having divided their troops, advanced by two different routes. The Cimbri took theirs through Noricum, (Bavaria and Tirol) to enter Italy by the Trentine. The Teutones and Ambrones propofed croffing the Roman province of Gaul, (Dauphine and Provence) and to turn off through Liguria. The Confuls, upon this news, feparated alfo. Catulus pofted himfelf on the fide of the Norican Alps, to wait there for the Cimbri 5 and * Marius moved to encamp at the confluence of the Ifara and the Rhone, to oppofe the Teutones and Ambrones. The Cimbri had a long march, and nothing is faid of them till the approaching year. But the Teutones were foon in view of Marius. Their troops were innumerable, and occupied a great extent of country. They raifed cries, or rather howlings, capable of ilriking with terror, and every day offered Marius battle, v/ith great infults, and reproaching him with All their infults and bravadoes did abjed: cowardice. not move him. He kept clofe within his camp, folely intent for the prefent upon checking the ardour of his troops, who exprelTed incredible defire and impatience To accuflom to come to blows with the enemy. them to fuftain the terrible afpe6t of the Barbarians,

The

who had prepared

taking the field, fet out

from Rome

as foon

movements of the Barbarians and hard to fay whether they are to be afcrjbcd to the beginning or middle of the campaign. XVe only relate fa6ts in the grofs, having no more of thsra,
exa(5t

*Tbe

date of

all
ft

thefe

Confuls

is

not, certain,

is

and

MARIUS, LUTATIUS,
and
their brutal

Gonfuls.

^o-j

and lavage tone of voice, he ferit A^ R. 650, Ant. C, different bodies of his army, one after another, to the intrenchments of his camp, and made them flay there a confiderable time-, convinced that novelty adds much to objefts though terrible in themfelves, and, on the contrary, that habit makes the mod hideous
things familiar. It was not without pain, that they faw themfelves kept in inaftion, confidering thefe long delays as reIn order to quiet them, he proaches of cowardice.
faid

he did not act

in this

manner through

a diflruft

but that in confequence of fome oracles from the gods, he waited the occafion and For he carried every place favourable for victory. "Cvhere with him a Syrian woman, called Martha, who She was carried about pafled for a great prophetefs. in a litter with great honours and refped ; and he took the order for the facrifices from her. She wore a large purple mantle fattened with clafps, and carried a pike in her hand wrapt round with wreaths and bunches of flowers. The ftupid multitude, who would fcarce fubmit to the authority of fo great a General as Marius, fuifered themfelves to be governed by a female foothfayer. One of the officers of the Teutones, remarkable for the greatnefs of his ftature, and the glitter o£ his arms, challenged Marius to a fingle combat. The Conful anfwered, " That if he had fo great a defire to die, he might go and hang himfelf." Marius knew too well, that it is not for the glory of a General to pique himfelf upon the bravery of a

of

their courage,

ibldier.

The Teutones foon grev/ weary of repoft, for which they were not made. They endeavoured to but being overwhelmed force Marius in his camp "with a fhower of darts, and having loft great numbers of men, they refolved to contijiue their march, affuring themfelves, that they fliould crofs the Alps without difficulty or oppofition. Accordingly they fet forwards, and in a manner paiTed in review before
:

X

2

the

3oS
A.R.
650.

MARIUS, LUTATIUS,
the
^^^^

Confuls,

Roman camp.
known

Ant. c.

their

Their dreadful numbers were from the length of time march continued for they were fix whole days
better than ever,
:

filing off

motion.
afk<rd

before Marius's intrenchments in continual As they paffed very near tlie Romans, they
fnecrinpiy,
?

them

" Whether they had any news
their hufoands."

to fend their wives

that they ihould foon be capable

to give
.

them an account of

When

the Barbarians v/ere entirely pafled, and a

little advanced on their way, Mariiis decamped and followed them in the rear, always polling himfelf near them, and chufing places ftrong by nature, and intrenching, that he might have nothing to fear in the The Barbarians, who continued moving on, night. came to the city of Aix, from whence they were not They fixed their camp here near far from the Alps. was probably the river Arc, which This a little river. league from Aix. Marius requarter of a runs a give them battle here, and pofted himfelf in folved to a very advantageous place j but where it was not eafy * It is not known, fays Plutarch, to get water. whether he did this exprefsly to enliven the courage of his troops, by laying them under the neceflity of going to fetch it at the little river in fight of the Baror whether his ability gave the fault he had barians committed a turn to the advantage of his army. However that were, it is certain this circumftance occaWhen the foldiers complained of fioned the victory. wanting water, the Conful pointing to the little river, cried out, " There's water before you ; but you muft " pay blood for it." On thefe words, all raifing their cries, replied, " Lead us then againft the enemy, " whilft our blood is not exhaufted and dried up by " third." Marius refufed, telling them they muft In this he followed the anfirft fortify their camp. cient maxim of the Romans, as we have obfervcd our account of the conduct of P. -^milius in the war
•,

m

dubium
iii.

* Confulto-ne id egerit Imperator, an errorem in confilium verterit, certe necellitate :i\xt\3. virtus, caufli vicloiije fuit, Flor. :
3,

with

MARIUS, LUTATIUS,
witli Perfeus.

Confuls.

309
'

obeyed, and fell to work A- R- 650. Upon their intrenchments and in the mean time, the ^^'^^ fervants, having armed themfelves as they could, went The Barbarians were encamped to bring in water. on the other fide of the river. At firft only a fmall number of the enemy attacked
foldiers
:

The

was exaftly the hour and others were ftiil in the baths ; the place abounding with fprings of hot water. It was no longer in Marius's power to keep in his foldiers, who were in great fear for their fervants, Befides which, the A^mbrones, who were the beft troops of the enemy, rofe on a Hidden, and ran to their arms. Their bodies were full and heavy with the good cheer they had made ; but their refolution was the greater in effeft and being in higher fpirits from the wine they had drank, they advanced not like Barbarians, and with furious emotions, but in good order, ftriking their arms in time, and with great cries repeating their own name, Ambrones, Ambrones, either to encourage one another, or to terrify their enemies, by letting them know whom they had to deal with. It accidentally happened, that the Ligurians marched at the head of the Roman army. Now the fame name, Ambrones, was anciently that of their nation They therefore immediately began to repeat it on their fide, fo that the field refounded with it from both armies. The Ambrones had the river to pafs, which broke their order. Before they could draw up again, the Ligurians charged their front with great fury, and began the battle. The Romans came on at the fame time, and from the advantageous pofts they occupied, fell fo rudely on the Barbarians, that they bore them down before them. Moll of them were either killed, or crowded each other into the river, which was foon filled with blood and dead bodies. The Romans purfued thofe who fled, paffing the river with them, and pulhed them quite to their camp.
th^fe
fervants
-,

Roman

for

it

when fome were

at dinner after bathing,

-,

:

X

2

But

;

310
A.R.650.

MARIUS, LUTATIUS,

Confuls.

"

But here anew kind of enemies prefented them /" felves againft both fides. The wives of the Ambrones came out againft them with fwords and axes, gnafhing their teeth with rage and grief, and difcharged their fury equally on thofe v/ho fied, and their purfuers upon their hufbands, whom they called traitors, and upon the enemy. They threw themfelves into the midft of the prefs, feized the fwords of the Romans with their naked hands, tore their fhields from them, received wounds, faw themfelves cut to pieces without being difcouraged, and to their laft breath fhewed a The Romans went no farther, truly invincible fpirit. and being flopped either through the boldnefs of thefe women, or the coming on of night, after having cut jnoft of the Ambrones to pieces, they retired. Their army was not heard to refound with fongs of viftory, as was natural after fuch great fuccefs. They for pafTed the whole night in terror and anxiety The their camp was neither fecure, nor intrenched. but greateft part of the Barbarians had not fought their grief v/as not lefs than that of the Ambrones During the night v^'ho had cfcaped the flaughter. they all railed dreadful cries, which did not feem like the cries and groans of men, but like the roaring and howling of beafts. Marius expe6ted to be attacked every moment, and extremicly apprehended the tumult and diforder of an action that was to pafs The Barbarians did not ftir that night, in the night. but pafTed that whole interval in nor the next day
:
:

;

preparing for a battle. In the mean time, Marius knowing that beyond the camp of the Barbarians were hollow ways covered with v/ood, he fent Marcellus thither with three thoufand foot, to lie in ambufh, and to take the enemy in the rear, as foon as the battle began. The reft he ordered to rcfrefli themfelves with food and j-epofe. At day-break next morning he drew them

up in made

battle

upon

his cavalry

the eminence before his camp, and advance into the plain. The Teutill

tones did not ftay

the

Roman

infantry alfo

came down.

MARIUS, LUTATIUS,
down,
in order to fight
;

Confuls.

^it
asA. R.6^o. ^^^' ^*

it with equal advantage but tranfported with rage, they took their arms, and ran on to attack it on the eminence. Marius fent principal officers on all fides, to order his troops to wait for the enemy without moving, and as foon as they fhould advance within length, to difcharge their darts, to draw their fwords, and to pufh them back with their fhields for the place being a declivity, he thought with reafon, that the ilrokes given by the Barbarians would neither have force, nor their clofe order be maintained, as they would totter, and have no firm footing, in eifefl of the defcent and unevennefs of the ground. He did not content himfelf with giving thefe orders but he added his own example, being accuftomed

to the ground

:

:

command. The Romans accordingly facing the Barbarians, and flopping them Ihort, as they endeavoured to afcend, the latter
to fight in perfon as well as to

were prefTed and obliged to give v/ay by degrees, and to regain the lower ground. The firft battalions began to rally and draw up in battle ; but thofe behind were in confufion and diforder. For Marcellus, intent upon all that pafled, on the firfl cries of the charge,, which refounded as far as the adjacent hills, under which he lay in ambufli, had feized that moment for fetting out, and had fallen impetuoufly with great
cries

upon the

latter

in

the rear, cutting

them

to

Thefe, pufhed with fuch fury, carried the diforder with them into the ranks in front. In an inflant their whole army was in confufion. They could not long fuflain fo vigorous an attack before and behind, and quitted their order and fled. The Romans purfued them, and killed and took above an hundred thoufand. The Epitome of Livy fays, that there were two hundred thoufand killed, and ninety thoufand made prifoners which feems incredible. The fpoils taken were immenfe and the whole Dlod. army unanimoufly made Marius a prefent of them ^^^^* that prefent, great and magnificent as it was, feemed flill below the fervice he had done on fo dangerous an ocpieces.
: :

ap.

:

X

4

cafion.

312
^^^^^"-

MARIUS, LUTATIUS,
'

Confuls.

uint ^c°" iU.

-^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^*^^ generous ufe of it ; and de^i^i"g ^° reward fuch brave troops, he caufed this booty to be fold to them at a very low price chufino•,

manner than to give it them as a mere donation ; no doubt that he might not feem to fet little value on the prefent they had made him ; and bciides, that his liberality, not feeming without advantage to himJelf, might not give thofe pain, who had the benefit of it. This condiift acquired Marius
rather to aft in that

the univerfal eileem in the higheft degree pollible ; and the Great united in applauding him with the People. As to the arms taken from the Barbarians, Marius,

immediately after the battle, chofe ouc the richell and lead damaged of them, and luch as were fitteit to adorn his triumph. Thefe he fet apart, and havinocaufed all the reft to be laid upon a great pile, he made a magnificent facrifice of them to the gods.

His whole army was drawn up around this crowned with laurel, and himfelf in a robe of
torch,

pile,
flate^

attended in the moft auguft manner, took a lighted and lifting it up towards heaven with both his hands, he was going to fet fire to the pile, when couriers appeared riding full fpeed towards him. When they were near Marius, they difmounted, and running to falute him, declared that he was Conful for the fifth time,

notified his eieftion.

and delivered him letters that This was a new fubjeft of joy
:

and the whole army, to teftify the pleafure it o-ave them, raifed great cries, which they accompanied with the warlike clafhing of their arms and all the ofHcers adorned the head of Marius with new crowns. At this moment he fet fire to the pile, and compleated
;

|;he facrifice.

C.

Marius

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,
C.
TV >r

Confuls.

313
A.R.65t, Ant. C.
,01.

MarIUS V.
A

M. Aquillius.
Aquillius was fent into Sicily againft

The Conful

the revolted (laves.

we have made Marius marched againft thofe Barbarians, Cimbri. and to complcat v/hat he had fo glorioufly began title with the Catuius was alfo continued in command of Proconful. The Cimbri v/ere at length arrived near the Alps, on the fide of the Trentine, and were preparing to Catuius, who had atfirft feized the emienter Italy. nences to ftop the Barbarians there, apprehended, that being obliged to divide his army into many pofts, he fhould be too much weakened in efFeft. He therefore refolved to move down into Italy, placed the Athefis (the Adige) in his front, and formed two camps on the banks of that river to defend the pafs,
:

fpeak of that war after an end of what regards that of the
fhall

We

the greateft on this fide, and the other on that where

the Cimbri

arrived

:

and for the communication of

thefe two camps, he threw a bridge over the Adige, which enabled him to fend aid wherever the enemy might attack his troops. Thofe Barbarians had the Romans in fuch contempt, and were fo full of fenfelefs arrogance, that only to (hew their ftrength and boldnefs, without any uie or necefTity, they expofed themfelves naked to the fnow, climbed up to the tops of the mountains acrofs heaps of ice and fnow, and when they were got up, put their bucklers under them, and in that manner abandoned themfelves to the declivity of thofe mountains, Aiding down the rocks, which were extremely fiieep, and had terrible bogs and abyffes at their bottoms. At length, after having encamped near the Romans, and founded the river, when they found they and could not pafs it, they undertook to fill it up rooting up the largeft trees, loofening enormous pieces of the rocks, and breaking down great mafles of
-,

earth.

;

514
A.R.
651.

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,
earth, they

Confuls.

threw them into the
its

river,

and thereby

Ant. c.

^aijinie^
piles,

up

courfe.

And

in order to loofen the

which ferved as a foundation for the bridge of the Romans, they threw things of great weight into the river, which being rapidly carried away by the current, flruck rudely againil the bridge, and fhook it in fo violent a manner, that it could not long refill
them.
terror

\

were feized with fuch enemy, that they abandoned the great camp, and retired. Catulus on this
the
foldiers

Moft of

Roman

from

thefe efforts of the

occafion a6led with a

condud

that Plutarch praifes

but which

Plut.in
'^y^^'

a conftrudion Seeing that he could not not much in his favour. prevent his people from flying, he put himfelf at their head, in order to fave the^ honour of the nation, and that it might not be faid, the Romans had fled before the Cimbri, but might rather feem to have Catulus here then facrificedfollowed their General. his own glory to the honour of the Rom.an name and would merit praife, if he could have done no better. But it would certainly have been of more confequence, to have reanimated his troops, than to have faved their honour in fo precarious a manner and I do not believe, that Marius on the like occafion would have been willing to deferve the like praife. And indeed Plutarch fays elfewhere, that Catulus was no great
is
:
:

however fufceptible of

warrior.
in the little camp on the other though more expofed, lliewed more They defended themfelves with fo much refolution. vigour, that the Barbarians admiring their valour, permitted them to retreat, by granting them an ho'

Thofe who
of the

v^/ere

fide

river,

Plin.

nourable capitulation.
6.

The Centurion

Petreius did

xxu.

j^ore.

As

the legion, in which he was Captain, was

furrounded, he exhorted it to open themfelves a way through the enemy's camp. The Tribune, who commanded in chief, wavered. Petreius killed him with his own hands, put himfelf at the head of the legion, So brave an a6lion and extricated it out of danger. c

was

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,

Confuls.

315

was rewarded with the crown * Obfidionalis ; a moreA^R- 651. * diftinguiihed honour, as he was the firil Centurion to ,0*1, * whom it had ever been granted. I muft not omit here the fad fate of Scaurus's {on. That young man, who ferved in the cavalry, loft courage on the fight of danger, and fled. When he returned to Rome, his father, whofe feyerity rofe to cruelty, having forbade him to appear in his prefence, he was fo ftruck with fhame and confufion, that he
killed himfelf.

who were now mailers of the flat Floras Hor. Hi. j. ravaged it without interruption. affirms, that had they marched direftly to Rome, they might have caufed as great difafters there as the Gauls had done long before on the like conjunfture. But, in order to wait for their companions, as had been agreed before they feparated, they continued in thi» fine country, with which they were charmed. That agreeable abode, where they had every thing in abundance, became fatal to them, in enervating their bodies, and (lackening their courage by pleafures and luxury, to which they abandoned themfelves with the greater ardour and avidity, as they were the lefs accuftomed to them. In this extremity, Marius was recalled to Rome. He was received there with great marks of joy. The honour of a triumph was decreed to him but he refufed to accept it, and deferred it, till he fliould have terminated the war, as he faid, by new fuccefles, ftill more glorious than the firft. It was but

The

Barbarians,

country,

:

jufc for

him not to deprive foldiers, who had fo great a fhare in the exploits, by which he had deferved it, of their fhare in that glory and at the fame time he raifed every body's expedlation, by fpeaking of his viftory as of a thing certain. He immediately fet out to join Catulus," and made his troops ad-,

vance from Gallia Narbonnenfis, where he had
*

left

tliemfelves, v\-ho

This crown was made of turf, and was given by the foldiers had been extricated out of danger, to their leader.

them.

3i6
'

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,

Confuis.

A.R- 651. them, after the defeat of the Ter.tones. It ap?>ears, that Catulus had placed the Po between him and the joj^ Barbarians, as it is laid, that Marius, when he joined him, palTed that river, and that the battle was fought near Vercellce.

Thefe two Generals were very unlike each other. Catulus was as obliging and affable, as Marius was ruftick and haughty. This was the firft rife of their difagreement. But Marius, notwithftanding his infinite fuperiority in point of military merit, was jealous even to meannefs of all honour his Collegue might acquire. Of this we fhall fee proofs in the very
battle.

Sylla alfo gave occafion for this mifunderftanding to
increafe,

and grow more virulent.

He

Marius
before
:

to attach himfelf to Catulus, as

had even quitted we have faid

and he even did a fignal fervice in the preThough the country was ruilied, he found means to introduce plenty in the army of Catulus, and to fuch a degree, that Marius's troops thought themfeh^es happy in being relieved by this aid, from the great fcarcity they were in. Marius was only the more mortified from having this obligafent conjun6bure.

tion to an enem.y.

However,

thefe divifions did not

break out then.

The common danger

united minds

fo difpofed for difcord, at leaft for a time.

Barbarians were at no great diftance from the battle, continually expelling the Teutones with impatience, whether they did not know, or, which is more probable, would not believe that they were defeated. Seeing that the two Generals had joined their forces, they fent Ambaffadors to Marius to demand lands and cities for themfclves and their brethren, fufficient for their abode and fupport. On being afked who thofe brethren were, of whom they fpoke, they replied, the Teutones. The whole aifembly fet up a laugh, and Marius, in derifion, told them " From hence*' forth leave out your brethren, and be in no pain

The

Romans. But they deferred giving

:

**

about them.

They have

the land

we have given " them,

;

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,
" them, and
will

Confuls.

517

Barba- A.R-6^1. Ant. C. at the irony, told him in a threatening rians, enraged fhould that repent that infiilr, he tone, and would be punillied immediately for it by the Cimbri, and foon " They after by the Teutones when they arrived. *' are arrived," retorted Marias, " there they ai:e " it would be want of courtefy in you to depart " without faluting and embracing your brethren." At the fame time he ordered the Kings of the Teutones to be brought forwards in chains.
it

keep

to eternity."

The

When the Ambafiadors had made this report to the Cimbri, they refolved to fight and Boiorix, one of their Kings, at the head of a fmall body of horfe,
:

approaching the Conlul's camp, called upon him with a loud voice, and challenged him to chufe his time and place for a battle ; and to decide who fhould remain mafters of the country. Marius anfwered, " That the Romans never took coiinfel of their enemies concerning battle but however, that he would have fo much complaifance for the Cimbri." They accordingly agreed it fhould be on the third day following
:

this parley,

and

in the plain

commodious
merous

to the

cavalry, and to

of Vercell^e, which feemed Ro'mans for the a6ting of their the Barbarians for extending their nu-

battalions.

Neither fide failed to be at the place fixed. Both drew up in battle. Catulus had more than twenty thoufand foot under him, and Marius thirty thoufand. Catulus was polled in the centre, and Marius's troops on both wings. cannot give a certain detail of this great day. For we have no account of it but from Plutarch and Plutarch himfelf cites only Catulus and Sylla, both Marius'j enemies. Catulus had eompofed an hiftory of his Confulfhip, which Cicero praifes, as * wrote with abundance of fweetnefs, and in Xenophon's manner. Sylla had left memoirs of his life, which are often quoted by Plutarch. Thefe two works would be very authentick monuments, if

We

-,

* Molli

& XcAophonteo genere fermonis,

Cic. Brut, n, 132.

there

3i8

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,

Conruls.

A. R. 651. there were no reafon to fear, that enmity had often Ant. c. But on the other fide, gyj(jg(j f j^e pej^s of the writers.

and this is precifely what increafes the uncertainty, Marins was fo immoderately greedy of glory, and fo violently jealous of every rifing merit near himfelf, that nothing afcribed to him is hard to believe, which Here, for inftance, proceeds from that principle. the difpofition of his troops, drawn up fo as to furround thofe of Catulus on both fides, had no motive, according to Catulus and Sylla, but the hope he had conceived of falling upon the enemy, and breaking them with his two wings, and that the vi6tory would be entirely owing to his foldiers, v/ithout the other' army's having any fliare in it. The Cimbri gave their battalions as much depth as" front, fo that they formed an hollov/ fquare, of which each fide occupied the fpace of thirty * ftadia. Their cavalry, which confifted of fifteen thoufand horfe, came on in fuperb equipages. All the riders had helmets in the form of open mouths, with muzzles of all kinds of ftrange and terrible wild beafts j which being fet off with plumies formed like wings, and of prodigious height, made their perfons feem much the They were armed with cuiralTes of polifhed larger. Each fteel, and covered with bucklers entirely white. of them carried two javelins to difcharge at a dillance; and when they had joined the enemy, they ufed great and heavy fwords. In this attack, they did not advance to charge the Romans in front, but inclining to the right came on by degrees, with defign to inclofe them between themfelves and their infantry, which was upon their left.

The Roman

Generals immediately perceived that

One ftratagem, but could not reftrain their foldiers. of them crying out, that the enemy fled, all the In the reft inftantly ran forwards to purfue them.
mean
like

time,
the

the foot of the Barbarians advanced Marius 'and waves of the main ocean.
*

About

a leagwe vind a qnarlcr.

6

Catulus,

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,

Confuls.

31^

Catulus, liftins; up their hands towards heaven, vowed A.R.651, the one to facrifice an hecatomb to the gods, and the lOI. other to dedicate a temple to the fortune of that day. The entrails of the vi6tims v/ere no fooner {hewn to

Marius, than he cried cut, " The vidlory is mine." Nothing more is wanting to animate an whole army. Marius however, if we may believe Sylla, had nd and his mean jealoufy was juftly fhare in the victory punilhed by an accident he had not forefeen. For when they were in motion to come to blows, fo great a cloud of duit arofe, that both armies were covered with it, and could not be feen by each other. Marius, who had advanced firft to charge with his troops, had the misfortune to mils the enemy in the darknefs that covered both armies, and having pufhed on a great way beyond their line of battle, he wandered long about the plain, before he knev/ where he was. Fortune was as favourable to Catulus as it had been contrary to the Conliil. He came up with the Barbarians, and his army, in which Syila had a diftinguiHied command, fuftained the whole weight of the battle almoft alone. The heat of the weather, which v/as very great, and the fun, which fhone in the faces of the Cimbri, was much in favour of the Romans. For thofe Barbarians, accuftomxed to fupport the hardeil frofts, and nurtured in cold places covered with woods, could not bear heat, but were in a manner melted, could not refpire, and were only able to put their Ihields before their faces to cover them from the fun. It was then the hottefl time of fummer, about the latter end of July. The dull was alfo of great ufe to the troops of Catulus, and ferved very much to augment their boldnefs and confidence, by hiding the greateft part of the enemy from them. For they were far from feeing their innumerable multitude. But each body having moved on brifkly to charge thofe before it, they were engaged before the fight of the enemy's whole army could ftrike their eyes, and terrify them. Befides which, they were (0 enured to labour and fatigue.
:

that

;

gzo
A.R-651,
'

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,
j-]^^{-

Confuls.

accordino; to Catulus, not a fino-le

Roman was

^oJ_

leen to fweat, or gafp for breath, though the heat was
exceflive, the charge very
as fail as pofiible to the attack.

warm, and they had ran on Moft of the Barba-

rians

cut to pieces.

confequence, and the braved of them, were For all thofe in the front line, to prevent breaking- their order of battle, were made fad to each other by long chains affixed to their fhields All very fmgular and entirely odd precaution. the reit were broke, and drove back quite to their camp. In this extremity, the v/omen of the Cimbri ihewed no lefs courage, or, more properly fpeaking, fury, than thofe of the Ambrones, of whom we have fpoke above. They got into their carriages, dreft in black robes, and from thence killed thofe who fled, fome their hufbands, and others their brothers, or fathers. At laft, feeing that it was impoffible to withftand the vidtors, they fent Deputies to Marius, to demand of him, if not liberty, at lead a flavery that offering to be flaves tofuited their fex and virtue the vedals, upon condition of obferving perpetual But being refufed this grace, chadity like them. they abandoned themfelves to the mod horrible
in
:

A

-,

defpair.

They took
them with

their little children,

and either

ftrangled

their

own

hands, or threw

them

under the wheels of the carriages and the horfes feet and afterwards killed themfelves, Plutarch relates,, that one was found hanging at the pole of a car, with It her two children hung at her legs above the heel. is eafy to conceive, that hidorians have here gone beyond the marvellous, and fought to amufe with more than tragical accounts. For indance, who can believe what Plutarch tells us, that the Barbarians not finding trees to hang themfelves upon, tied themfelves by the neck, fome to the horns, and fome to the feet of oxen, and that afterwards, pricking them with goads, they made them drag and tear them to
pieces, in order to peridi in the
in

mod

miferable

manner

nature

^
'

^

The

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,
The number

Confuls.

321

of the prifoners was however veryA.R. 6=:i. "^j great. It is made to amount to fixty thoufand, and Marius's foldiers that of the dead to twice as many. took the baggage but the fpoils, enfigns, and trumwhich pets, were carried into the camp of Catulus he urged as a proof that the Romians were indebted It is not faid what part for the viftory folely to him. Marius took in this difpute, which mud have affefted him fo much. But on its growing warm between the foldiers of the two armies, the Ambafiadors of Parma, who were upon the fpot,, were chofen to decide it. The foldiers of Catulus carried them to the field of battle to infpecl the dead, and fhewed them, that they VvTere ail wounded by their javelins, which were eafily and affuredly to be known, becaufe Catulus had taken care to have his name cut upon the ftaves If thefe of all the milTive weapons of his foldiers. ,fa6ts are certain, it is not to be doubted, but that Catulus was the real conqueror of the Cimbri. But fame has decided otherwife. The * whole honour of this and Catulus is great day has remained to Marius And even v\'hen the only known to the learned. event was quite recent, it was a fufficient honour for him to be aiTociated as fecond in the glory of Marius. When the nevv^s of this vi6lory arrived at Rome, ic The Peooccafioned a joy that cannot be expreffed. ple efpecially, who had long fmce declared for Marius,
:
: :

whom

they confidered in fome fenfe as their creature, did not believe they could render him fufnciently great honours. They gave him the glorious title of Third
;

Founder of Rome
juft

judging that the fervice he had done his country, was not inferior to that Camillus had formerly rendered it in conquering the
Gauls.

At

their meals, they offered the firft-fruits

to Marius,

and made

libations to

him

at the

fame time
rerum

* Hie (Marius) taraea fumma pericula Cimbros, Excipit, folus trepidauiem protegit urbsni.

k

&

&

is'eo, poitquam ad Cimbros itragemque volabant Qui nunquam attigerant majora cadavcracorvi, Nobiiis ornatur lauro Collega iecunda. Juv. Sat.

Atquc

I.

Vol. VI,

Y

,

as

;

322.
A.R.
"

MARIUS, AQUILLIUS,
to their gods.
:

"^

Confuls.

651. as

ioi.

iilone

They were for having him triumph and even decreed him two triumphs, the one for his victory over the Teutones, and the other for Marius behaved with moderathat over the Cimbri. occafion. He accepted only one triumph, this on tion in it with him. Catulus afibciated He perceived, and
that

would be unjufl to deprive fo illuftrious a companion of an honour to which he had an undoubted right ; befides which, he apprehended that his own triumph would be interrupied by the troops of Cait

tulus, if their General fhould receive fo cruel
front.

an

af-

Among

the prifoners led in triumph.

King

rior.in.

;.

Gaflendi
"^^

reib.

*

Teutobodus, who had been taken at the battle of Aix,' was the moft remarkable. He was of fo exceffively ^-^n a ftature, that he was higher than the trophies which fuppofes, according to GafTendi, that he was above ten feet high. The thing is fcarce credible. Sertorius continued diftinguilbing himfelf more and more, and acquired Marius's eltcem, and honourable rewards, for expofmg himfelf to go amongft the Cimbri in the difguife of a Gaul, and for having brought back intelligence of great ufe to his General. Hiftory alfo mentions two cohorts of Umbrians, all of whom Marius, in honour of their valour, rewarded with the freedom of Rome and being afterwards told, that the law did not admit of fuch rewards, he anfwered at once agreeably and haughtily, that the din of war had prevented him from hearing the voice of the law. Marius was defirous in fome meafure to perpetuate his triumph by a pradice fingular and full of vanity.
:

He
cup

affefted afterwards to be ferved in drinking with a
like that afcribed to Bacchus, the
fo

conqueror of

" that * every time he drank, fays ValeIndia ; rius Maximus, he compared his viftories with thofe pride of that fabulous conqueror." Such was the
-j-

* Ut inter ipfuin hauftum vini, viftoriae ejus (Bacchl) fuas viftorias

compararet.

Val. Max. iii. 6, f C. Marius poft viftoriam Cimbricam cantharo

Patris exernplo, traditur, jlle arator Arpiiias, Plin. 1. xxxiii. c. ix. rator.

&

potafTe, Liberi manipularia jmpe-

2

of

CONDEMNATION
of
this

of C/EPIO.
this

323
ofA.
R. 651.
'^

ploughman

of Arpinum,
his

foldier

fortune.

f'\
to a like

vidory, which was not was a temple which he eredted, as Marcellus had done of old, to Honour and Virtue. But his rough and favage turn of mind, and his averfion for the arts and learning of the Greeks, vitruv. ^ P'^^f-^-^"* appeared in the conftru6tion of this temple ; in which he would fuffer no marble to be ufed, nor any ftone but the moft fimple and common, without any ornaments either of fculpture or painting nor would he ^^^'* employ any but a Roman architeft. And as he was obliged to exhibit Greek games and fhews in the dedication of this temple, he entered the theatre, but only juft fat down, and went out the moment after.
fubjed;

Another monument of

cenfure,

;

Catulus alfo built a temple, according to his vow in the battle, to the fortune of that day. The infcription placed upon the front were thefe words, Fortuna hujufce diei. Thus, though in the firft intention it related only to the day of battle with the Cimbri, the infcription was applicable to every day to

made

eternity.

CONDEMNATION
To
* relate
I

of

C/EPIO.

all tJiat concerns the war with the proceed here to infert an account of the difgraces of Csepio, which I have been obliged to defer, to avoid breaking in upon the feries of fads. I Ihall firft obferve, that Cspio's perfon was always dear to the Senate, becaufe he was the firft who attempted to remedy the wound C. Gracchus had given the authority of that order, in depriving the Senators of the adminiftration of juftice, and transferring it to

Cimbri,

the Knights. Caepio, in his Confulftiip, before he fet out for the war againft the Cimbri, pafTed a law, by
* This feaion concerning Csepio, and the hiftory of the fecond Slaves in Sicily, are the Editor's.

war of the

Y

2

which

324
wblcli

CONDEMNATION

of CtEPIO.

it was ordained, that the bodies of the judges fhould confift half of Senators, and half of Roman Knights. It is eafy to judge the infinite pleafure this law gave the Senate, from the vehemence and energy of the eXprefTions ufed by the orator CralTus, in his difcourfe to fupport the Conful's propofal. He defcribed the power of the Knights as a real tyranny, and the a6]ual fituation of the Senate as a Itate of op" Deliver * us," faid he to the people, prefiion. fpeaking in the name of the Senate ; " deliver us " from the mifcries under which we groan... Deliver " us from the fury of thofe, whofe cruelty cannot be *' fatiated with our blood. Deliver us from flavery. *' Suffer us not to be in fubjeftion to any whatfoever, " except your order, which we both can and ought " to obey." This fo much defired law was not put in execution, or at lead was not long in force. For we ihall fee in Ibme years the Knights again have the fole adminiltration of juftice. It however did fo much Val. Max. honour to its author, that it acquired him the title of vi- aProteftor of the Senate, Senatus Pair onus.

It is undoubtedly for this reafon that Cicero, who was always true to the ariftocratical opinions, as often as he has occanon to m.ention Cspio, fpeaks honour-

ably of him.
a

" C^pio f," according

to him,

"was
the

man

of great courage and conftancy, to
•,

whom

nnsfortunes of war were made criminal
caufe.

but the true

of his difgrace wa/S the people's hatred."

We

have feen, that hiftorians are far from being fo favourable to him, that they reprefent him as highly criminal in refpeft to plundering the gold of Touloufe, and impute to his arrogance and temerity the bloody defeat of the Romans by the Cimbri. Csepio, after that defeat, was ignominioufly difplaced by the
eripite nos ex faucibus corum quorum fanguine non poteft expleri eripite nos ex fervitute. Nolite lincre nos cuiquam fervire, nifi vobis univerfis, quibus & poITumus & debemus. Craflus apud Cic. 1. i. de Or. n. 235. & Parad. v. f Q. Cspio, vir acer & fortis, cut fortuna belli crimini, invidia populi calamita.ti fuit. C'lC, Brut, n, 134.,

* Ejipite no3 ex miferiis

:

ci'udelitas noftro

:

People,

^

CONDEMNATION

of C7EP10.

325

to that punifhPeople, as we have faid above ; and But eilate. his of confifcation the ment they added misfortunes his of beginnings the thofe were only The following year, under the fecond Confuiaup A. the People, caufed of Marius, L. Cafllus, Tribune of perfon Ihould fit no that law, a by it to be ordained and deprived condemned been had that in the Senate, wanting was Nothing people. the of command by the only was he For name. C^pio's law but
_

R. 648.

to this

perfon in the cafe. r -r ot 1 ouHitherto it does not appear that the gold unlefs the confifcation loufe was brought in queftion, of his facnlege.: puniihment the was Csepio's eftate

of

We

know

v/ere befides, that very ftrid enquiries

made

D^od. ap.

were involved. ^J-^^ concerning that crime, in which many C^epio was Nat.Deor. that but doubted, be to But it is not l^cond ^^••^+^^^_ brought on that account before the people a condemnation, by tne time, ten years after his firft

Tribune Norbanus. The accufed found friends ana protedors. The ipoke, and fame L. Craffus, of whom we have juft dewho was then Conful, openly took upon him his GouDt Scaurus, Prince of the Senate, and no
fence.

efpoufed his interefc. the whole order of the Senators, dieir At length L. Cotta and T. Didius oppofed affair, Violence decided the Collegue's law in form. furious then at Rome. common too which^'was but

A

Scaurus was put to flight, and even fedition arofe. The oppofmg Trireceived a blow with a ftone. Harangues. bunes were driven from the Tribunal ot

law pafTed, and C^epio v/as condemned. ooicurity Thefequelof this condemnation has fome Strabo and of Cicero in it. The combined teftimonies to retired and only inform us, that he was baniHied cic^pro put was jie Smyrna. Valerius Maximus affirms, that and zeal tne and he praifes ^^ trial

The

_

_

in prifon after his
fidelity

:

'

Tribune ot of a friend of Cspio's, Rheginus,

strab^l.iv.

his ?;j^^^ forced the prifon,_ took out his j^. 7. i him. with friend, and went into banifliment and Cicero with account may entirely be reconciled *traDO» 2

the people,

who

Y

S26
Va!.

CONTENTS.
But the fame Valerius Maximus adds elfewhere, things that do not only differ from the account of thofe two authors, but feem to contradidt what I have jufl repeated after himfelf. He fays, that Ca^pio was ftrangled in prifon, and his corpfe ignominioufly dragged to the * Gemonias. Nobody but himfelf fpeaks of fo unhappy a death. But however it be, it is certain at leaft, that Csepio's misfortunes were afcribed to the vengeance of the gods, who punifh the guilty, fays Strabo, even in the perIt is faid, that he left only fons of their children. diflionoured their name by infamous who daughters,

Max. Strabo.

^^" ^'

condud, and perifned miferably.
*

A place

in

Rome,

to

which executed bodies were dragged with

an hook.

SECT.
Reman
'

II.

Infurretlions of the Jlaves in Italy, excited by Vet tins the

Knight.

Occafwn of the revolt of the Jlaves in

Sicily.

Six thotijand revolted Jlaves choje Salvius for

They form an army of twenty thoujand their King. Another rtvoU oj the foot and two thoujand horje. Salvius, who had Jlaves.^ cj iL'kich Athenion is leader.
taken the name oJ'Tryphon, unites all the forces of the Lucullus is fent into Sicily, rebels under his command.

and gains a greal vi^ory over ihejaves. But he
to

neglects

take advantage of
diess

it.

Servilius fucceeds Lucullus.
is

Tryfhon

and Athenion

chofen King in his Jiead.

The Conjul
parricides.

M\

Aquillius terminates the war.

Parri-

cide committed by Puhliciuf Malleolus.

PuniJIoment oJ

Marius

by intrigues

and money obtains a

fixth Conjulfiip. Jor the Senate.
attaches

Origin oJ the hatred oJ Saturninus He becomes Tribune of the People, and

Cenforfloip of Metellus himfelf to Marius. Numidicus, and violent contrjls between kirn and SaturIhe latter infults the Ambajfadors of Mithrininus.

dates.
killed

He

is

cited to
is

a

trial,

and

acquitted.

Having

Nonius, he

clewed Tribune for the fecond time

WAR
in hisjiead.

OF THE
propofes,

SLAVES.

327

and pajfes a new Agrarian Metellus, of all the Vile fraud of Marius. law. He is haSenators-, refufes to take an nnjuji oath. Unworthy conduct of Infolence of Saturninus. nifhed. Marius to inflame divijions more and more. New exAll the orders of the Commonceffes of Saturninus. His wealth unite agai>ift him : he is put to death. memory is deleft ed. 'The fa5iion of Marius prevents the return of Metellus. Glorious recal of Metellus. Marius quits Rome^ to avoid being witnefs of the return of
Metellus.

He

WAR

OF

THE

SLAVES.

THE

fecond war of the (laves in Sicily happened of that with the Cimbri, and fubSome commotions of the fifted about four years. flaves in Italy feemed the prelude to it. Some of them happened at Nocera, and fome at Capua, which
at the time

But the moll confiderable were eafily fupprefTed. had a Roman Knight at the head of it, called Vettius. His father was extremely rich but there are no Diod. fortunes, which the madnefs for debauch will not Eclog. eafily find means to lavilh. The bad ftate of his af- ^^^^^' he had ftill credit, and fairs was however not known having fallen defperately in love with a young flave, he bought her of her mafter for feven talents (fomething more than a thoufand pounds fterling) which he promifed to pay at a certain time. The time elapfed, and he had not the money. He therefore demanded a fecond delay^ which was granted. But, as on the expiration of it, he found himfelf again under the fame difficulty, frantick with his violent pafTion, and prefied by his creditor, he took a defperate refolution. He again bought upon credit five hundred compleat fuits of armour, which he caufed to be fecretly conveyed into the country he there exhorted his own (laves to revolt, to the number of four huhdied, armed them, afTumed himfelf the Y 4 diadem.
•,
'

:

:

22^

'

WAR

OF

THE

S1.AVES.

dirxiem, purple, and all the marks of fovereignty, and declared himfelf King. His firil: exploit was to

and murder his importunate creditor, who would be paid at all events. He afterwards roved about the country, allured flaves to him by the attraftion of liberty, killed thofe who oppoied him, and having formed a body of kvtn hundred men, he fortified a camp, to ferve as an afylum for all that would join
leize

him.

When

this

news came to Rome, the Senate imme-

diately conceived that there v/as m^ore need of expe-

A.I'.

L. Lucullus, who was orders fet had to out direftly 'with fix then hundred men, and to affemble and lift all he fnould find upon his march capable of bearing arms. On arriving at Capua, he had four thoufand foot and In the mean time, the number three hundred horfe. of Vettius's troops had augmjented confiderably. He had with him three thoufand five hundred m.en, and being intrenched on an eminence, he had even fome advantage of Lucullus in a fiight engagement. Bu% the latter having brought over, by the hope of impunity, one Apolionius, whom the pretended King had appointed General of his army, Vettius, who faw himfelf betrayed, was reduced to kill himfelf, to efcape All thoie captivity, and the fhame of punifhmcnt. who had taken arms with him, perifhcd in the like Apolionius only, vv-ith wh.om the promife manner. m-ade was faithfully kept, had his life faved. If any one had foretold this Vettius, that his parties of pleafure in his early youth vvould terminate in lb defperate a refolution, and fb unhappy' an end, he would never have believed it. The revolt of the flaves in Sicily feems to have began the fame year the affair of Vettius happened. The occafton of it was as follows. 64S. Marius, charged v/ith the war againft the Cimbri,, Nicoraited troops amongft the Kings his allies. medes, King of Bitliynia, excufcd himfelf on account of his want of power to furnifli them, becaufe the taxdition than of great forces.
Prsi'tor,

8

farmers

WAR

OF THE

SLAVES.

32^'

farmers (publicans) had taken off great numbers of his fubjeds, made Haves of them, and difperfed them The Senate, by a decree, into different provinces. prohibited the detaining in flavery any free perfon of the countries in alliance with the Roman People, and ordered the Prastors, as foon as pofTible, to reinilate all thofe who Ihould be in this cafe in their liberty. He Lrcinius Nerva governed at that time in Sicily. applied himfelf to execute the decree of the Senate, and in a very fhort time more than eight hundred

were releafed. As the principal and mofb powerful perfons of the ifland loft confiderably by the execution of this regulation, they addreffed themfelves to thePrsetor, who either out of confideration for their perthe lucre of -money, changed condud:, and would not give the Haves audience who applied to him, fending them back even with menaces to their
fons, or for

m afters.
Thefe unhappy creatures, who were refufed juftice, do it themfelves. They firft aftembled in fmall bodies, which were eafily difperfed. But the firft fucceffes having rendered the Praetor more negligent, They were foon above two they alTembled again. thoufand, and defeated a body of fix hundred regular troops, that had been fent againft them. This victory procured them arms, of which they were in great want, and befides acquired their enterprize fo much
refolved to
reputation, that they law their
fhort time to fix thoufand.

number increafed in a They then refolved to
:

and in a gegive themfelves a form of government neral council elefted one of their own body King his name was Salvius, who had gained credit by his pre:

tended fkill in divination. This new King a6ted with good
his

fenfe.

He divided

troops into three bodies, and after having appointed them a rendezvous, he ordered them to difperfe into the country, to follicit the ftaves every where to revolt, and to carry off cattle, but efpecially as many horfes as pofTible. He fucceeded fo well in
"

every thing, that he at length alTembled an army of

above

330

WAR
exercife.

OF

THE

SLAVES.
fet

above two thoufand horfe, and twenty thoufand foot, which he took care to form in all kinds of military
In this condition, he

out to befiege one

of the moft important places of
gantia.

Sicily, called

Mur-

awake as from a kind of lemarched againft the rebels with ten thoufand foldiers, both Italians and Sicilians. But all he did was but to increafe the glory of the King of the flaves, who routed his whole army, killed fix Salvius, hundred, and took four thoufand prifoners. however, could not effedt the redudion of MurPrastor feemed to

The

thargy.

He

gantia.

.

In the mean time, on another fide of Sicily, towards Sergeftum and Lilyb^um, a new confpiracy of Haves broke out, who had Athenion for their leader, a Cilician by birth, brave in perfon, and who gave himfelf For it is remarkout for ikilful in judicial aftrology. able, that fuperllition, and the chimeras of divination, have always great force in this kind of revolts. This man, feeing himfelf at the head of a thoufand more, who had joined him in five days, alTumed the diadem with the name of King. But he a<5led in a quite different manner from other chiefs of rebels, who ufually make all foldiers who come into them. As to him, he gave arms only to fuch as he obferved He obliged to have ftrength of body and courage.
the reft to follow their ufual bufinefs, in order that they might fupply the army with fubfiftence and other conveniences. He had foon affembled ten thoufand men, with whom he believed himfelf fufficiently ftrong to befiege He was miftaken the enterprize was Lilybasum. too difficult ; and he found it necefiiary to think of But bad fuccefs, which fhould naturally retreating. have difcredited him, turned to his advantage in effedt of his addrefs, feconded by a lucky accident. He informed his troops, that the ftars threatened them with fome great misfortune, if they pcrfifted to continue before the place. And in reality, when he decamped^ an
:

WAR
diately

OF THE
falley, fell

SLAVES.
who imme-

331

an aid of Moors arrived at Lilybaeum,

upon Athenion';s rearabundance of people. The him guard, and event was the accomthis but doubt (laves did not

made

a

killed

piilhment of their King's predidion, and conceived the greater veneration for him. Hitherto the rebels had no place of ftrength. Salvius, who caufed himfelf to be called Tryphon, the name, in former times, of an ufurper of the crown of Syria, made himfelf mafter of Triocala, a place extremely ftrong and advantageous in every refpedt. He then ordered Athenion to repair to him, as a King orders his General. The latter obeyed, and theret)y put an end to the hopes which had been conceived ; that the rebels being divided againft themhave felves, it would be eafy to reduce them. already feen the fame thing between Eunus and Cleon,

We

Tryphon was however firft war of the Haves. not exempt from diftrull in refpe6t to Athenion, and The government of the caufed him to be arreited. Tryphon flaves then took an entirely regular form. alTumed all the ornaments of Ibvereignty, appointed guards for his perfon, formed a council, built a palace in Triocala, and caufed a forum to be made fit to He had then above contain a numerous aflembly. thirty thoufand men under him, without including
in the

Athenion's troops.

Things were in this ftate, when Lucullus was fent a. R. 649. This was undoubtedly the fame perfon who the year before, being Praetor, had deflroyed Vettius's fmall army ; and who, after having palTed
to Sicily.

the year of his Prsetorlhip at Rome, according to the long eftablifhed cuftom, was to have the government of a province. He brought with him fourteen thoufand Romans and Latines, and two thoufand auxiliaries. With thefe troops he marched againft the
rebels.

On

his

approach,

Tryphon held

a council.

He

was of opinion, that it was neceflary to fhut themfelves up in Triocala, and to expe6t the enemy there. Athenion,

^32

WAR

OF

THE

SLAVES.

Athcnion, who had been reftored to favour, thoughtThis opinion took place. it beft to hazard a battle. Accordingly they fet out, to the number of forty thoufand, and encamped fifteen hundred paces from After fome days, which paffed in Ikirthe Romans. came to a general aftion. they miflies, Athenion counfel he had given by prodigies of the fupported But when he was obliged to retire from the valour. battle by three wounds, the flaves loft courage and £ed, leaving twenty thoufand of their number upon The reft, with Tryphon, retired into Triothe fpot. Athenion remained concealed among the dead, cala. and afterwards, by favoi.r of the night, efcaped alfo
into the place.

had been eafy for Lucullus to terminate the war, had immediately attacked the remaining revolters whilft entirely difcouraged by their defeat. They were fo to fuch a degree, that they deliberated whether they iOhould not return to their mafters, and But the PtcCtor having fubmit to their difcretion. given them time to recover from their firft terror, they took courage again, and refolved to fight to
It

if

he

their laft breath, rather than furrender themfelves to
their cruel tyrants.

At

the end of nine days,
;

lus aftually befieged Triocala

abundance of men before

it,

Luculand after having loft he was obliged to raife

From thenceforth he left the rebels in the fiege. quiet enough, and was fufpecled of having been more intent upon enriching himfelf in his province, than upon reftoring its tranquility. And this was not mere fufpicion ; for when he returned to Rome, he was This accufed and condemned as guilty of extortion. Lucullus was the father of him who afterwards commanded againft- Mithridates. Servilius was fent the year following- to fucceed A. R.^soFlorus even him, and did nothing memorable. and him, took his defeated rebels that the fays, Sicily, Tryphon died, In he Whilft was camp. the ravaged him, fuccecded who and Athenion, whilft cities, feveral whole ifiand, befieged and took the

DETACHED
the Prsetor hardly
progrefs.

FACTS.
to

3^>j

made any motion

Hop

his

At

lencrth a

Conful was fent from

Rome

againft

enemies

who

midable. He was a man of helegue in his fifth Confulfhip. roick valour. He gained a fignal viftory over the enemy, in which he killed Athenion with his own hands, after having received a wound himfelf in the head. The flaves, though they had loll their leader, cantoned themfelves however in different places\ Aquillius purfued them thither, without giving them occafion however to fight, but endeavouring to reduce them by famine. Only a thoufand of them furrendered, with Satyrus their commander. Aquillius caufed them to be carried to Rome, and was for making a fhew of them to the people in fighting with wild beads. Thofe unfortunate wretches, feeing that their lives were preferved only for the Iport and diverfion of the Romans, exhibited a fight to them quite different from that they expetfled. They turned the -arms put into their hands againft one another, and died in that manner. Satyrus, who furvivcd laft, killed himfelf. Aquillius had the honour of the little tri-

became more and more forThis was Manius Aquillius, Mariiis's Colcontinually

umph
It
is

or ovation. the fecond war of the flaves in Sicily.
in Athen.
^'^'

Thus ended
faid,

this

number of flaves who perifhed and the preceding war, amounted to a million.
that the

""

DETACHED

FACTS.

Whilfl: the war with the flaves ftill fubfifted, and immediately after the triumphs of Marius andCatulus over the Cimbri, hiilory mentions a parricide, v/hich fome have confidered as the firft crime of tliat kind that was ever com.mitted in Rome. But there is a prior inftance of it. Plutarch tells us, that in the time immediately after the war with Hannibal,' one L. Hollius

Plut. ia

^°"^'

334
L.
this

DETACHED
Hoftiiis killed his father.

FACTS.
The

crime
killed

now,
his

He

perfon guilty of Pubhcius Malleolus. mother, with the afllftance of his

was

called

flaves.

upon

Every body knows what punifhment was inflidted Parricides at Rome. Romulus had inftituted none perhaps being of the fame opinion with Solon, who, in making his laws for the Athenians, obferved the Tame filence on the fame fubjedt and on being
-,

:

afked his reafon for it, replied, that he fuppofed there never could be any one capable of fo horrible a crime. And indeed, to inftitute a punifhment for a thing fo extremely contrary to nature, may feem rather to teach mankind to confider it as pollible, than to prevent it. But there is no excefs of wickednefs of which man is not capable ; and L. Hoftius having given a proof in refped to this crime in Rome, it is to be believed, that

which

was for him the fingular punilhment of going to fpeak was invented. The criminal was ftrongly fewed up in a leathern bag, with a dog, a cock, a viper, and an ape, and in that condition thrown into the Tiber. But to what Ihall we afcribe the choice of fo extraordinary a puniihment ? Cicero explains this in one of his pleadings and that paflage of eloquence, tho* more witty than folid, may perhaps, by way of va" How * worthy riety, not difpleafe the reader. of admiration, cries he, is the wifdom of our anit

I

am

•,

*

O

fingularem fapientiam, judices

!

Nonne videntur hunc hominem

ex rerum jiatura fuftuliffe & eripuifle, cui repente coelum, folem, aquam, terramque ademenmt; ut qui eum necafl'et unde ipfe natus eflet, careret iis rebus omnibus ex quibus omnia nata efle dicuntur ? Noluerunt feris corpus objicere, ne beftiis quoque, quae tantum fcelus non fic nudos in flumen dejicere, attigiflent, immanioribus uteremur ne quum delati effent in mare, ipfum polluerunt, quo caetei'a quae Denique nihil tarn vile, neque tam violata funt expiari putantur. vulgare eft, cujus partem ullam reliquerint. Etenim quid tam eft
;

commune, quam
littus ejcftis
?
:

(pijiitus

vivis, terra

mortuis, mare fludluantibus,

non queant
ut ne ad

poftunt, ut ducere ita moriuntur, ut eorum offa terra
Ita vivunt,

dum

anlmum de
non tangat

ccjelo
:

ita

jaftantiir fluftibus, ut
i'uxu

nunquam abluantur

:

ita

quidem

nioitui conquiefcant.

poftremo ejiciuntur, Cic. pro Sex. Rofc.

ccftors

DETACHED
ceftors
in

FACTS.

335

cides

!

Do

the punilhtnent they eftablifh for parrinot they feem to have cut off the crimi-

nal from

all nature, by divefting him at the fame time of the heavens, the fun, the water, the earth

(earth, air, fire,

and water),

in order that the wretch,

who had

killed

him from
at

whom
all

might be deprived

once of

he received birth, the elements, that

give exiftence to the different beings that compofe this univerfe ? They would neither expofe him to wild beafts, left even thofe creatures, from a kind of contagion communicated to them by fuch a monfter, fhould become more favage ; nor throw him naked into the river, left he ftiould contaminate the fea, intended by nature (as is thought) to wafti away, and purge all filth. In a word, there
is

nothing fo vile
ufe,

and general
enjoyment.

nature, nor of the moft common of which they have left him the And what is there indeed in nature
in

more common than

air to the living, earth to the dead, fea to thofe upon the waves, and iliore to thofe driven thither by them ? Thefe wretches perhaps live fome moments, but without being able to refpire the air they die, and their bones do not touch the earth they ate continually tolfed about in a by the waves, without ever being wafhed word, they are driven to the ftiore, but without ever being able to find near the rocks themfelves a place
: :
:

of repofe." It is probable enough, that the inventors of this puniftiment had fome of the views upon which Cicero expatiates with fo much wit and luxuriance. eafily perceive in it an horror, that endeavours to rid itfelf by the fliorteft means, of an objed: infinitely For the reft, if I tax the paftage I havejuft odious. repeated, with being of a kind of eloquence that runs too much after the Shining, without fi.ifficient attention to the Juft, I only fpeak after Cicero himfelf. He has criticized upon it ; and after having * faid,

We

c'ldarura

• Quantis ilia damoribus adolefcentuli dixinuis de fupplicio parriqua- nequaqiura fatis deferbuifle poll aliquanto fentire ca:I

thar

236

DETACHED
-,

FACTS.

that when he pronounced it, being then very young, he was extremely applauded he however cenfures it, as favouring too much of the greennefs of youth ; as
rather requiring indulgence than deferving praife ; as more to be commended for the hope it might give
for the future, than any real prefent merit.

Let us return to Marius, whom we left full of who is going to draw reproach upon himfelf by a frantic ambition, and all the guilt of perfidy
glory, and

and
Plut.
in.

treafon.

^^^'

to have been raifed five times and, which was unexampled in Rome, to have exercifed that fupreme of^ce during He defired, and foliicited, a four years fiiccefTively. with more ardour than ever perfon Confulfhip fixth
It

did not fufEce

him

to the Confulfhip,

He endeavoured did to obtain it for the firft time. agreeable the people, by afiliming himfelf to make to and behaafi^eding kind affable and the complaifant, him very ill, as was doing became it viour ; which violence to his character, that was naturally rough and imperious. To all thefe vain artifices he added
one more effe6lual. He difperfed money in abundance among the Tribes ; and thereby not only fucceeded
fet afide

cic. de
**^'^sf ^ro'

Sext. 43.

being elefted Conful for the fixth time, but Metellus Numidicus, who flood for it, and caufed L. Valerius Flaccus to be given him lefs as a It was at this time he Collegue than as a fervant. contra6ted a great union with L. Appuleius SaturIt is necelTary to ninus, the worfl citizen of Rome. make that man known in this place. For this purpofe I proceed to relate fome facts concerning him, that I have rcferved till now. The firfl mention made of him in hiflory is on the His province in that occafion of his Qujeftorfhip. office was Oflia, with commiffion to provide grain, of which Rome was then in want. He was a young debauchee, mad after pleafure ; lb that he acquitted
in

pimus— Sunt enim omnia quam fpe & exfpeftatione

ficut adolefcentis,

non

tarn re

& maturitate,
himfelf

lau4ati,

Orat, 107,

DETACHED

FACTS.

^^7

himfclf very negligently of his employment. The Senate deprived him of it, and gave it to M. Scanrus. This affront touched Saturninus fenfibly. He quitted voluptuoufnels, but only to become malignant, tur-

and from that inftant his defire bulent, and feditious of being revenged upon the Senate was always up:

permoft.

Soon

after,

the 649th year of
:

Rome, he obtained

and as he had a kind of poputhe office of Tribune lar eloquence, he acquired credit, and ferved Marius, as we have related, on the occafion of his fourth ConIt appears, that from thenceforth he attached himlelf to Marius in a peculiar manner. For during this fame Tribuneihip, he propofed a law for diilributing an hundred acres of land in Africa to each of the veteran foldiers who had ferved under that GeOne of his Collegues oppofed that law. neral. But the multitude, at the inftigation of Saturninus, And this was but a drove him away with fiones. kind of prelude to the exceiTes he afterwards ran

fulfhip.

into.

The
turally

friendfliip he

had contratfled with Marius na-

to hate Metellus Numidicus ; which, his vices prompted him to be the enemy of fo virtuous a perfon. Orofius relates, that orof. when Metellus was Cenfor, Saturninus had the im- i?* pudence to drag him by force out of his own houfe, and to purfue him with arms quite to the Capitol, whither Metellus had been forced to fly for refuge. Saturninus befieged him there, and the Roman Knights were obliged to take arms, and nght to fave the Cenfor, in which tumult abundance of blood was Probably this facl is to be referred to the other fhed. contefts which Metellus had v/ith Saturninus, during his Cenforfliip, and which v/as very violent. The Cenfor was for excluding him the Senate, as well as Servilius Glaucia, who by the unworthinefs of his conduci was the reproach of that body. But befides, another quarrel, excited alfo by Saturninus, occafioned a furious fedirion. One L. Equitius gave Vol. VL Z himfelf

inclined

him

befides

v,

338

DETACHED

FACTS.

himfelf out for the fon of Ti. Gracchus, and prefented himfelf to the Cenfors, in order to be regiftered as fuch upon the lift of the Roman citizens. Metellus oppofed this ; declaring that Tiberius had but three fons, v/ho were all dead, the one in Sardinia in the fervice, the other at Prsenefte, and the laft at Rome ; and that he could not fufFer the glory of fo iliuftrious a family to be fullied by a wretched imThe people, that idolized the name of the .poftor. Gracchi, and were foothed with the hope of feeing it revived, broke out with great violence ftones flew
:

about
fifted
Val.
"*•

:

the Cenfor was in danger
in

rejefting

the falfe

however, he perGracchus. One of the
;

Max. Trlbunes, of whofe name Valerius Maximus has left ^' us in ignorance, fupported Equitius, and undertook
to

make Sempronia, the fifter of the Gracchi, acknowHe cauied that lady to come into the ledge him. midft of the afiembly, made her afcend the Tribunal of Harangues, and there in the prefence of that mutinous people, called upon her to acknowledge her nephew, and to give him a kifs in token of their relation.

Sempronia, on

this occafion,
•,

tion worthy of her

name and rank

fhewed a refoluand notwithftand-

ing the clamours of the multitude, expreffed only contempt for tht: perfon who would falfely have introduced himfelf into her family. It is not known how It is probable enough, that ihe the affair ended.

Collegue of Numidicus, who v/as at tlie fame time his coufin-german, but who did not refemble him in point of conftancy, permitted Equitius to have the quality, to which he pretended, upon the publick reIt is at leaft certain, that he exempted Glaugifter. cia and Saturninus from the difgrace intended them, and continued them in the rank of Senators. The Cenforfhip of the two Metelli, Numidicus and Caprarius, was in the 650th year of Rome.
Saturninus foon after drew another affair upon himwhich wanted little of proving his deftru6lion. Mitliridates, fo famous afterwards for his wars with Rome, formed at that time great defigits againft fome
felf,

ftates

'

DETACHED
ftates

FACTS.

339

But perceiving adjoining to his dominions. that he could not put them in execution without bringing over the Romans to his interefts, he fent AmbafTadors to Rome with great Turns, to engage the voices of the principal perlbns of the Senate. The Diod. ap; only author we have for this fad, does not pofitively f'^-''^fay whether any money v/as given. The thinoj is very ^ '"* probable in itfclf. Saturninus, who thought this a good occafion for attacking the enemy v/ith advantage, made a great noife on this head, and v/ent fo far as to infult the AmbafTadors. The latter, encouraged by a great number of the Senators, who promifed to fupport them v/ith their whole credit, laid their complaints before the Senate, v/ho alone took cognizance of this kind of affairs. The perfons
of AmbafTadors had always been extremely rcfpecced at Rome, and in cafes like this, the violators of the law of nations had always been delivered up to the ftate they had injured. Saturninus accordingly perceived the danger to which he had expofed himfelf, and fpared no pains to interefl the People in his favour. He appeared in the habit of a fuppliant, throwing himfelf at the feet of the citizens, imploring their aid with tears in his eyes, and endeavouring to perfuade them, that it was his attachment to the interefts of the People, which had drawn upon him the hatred of the Senate, and that his accufers were his judges. On the day for pafTmg fentence, an infinite number of citizens afTembled in all the avenues to the Senate, which, probably intimidated by fo extraordinary a concourfe, did not dare to

.

That
in

faftious
*,

man,
is

irritated

he had been

in, verified
it

condemn Saturninus. anew by the danger^ the maxim advanced by Cato

j^

5

^

Livy

that
it

than to put
that
nity,
*

in his
fet

moment he

man, Ai;p. cipower to be acquitted. From ^fy^T^.':. no bounds to his frantick maiig-ixix."^
better not to accufe a bad
'

and breathing nothing but the '^
accufari

ficrceft
eft,

venge-

^^^^^'-

^•

^17.

Hominem improbum non

tuuus

quam

abfolvi.

Liv, xxxiv, 4.

Z

2

a nee.

;

340

MARIUS, VALERIUS,

Confuls.

ance, he demanded the Tribuneihip a fecond time. Metellus Numidicus was particularly the objeft of his
fury,

'

and he concerted with Marius to dellroy him. It was necellary to begin by fecuring the fuccefs of his defign in refpedt to the Tribuneihip, which admitted great difficulties and Marius, who was then Conful, and commanded the troops, engaged to make him Tribune at any price whatfoever. However, of the ten Tribunefhips, nine were given away without including him. Aulus Nonius ilill difputed the tenth Saturninus, to whom the with him, and carried it. greateft crimes coll nothing, followed by great numr hers of the dregs of the People, and fome foidiers, with whom Marius fupplied him, purfued Nonius, and killed him. This was an enormous aft of violence, and diredly repugnant to the publick liberty. Hov/ever, it did not prevent Saturninus from being eleded Tribune in a kind of clandefline or furtive Nobody dared to complain, and the aflembly. crime remained not only unpunilhed, but triumphant. Thus did Marius, who had bought the Confulfhip, and Saturninus, who had opened his way to the Tribuneihip by murder, unite their ftrength and refentments with this difference, however, that the one aded openly and without difguife, and the other con:
•,

cealed his views.
A.R.654.
Ant. c.
100.

C.

Marius

VI.

Q Valerius
As
feveral laws.

Flaccus.
office,

foon as Saturninus was in

he propofed
noiie

But that which made the moil

was

a new Agrarian law for the diilribution of lands, and The Senate, the eftabliffiment of different colonies. according to cuilom, did not fail to oppoie this perThe people were divided about it nicious largefs. becaufe moil of the citizens had no intereil in it, and almoll none but Marius's foidiers were to have any

advantage from

it.

At

length a formal oppofition of

fome

MARIUS, VALERIUS,

Confuls.

341
*

feme of the Tribunes feemed of neceffity to put aA.R. 652'. But Ti. Gracchus had long before "^^ flop to the whole. fet the example of not regarding oppofition. Saturninus drove the oppofing Tribunes out of the Forum, and made the citizens proceed to give their fuffrages. Upon that, the Nobility, and more confiderate part of the people, cried out, that thunder had been heard. The Tribune in a fury infolently " It will hail prefently, if you don't be Aua. de replied " quiet." On that word, as at a kind of fignal, ^^^•^^^"^"• blows enfued ; and both fides armed themfelves with The fa6lion of Saturninus was the ftones and flaves. ftrongeft, and caufed the law to pafs. very unufual claufe had been added to it, byPlut-in ^^^' v^hich it was decreed, that after the People had accepted the law, in five days the Senate fhould fwear to obferve it, and that whoever fhould refufe to take that oath, fhould be baniflied. This claufe was a fnare laid for the opennefs and fteadinefs of Metellus, and Marius employed artifice and fraud to make him He declared in the Senate, that he fhould fall into it. taking fo unjuft an oath be far from and that, in his opinion, no wife man could ever refolve to do fo. " For," added he, " if the law be good and ufefui " in itfelf, it is an injury to force the Seoate to fwear " the obfervance of it, as reafon ought to induce them " to it voluntarily and if bad, it is the greatell in" juftice to extort an oath from us, in order to com" pel our confent to it." This argument was unand the oath annexed to the law plainly anlwerable manifefted the injuftice of the law itfelf. Accordingly Metellus protelled abfolutely, that he would never take the oath required by the Tribune. This was the very thing Marius wanted, not doubting but
:

A

•,

:

•,

from his own mouth in full Senate, on a point wherein juflice and right were on his fide, would be an engagement from v/hich nothing in the v/orld would be able to make him depart. The fifth day after the pafTing of the law, beinothe utmofl time limited for taking the oath, Marius
a declaration

Z

3

aflembled

342
ICO.

MARIUS, VALERIUS,

Confuls.

A.R.65a.afl*embled the Senate, affe6ting to appear anxious arid ^^^' ^' He faid, " he was very much afraid that perplexed.

the People v/ould proceed to violent extremities, if But that he had thought the Senate refufed the oath. of an expedient which would remedy every thing. That this was to fwear to accept the law, in cafe it was law. That by this oath they would be under no
real
it

engagement as it was notorioufly known, that had been palled by violence, contrary to the aufpices, and after a clap of thunder had been heard and deEvery body perceived the weaknefs and riclared." but the fear of banifhdicule of this fubterfuge ment over-ruled all other motives. Marius went out in order to take the oath, and was followed by all This fingular the Senators in general, except one. Whatever prayers and remonperfon was Metelius. ftr^nces his friends could make to him, were to no he perfilled firmly in his principles, and deeffeft termining to fuffer all things rather than a6t any thing bafe, he quitted the forum, difcourfing v/ith thofe who accompanied him, and exprefling himfelf in thefe remarkable words " To do ill, is the effedt of a corrupt
;
: :

:

" heart:

"
*'
*'

well, when there is nothing to fear, But to a6l well in the merit of a common man. expofing one's feif to the greateft dangers, is peculiar
aiSl
is

To

to the truly virtuous

man,"
!

is between man and man, making abiMetelius the one Marius and between diHimuand confift in fraud political wifdom and lity probity and other laying down fmcerity the lation the one foundations merit and virtue of as the folc

What

difference there

•,

:

meditating to

become

the greateft perfon in the Corr;-

monwealth, even at the expence of honefty and virThis tue ; and the other to be the beft man in it. Plutarch. borrow from contrail of charafters I Saturninus was not long without compleating his He made the People pafs a decree to enjoin crime. the Confuls to prohibit fire and water to Metelius, and all the fubjeds of the Commonwealth from receiving him into their houfes this was the form of banifh:

ment.

MARIUS, VALERIUS,

Confuls.

343
*

All the perfons of worth, compaflionating his A.R. 652 ment. ^'^'^ difgrace, repaired in a crowd to him, with the reiolubut he would not fuffer tion to defend him a fcdition to arife on his account, and quitted the city, confoling his friends, and reafoning with them to this " Either affairs will change, and then if the effect " people come to themfelves, I fhall be recalled with " honour or they will continue in the fame (late, " and in that cafe is it not better to be removed from " the fight of fo many calamities ?" The extraordinary marks of efteem and affecuion paid him in all the places through which he pafTed, fhews how highly a man was admired, who had chofe rather to renounce his country than his duty. He flopped at Rhodes, where he lived agreeably, palTing his time either in reading, for which he had always had abundance of tafle, a great refource for an exile, or in the converfation of perfons of v/or-th and letters, v/ho fuiUciently
: :
•,

abounded

in that ifland.

In effe6l, banilhment did not at all abate his courage ; and this is evident from an exprcfTion in one of his letters, which Aulus Gellius has preferved. " * adverfaries," fays Metellus, " have prohi" bited themfelves the enjoyment of virtue and juftice. " As to me, I am not deprived of the ufe of lire and " water ; and I enjoy the greateft glory." It is plain

My

he alludes to the prohibition of lire and water pronounced againft him. Marius, who had fomented the exceffes of Saturninus, foon became the avenger of them. But it was
neceffary to force

him

to

it.

That

fediticus

man, to

he had once given the reins, tired ium out with new crimes, which he committed every day. His infolence knew no bounds, as we may judge from his manner of treating Glaucia, who was however his friend, and not undefervedly. Glaucia was Prastor ; and as he was trying caufes in the forum at
*
j:v;i.
Illi

whom

vero

omnl
;

neqiie igni c^reo
z

Ego neqiie aqua, jure atqiie honeftate interdif.i. fumma gloriu tVuifcor. JMitell. apud A, Gell.

&

Z

4

the

344
A. R. 652. the

MARIUS, VALERIUS,
1
'

Confuls.

Ant C
jjjQ

Plut. in

^'^^'

fame time that Saturninus was haranguinoo thec5 people, the latter pretended that this was a failure of refpe6t for him in quality of Tribune, and caufed his curule chair to be broke to pieces. Marius however kept fair with Saturninus, no doubt confidering him as ufeful to his own views. He even took pleafure at firfl in IHrring up the fire of and difcord between the Senate and that Tribune for that end adled the mod unworthy part it is pofllFor the principal perfons of the ble to imagine. Senate having applied to him, to perfuade him to take upon him the defence of the Commonwealth
•,

Ch'il

1.

man that tore it in pieces he received Saturninus at the fame time into his houfe by and pretending an indifpofition that another door frequently obliged him to go out, he went to and fro from one apartment to the other, and behaved in fuch a manner, that he difmificd them all more incenfed But Saturninus caragainft each other than before. height, that Marius was at ried things to fuch an length obliged to renounce him. He ftood a third time for the Tribunefhip, and in 1. order to render himfclf more agreeable to the people,
againft a frantick
-,

:

he

to be his Coliegue.

we have mentioned Marius then adted as became He ordered Equirius (the impoftor was the Conful. fo called) to dcfift from his demand, and on his reBut the people, arfufal committed him to prifon. dently fond of the name that wretch alfumed, broke open the gaol, brought him avN^ay by force, and This was not elefted him Tribune with Saturninus. Saturninus was for having a Conful devoted to all. Fie caft his eye upon Glaucia, who was in his will. reality the man that beft fuited him *, by a meannefs of foul equal to that of his birth. Glaucia could not legally be eluded, becaufe he was adlually Praetor, and the laws required an interval between the PrseBut Saturninus did not retorfhip and Confulfhip.
alfo fet

up

the falfe Gracchus

* Summis

Sc

fortunse

&

vitje fordibus,

Cic. Brut, n, 21+.

I

gard

MARIUS, VALERIUS,

Confuls.

345
R. 652.
'

.

gard the laws. On the day of eledion, the Confuls A. being arrived, the orator M. Antonius was firft eledled The fecond place was difputed without difficulty. between Memmius and Glaucia ; and Memmius was vipon the point of being preferred. Saturninus immediately fet fome of the aflaffins in his pay upon him, who knocked him on the head upon the Forum, in the prefence of the whole people. This laft crime entirely ruined the Tribune. All orders of the ftate took fire at it. All the well-inclined citizens united to put a flop to an infolence and fury that threatened Rome with deftrudlion. It was impofTible for

J^^^

Marius to prote6l Saturninus againft the
:

publick indignation and as he was always ready to change fides according to his intereft, he put himfelf at the head of the perfon's enemies with whom he had hitherto always adled in concert. The Senate pafTed a decree, " that the Confuls C. Marius and L. Valerius fhould aflbciate with themfelves fuch of the Pra;tors and Tribunes of the People as they fhould judge proper, and defend the ftate, and the majefty of the Roman People, by all convenient methods." This decree gave the Confuls unlimited pov/er. Marius

employed

it

in

all

its

extent.

He made

the citizens

take arms, diftributed the pofts, and marched in perfon to the Porum, where Saturninus waited for him with his foliov/ers. The forces were certainly not
equal.

But there was ftill more difference between the two parties in refped to dignity, than in refpe(5l

to ftrength.

On

one

fide,

the Praetors, except Glaucia,

were both the Confuls, all all the Tribunes, except

Saturninus, the whole flower of the Nobility, the whole order of the Knights, and the whole Senate. Two venerable old men were remarkable amongft thefe, M. * Scaurus, the Prince of the Senate, who,
Quvim armatus M. TEmilius, princeps Senatus, in Comitio conqui quum ingredi vix poOet, noii ad infequendum fibi tarditatem pedum, led ad fugiendum impedimento fore putabat: quum denique Q^ Scasvola, confcftus ieneftute, prjepeditus morbo, mancus, & inenil^ris omnibus captus & debilis, Iiaftili nixus, & animi vim, &
*
ft'uiflet,

infirmitatem corporis oftenderet.

Cic. pro Kabir. n. 21.

though

A.

34^ R 653. though
joo,

MARIUS, VALERIUS,
fcarce

Confuis.

able to walk, believed, fays

Cicero^

was no obflacle for him, becaufe it only prevented him from flying ; and Q^ Scasvola, worn out with age and infirmities, paralytick, and almoft without the ufe of his hands and arms, who fupporting himfelf on a pike, fhewed at once the greatnefs of his courage, and the weaknefs of his body. On the other fide, all was
that the gout,
in his feet,

which he had

contemptible to begin with the leaders, a faftious Tribune, a Praetor, whofe worthlefTnefs was a difgrace to his office, and the falfe Gracchus. Next to thefe, almoft the only perfons worth mentioning, were the Qusefcor Saufeius, and one Labienus, the friend of Satu minus. Thefe were only the dregs of the people,
•,

a feditious mob. The viftery could not long be doubtful and Saturninus was foon obliged to take refuge in the Capitol, with thole I have mentioned, and the grofs of his followers. They were rendered incapable of de•,

fending themfelves long, by cutting offthe canals that brought water thither. In this extrem.ity, Saufeius, reduced to defpair, propofed fetting the Capitol on fire, to put an illuftrious end, faid he, to their noble and unfortunate enterprize, in making fo auguft a temple their funeral pile. But Saturninus and Glaucia did not agree v/ith him, and relying upon Marius's friendfhip and credit, who favoured them underhand, they fent Deputies to the Confuis, furrendered upon the publick faith, and quitted the Capitol. Marius would moll willingly have faved them ; but it was not in his power. The populace crying our, that they were the enemies of the State, with whom no engagements could be made without the confent of the Senate, fell upon thofe that were next him, and that very day Saturninus deftroyed all the leaders of the fedition. protefted to no purpofe, that he had done nothing without the authority and advice of the Conful Marius. He was mafiacred by the enraged multitude, with the Praetor Glaucia, and the falfe Gracchus, who the fame day had entered upon office as a Tribune,

which

347 which circumflance gives us the exaftdate of this event. A.R. 65a. For the Tribunes began their adminiftration on the "^^^ The body of Saturninus was torn fifth of December. and Rabirius carried his head with infult to pieces from houfe to houfe throughout the whole city. The flave, who killed him, was rewarded with his liberty, and the efiates of the authors of the fedition were
*
:

MARIUS, VALERIUS,

Confuls.

confifcated.

The memory of Saturninus had not the fame advantage as that of the Gracchi, whom indeed he hardly refembled, except on the worfb fide. It was detefted after his death, as his perfon had been during his life. Two remarkable fails evidently prove, that to feem to retain any efteem or attachment for him, fufficed for being treated as a criminal. One C. Decianus, in Val. Mzx. a difcourfe which he made to the people, having fpoke ^"*' ** honourably of Saturninus, was condemned. Sex. Titius was alfo banifhed, for having a pidure of SaThis may feem exceflive riturninus in his houfe. gour but Cicero did not judge it fo. In fpeaking of the condemnation of Titius, he exprefles himfelf as " The * judges confidered as a bad citizen, follows as a member that deferved to be cut off from the
: :

the man, who by fliewing the pifture of a feditious perfon, the declared enemy of his country, expreifed either a defire to pay a kind of homage to his memory, or propofed to excite the regret or companion of the multitude for him ; or laftly, feemed to think like him, and defigned to follow his example." As foon as Saturninus was dead, the return of Metellus was much talked of: this was the general wifh of all good men, and feems a necelTary confequence of the treatment he had fuftered from the I'ribune,

Commonwealth,

* Statuerunt Equites Romani, improbum civem effe, non retiin civitate, qui hominis hoftilem in modum feditiofi, imagine, aut mortem ejus honeftaret, aut defideria imperitorum mifericordia commoveret, aut fuam fignificaret imitandae improbitatis vo-

&

nendum

iuntatem.

Cic, pro Rabir. 24.

8

who

348

ANTONIUS, POSTUMIUS,
'

Confuls.

A^. 651. who
,00.

banifhed him. The fa6lion of Marius prevented effed of that ahnoft univerfal difpofition in his the favour. The Tribune, P. Furius, whom Metellus, Cenforfhip, his had deprived of the rank of Knight, in

oppofed

it

in

form

•,

and that

man

of the loweft con-

dition, the fon of a freedman, rejeded with inflexible

who
A.R.6S3Ant. c.
99.

inhumanity the entreaties of Metellus the younger, threw himfelf at his feet with tears in his eyes, to foUicit the return of his father.
j^^

Anton lus.

A. PosTUMius Albinus.
Metellus was foon revenged upon Furius's arrogance. That Tribune had no fooner quitted his ofCanuleius, one of his fucceffors, having than fice, accufed him, the people would not fo much as fuffer him to make his defence, and knocked him on the head upon the fpot. He well deferved that unhappy end ; for he was a pernicious citizen, at firft the adherent, and afterwards deferter, of Saturninus but the violence ufed in regard to him, is not therefore the lefs to be condemned. The occafion was too fair, to omit urging the recal of Metellus Numidicus. The whole houie of^that great man, which was fo numerous and powerful, and fo often honoured with the firft dignities of the Coni:

monwealth,
families of
Diod. ap.
Valef.

all its relations,

who were of

the principal

Rome, employed

their credit for repealing

the decree, by which he had been

nifhment.
fuccefs. his
filial

condemned to baBut his fon had the principal glory of the That young man, for ever memorable for affection, went from houfe to houfe in a
habit, fhedding tears
in

mourning
licit

abundance, and

proftrating himfelf at the feet of every citizen, to foa favour dearer to him than his own life. Marius did his utmoft to oppofe the re-eftablifhment of the perfon whom he had fo unworthily expelled, but in The People, on the motion of Callidius, one vain. of

ANTONIUS, FOSTUMIUS,
of the Tribunes, recalled Metellus.

Confuls.

349

The

*

warm

A.R. 653,
^"l*.^'

and tender afFedion expreffed by his fon on this occafion, obtained him the firname of Pius^ as much as a to fay, good fon, man of an excellent difpofition firname of lefs glory, but more eftimable, than the titles of the conquerors of nations. Metellus was prefent at the celebration of games when he received the letters that informed him of his recal. He deferred reading them till the fhews were over. No emotions were obferved in his countenance. He v/as always the fame in both fortunes ; always mailer of himfelf, and fuperior to all palTions, as his banifhment had not overwhelmed him with grief, his recal was attended with no immoderate joy. When it was known, that he was upon the point of arriving at Rome, the Senate and People, the rich and poor, in a word, the whole city, feemed to contend who fhould be foremoft in meeting him, and to make fome kind of reparation for the injuftice com:

-j-

mitted againft him. It J may be faid, that neither nor triumphs, ever did him more honour, than either the caufe of his banifhment, the wife condu(5t he obferved in it, or laftly, the glory of his
offices,

return.

Marius, not being able to bear the fight of the howould be paid to his enemy (for the homage paid to virtue is the greateft of torments to envy), had quitted the city, and embarked for Cappadocia and Galatia ; alledging as an excufe, that he was going to perform the facrifices he fliall feepiut. had vowed to the mother of the Gods. in the fequel that he had alfo another fecret view, which was to excite and haften the war Mithridates
nours, which he rightly forefaw

We

* Metellus Pius, pertinaci erga exfulem patrem amore,

lacrymis,

quam

alii vi6loriis

nomen

affecutus.

tam clarum VaL. Max. v. 2.
-.

i FAinidem conftat pari vultu & exfulem fuiiTe, & reftitutufn adeo modtrationis benencio, inedius femper inter fecundas & adverfas res animi firmitate verfxtus eft. Val. Max. iv. i X Nee triuiniiliis ho;ioribiirque, quam aut causa exfilii, aut exfdio, aut reditu clarior fuit Numidicus. Yell. Paterc. ii. 15.

was

350
A.R.
653-

ANTONIUS, POSTUMIUS,
^

Ccnfuls.

"^oo 99.

was fufpeded to meditate againft the Romans; not doubting, but in that cafe, the command of the armies would be given to him, and confequently the occafion of acquiring new glory, and new riches. Accordingly, though that King fpared nothing in his reception, and even overwhelmed him with marks and profeflions of honour, Marius would neither fuffer himfelf to be foftened, nor be induced to return

him deference

for deference, but faid to him with his ufual haughtinefs, " King of Pontus, you muil either " make yourfelf more powerful than the Romans, or *« fubmit to their orders." Mithridates, who had

never heard any one fpeak to him in fuch a ftile, conceived then an idea of the Roman pride, which he had hitherto only known from the report of others.

SECT.
Birth of C^far.
rates.

III.

Antonius had triumphed over the Pi-

eloquence of Antonius.

Roman

is faved by the Opprejfwe caa^lions of the Magijirates in the provinces. Admirable con-

Aquillius, accufed of extortion,

du5i of Scavola, Proconful of Afia.
prohibited.

Human

vi5fims

Duronius

is

expelled the Senate

for a very
left to

remarkable reafon.

The kingdom of Cyrene

the

Romans

by will.

Sertorius^ a military Tribune^ figna-

lizes himfelf in Spain.

Praife of Crajfus and Sc^evola.

Law pajfed
dom

by the Co'afuls to prevent ufurpi»g the free-

Sc^vola renounces the goof Rome without right. Integrity vernment of the province fallen to him by lot. and noble confidence of Craffus. Sedition of Norbanus.
Charaifer of SulpiPratcrfhip a combat., with an exhibits a Sylla. He fhew of of Decree of the Cenfors Crafjus hundred lions unchained. and Domitius againji the Latin rhetoricians- Debates
is

He

fummoned

to take his trial.

cius.

Wife advice given him by Antonius.

Luxury of the orator Craffus. between the Cenfors. He goes into voluntary condemnation Rulilius. Unjufi: of
hanifijment.

and

refufes.

He is invited Be had made

to return to

Rome

by Sylla,

himfelf majler of all polite

knowledge.

M, Antonius

CJECILIUS, DIDIUS,

Confuls.

351

M. Anton

I

us.

\^-^VAnt. C.
99'

A. POSTUMIUS AlEINUS.

TH E
fhall

recal

of Metellus Numidicus,

and the

birth of J. Casfar, are the only events that diftinguilh the Confulfhip of M. Antonius.

His Prsetorfhip had been more illuitrious, during which he overcan^e the Pirates, who appear in this
place for the
firft

time

in

hiftory

;

but of
their

whom we
p,urfued Pigh. Ar;
"^^-

have much to fay
as far as Cilicia,
;

in the fequel.

He

them

which was

afyium and

^^ «^

rendezvous

and fome probable conjedtures give

^^*

room

to believe, that he gained advantages over them confiderable enough to deferve a triumph. This was
in the third or fourth Confulfhip of Marius.

Q. C^ciLius Metellus Nepos.
1. DiDIUS.

A.R.654.
gg.

Whatever honour
nius, his eloquence

a

triumph might do
ftill

made him
and to
this year

M. Antomore remarkable,

both during
Aquillius,
flaves

his

life,
it

pofterity.
in

He

glorious proof of

the caufe

gave a of M'.

who had terminated the war againft the of Sicily with equal valour and fuccefs ; but who did not pique himfelf lb much on his probity as on his courage, and whom the love of money had induced to commit many a£ts of injuftice. Fie was in confequence accufed of extortion. Fafts were cited, witnefles produced, and proofs employed againft him, He encreafcd the danger that were unanfwerable. he was in bv his pride, which would neither fuffcr him to put on the fupplianr, nor to inipiore the mercy of his judges. If ever caufe was defperate, his was and his condemnation feemed inevit£.ble. But his advocate was one of the moft excellent Antonius wanted orators Rom.e had ever produced.
•,

nothing, either on the fide of nature, or on that ot
art.

352
Anf'C ^^
'

C^CILIUS, DIDIUS,

Confuls.

A. R»6i4' art, which he however

difb-uifed, * afPedling no g-reat o '

cultivation of mind, from the behef that his difcourie would make the greater imprefBon on his hearers,

DO

He -f becaufe they would have kfs fufpicion of him. feemed to plead without any preparation ; but however was fo well prepared that his judges did not feem always fufficiently fo to be upon their guard His great taagainft the latent art of his pleadings. and never did lent confided in moving the paffions
;

that talent appear with greater luftre than in a diladvantageous caufe, as was that of Aquililus. It is
himfelf,

makes

if you will, Cicero in his name, who " When ± the judges incline in remark. my favour, and give in of themfelves to what I would have them, I take the advantage of that favourable difpofition, and make all the fail I can with But when I find them indifferent and unthe wind. for then the affeded, the thing is more difficult orator muft produce, or in a manner create anew, by the pure force of eloquence, all the fentimcnts he has occafion to excite, without the aid or favour of any previous difpofition, independent of himfelf. However, I do not defpair. For eloquence, which a good poetjuftly itiles, " the maiftrefs of the afFeftions " of the mind, the queen that exercifes abfolute do*' minion over mankind," eloquence has an invincible Little fatisfied with force, that nothing can refill.

or

this

:

* Antonius probabiliorem hoc populo orationem fore cenfebat fuam, fi omnino ciidicille nunquam putarctnr. De Orat, ii. 4. j- Erat memoria lumma, nulla meditationis fufpicio. Imparatns fed ita erat paratus, ut feinper ad dicendum ingredl videbatur Judices, illo dicente, nonnunquam videientur, non falls purati ad cavendiim fuifle. Cic. Bruto, 139. % Si fe dant [Judices,] & fua fponte, quo impellimus, inclinant atque propendent ; accipio quod datur, & ad id, unde aliquis flatus
:

oRenditur, vela do. Sin eft integer quietufque judex, plus eft operi?: Sed funt enim omnia dicendo excitanda, mail adjuvantc natura. rantam vim habet ilb, quje refle a bono pocta dii5ta eft " flexamiua " atque omnium regina rerum oratio," ut non modo inclinantem iinpellere *, aut ftantem inclinare, fed etiam advcrfanVein S^ rcpugnantem, ut imperator bonus ac fortis capere poiiit. De Oiat. ii. 187.
*
I read

Impellere inftead of Erigere, which fecms contrary to
here.

all

ihe reft of

C*n.ero'i

meaning

itfelf.

C^CILIUS, DIDIUS,
itfelfj

Confuls;

35^
'

has only to give the bent to which men A. R. 654. "g\ are already inclined, or to overcome their unmoved indifference ; it glories in bearing down all before it,

when

it

notwithftanding their .refiftance, and in compelling victorious efforts to furrender their arms." It was in this manner Antonius pleaded the caufe of which I am now fpeaking. After having made the molt in his difcourfe of all that could be faid in favour of Aquillius, when he was going to conclude, he feized him by the arm, tore open his veft before, and fhev/ed the judges the fears of the glorious wounds he had received in different battles. He alfo expatiated very much upon another wound, which had been given him lail of all in the head by Athenion^ that brave chief of the revolted ilaves. It is eafy to conceive what effed: fuch a fight muff

them by

have produced upon the minds of the judges, when attended with ftrong and pathetic expreffions, that argued an heart highly touched with grief and commiferation. "I could not, fays he, ^ have excited thefe fentiments in others, if I had not been highly affeded with grief myfelf. And how could I be otherv/ife, when I faw a man, not long before honoured with the Confulffiip, the command of armies, and a triumph, in afflidion, humiliation in danger of lofmg his honour and his country, and reduced to the moft deplorable ftate in the world ^ Marius, who
;

* Nollte exiftimare >quuin mihi M'. AquiUius in clvitate retineneflet, me, quse in ilia caufa peroranda dixerim, line magno dolore fecifle. Quem enim ego Confulem fuifie, Imperatorem oinatum a Senatii, ovantem in Capitolium afcendifie meminiffein, hunc quum affliftum, debilitatum, mCerentem, in runimum difcrimen adducluni viderem, non prius fum conatus niifericcrdiara. aliis commovere quain
dus
mifericordia fum ipfe captus Quum C. Marius msrorem orationis mese prsefens ac fedensmulturrl lacrj'mis fuis adjuvaret, quumque ilium ego crebro appelians, coUegam ei fuum commendarem, atque ipfum advocatum ad communenx

Imperatorem fbrtunam defendendam invocarem non fait hsc lin2 meis lacrymis, non fine dolore magno miferatio, cmniumque dconun & hominum & civium & lociorum imploratio Qnibus omnibus verbis, qua? a me tum funt habitaj fi dolor aufaifiet mcus, non modo non naiferabilis, fed irrideuda fuiflet oratio mea. De Oiat, ii. 194.,
:

195, 196.

Vol.

VL

Aa

was

554
A.R.65+. v/as
^ '98.*^*

C^CILIUS, DIDIUS,

Ccnflik

irf prefent, and Ihewed the concern he was refped to the lentence, that was upon the poinrof being pafled, was a great afTiftance to me, and muchI freenforced my difcourfe by the tears he fhed. quently addrefled myfelf to him, recommending to him a friend and ancient Collegue, and reprefenting,, that the caufe I pleaded was the common caufe of all I implored the aid" of gods and Generals of armies. men, of citizens and allies, in favour of my client and in all I faid, I introduced a reality of palTion, a grief of heart, without which my difcourfe, fo far from moving, would have been laughed at." The fuccefs anfwered the wifhes and hopes of the
;,

m

pathetic

orator.
his

" The

* judges,, fays

Cicero,

ir>

one of

orations, were afraid, that if they con-

demned

a perfon whom fortune had preferved from fwords of the enemy, and who had not fpared the the fafety of the St^te, he would feeni to for himfelf fo many dangers, lefs to be the ornaefcaped have ment and glory of that empire, than a vi6lim to the Aquillius was acmercilefs rigour of the judges."' caufe acquired his defender the quitted, and gaining dwelt the have more I willingly univerfal admiration. mentioned it, had which apupon this faft, as Livy Befides which, it is not pears from Epitome LXX. ufelefs, even to hiilory, to obferve in fo famous an example as this is, that the manner of pleading amongrt the Romans was very different from ours ; and that if ours be more clofe, precife, and confined to arguments and proofs, theirs, by taking in a greater field, gave room at the fame time for greater ftrokes

of eloquence. It might perhaps have been defired for the good of the provinces, that Antonius's eloquence had not made fo great an imprefllon upon Aquillius's judges ; and that the accufed had undergone the fentence his
*

Eo adduxlt

eos, qui erant jadicatun, veliempnter

lit

vererentur,

ne quern virum fortuna ex hoitium ttlis eripuiiTet quum fibi non peperciffet, hie, non ad populi Romani laudem, fed ad Judicum crudelitatem videretur
efle

fervatus.

In Verr, v.

3.

extortions

Ci^CILiUS, DIDIUS,
txtortions deferved, in like

Confuls.
as

^5^
'

he had received A- R- <^54-. '"g^ a triumph as the juft reward of his valour and fervices. For the avidity of the Roman Generals and Magiflrates encreafed from day to day, and the fubjeits of the empire were expofed to all kinds of opprefflons from them. Thefe excelTes were praftiled ciod. ap. with greater licence, as the Roman Knights, who Valef. ^'''^^'* had the fole adminiftration of juftice in Rome, were interefted in favouring them. For the publicans, or tax-farmers, as we have already obferved more than once, were of the order of Knights. In confequence, the Proconfuls and Proprfetors, by overlooking the avidity of the publicans in the provinces, v/ere fure of gratifying their own with impunity, as their judges

manner

at

Rome

were the friends, partners, and
Itill

affociates

of

thofe they fupportcd in their oppreflions.

however Ibme amongft the Roman did not fuffer themfelves to be carried away by the torrent of bad example, and who

There were

Magiflrates

who

even thought it for their honour to oppofe it. Hidory gives us two of this kind at the time of which we are fpeaking, though it is not eafy to determine exadlly the year they governed their happy provinces. The iirft is Q^ Mucius * Scsevola, V/ho was fent Proconful into Alia. His firft care was to chufe an excellent Lieutenant-Generalj the virtuous Rutilius, who was his friend and principal counlellor. Integrity and incorruptibility are the leaft virtues that defervd praife in Scsvola. He fcarce exadied the fums from the provinces that cuftom admitted him to levy for the fupport of himfelf and his houlhold. He found a better refource, which was that of a frugal fimplicity. But what did him the greateft honour was, notwithHanding the enormous credit of the Roman Knights, his generoufly attacking the publicans who had committed oppreffions, and puniihing them with i1:ri6t juflice. He gave ear to the complaints brought
* This
is

Scsevola the PontifF,

who

Scjevoia the

Augur, of

whom we

mtift not be confounded with have fpoken eUewhere.

A

a 2

ag^nlt

5^5
A. R. 654. againft
"^'08.^'

CJiCfLiUS, DIDIUS,
them, and
if

Confuls.

they were proved, condemnecl amends ; and to reduce to do lb, gave them up according to the Roman laws to their adTerfaries. It was a very unexpefted and grateful fight to all Afia, to fee thofe haughty opprefTors dragged to prifon in their turn by thofe they had robbed. If he treated the mafters this manner, we may reafonably believe that their inferior oiBcers, who were commonly only flaves,. were One of thefe,. who was a kind of prinnot fparedo cipal agent to them, Scaevola ordered to be cmcified, though he had already negotiated his liberty with his mafters, and was ready to pay the price for it. By this conduct he regained the Roman People the affedion of the Afiaticks and acquired it fo much for his own perfon, that according to an impious cuftom, though authorized by idolatry, they eftablifned a fellival in honour of him, which was called Ck.in the Mucian feaft. The Senate afterwards propofed ^'eii.H. ^1^^ condu(5b of Scsvola to Proconfuls, as the model Vai. Max. by which they fhould dired themfelves. fhall im. 15. ^QQ^ ^gg jj^ what manner the Roman Knights revenged themfelves upon Rutilius v probably not having occafion to do fo upon Scsvola, The fecond example which I am to relate, is that

them them

to

make

the injured

m

-,.

We

To of L. Sempronius Afellio, Prsetor of Sicily. give an idea of the wifdom of his government in a word, it fufrices to lay, that he was the worthy imiPiod.lukl. tator of Scaivola. But one circumllance, which highly mierits our notice, is his peculiar attention in Other Pr^tors gave guardians prote6ting the weak. ro young perfons and women who had no near relations. As to him, he made himfelf the guardian of all thofe v/ho had none ; and taking care of their
them from opprefiion. In a word, by being the avenger of all injuftice, publick or private, he reftored thofe happy times in Sicily, of which it had almoft loft the remembrance.
affairs

perfonally, preferved

Cn;

CORNELIUS, LENTULUS,
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus.

Coafuls.

357
A.r.
655.

PT JLiciNius
.

^ Crassus.
this

Ant. C.
„_ 57 •

The

fecond of the two Confuls of

year

is

the

father of the famous CrafTus, one of the
virate with

firft

Trium-

Pompey and

Cccfar.

decree of the Senate was pafled under thefe Plin. Hift„ Confuls, to prohibit hunian facrifix:es. For hitherto, '^''"'^•^''^^' .to the difgrace of human nature, and of the^Roman^* nation in particular, thofe abominable facriHces had

A

been practifcd at Rome by the publick authority. This is the firft time they were forbad ; nor did this prohibition iuffice to abolifh them. If we may believe Dio, Cefar revived them and Pliny tells us, Dio. 1. that the ag;e in which he lived had more than once S"' been witnefs of them. xxvii, i. refolutian having been taken for creatine Cen- Pint. fors, every body expedted that Marius, who was then returned to Rome, would Hand for that office. But fince the affair of Saturninus, his credit was fo much declined, both with the Nobility and People, that J^e was afraid to prefent himfelf for fear of being rejefted. He however gave the thing; a turn to his advantage, in faying, that he was unwilling to render himfeif odious, by the feverity the Cenforfhip would have made incumbent upon him. M. Antonius and L. Valerius Flaccus were elecled Cenfors.
:

i_?

ir'lijl

A

The particulars of their condud in that office is All that we know is, that not come down to us. they nominated M. ^Emilius Scaurus Prince of the Senate, and ftruck M. Duronius out of the lift of Senators, becaufe when he was Tribune of the People, he had repealed the * law for moderating the expences of the table. Valerius Maximus places the unworthinefs of this Tribune's behaviour in all its light. He tells us, that he afcended the Tribunal. of
The
Lift

law of

this

kind was the

k-.w Licii ca,

of which

we have

fpojce before.

A

a

3;

Harangues

2

58

DOMITIUS, CASSIUS,

Confuls.

A. R. 655.

Harangues to make the following complaints to the Ant.c. Y^Q^i^. a A check is laid upon your luxury, Ro" mans, which you ought not to endure your li:

"

*'

be inlaw is made to oblige you *' to be frugal. cancel and annul that decree, as " favouring of the ruft of rude and favage antiquity. " For in a word, of what ufe is liberty to you, if ^' you are not permitted to perilh by luxury, as you ^' defire it ?" The fenfe of the difcourfe held by the Tribune for abolilliing the law in queftion mull indeed
berty fupportable to you.
is

laid

under a

reftriction that fhould

A

We

have been to
'/s,.'R.6s6.
oe.*"'

this efFed.

Cn. DoMiTius Ahenobarbus.
^' Cassius Longinus.

The Roman greatncfs increafed by every kind of method. We have feen Attalus Philometor, King of Pergamus, bequeath his dominions to the Romans by This year Ptolomaeus Apion did the fame. will. He was the natural fon of Ptolomseus Phyfcon, King of Egypt, who at his death had provided for his eftablifliment, by giving him Cyrenaica and the adThis partition of the kingdom of jacent countries. Egypt was to have -ceafed, as it feemed, after the death of the perfon for whom it had been made. Apion preferred the Romans, and thereby diminifhed the power of the Ptolomies, which was not a little declined already from domeftick divifions and civil The Romans gave the cities lately bequeathed y*'ars. They were inhabited by Greeks, to to them liberty. whom fuch a prefent was infinitely agreeable ; and
the

thereby avoided the fufpicion of avidity. who had been Coniiil in 654, had made Didius, T. war during two years after in Spain with confiderable But we fhould have been entirely ignorant fuccefs. had pafied during his command, if Sertoall that of

Romans

Tribune of the folThat has preferved us a fad; related by Pludiers. jpch, in which we Ihall difcern the genius of Sertorius

had not ferved under him

as

'

rius,

;

Tius,

LICINIUS, MUCIUS, Confuls; who was a man of great prefence of mind, 1<;new how to unite ftratagem with boldnefs.

3.59

.and A. R. 6^6,
'^"^* ^'

He
;the

was

in garrifon at

Caftulo, a city fituated

upon

B.'Etis,

from

or Guadalquivir, and famous in hiftory the time of the war with Hannibal. The Ro-

man

foldiers living in great plenty,
it,

made an immode-

to wine and every kind of ex<:efs. The inhabitants of C-aftulo took advantage of this diiTolute negligence. They applied to the Gyrif^nii^ their neighbours and allies and having obtained aid from them, which they fecretly introduced into their city, they fell upon the Ramans, of whom they killed a great numSertorius efcaped, and having alfembled all ber. ihofe who had found means to quit the place, he went round it to the gate where the fuccours had entered. The Barbarians had not taken the precaution to poft a guard there. Sertorius feized and left a party in it, and falling upon the Spaniards, put them all to tlie fword. This was not all. He made the Romans put on the habits of thofe they had lately killed, and led them immediately to the city of the Gyrifrenii. The latter, deceived by the Spanifh habits, believed them their own citizens and allies returned with viftory, and opened their gates to them. Sertorius killed abundance of them, and fold the reft, who furrendered at difcretion ; and in this manner not only recovered a city which had been almoft loft to the Romans, but added a new conqueft to it.

rate ufe of

and gave themfelves up

L. LiciNius Crassus,

« t> ^ J\. K. o:;7.

Q^MUCIUS

ScjEVOLA.

Ant. C.

The two ConTuls of this year are extremely illuftriThe one was the orator Craflus, whofe eloquence is fo much celebrated by Cicero. I have fpoke of him ellewhere wjth fvifhcient extent. The
ous.
£)ther
ift

is

the fame Scasvola,

the Proconfuirhip of Afia

whofe admirable conducSt I have related jufb above.

A

a

4

I'hcy

S^o
A. R.
'

LICINIUS, MUCIUS,
657.Yhey lived

Confuls.

^~,

in great friendlhip, and had been Collegues in all the great oilices, except the Tribunefhip, which Scsevola had not exercifed till a year after They refcmbled each other very much in CrafTus. For they were * both orators and their talents.

lawyers, but with this difference ; Scaevola excelled moft in the knowledge of law, and CrafTus in elo-

The fame was obferved in every thing elfe. quence. They were -f alike in all things, uniting in themfelves, but in an unequal degree, qualities that balanced each other, fo that it was hard to know to which to Crallus, of all thofe who were give the preference. elegance and the ornaments of fpeech, ftudious of both with moft modeperfon v/ho employed was the and Scsevola, of thofe who piqued ration and referve themfelves upon being fparing and referved in reiped: Crafto ornaments, gave moft elegance to his ftile. fus united a ferious and Ibmething fevere air, with,
•,

Scasvola tempered the fevegreat natural politenefs rity, which was natural to him, with polite and in:

finuating behaviour.

The Confulfhip of thefe two great men furniflies us no other confiderable event, except a law, which they pafTed in concert, to prevent ufurping the freedom of Rome, which abundance of Latines and other Italians had affumed, without any legitimate title or pretence. It had long been neceffary to obviate frauds of this I have related nature, that multiplied exceedingly. the precautions which were taken to remedy this abufe in the Confulfliip of C. Claudius and Ti. Sempronius,^ A. R. 575. The thing was carried much farther by M. Junius Pennus, Tribune of the People, who in
6265 pafTed a law to oblige
all

perfons,

who were

not

* Eloqiicntlam iurifperitifTimus Craffus, jurifpeiitorum eloquentiffimus Sc3Evo]a putabatur. Cic. Brut. 145. f In reliqiiis rebus ita diflimiles erant inter fefe, ftatuere ut tamen non pofies, utrius te malles fimiJiorem. Craifus crar elegantium parcil^lrml^>,

Sc;fvoia

parcorum elegantiflmius.

tate habebat etiain feveiitatis Jktis ; Scasvola Id, ibid. j+S, tlecrat taiucn comitaij.

CrafUis in f'umma comimulta in feveritate no»

7

,. citizen g

LICINIUS, MUCIUS,
citizens, to quit

Confuls:
*, a

3^f

Rome

;

to humanity, which C.

law contrary A. R. 65^; a cruel law Gracchus, then very young, ^"^* ^'-^

oppofed with all his might, but ineffedually. The law of our two Confuls was wife. It is unjuft, and
contrary to good order, that thofe who are not citiand this was all zens fhould pafs themfelves for fuch It was however charged with Cic. pro that it prohibited. having hurt the Commonwealth, and occafioned the ^^^^^' ^ revolt of the dates of Italy, and the war with the alBut the evil was of more ancient date, and had lies.
:

a deeper root.

We
Afia.

do not know what province
it.

fell to

Sc^evola.

But he renounced

could not add any thing to the glory he had acquired in his government of

He

Craffus, after the year of his Confulfhip was elapfed, went to Gallia Cifalpina, which was his province; and all his wifdom was not proof againft the defire of a triumph. He checked the incurfions of fome mountaineer.=, who from time to time to time infefced the low country. But his exploits were neither confideraif it be true, as ble, nor the war itfelf very neceflary elegantly fays, was almoft for fencing that he Cicero •f with the rocks of the Alps ; and fought matter of Accordingly triumph, where there was no enemy. he demanded a triumph, and his credit was fo great But in the Senate that he would have obtained it. Though he was his Scaevola's aufterity interpofed. friend and collegue, he preferred the honour of the Commonwealth to private ties, and prevented his demand from being granted. For the reft, Craffus acted in his government with Val. Max, And Carbo, the "^* "' the utmoft virtue and integrity. fon of him he had accufed and caufed to be con-,

* Effe pro cive qni civis non fit, reclum eft non licere tulerunt fapientifiimi Confules, Craflus Sc Scaevola urbis prohibere peregrines, fane inhumanum eft, Cxc.

:

quam
ufii

le-

gem
iii.

:

vero de OiHc.

47. Craffus,
eft

f L.

homo
;

fapientiHimus noftrse civitatis, fpiculis prope
ibi

Alpes nt ubi hoftis non erat Cic. inPif. 62. ouafli (jujjerej-et.
ferutatus

triumphi caufam

ali-

demneda

!

COELIUS, DOMITIUS, Confuls; 3^2 ^R.657. (Jemned, coming into Gaul to be a fpy upon his a6lions, that wife Magiftrate was fo far from fearing him, that he afligned him a place by his fide on his tribunal, and gave judgment on no affair except in his prefence, and before his eyes a noble confidence, and more for his honour than his great talents Whilft Craffus was at Rome, and ftill Confiil, the
'

'

:

Tribune Norbanus excited a violent fedition there, by accufmg Cspio before the people. 1 have related the particulars of it above, and the event in refpedt This affair had confequences to Norto C^epio. banus, of which I am going to give an account.
A-R-6c8.
Ant. C.
54. JL,

C. COELIUS CaLDUS.

DoMiTius Ahenobarbus.
thefe Confuls
as guilty

Under
his trial,

Norbanus was

cited to take

Ck. de

^ul ixz.

Ibid. 88, ^^'

of high-treafon, by the fedition of which he had been the author. Hiftorians are allowed and to defcribe battles between Generals in the field wherefore Ihould they not be alfo indulged in relating conflids of another kind, but not lefs affefting and inftrudive to a great number of readers ? I mean thofe of eloquence between the moft illuftrious orators of antiquity. are going to fee one, of which Cicero has explained to us the whole art and addrefs. Sulpicius was the accufer of Norbanus, whom Antonius defended. What has hitherto been faid of Antonius fufHces for our knowledge of him. He was defigned Sulpicius was then very young. He had orator. fublime great and nature to be a ^y As to all fire, vehemence, and elevation of mind. the parts that conftitute the eloquence of the body, an happy and noble phyfiognomy, the graces and dignity of adion, a fweet, and at the fame time a ftrong voice ; all thefe advantages he poffeffed in an eminent degree. But let us hear what Antonius is " I heard Sulpicius plead, going to fiy of him. whilft very young, a caufe of no great confcquence \ ^nd was charmed with him. His elocution only feemed
•,

We

COELIUS, DOMITIUS,
:

Confuls;

3^3
R6158*

feemcd to have a little too much of the vivacity of Ait was bold and too luxuriant. his years This did not difguft me for I defire and love that abundance of thoughts and exprelTions in a young man, though it exceeds bounds, and in a certain degree departs from juftnefs and propriety. Finding his genius fo happy, I ftrongly exhorted him to cultivate it with to confider the bar as the befh fchool in which care he could form himfelf and to make feme one of the moft illuftrious orators his model adding, that, if I might advife him, he would make choice of no other but Craffus. He took my advice, and told me out of politenefs, that he alfo defired to have me for his mafter. A year was fcarce elapfed after this converfation, when he accufed Norbanus, whofe defence I took upon myfelf. I cannot exprefs the change I obferved in what he now was, from what he had been but an year before. His genius naturally led him to that lofty and magnificent kind of eloquence, which we admire in Craffus but he would not have attained to it, if to his happy faculties he had not added afliduous application ; and in pleading had not employed his whole attention in imitating the excellent model he had propofed to himfelf." We fee here the great ufe of which fenior orators of the firft rank may be to thofe who enter upon the noble profeffion of the bar and in my opinion it is matter of great confolation to them, to fee a fhining and laborious youth tread in their fleps, by improving from their advice, and following their
:

^'

;

•,

-,

:

:

example.
I come now to the caufe of Norbanus, upon which Antonius explains himfelf admirably. He had infilled much upon this fundamental maxim in elo-

quence, that the orator himfelf fhould be ftrongly moved, if he would move others after which he proceeds in the following manner, addreffing himfelf " But what need I obferve this to you, to Sulpicius. you, who when you fet up for the accufer of Norbanus, who had been my Qussllor, fo ftrongly animated
:

the

SH
^.R.
*

COELIUS, DOMITIUS,
'

Confuls;

658.

^^.

the Judges, not only by the energy of your difcourfe, but Hill more by the warmth of the fentiments of grief

that

and indignation with which you feemed penetrated, was almoft afraid to attempt to extinguifh the J. kind of flame you had kindled in the minds of all that heard you ? " Indeed, in the caufe you pleaded, every thing You laid before the Judges matters favoured you. ; a publick violence, an afTemgreat import of truly bly obliged to difperfe by flight, fl:ones difcharged in vollies by the feditious, a cruelty that rofe to excefs againfl: the unfortunate C^pio, the mofl: illufl:rious citizen of Rome ; the Prince of the Senate (Scaurus) wounded by a flione ; and laflily, two Tribunes of the People driven by force from the Tribunal of Harangues all this feemed atrocious, and could not be Befides which, the laudable zeal profeflTed denied. by fo young a man as you, for the good order and honour of the Commonwealth, was generally applauded whereas it feemed fcarce confiftent for an old Cenfor, as I was, to defend a feditious citizen, and one who had taken upon him to encreafe the misWe had exfortune of a perfon of Confular dignity. the publick place was cellent citizens for our judges full of perfons of worth ; fo that it was not without great difficulty I was allowed fome fhadow of excufe, on account after all, that the perfon I defended had been my Qu^flior. " It was in this difpofition of mind I found every body. Whether there was art, or not, in my difAs to me, I fliall content courfe, you will judge. myfelf with relating what I did. I ran over all the different kinds of feditions that had difl:urbed the Commonwealth, tracing them back to the mofl: remote tim.es I did not palliate their inconveniences and dangers ; and concluded, that indeed all thefe fedibut that fome ought howtions had been unhappy I fliewed, ever to be confidered as jufl; and neceflary. that the Kings could neither have been expelled, Tribunes created, limitations given to the Confular
^

:

:

:

:

•,

power

eOELIU^, DOMITIUS,
power by the decrees of the People,
;

Confuk'
as

5%

had been foA.R.^sig.* often done, nor the right of appealing to the People g.^ inftituted that right, which may juftly be termed the afyiiim of the citizens, and the bulwark of liberty, without a ftrong refiftance on the fide of the Nobility, attended with violent commotions. That confequently, if all thefe feditions had been falutary to the Commonwealth, tumultuous commotions excited by the People on the affair in queftion ought not
to be imputed, without ftrift enquiry, to
as a capital crime.
I proceeded to a fecond, I were allowed, that the People, on fome occalions, had juft reafon for violence and infurre.6tion, as could not be denied, they certainly never had a more legitimate caufe for them than in the prefent cafe. In this place I gave a loofe to my genius I inveighed ftrongly againil Caspio's fhameI deplored the lofs of the army. I therebyful flight the of thofe, revived grief, and opened the wounds unfortunate who lamented their relations killed in that battle and at the fame time I reanimated, and fupported with the motive of publick good, the hatred of the Roman Knights, our judges, for C^pio, who had defired to diveil them, at leaft in part, of the adminiflration of juftice. " When I perceived that 1 had gained the afcendant of my audience, and that the judges feemed to have
lirft ftep,
it
:
:

Norbanus

" After this added, that if

:

become favourable to my caufe to the warm and vehement pafTions I had hitherto employed, I fubftiI repretuted mild and more foothing fentiments.
;

fented that
to
t!ie

my

for a friend,

that I fpoke all was now in queftion who having been my Quseftor, according
:

maxims of our
he were

''

anceftors,

ought to be

as dear to

me,

as if

my own

fon.

That

after

having

frequently been of fome fervice to unknown perfons, with whom I had no other tie than that of being citizens of the fame ftate, it would be equally afRidive and (hameful to me, not to have it in my power to

lend the like aid to a

man

with

whom

I

had

fo ftrid

an

366
A.R.
a!' 34.
65^.

COELIUS, DOMITIUS,
^'

Confuls.

would fufI an union. fer themfelves to be moved out of confideration for*, my age, the offices with which I had been honoured, the fer vices I might have rendered the Commonwealth, and laftly, with the juil and tender forrow with which they faw me fo much affeded that they would not refufe me the firft grace I had ever afl^ed them perfonally for myfelf, having never ufed my intercll for other accufed perlbns I had defended, but as for my friends, whereas at prefent I confidcred the danger
defired the judges, that they
:

as

my

own.

" I managed this caufe therefore in a manner that might feem contrary to the rules of art, but with fucI touched but lightly upon the crime of treacefs.
fon to the flate, which was the chief point of the The whole weight of my argument turned charge. upon the paffions and manners ; that is, 1 confined myfelf on one fide, to revive the fentiments of hatred againft Caspio with vehemence ; and on the other, to conciliate the affedion of the judges to myfelf, by expreiTmg the charafter of a, tender and faithful friend.

manner, Sulpicius, that by rather moving the heart, than convincing the reafon, I triumphed over your accufation." This account of Antonius is further cleared up and " Nothing is more confirmed by Sulpicius's anfwer. true, faid he to Antonius, than what you have now For if ever I thought myfelf fecure of fucrelated. cefs, it was on this occafion, in which I however faw When, after it efcape on a fudden out of my hands. having kindled what you call a flame in the minds of great gods, what an the judges, I left you to fpeak What fear, trouble, hefitaintrodudtion was yours tion, even to the fyllables of your words, did you In what a manner did you lay hold of the exprefs only circumftance that could ferve you as fome excule, the ftrid: union eftablilhed by our laws and With cuftoms between a Conful and his QLiseftor advantage point, the that take of you did addrefs what for attaining a favourable beginning with the Judges
It

was

in this

:

!

!

.?

!

1

how*

;

COELIUS, DOMITIUS,
I

Conilib.

3^7
R. SfS*
'.

however was not difcouraged, imaginino- tliat all A. you would be able to gain by the fine and exquifite turns of an artful difcourie, was, that in favour of your particular engagements with Norbanus, you would be excufed for taking upon you his defence, and for charging yourfelf with a bad caufe. But I was foon undeceived. You did not confine yourfelf
; but infenfibly infinuating yourfelf into favour, you carried your pretenfions much farther. Nobody perceived it yet : but I began to fear in earneif, when I faw you give the caufe a turn, by the means of which all that had pafTed v>/as no longer a fedition, but an etxecc of the juft wrath of the Roman People. What arguments did you not employ againil Caepio I "What abhorrence and indignation did your difcourfe not breathe againil the author of a bloody defeat ; and at the fame time, what commiferation, as well for the Commonwealth, as for the individuals who had perilhed in the battle In the fame manner you treated every thing that related to Scaurus and my other witnefies, not by refuting their depofitions,. but by

-

to that

!

afcribing the whole to the well-grounded refentment of the People." Norbanus was in confequence acquitted, and the eloquence of Antonius again faved a criminal from the punilliment he deferved. The Judges at Rome feem to have confidered themfelves next to abfolute mailers of the fate of the accufed, rather than as flaves
to the law. And happy it v/as when their caprice difpofed them to afford a criminal grace, and not to deilroy an innocent perfon.

The
and
I

orator's addrefs
I

thought

is however laudable in itfelf might be allowed to give it a place

purely hiflorical are abfoit may ferve both as a caution againft the like artifices, and an example, in cafe of defending a good caufe, but one compounded with, and obicured by, odious prejudices. In this light, let me be indulged to make the following comr ^
rather,
as facfls

here, the

lutely wanting at this period,

parifon.
It

ff j
jl.R. 65S. Ant. C.
S4-

VAL^RlttS, MERENNIttS,
It

Conflifs;
in

were undoubtedly to be dedred,

young Noblemen intended

order to fbrn^ for the profeffion of war,'

that the great Generals, who, by the confent of the publick, have diftinguiihed their fuperior merit in it,

would take the

trouble, after events are paiTed, to

give us with their own hands the general plan of a campaign, conceived and contained in the head of the remote meafures taken for a. only one perfon the profound fecrecy that prevented fiege or a battle them from coming to the enemy's knowledge; the true caufes of the fuccefs or mifcamage of an cnterand many other the like circumftances, v/hich, prize properly fpeaking, are the foul both of an adrion and an hiflory. And is it iefs ufeful for young advocates and perfons intended for the bar, to be taught from
-,
-,

•,

his

own mouth by one of

the moft

famous orators of

the ancient world, the whole art he ufed, and all the fecret fprings he employed, in a caufe bad indeed, but which the beft may refemble in point of difficulty ? Is there any fyftem of rhetorick comparable to fuch
obfervations ? Accordingly * Sulpicius, who had carneftly entreated Antonius to give him precepts of eloquence, confefTes, that the explanation he had been pleafed to repeat of what he praftifed himfelf in his

pleadings, was infinitely more ufeful than cepts in the world f.

all

the pre-

A.R.

659.

C. Valerius Flaccus.

Ant. C.
93'

M. Herennius.
of whom nothing is faid in hiflory from the battle with the Cimbri, in which he ferved under Catulus, is now to appear again upon the ftage, where he will have a principal figure to the end of
Sylla,
* Quae quum abs te modo commemorarentur, equidem nulh pratcepta cfefiaerabam. lllam enim ipfam demonftrationem defenfionum tuarum abs te ipfo coramemoratam doftrinam elTe non mediocrcra puto. Cic. ii. de Or. 204. Here Monfieur lloUiii's manufcript ends. •f

fiis life.

VALERIUS, HERENNIUS, Confuls. He was a Prsetor this * year or the

^^g
next. A. R. 659.
'^"^' ^'

But, what is fingular, this man, deftined in a fhort time to fee the whole Roman Empire fubjeded to his fway, found it fuificiently difficult to obtain the Prstorlhip and he did not get it till he had experienced a refufal. He endeavoured in the memoirs, which he wrote of his life, to difguile the true caufe of this repulfe, by faying, that the People were for forcing him to itand for the iEdilefliip, becaufe thofe who had that office were obliged to exhibit games, and they expected very magniiicent ones from him, in effect of his correfpondence with Bocchus. According to Plutarch, the trut;h is, he conceived that he ffiould carry
•,

the fuffrages irrefiftibly, by the mere recommendation He was miftaken. The of his namx and merit. People would be follicited, and often even paid. Sylla, taught by experience, llood again after the delay of one year ; and partly by popular behaviour, which he well knew how to employ, and partly by money,

Accordingly, in a quarhe obtained the Prastorfhip. which he had with Csefar Strabo, a man of v/it, praifed by Cicero for his pleafantry and facetioufnels, as he threatened him with ufing the power of his office " Right," replied Csefar, laughing, " it is your of" fice indeed ; for you bought it and paid for it." For the reft, Sylla gratified the People in refpe6b topiin. viil. He exhibited a combat of an hundred ^^- '^^^"• the (hews. lions, which Bocchus had fent him from Africa, with yit. c. Z^. people of the country accuftomed to fight with thofe And as in this kind of games the terrible animals. danger increafes the pieafure and admiration, it is obferved, that Sylla was the firft that made lions fight without chains whereas till then precaution had been taken, prudently, no doubt, not to light thofe beafts without their ciiains. This year the poet Lucretius was born.
rel
:
•,

Something

* Pighius and Freinfhemius date Syllas Prsetorfhip in this year. Veil. Patcix. fays, ii. 15, feems to make it a year later.

Vol. VI.

B

b.

C.

Claudius

370
A. R. 660. Ant. C.

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA,
C. Claudius PuLCHER.
jyj^

Confuls.

PerPENNA.

Plut ibid.

having palled the year of his Prjctorto cuftom, was fent into Cappadocia, to fet Ariobarzanes upon the throne, who had been lately elefted with the approbation of the Romans. Thefe fafts will be related elfewhere withmore extent. Sylla fucceeded in this without much difficulty, and fettled Ariobarzanes in pofleflion of Cappadocia. Whilft he was near the Euphrates, he received an AmbafTador from the King of the Parthians, Hitherto that nation had never had occafion to differ and it has been reckoned among with the Romans good fortune, that he was the Sylla's inftances of the
Sylla, after

fhip in

Rome, according

:

firft

Roman

to

whom

the Parthians applied, in order

alliance. In the interview he which haughtinefs feems not to have behaved with an however was not generally difpleafed at Rome, but three chairs to be fet, he Having caufed approved. placed himfelf in that in the middle between King Ariobarzanes and Orabazus. That was the Ambaffador's name, Vv^hom it coft his life at his return to his mafter, for having fo ill fuftained the honour of

to treat

of amity and

the nation.

ric c'lar.

Khct.

At Rome the orator L. CrafTus was Cenfor with Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus. Thefe Cenfors palTed a decree againfl: the Latin rhetoricians, who began to encreafe in the city, whereas before there were none The latter had in at Rome but Greek rhetoricians. former timics experienced the like treatment. But the utility of their inftruftion, and the tafte of the publick, had fupported them againft the authority of The Greek fchools in confequence the Magiflrates. enjoyed entire liberty, when the Cenfors, of whom we are fpeaking, undertook to fhut up the Latin, which wcrc an innovation. Suetonius has preferved the fubilance of their decree, which I fhall infert here, 6 though

I

:

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA,
though
it

Confuls.

3^1
*

Hiflory. perfons, who, under the

has already been repeated in the Ancient A. R. C6a, ^'^"^ " have been informed, that there are

We

have

fet

up

a

name of Latin rhetoricians, new form of ftiidies and exercifer, and

that youth aflemble in their fchools, and pafs whole Our anccfcors have days therein with little benefit. inftituted what it was proper for their children to learn, and to what fchools they fhould go. Thefe new eftablifhments, contrary to the cuftoms and ufage of our anceftors, cannot be pleafing to us, and feem contrary to good order. Wherefore we think it incumbent on us to make known our opinion, as well to thofe who have opened thefe fchools, as to fuch as frequent them, and to declare to them, that we difapprove of this innovation." This decree, though conceived, as it feems, iri terms mild enough, however prohibited the Latin fchools and it is impoffibie not to be furprized to fee the mod eloquent man of his age profcribe an inftitution that feems fo conducive to the progrefs of eloquence. For what could be more ufeful or wife, than early to form youth in writing a language they were to ufe during their whole lives ? And accordingly Craffus, in juftifying himfelf to Cicero concerning this decree, does not condemn the thing itfelf he only * taxes thefe new m afters v/ith incapacity ; " who, fays he, teach their difciples nothing but boldnefs, a dangerous quality even with knowledge, but much worfe v/hen joined v/ith ignorance." Cicero perhaps puts his own opinion into Craflus*s mouth. However it be, if the Latin rhetoricians were fufpended by this fevere decree, they foon after reinftated themfelves there were abundance of Greek and Latin fchools of eloquence in Rome, and youth were accuftomed to compofe in both languages ; a very ufeful exercife, and perhaps indifpenfibly neceffary for a nation who had received all their knowledge
:

:

:

• Hos magiftros nihil intelligebam pofTe docere, nifi ut auderent ?uod etiam cum bonis rtbus conjunclum, per feipfuni magnopere eft
ijgiejidum.

De

Orat. hi. 94.

5u.b

2

.

from

372
'

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA,

Coniuls.

•^•^•<5'^°-from the
j2.

Greeks, and to which, in confequence, it was neceffary on one fide to keep up a commerce with its mailers, to prevent falling again into ignorance and
•,

on the

other, to transfer

all this

foreign learnino- into

their own language, that it might be of more general advantage. It does not appear that the Cenforfhip of CrafTug and Domitius was either of great utrlity to the Commonwealth, or refledted much honour upon themfelves. It pafTed almoft entirely in quarrels and difputes be-

tween them, the fource of which was their difference of charadler. Domitius was fimple and rough Craffus, on the contrary, gave into an elegance of living that came very near luxury, and fcarce left him authority to condemn exceffes, of which himfelf fet the example. PHn. His Collegue reproached him in particular with his xvu. I. houfe, which was one of the moft magnificent of Rome and he infifted principally upon the article of fix trees, which Pliny calls * Lotus^ that gave a very Shade muft either have been very dear, thick ihade. or money prodigioufly plenty at Rome, as Domitius, Val. Max. according to the eftimate of Valerius Maximus, who IX. X. fpeaks the moft moderately, makes the price of thofe tr^es am.ount to thirty -f millions of feilerces, about The houfe of feventeen thouland pounds fterling. Craifus was alfo adorned with fix pillars of the fineil marble, which might jullly be deemed a vicious luxury in the houfe of a private perfon, at a time when marble pillars were an ornament unknow^n even in publick
•,

:

buildings.

P])n.
xxxiil.

houfe was in the fame tafle. inlaid with brafs. He was Vafes of filver particularly very curious in plate. ii.^gj.^ I'^gj^ Qj^ l^^is buffet, of which the fafnion had been that he had bought them at the rate of fix coftly, fo

Every thing

elfe

in his

He

had beds for the table

* An Exotic, known to the curious. The French call it the Micocoulier. f The text of Pliny fa/s much more ; but there may be an error in the number.

thoufand

.

t two cups, made by Mentor, a famous artift, that coft ^ai.^' him an hundred thoufand fellerces (630 pounds llerling), an enormous fum, and which made the purchafer himfelf blufh, as he never ventured to ufe what he had paid fo dear for. I am almoft alhamed to repeat what Macrobius fays of the fame CralTus, that one of the Mur^n^e *, MacroB. which he kept in his fifh-pond, dying, he had the"'"weaknefs to wear mourning for it. But it is not amifs to fee from the like examples, how little the fame men
frequently are in their private conducft, who (bine fo much, and make fo great a figure upon the theatre

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA, Confuls. 373 He had in particular A. R. 66q. thoufand fefterces a pound.

of the world. Let us conclude

with a reflexion from Pliny. were much condemned, -f In our days fuch complaints are ceafed, being of no ufe fmce the total exrinftion of manners. have feen that no prohibitions could put a ftop
all this

" Of old,

fays he, the like exceffcs

We

to luxury, and

it

was thought more eligible to have
violated.

no laws, than
felves
ftill

to

defcendants will

make them only to be make our apology, in

Our

fliewing them-

vicious than we." havejuft related, it refults, that the reproaches of Domitius were but too well founded And Craffus, in confequence, only againfc Crafius. eluded them by pleafantries ; the fole refource of a man of wit, who perceives he cannot defend himfelf. The Knights had committed many ads of injullice fmce their prefiding at trials. But none was more cic.deOrv enormoufiy atrocious than the condemnation of Ruti-*" ^^^' That man, the moll virtuous of his times, and lius. who deferved to be termed the model of probity, had incurred their hatred, as i have faid already, by feconding the courageous zeal of Sca2vola, Proconful

more
I

From what

^

"

1 Six thoufand iefterces ar« about thirty-feven pounds

fterling.

The

Roman pound wa« but twelve ounces of Troy weight. • The Lamprey, a fiih much efteemed by the FLomans.
f Nimirum ifta omifere moribus viftis frullraque interdifta quae vetuerant cernentes, nullas potius quam irritas efie leges maluerunt. Scd & qui fcqueatur, nwliores effe uos probabunt. Puj^. xxxvi. 3.
;

Bb

a

•£

374

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA,

Confuls.

A.R.660. of Afia, in puniiliing the vexations of the publicans, ^^^\ ^' with his whole power. The Knights defired to be re-

ck, de
Or.
1.

aa9

Liv? Epit.
Diod^. ap.
^ ^'*

venged, and at the fame time, by a diflinguiflied example, to intimidate fuch magiftrates as would not connive at their opprefiion in the provinces. Rutilius, in confequence, was himfelf accufed of extortion. To this chief point of the accufation were added reproaches of debauch and excefies, diredly the reverfe of his known purity of manners. But could any fenfe of fhame be expected from fuch an adverfary as Apicius, the famous glutton, and the moft ancient of thofe who have rendered that name equally odious and contemptible to all pofterity by the phrenzy of that charafter ? He is mentioned as having much contributed in caufmg Rutilius to be condemned. And Marius, v/ho was born to be the enemy and perfecutor of every kind of virtue, did not fail to ad alfo againil a man whofe merit gave him offence, and who was befides the friend of Metellus. Rutilius fupported this fcorm with heroick conKe v/ould neither put on mourning, as was flancy. the cuflom, nor humble himfelf before his judges. Perhaps he even carried his refoiution too far. For he refufed the airiftance of eloquence. The fublime talents of Antonius and Craffus were his reafon for exHe would not make ufe of their ofcluding them. Cotta was however admitted to plead * part of fices. his caufe, though he made a great figure amongft the young orators. But he was his nephew. For the reft he took his defence upon himfelf, and in a manner very little adapted to conciliate the favour of the Judges , lamenting much more the fate of the Commonwealth than his own. Scjevola alfo ftrongly maintained the innocence of his friend and former Lieutenant, and fpoke in his manner with perfpicuity, elegance, and exaftnefs, but without force. Rutilius was condemned. Antonius, who was extremely affliftcd to fee fo great and wprthy a man condemned unjuftly, com*

The

reader, I fuppofe,

\vas fjeqiiently divided

remembers that at amongft feveral orutois.

Rome

the fame caufe.

plainji

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA,
plains bitterly in Cicero

Confuls.

375
660.
'

with A.R. which he determined to confine himfelf to truth, without permitting eloquence to fuitain fo good a caufe. " * If you had fpoken upon this affair, fays he to Craffus, and had been permitted to treat it in your manner, and not in that of philofophers, I am convinced that how wicked foever the judges might be, though pernicious citizens, though worthy of the greateftpunifhment, the force and vehemence of your difcourfe would have triumphed over their barbarity, and eradicated it out of their hearts. But we loft fo excellent a man, becaufe his caufe was pleaded as if we lived in Plato's chimerical republick." Rutilius Ihewed the fame courage after his condemnation as he had in danger. Though his fentence was only to make reparation for the pretended damages laid to his charge, he quitted Rome, as a den of thieves, and retired into the province which had been the witnefs of his virtues, that is, to Alia, where he firft fettled at Mitylene, and then at Smyrna. His eftate was feized and fold ; and was a proof of his innocence for it did not amount to the fum he had ^i**" been condemned to pay ; and his papers fufficiently attefted the juft and legal origin of all he pofTeifed. It is eafy to judge that his glory did not fuffer from fo unjuft a condemnation. He even found in the liberality of his friends, and of thofe to whom he had done fervices, an abundant amends for the lofs of his fortune. Scasvola forced him to accept confiderable prefents. And when he approached Afia, all the different ftates and people of that province vyed with each other in exprefling not only their affeftion and refped:, but an aftual gratitude, which the ftate of his fortune would not permit him to refufe fo that

of the

ftoical feverity

'^

:

:

*

Quod

fi

tu tunc, CrafTe, dixifles,

&

fi

tibi

pro P. Rutllio non phi-

lofophorum more, fed tuo,

fcelerati illi fuiffent, iicuti fuerunt, peftiferi cives fupplicioque digni, tatnen
evelliflet vis

licuiflet dicere,

quamvis

omnem

eorum importunitatem ex intimis mentibus tuse. Nunc talis, vir amilTus eft, dum caufa
commentitia Platonis
civitate res ageretur.

orationis ita dicitur, ut fi in ilia De Orat. i. 230,

B b 4

he

376
.A.R. 660.
*

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA,

Confuls,

he became richer when banifhed into Afia, than he ' had been vvhiift of Confular dignity at Rome. "[j^ He renounced his country for ever but without departing from the fentiments of a good ©itizen. And v/hen a perfon faid to him by way of confolation, that there would foon be a civil war, and then exiles would be reinftated " * "What have I done to you,'* replied he, " that you fhould delire a return more un" happy for me than the neceffity of departing has " been ? I had rather fee my country blufli for my " baniihment than mourn my return." What he For Sylia, when vi(5tofaid at this time he thought. enemies^ having all his over invited him to rerious chofe to remain Rome, he in exile. turn to He no fpare to himfelf the mournful fight of doubt defired Perhaps alfo, in the calamities his country fufFered. taking the advantage of Sylla's vidlory, he was afraid of feeming to approve the conduct of a man whofe caufe feem.ed good to him, but whofe proceedings could not fail to give him horror. It is certain at lead, that this manner of thinking highly agreed with the flrift probity always profelTed by Rutilius, and his attention not only to avoid committing iniuftice himfelf, but not to fhare in that of Valerius Maximus relates, that f one of his Val, Max. others vi.-t* friends having one day afked an unjuft thing of him, and taking fo much offence on his refufal, as to fay to him with indignation, " Whac fignifies your " frienddiip to me, if you don't do what I defire of
: :

" you ?" Rutilius retorted in the fame tone, " And " what is yours to me, if I can deferve it only by vile
*'

aftions."

He
ledge.
"•^

had always loved and cultivated liberal knowHe had ftudied philofophy under the celetibi, inquit,

Quid
?

mali

feci,

ciijtares

Malo

ut palria exfilio
vi. 37.

ut mihi pejorem reditum quam exitum meo erubefcat, quam reditu m<?ereat.

Sen. de Benef.
•\-

amici cujufdam injuftae rogationi refifleret, atque is per iunimani indignationem dixiffet, " Quid ergo mihi opus eft amicitia *• tui, fi quod rego non fncis ?" relpondit, " Imo quid mihi tua, fi " propter te n liquid inhonefte faftur us fum ?"

Qaum

8

brated

CLAUDIUS, PERPENNA, Confuls. 377 brated ftoick Panstius. He was very learned in the A-^-^^<** law. He had not negleded even eloquence but it "^'^^
;

was a kind of eloquence that fuited his auftere turn Cic. Brat, of mind, and which could make impreflion rather by "3» »*• the orator's probity, than infmuate by the graces of difcourfe. He had however much employment atAthen. the bar, and pleaded often. He had alfo compofed ajj^Roman Hiftory in Greek, befides his own life, which xxidx. t«. he had probably wrote in Latin. This fund and tafte of erudition and literature, in fome meafure univerfal, was no doubt a great rcfource to him in his banifliment.

We fhall again have occafion to fpeak of Rutilius, on account of the maflacre of the Romans in Afia, ^xeputed by order of Mithridates.

THE

C

378

]

THE

ROMAN HISTORY.
BOOK
HIS
THE THIRTY-FIRST.
book contains the fpace of five years, from the 661 ft year of Rome to

the beginning of the 666th. Its prinwar with the allies, and the civil war between Marius and Sylla, to the death of the former.
cipal fubjefts are, the

SECT.
JVar with
Ardent
tJ^e allies.

I.

Its

nature^ origin,

and

duration.

defire

of the

allies to

have the freedom of Rome.

'The Senators, to recover the adminiftration of jufiice, That fupport themfehes with the 'Tribune Dniftis. Tribune labours to gain the People by laws favourable

and the allies, by the promife of to the multitude The Conful Philippus oppofes the waking them citizens. Capio, another opponent of Drufus. laws of Drufiis. Violence of Drufus againfl Capio and Philippus. The laws pafs, new law of Drufus to divide the admi-,

A

nijiration of jufiice between the Senators ajid Knights.

Perplexity of Drufus,

who

cannot keep his promife with

the

allies.

Inflexible conftancy of

infant.

Proceedings of the

allies.

Cato whilji only an Saying of Philippus
injurious

CONTENTS.
injurious to the Senate.

37^
Cicero^s

Contefi

on that head between
Crajfus.
Lriifus.

Crajfus

and Philtfpus.
death.

reflexion on his

Death of Death of

His cha-pajjed

ra^er.
the
allies.

All his laws are annulled.

Law

by

Variits for informing againji thofe

who had favoured

Cotta accufed, goes into voluntary banijhScaurus extricates himfelf out of danger by his Varius himfelf condemned confiancy and haughtinefs.
ment.
.,

by his

own law,

perijhes miferably.

'The allies prepare

Thy form themfelves into a republick. for a revolt. Open revolt of the Jiates of Majfacre at Afculum. Italy. Embaffy of the allies to the Romans, before They have the advantage at they enter into the war.
firji.

Unjufi fvfpicions of the Conful Rutilius a^ainJl
Nobility.

many of the
fufpended.
ineffe£lually.

The
is

execution of the

law Varia
a
battle

Marius

advifes the Conful to decline

Rutilius

defeated

and

killed.

Grief

Rome. Capio, deceived by Pompedius, pcrifhes in an ambufcade with a great part of Victory of the Conful Julius, which makes his army. ViUory began the Remans refume the habits of peace. Manus declines by Marius, and compleated by Sylla. a battle. He retires with little glory. Sertorius figHe lofes an eye by a wound in battle. nalizes himfelf. Two flaves fave their His feniiments on that occafwn. Vi^ory of Cn. fnifirefs at the forming of Grumentmn. Pompeius, in confequence of which the mag^f rates of Rome refume the ornaments of their dignities. Freedom of Rome granted to fuch of the allies as had continued Freedmen admitted into the land-fervice. faithful, The Conful Pompeius preffes theftege of Afculum. He beats the Marfi, and fubje^s other neighbouring people. Aflave of Vettius kills his mafter, and then himfelf The Conful Porcius is killed in a battle. Toung Marius

and

conjlernation of

is

fufpehed of being the author of his death.

Sylla de^

ftroys Stabile,

and

befeeges

Pompeii.

He

takes upon
yiot

him

the

command of Pofiumius's army, and does

revenge

the death of that General murdered by his foldiers. He deflroys an army of the Samnites commanded by Cluentitis,

He

is

honoured with a

Corona

obfidionalis.

He

con-

^uers

580

ORIGIN

OF THE

WAR WITH
He
enters

THE ALLIES.
Rome
to

quers the Hirpini.

Samniumy and gains fereturns to

ver al advantages there.

He

Jtand

for the Confulfhip.
[Fselix.]
lay

He glories

in the title of Fortunate

Inconfifiency

down

their

arms.

The Marji of his chara^er. General council of the le:igue
Judacilius^ dejpairing to fave

transj erred to Efernia.
bis country

Afulum^ poifons himfelf. Afculum taken by Triumph of Cn. Pompeius^ in which Cn. Pompeius. Ventidius is led captive. Pompedius enters Bovianum in triumph^ and is defeated and killed. Emhafjy (f the allies to Mithridates to 710 purpofe. The war of the Eight new allies fubjifts only in a languid manner. JfelliOy Tribes formed by the new citizens. Cenfrs.
of the fa£lion of the

*

Prat or

city.^

affaffyiated

in the Jhorum., by the

rich.,

who

lend money at

ujury.

Law
Debate

By another law oj the fame Tribune., the Senators are rejtored to a fhare in the adPlautia, de vi publica.
tninijiration ofjujtice.

Sylla

is

eU^cd

Conful.

en that fubje5i between him and C. Ccffur.

ORIGIN

of the

WAR

with the

ALLIES.

are now come to a war, which the Romans called * the War of the Allies ; to difguife, fays Florus, under a fofter name what it had of odi-

WE

ous in it for in reality it was a civil war. The ftates of Italy, againft which Rome had this war to fultain, had been united with the Romans during fo many ages, and by ties fo often and fo varioufly multiplied, that if they were not citizens that took up arms againft citizens, they were friends againft, friends, and relafo that this war included all tions a ainft relations
:
.
•,

the horrors of civil wars. The origin of it, on one fide, was the ardent, and, in my opinion, the entirely legitimate defire of the
allies,

to

become

citizens
licet,

of a Commonwealth of
ut extcnuemus invidiam
fuit.
:

• Sociale helium vocetur

fi

verum

tamen volumus,

iJlud civile

bellum

Flor.

iii.

18,

r

which

ORIGIN

OF THE

WAR WITH THE

ALLIES.

38tf

and fupport ; and which they conftitutcd the ftrength Romans who the of on the other, the haughtinefs with themlevel a upon could not refolve to fet ftates confider as to * accuftomed they were felves, whom
of allies. fubieds, honoured with the name feem legitiItalians the of I fay, the pretenfions aid the their by was it that mate 'por it is evident, comthat provinces the all Romans had conquered

_

Roman army m ^^-"•^fpofed their empire. There was no form the greater which the Latines and allies did not of infantry, number equal an half-, always fupplying
and twice
as r r i r *i. refufal of the the other fide, if I impute the becaufe I Romans to pride and haughtinefs, it is not reaions folid give not could pretend, that good policy

many

horfe.

On

tor

new oppofmg the mixture of fuch multitudes of me for problem a complex too But this is citizens.
to attempt to folve.
to fads.
It
is
I

therefore

fliall

confine mytelt
certain, that

certain, that the

Romans were very

proud of their preheminences. It is alio thofe ftates the freethey were obliged at laft to grant And had it firft. at refufed fo tenaciouHy

dom

they firft with a good not been better to have given in at do by necelTity to reduced were grace, to what they ? after fo much bloodihed of Italy, vdUi For this war was very bloody. The ftates thoufand hundred three loft Velleius,
accordino- to

is-

fighting

very great number of Romans And it is no defeats. repeated alfo periftied in it could not They defeated. often fo wonder they were head making of capable more were have enemies that Both fides had the fame arms, the fame

men

in

it.

A

in

asainft them.

and knowledge of all that relates though, during a great lengtli and to the art of war commanded in chief, there had of time, no Italian them. amongft Generals were however
difcipline, exercifes,
:

treated as allies, The condition of the ftates, which the Romans the Achaians fpeakmg of well expreffed in a paffage of Livy, apud re precana hbertas Specie ^quum eft foedus apud Achates, xxxix, 37. K<?roanos etiara imperium eft. Liv.

*

is

:

The

;

gS^

ORIGIN

OF THE

WAR with

the ALLIES.

The duration of the War with the allies was very The greateft heat long, to take it in all its extent. of it fcarce fubfifted above two years but it continued much longer, though with lefs ardour ; it had a
:

Ihare aifo in the civil wars between Marius and S.ylla ; and it was not entirely terminated till by the latter,

when,

after having made peace with Mithridates, he returned to Italy, and by his victories put an end to all the divifions which had torn it during fo many

years.

importance, and abounding with fo events, fhould feem to fupply our hiftory with But fuch of the ancients as had rerich materials. lated it with care, are loft ; and nothing remains but

A war of fuch

many

fuch confufed and imperfed abridgments, that I can promife the reader only a general idea of things, with very little circumftantial account of particular fads. I proceed to our fubjedt. The allies of Rome had in all times ardently deThe war with the fired to be admitted citizens of it. hundred and forty two Latines, above years before had no relate, other caufe. The this I am going to * Campanians, after the unfortunate battle of Cannse, offered the Romans their aid upon the fame condition and only revolted becaufe it was refufed them. And indeed the Romans, during a great length of time, had not followed the policy fo much praifed in their founder, who often transformed fuch into citizens of Rome, as the fame day had been her enemies. As foon as they began to form a confiderable ftate, they were very referved in this favour ; and their referve in that point increafed in proportion to their power and in confequence as the freedom of a Roman citizen became a more important and exalted title. If they conferred this grace, it was almoft only upon fmall neighbouring cities, and never upon whole ftates. Befides which, they frequently divided the condition
• Liv. xxxvi.
6.

doubts this

fa6t.

But Cicero

pofitively aflirms

it

as certain, iu his fecornl oration againll Rullus, n. 95.

of

MARCIUS, JULIUS,
of of

Confuls.

3^j

Roman
it,

citizens,

from the

exercife

and fundions

right of voting.

and bellowed the name without granting the Accordingly only a few private per-

fons of the Italians attained that fo

much

defired ad-

But the vantage, and that by ftratagem and were their guard againft fuch Rom.an magiflrates upon to their own frauds, and fent home thefe ftrangers
addrefs.
cities,

who were

for

fwarming

at

Rome.

The

Gracchi revived in the hearts of the allies the

hope of obtaining the freedom of Rome by a general incorporation. Tiberius had conceived thoughts of by death from carrying the ; but was prevented it thing very far. idea was followed, and advanced His farther by Fulvius Flaccus and the revolt of Fregells, in which Caius was fo much accufed of Iharing, was a fignal on which all Italy would have been in motion, if a fudden and fevere revenge had not put a
:

flop to that confpiracy in

its

birth.

At

length the

mine was fprung

in

the Tribunelhip of Drufus, as I

am

going to

relate.

L. Marcius Philippus.
Sex. Julius

A.R.661;
Ant. C.
gi.

C^sar.

of Rutilius had made the Se- Flor.lii. more fenlible than ever of the neceility of de- J^^^ ^ .^^ livering themfelves from the tyranny of the Knights ixxi. in trying caufes, and fupplied them at the fame time with the jufteil motive for divefting that order of a power, which they abufed in fo criminal a manner. To fucceed in that defign, they called in the aid of M. Livius Drufus, then Tribune, a young man, whom his birth, courage, and talents, made capable of the greateft undertakings. He was the fon of that Drufus who ruined the affairs of C. Gracchus, by behaving in the name of the Senate with more popularity than him. The fon appears to have followed the fame fyftem of conduct. His plan was to ferve the Senate, and conciliate the favour of the People. This he endeavoured by propofing
nators

The condemnation

SH

MARCIUS, JULIUS.

Confuls.

A.R.66r.po{ing Agrarian laws, the eftablifhment of coloniei^ ^^^^' and diftributions of corn , the whole with fuch pro* fufion, that he faid himfelf, " * he had not left any one room to make new largefTes, unlefs it was of air And he declared that he pafled all thefe or dirt.'* laws fo much in favour of the people in concert with, and by the authority of, the Senate. Though the allies did not give their voices in the affairs of the government of Rome, they had however o-reat weight in them by their influence and ties with all the citizens great and fmall. Drufus was defirous alfo to attach them to the Senate, and promifed that they Ihould at length obtain the freedom

of the city, if they would affift him in pafllng his laws and made the Senate the guarantees of his engagement. The Knights ftrongly oppofed the laws of Drufus ; and that is not ftrange, as they were intended againft But even in the Senate he had two forthemfelves. the Conful Philippus, and Seradverfaries, midable man of his own age, and foryoung a Caepio, vilius merly
his friend.

Philippus, befides the advantages of birth, riches, great alliances, and the dignity and authority of his office, was alfo capable by the talent of eloquence to After Craflus eive weight to the party he efpoufed.

and Antonius, who difputed the fuperiority as orators, as has been obferved more than once, Philippus took " Though there was place, but at a great diftance. who could take place between no one, fays Cicero, him, I can -f neither call and orators thofe two great manner as in a chariotin like him fecond, nor third
-,

race,

fhould fcarce reckon that fecond or third, which fhould hardly have quitted the barrier, when
I

• The exprefllon is not unhappy in Latin, on account of the fimilar «' Nihil I'e ad largitionem uUi relifounds of the words air and dirt. Flor. vellet, aut coelum." quifle, nifi quis aut ccenum dividere
*

qui vix a carceribus exierit, quum palmam jam primus acceperit, nee in oratoribus, qui; tantum abfit a primo, vix ut in eodem curriculo effe videatur. Cic. Brute, n. 173,

Nee enim

in quadrigis

eum lecundum numeraverim

aut tertium,

the

585 had already received the prize." But to con- A. R. 661, fider Philippus in himfelf, and independently from all '^'^'j" ^* ' ^ comparifon, he could not be denied the title and merit of an orator. He had a bold and free tour of thought, with abundance of fait and pleafantry. He wanted neither invention to produce thoughts, nor
the
firft

MARGIUS, JULIUS,

Confuls;

'

facility of elocution to exprefs them. With all this, he w^s well verfed in the fciences of the Greeks ; and when he was warm in altercations, he had an edge, a fting, that always is highly pleafmg to an audience. I cannot tell, for want of authorities, what motive induced Philippus, then adually Conful, to oppofe Drufus and the Senate. When he was Tribune he had formerly propofed an Agrarian law, and Cicero cic. ds quotes a feditious paffage in a difcourfe he then made, o^'^c H. He faid, " that there were not two thoufand men in '^^' the city who had wherewithal to live." The confequences of fuch an exprelTion from a Tribune before a multitude who pretended to the rights of fove-

For the reft, hov/conduct of Philippus his in the Tribunefhip had ever,
reignty, are fufficiently evident.

been moderate enough, and he had fuffered

his

law

Was he in to be rejedted with no great difficulty. confequence perfuaded that Agrarian laws were althofe propofed

ways pernicious, and did he for that reafon oppoie by Drufus ? Or had he any perional grudge to that young Tribune, or difconrenc in refpeft to the Senate ? This we do not know. But it is certain, that he afted with great warmth, and even

paffion.

As to Caepio, there was a young man's quarrel be- j^;^^? tween him and Drufus. They had once been fuchVaief. great friends as to exchange wiveii with each other : a ^*^^'^^-i-'^'« ^' praftice contrary to decency and good manners, butpiin, authorized by the cuftom of the Romans. Their dif- >^^^^^' i. ference was upon a puerile occafion, having piqued themfelves upon outbidding each other at a fale for a rino;, which both were for havins. From fo fli2;ht a fubjedt arofe an irreconcileabie enmity, which they carried to the moft frantick exceffes, and thereby ocCc cafioned VoL. VI.

386
A. R.
66i. Ant. c.

MARCIUS, JULIUS^
-Qq^^

Confuls.

cafioned the greateft calamities to the Commonwealthj^^(^ ambition, boldnefs, capacity for bufinefs^
:

and a turbulent, reftlefs difpofition and their emulation being changed into envy and hatred, Drufus's attachment to the interefts of the Senate was a fufficient reafon to determine Csepio to declare for the

Knights.
Auaor.de
vir.iliuftr.

^^^

contefls

between Drufus on one

fide,

and

Csepio and Philippus on the other, were very violent* Vai. Max. 'pi^gy were carried fo far, that Drufus once threatened ^" Caspio to have him thrown from the Tarpeian rock. And as to Philippus, as that Conful oppofed the laws of Drufus with his utmofl power, and would not fufftr them to be brought into deliberation, Drufus caufed him to be carried to prifon, and treated fo outrageoufly, that the blood gullied out at his nofe in abunAnd this the Tribune treated only as a jeft, dance. faying, that it was not blood, but the gravy of becaufe Philippus was thought to love thrulhes good cheer and nice morfels. After fo many difputes the laws however could not be prevented from pafTing. On the day fixed for their being brought on, fo prodigious a concourfe of
'

:

people came from all parts to Rome, that one would have thought the city had been befieged by an army of the enemy. That multitude forced through all and the colonies, diftributions of lands, oppofition and largeffes of corn, were all decreed conformably It was probably at this time to the views of Drufus. that the Tribune, in order to enable the Commonwealth to fupport fo many expences, altered the coin, and mixed an eighth of alloy with the filven Thefe laws thus received were only preliminary to The queftion was to reilore the defigns of Drufus. This was to the Senate. juftice of adminiftration the and he view had been in had the great point he who having been Scaurus, in by it lately encouraged with himfelf his defended accufed by Caepio, had Drufus to exhorted openly ufual conftancy, and bad which the in trials, of introduce a neceffary change Common6
:
-,

MARCIUS, JULIUS,

Confuls.

'

387
'

Cbrtimon wealth flood in extreme need. The Tribune A. R. aou however did not undertake wholly to deprive the ''^^j^ Knights of the adminiftration of juftice but to divide Appian pretends, that it between the two orders. his plan was to aflbciate and incorporate three hundred Knights with the Senate fo that the whole body, which was three hundred, might be double that number. Out of thefe fix hundred Senators, as well old as new, the Tribunals of the judges were to be formed. But I am obliged to confefs, that I lay no great ftrefs upon Appian, a writer of little judgment, and befides very remote from the time in queftion. The epitome of Livy fpeaks only of a partition of the and judicature between the Senators and the Knights * Cicero's authority, that can admit of no exception
•,

:

:

in

this
it.

point,

determines

my

opinion

in

refpeft

to

Drufus accordingly pafTed a new law, to ordain body of the judges fhould for the future be To this law he added half Senators and half Knights. an article, by which it was made lawful to profecute any judge that fhould have committed any abufe For or prevarication in the exercife of his office. hitherto, through a fingularity entirely amazing, and for which I do not undertake to account, the judges chofen out of the f order of the Knights were not fubjecl to any moleftation for prevarication
that the
in trials.

This lav/ exafperated the Knights exceedingly ; not only becaufe it deprived them of half the authority they poiTefTed, but by the punilhment to which it fubjeded abufes of it, which were but too common They were not afraid to call thofe pewith them. nalties an intolerable yoke, to which they were not accuftomed, which they had never borne, and which

153,
alfo

The
154.,

complaints of the Knights repeated by Cicero pro Cluent. evidently imply that they were not made Senators. See

pro Rabir. Port. n. i6, 17.

circiimftance mentioned here Cluent. X45 154.

f The

is

certain

from Cic. pro

Cc

2

they

388
A. R.
66i.

MARCIUS, JULIUS,
they would
^ij
j.Ujg

Confuls.

never fufFer to be

impofed on them.
in

But

Ant. c.
^^'

world were united againft them

favour of

The Senators, though they were defirous the law. to recover their ancient right in the whole, thought it fome advantage to be reinftated at leafc in part of it. The people were gained by the largeffes that had

'

The allies, though not and diftributions of lands, by which they were to lofe part of their own pofTeffions, were however drawn in by the hope of the freedom of Rome. Add to this, the Tribune's haughtinefs, who had recourfe to the moil flagrant violence when it ferved his purpofes. The law in confequence was paiTed, and had the authority of the fuffrages of
lately

been granted them.

fatisiied Vv'ith thefe colonies,

the Tribes.

taken.

Drufus had hitherto fucceeded in all he had underBut his luccefs itfelf was followed by the moll affedling perplexity. For the allies, who had
ferved

him

fo well, did not fail to claim his

promife

:

and he found himfelf under an impofTibility to perform it. It is not to be doubted, but a propofal to adopt fo prodigious a multitude of citizens, would
difpleafe a very great
fides, the credit

Pint, in
'^'ac.

number of the Romans. Beof Drufus declined every day. The Senate, which by his means had obtained only a part of what they defired, fupported him but cooly. have related, in the hiflory of the Gracchi, the immenfc difficulties and quarrels occafioned by new diDrufus in confequence had difitribuaons of lands. <nifled almoll the whole city by his laws : and thofe he had obliged, were but indifferently fatisfied with All he could do, was to temporize, and enhim. deavour to amufe the allies with good words. It was during thefe negotiations that Cato, then an infant, gave an inftance, on the occafion of the affair of which I am fpeaking, of that inflexibility of mind that diflinguidied his chara(5ler during his whole As he had loil his parents very early, he was life. brought up in the houfe of Drufus, his uncle by the There it was, that Pompedius Silo, mother's fide. one

We

MARCIUS, JULIUS,

Confuls.

389

one of the principal perfons of the allies, happened, A. R. 66t. by way of joke, to afk young Cato to recommend his '^^^^•^^-

The child keeping filtfice, expreffuit to his uncle. fed by his looks and an air of diflike in his countenance, that he would not do what he was afked. Pompedius infifted without being able to prevail in the At length he took up the child by the middle, leaft. carried him to the window, and holding him out of it, threatened to let him drop, if he perfifced in his refufal. But fear had no more effe(5t than entreaty.

Pompedius, on
cried out,

fetting him down " What an happinefs it

in
is

the chamber,
for Italy, that
at

" thou
*'

art

but a child

!

For were you

age,

we

fhould not have a fingle vote." The allies did not confine themfclves long to the ^^°^' iii*^* method of negotiation. They foon conceived thoughts of doing themfelves juftice by arms, and even the horrid defign of maffacring the Confuls upon the day of the Feri^ Laiin^, a folemn feftival, celebrated v/ith a great concourfe of the Romans and people of Latium on mount Albinus. But Drufus had the gene- Auaor.de ^'"'' '^^"^• rofity to apprize Philippus of it, who took precautions againft a furprize. Another danger, not lefs great, was prevented by a lucky circumllance. Pompedius Diod.ap. had drawn together ten thoufand men, and led them ^'^^^^^ to Rome with fv/ords concealed under their cloaths, in the refolution to befiege the Senate, and to force them to grant the allies tlie freedom of the city. Domjtius having met this troop upon their way, reprefented to Pompedius that he v/as taking a v/rong method and that the Senate, who were v/ell difpofed in favour of the ftates of Italy, could grant every thing to good behaviour, but nothing to force. Both the
•,

leader and his followers fuffered themfelves to be perfuaded, and feparated. But ail this only fufpended the evil, without remedying it. On the one fide the allies abated nothing of their pretenfions ; on the other, the Romans took no meafures to

give them fatisfadion.

All Italy

w*i3

difcontented

j

C

c 3

and

MARCIUS, JULIUS,

Confuls.

and nothing palled but fecret affemblies, confpiracies, plots ; and every thing tended to a general infurredion.
pacifick.

At Rome the The

difpofition of people
divifion
fubfifted
:

ftill

was fcarce more between the

Conful Philippus and the Senate and that Magiftrate, an aflembly of the People, went fo far as to fay, " that another council was neceffary to him for the adminiftration of the government. That with the Senate, fuch as it was, he could not a6l for the good of the State." On the occafion of this invedive, and words fo injurious to the Senate, an affembly of that body was held on the 13th of September, called by The Tribune complained warmly in it of Drufus. Philippus, and propofed deliberating on the infult done to the Senate by the Conful, who was its chief
in

and

prefident.

orator CrafTus in giving his opinion fignalized his zeal and courage ; and never did eloquence fliine

The

out more glorioufly than on this occafion, which was " He * deplored the fad fate of the laft of his life. the Senate, which ought to find a guardian and parent, careful to proteft it, in the Conful, and had, only in him a virulent enemy, to diveft it of its honour and dignity. He accufed Philippus of being the author of the prefent calamities ; and declared, he did not wonder that he rejeded the counfels of the Senate, as he was folely intent upon ruining and deItroying the

Commonwealth." So vehement a difcourfe gave
conteft.
fire,

birth

to the

moft
elo-

warm

Philippus,

who

did not

want

quence,
fice.

and

fpirit,

efpecially

when himfelf was

attacked, infifted ftrongly

upon the rights of his ofpretended that CralTus had been wanting and immediately laid a fine upon in refped for him

He

:

fule, qui quafi

* Deploravit cafum atque orbitatem Senatus cujus Ordinis a Conparens bonus aut tutor fidelis efle deberet, tanquam ab aliquo nefario prardone dirigeretur, patrimonium dignitatis. Neque
:

vero

efle

miiandum,
Ii

fi,

quum

fuis confiliis

rempublicam

profligaflct^

coxifilium SenaliiS

republica repudiaret.

him.

MARCtUS, JULIUS,
liim, requiring at the
bliftied

Confuls.

391
efta- A. R- 66t%
^"o*|,^*

fame time, according to an
fecurity for the

cuftom

at

Rome,

payment

far from intimidating CrafTus, ferved only to animate him the more. He affirmed, that he ought not to confider Philippus as Conful, as *," he did not confider himfelf as a Senator. "

of the money. This proceeding,

How

you behave in refpedl to the repu«' tation and honour of the whole order, as you would *' do of a mean depofite abandoned to your difcretion, " and tear it to pieces in the fight of the Roman *' People, do you imagine you can terrify me by the " frivolous fecurity you require of me ? No, if you *' would filence CrafTus, it is not to be done by iay" ing a fine upon him ; you mufl pluck out this *' tongue and even were you to do that, the liberty *' that would ftill fubfift in my countenance, would " fuffice to reproach you with the tyranny you exercife *' over us." He concluded, that it was necelTary for the Senate to clear itfelf of the reproach made it by the Conful ; and that it fhould fhew the Roman People, that the Senate had never failed either in wifdom or zeal for the fervice of the Commonwealth. And this opinion was followed by all the Senators. This was the f laft, and at the fame time the mofl ftiining triumph, of that divine man's eloquence, as Cicero calls him. He had heated himfelf extremely in fpeaking, and already felt a pain in his fide. This did not prevent him from flaying till the decree was drawn up conformably to his opinion. He catched cold, and was fei^ed v/ith a fhivering ; and returning Jiome with a fever upon him, died feven days after of a pleurify.

added

he,

"

whilft

:

.

auftoritatem univerfi Ordlnis pro pignore Romani concideres, me his pignoribus exiftimas poffe terreri ? Non tibi ilia funt csedenda, fi Craffum vis coercere haec tibi eft excldenda lingua: quavel evulsa fpirituipfo libidinem tuam libertas mea rel'utabit. f lUa tanquam cycnea fuit divini hominjs vox & aratio,
tu,

*

An

quum ornnem

putares,

eamque
:

in confpeftu popnli

C

c

4

Cicero,

392
A.R.
66i.

MARCIUS, JULIUS,
Cicero, from
j^ai^^s the

Gonfuis.

Ant. c.

whom we have this whole account moft moving reflections upon this death of CrafTus, which deprived him of the fruits he had in view in all the labours of his life. "^ Delufive"^ hopes of man cried he Oh frailty, oh inconftancy of for^^ Oh vanity of all our views and efforts, which tune are either cut fhort in the midft of their courfe, or are unhappily fhipwrecked before we can defcry the For hitherto the life of CrafTus had been enport
! : !
!

tirely

employed

either in the cares that attend the at:

tainment of ofhces, or the fatigues of the bar and the glory he had acquired was rather that of a man of wit, and one ufeful by his talents to many particulars, And than that of a Statefman and great Senator. the firft year that terminated to him the career of honours by the Cenforfhip he had lately exercifed ; that year which opened to him, by the confent of all, the entrance to the highefl rank and confideration in the

Common wealth,

is that which fruftrates all his hopes, and all the views of his life by a fudden death." Such examples might indeed cure men of ambition, But if ambition were an evil that could be cured.

Cicero,

who makes

to himfelf.

And

this fine reflexion, applied it little generally fpeaking, what happens

to others, is but of weak inftruclion to ourfelves. In morals, ftill more than in any other refpedt, " the follies of thofe who go before us are loft to us," as one

of the moft illuftrious and moft ingenious writers of our times has agreeably faid. Happy for us if we improve fropi our own experience The death of Drufus foon followed that of CrafTus, All Italy and was undoubtedly more deplorable.
!

fallacem hominum fpem, fragilemque fortunam, inanes ccntenticnes corquae in medio fpatio faspe franguntur raunt ; & ante in ipl'o curiu obruuntur, quam portum confpicere potuerunt. N'am quamdiu Crafli fuit ambitionis labore vita diftriila, tamdiu privatis magis officiis & ingenii laude floruit, quam fruftu ajnplitudinis aut reipublicse dignitate. Qui autem ei annus primus ab honorum perfun6tione aditum, omnium concefTu, ad fummam auftoritaten; dabat, is ^ jus omnem fpem atque omnia vitae confil^a inorte pervertit.
lioftras
!

*

O

&

&

8

was

:

,

393 was in a flame and the alarm the Romans conceived A. R. 661" from it, turned into hatred againft Drufus, to whom ^'^ the caufe of thefe dangerous commotions were afcribed. The indignation againft the Tribune was univerfal and even the Senate, for whom he had contended fo much, no longer looked upon him in any other light, than as the author of the revolt of the ftates of
:

MARCIUS, JULIUS,

Confuis,

Italy.

and as he happened about Plm. in defpair time fuddenly to fwoon away, and to lofe his J'J^"'^^. fenfes in the midft of an affembly of the people, it vir. liiull, was faid, that he had occafioned that accident himfelf, by drinking goat's blood, with defign to make it believed he was poifoned ; and thereby to render his adverfaries odious, and Csepio in particular. It is more probable that it was a fit of the falling ficknefs, a difeafe to which he had been fubjed: in his eariieft youth, and of which he had been cured by the ufe of hellebore. However it were, all Italy were much affecfled with this event, and cities made vows for the recovery of his health. His enemies were only the more inveterate to deftroy him. They confpired againft his life ; and, notwithftanding his precaution of keeping company but feldom, rendering accefs to his perfon more difficult, and appearing lefs in publick, he could not efcape them. One evening, in returning home, furrounded Appian. by a great number of followers, he received a ftab with a knife, of which he died foon after. The af. fafm hid himfelf in the croud, and was never difcovered. Philippus, Csepio, and the Tribune Va-Auft. de rius, were fufpedled j which laft will foon appear ^^^- ^^^"^• upon the ftage. Cicero pofitively accufes him. No^i^^-^e enquiry was made concerning this murder which iii^^gi/°^"' proves that the authors of it were men of power, and capable by their credit of putting a ftop to the courfe of juftice. Thus periftied M. Drufus, in the flower of his age,^^"^*?- ^^ the vidim of a reftlefs ambition, which, before it drewyhrv?.* a violent death upon him, had tormented him during

Drufus was

:

this

:

his

:

394^ A^R. 66 1, his whole

MARCIUS, JULIUS,
life.

Confuls.

This we
at a

may

well believe.

He

had

time of grief, occafioned by ^^qt. the terrible difficulties in which he was involved, " that * he was the only one, who when but a boy, had never had an holiday." And indeed, whilft he wore the robe of a boy, he had recommended accufed perfons to their judges, and had carried feveral " What f could be exaffairs by his follicitations. pe<5led, fays Seneca, from fo early an ambition, but what aduaily happened ; great calamities both to the Commonwealth and to himfelf in particular." He had great talents, but flill greater prefumption, which he retained to the laft moment of his life. Veil. ii. When he was upon the point of expiring, he faid to **• thofe about him, " Friends, when will the Com" monwealth find a citizen to fupply my place ?" With thefe fentiments there is no room to wonder at the haughtinefs of his behaviour in refpe6t to his Val. Max. adverfaries. The Senate itfelf had experienced it **' ^' and one day, when that augufl body fent for him " Why," faid he, " does not the Senate rather come " and affemble in the hall Hoftilia, near the Tribunal " for Harangues .''" And the Senate obeyed the imperious Tribune's order, though he treated their's as nothing. There are, however, in the life of Drufus fome The adaftions and circumftances truly laudable. be given Philippus of the he caufed to to which vice proof Latines againfl him, is a of of the confpiracy admiration we cannot and deny our his generofity to the noble confidence that appears in an exprelTion of his, which Velleius has preferved. He caufed an houfe to be built on Mount Palatinus, which after^ wards belonged to Cicero and as his archite6t promifed him to lay it out in fuch a manner that none of
:
-,

complained himfelf,

:

* Uni

gens & privatum audaciam.

fibi, ne pnero quidem ferias contigifTe, f Quo non irrumperet tarn immatura ambitio

?

Scires in

mrJum

in-

&

publicum evafuram illam tam prsccoquem

the

MARCIUS, JULIUS,
the neighbours fhould overlook
'

Confuls.
:

3:95

him

"

*

So

far

from A.R. 661.
^"** ^'

*« **

that," fays Drufus,

" you

will pleafe

me

beft, if

" «

you employ your whole art in fuch a mannner, that every body may fee what is done in my
houfe."

From
"

all

thefe

fa(5ls it refults,

that Drufus left be-

CIc. pro

an equivocal reputation. And I ^o"^o. know no writer who praifes him without exception, "''** except Velleius, a mean flatterer, who thereby made his abjedl court to Livia and Tiberius, descended from that Tribune. The death of Drufus was an entire triumph for his enemies and the Conful Philippas caiifed all his laws to be cancelled by a Angle decree of the Senate, as pafTed contrary to the aufpices, and confequently void

hind him

at leaft

:

ftate,

of courfe. Thus all things refumed their former and the Knights remained in fole poflefllon of

the judicature. They refolved to take the advantage of the occaiion for crufhing their adverfaries. They had a Tri-

bune ready to ferve them in all their views. This was that Q^ Varius, who had lately ridded them of Drufus^ a man of vaft defigns, and difagreeable in his whole perfon ; however, he had credit with the People from the talent of fpeaking, which he pofIt was faid, that he would feffed in no vulgar degree. have found it difficult to prove himfelf a Roman cihowever, he prefumed to fet up for importance tizen and that Mongrel, for fo he was fir- Hybrids, in Rome named, rendered himfelf formidable to the moft illuftrious perfons of the city and Senate. He propofed a law f for enquiring into thofe whofe evil pradlices had forced the allies to take arms. This accufation regarded the principal Senators, who had been in ftricl union with Drufus, and by him with the allies. How far thofe ties had extended, it is impof:

;

* Tu vero, fi quid in te nrtis eft, ita compone domum meam, ut quidquid agam ab omnibus perCpici poffit. t Quorum dolo malo Socii ad arma ire coafti eflent. Val. Max.
viii. 6,

fiblc

396
*

MARCIUS, JULIUS,

Confuls.

A.R. 66i.fiblc for US to conjefbure through the thick veil of "*,*^ obfcurity that covers the times of which we are fpeaking. But there is no room to doubt, that thofe il-

Romans had at leaft no fhare in a revolt, that brought Rome into one of the greateft dangers fhe had ever experienced.
luftrious

App.
1. 1.

Civ.

ner, fpared

Senate feeino- themfelves attacked in this manno efforts to prevent the law from paffmg. Even fome of the Tribunes oppofed it in form. But the Knights made themfelves mafters of the Forum and Tribunal fword in hand, and caufed the law to pafs by the fuffrages of the People. Thofe who had pafled the law Varia by fuch violent methods, were at the fame time the judges who were to put it in execution. Confequently it is eafy to forefee what juftice the accufed had to expe6t. The number of them was very great and whilft the war, which broke out foon after, caufed all the Tribunals to be fhut up, that which took cognizance of this kind of crime, was the only one privileged to a6t. Cotta is the beft known of all thofe who funk unThe nephew of Rutilius could not der this ftorm. efcape the revenge of the Knights. have already obferved that he was an orator, but more eftcemed for the clearnefs and folidity of his diicourfe, than its
'pj^g
*-'
:

We

force and vehemence.
felf

He

however

rofe

on pleading

his

own

caufe in fuch

upon himunhappy cir:

cumftances. judges, from

not endeavour to move his he had nothing to hope but imitating the conftancy of his uhcle, he reproached them with injuftice he fpoke with great dignity of the integrity of his condufl, of his views for the puband after lick good, and of his zeal for his country fold than infulted judges to iniquity, rather having apology, he went into voluntary bartifiiment. his made This was the fecond difgrace the cabal had drawn upon him, which not long before had made him lofe Rutilia, his mother, accompanied the Tribunefhip. him in his banlflimcnt, and did not return to Rome till he was recalled fome years after by Syllaj and -he
did

He

whom
•,

rofe

MARCIUS, JULIUS,
rofe to the principal dignities,

Confuls.

39;
r. 661. ^^^- ^•

and the reputation of A.

one of the greateft orators of Rome. Scaurus was alfo cited before the judges under the AfcoiV. in fame pretext, but came off more happily. Cspio, ®rat. pro ^^"^^^ who had accufed him long before of extortion, was again his accufer on this occafion 1 and enofao^ed the Tribune, Q^Varius, to fummons that venerable old man before the affembly of the People, and to inveigh againft him. Scaurus, though linking under the weight of years, and but lately recovered of a difeafe, notwithftanding the inftances of all his friends, who were for diffuading him from expofing himfelf, in the condition he was in, to the fury of the multitude, appeared on the day fixed. He heard the Triand when he bune's whole declamation patiently was called upon to anfwer, he only faid tbefe few words " Q^ Varius, a Spaniard by birth, accufes " M, Scaurus, Prince of the Senate, of having made " the allies take arms. M. Scaurus, Prince of the " Senate, denies it. There are no witneffes. Which " of the two, Romans, will you believe ?" This defence, fo Ihort, but fo full of dignity, made an impreffion upon the people, difconcerted the Tribune, and fruflrated all his and Caspio's efforts. The affair went no farther. Marcus Antonius did not extricate himfelf out of danger at fo cheap a rate. On being accufed, he exerted the whole force of his eloquence, and employed for himfelf all thofe arts he had ufed fo fucHe (hed tears, he implored, and cefsfully for others. fpoke with fo much paffion, that Cicero, who was an eyewitnefs, affirms, that he law him touch the ground with his knee, in the warmth and earnednefs of his entreaties. He was acquitted, and the next year had even a command in the war againft the
*

:

:

allies.

an end of what relates to the lavv' Varia, I add, that by the moft furprizing turn of affairs, Varius, when the term of his office expired, was accufed and condemned as being himfelf v/ithin the preftiall

To make

fcription

:

598
^Ti\^'

A. R.661. fcriptlon of his

MARCIUS, JULIUS, Confuls. own law. He was not puniflied with

banilhment only, but perifhed miferably in the moft cruel torments. Freinfhemius conje6lures, with great probability, that being reduced to wander about Italy, he fell into the hands of fome of the allies, who made him undergo the juft punifhment of all his For befides the murder of Drufus, Cicero Cic. Brut, crimes. 305. & de accufes him of having poifoned Q^ * Metellus. But Nat. Deor. ^j^^j. j j-giatc here, did not happen till after fome
time.

About the end of the Confullhip of Philippus, the Hates of Italy took their laft meafures to concert their The death of Drufus, and the law Varia, revolt. had entirely convinced them that they had nothing to cxpe6t from Rome ; they had loft their proteftor, and even the greateft of all crimes then was that of favouring them. They therefore conceived, they had abfolutely no other refource but of arms, to obtain that by force, which would never be granted them
by
Diod.
Eclog. 1. xxxvii.

confent.
-^s ^^^

inteftine difienfions, the allies

by their had time to put their Accordaffairs in order, and to make preparations. ingly tumultuous proceedings fubfifted no longer every thing was condu6led with order, fyftem, and by deliberations maturely weighed. They formed the plan of an Italick Commonwealth upon that of They eftabliflied, for the capital and the Romans. government, their the city of Corfinium, in of feat of the Peligni, they called it Italicum, and country the common country, metropolis of all the and as the laid Italy, united by league. They out a ftates of to hall Senate, which was for the Forum in it, and a They alfo took confift of five hundred deputies. care to fortify this city, and to lay up in it all kinds of ftores, money, provifions, and ammunition.
fufficiently engrofled
-f-

Romans were

* I cannot fay who this Metellus was the family of the Mctclli being then very numerous. f This city, which is ruined, was not far from Sulmo, now Sol;

monat, in

Abruzza

Ulterior.

And

MARCIUS, JULIUS,
And
laftly,

Confuls.

^99
Their ^"V.^-

hoftages of the feveral ftates that entered A. R. 66 j.

into the

afTociation,

were brought

thither.

Senate, like that of Rome, was to have the general adminiflration of affairs ; and it was alfo out of the

fame body, that the Magiftrates and Generals of armies were to be elefted. They created two Confuls, and twelve Pr^tors. The Confuls were Q^ Pompedius Silo, of the nation of the Marfi, and C. Aponius, or according to others, Papius Mutilus, a Samnite. Thefe two Generals, having each fix Pra3tors under their command, divided Italy into two parts or provinces. The firft had the country neareft Rome, on the weft and north ; and the other commanded in the reft of Italy, on the eaft and fouth. The principal ftates that revolted, were the Marli and Samnites. The firft even gave their name to this war, which is frequently called the War of the Marfi. The Samnites, who had of old defended their liberty againft the Romans during more than feventy years, were alfo the moft tenacious in the revolt, and the
laft to lay

down

their arms, after a great part

of them

had been deftroyed, efpecially by Sylla, who was their implacable enemy. With thefe two ftates, all the reft, that inhabited the country between the two feas, from the Liris, now Garigliano, to the Ionian fea, that is, almoft all we now call the kingdom of Naples, took up arms for the common caufe. The Romans had fcarce any allies remaining, except the Umbrians, the Tufcans, and the Latines. Gallia Cifalpina, or Lombardy, had no fliare in this war. The Gauls who inhabited it were not allies, but fubjefts and their country was treated as a province, that is, a conquered country. It was not fo much as included in what the Romans theja
:

called Italy.

L. Julius

400
A.R.662.
Arit. c. 50.

JULIUS, iiUTlLlUS,
L. Julius C^sar*
Y P. RuTiLius Lupus.

Confuls,

App.

Civ.

Flor.iii.

x6.

Xhe firft blood was fhed at Afculunij now Afcoll^ ^^ ^^^ frontier of Ancona. The Romans, on advices from all parts, that the people of Italy were
preparing to take up arms, fent proper perfons into One of the different diftrids to infpeft what pafTed. them having feen a young man carried as an hoftage from Afculum to Corfinium, apprized Q^Servilius of
it,

who commanded

in

the country.

Servilius ran

thither,

and with the higheft degree of imprudence affumed an haughty tone to people incenfed, who He treated fought only an occafion for a rupture. the Afculans as if they had been Haves, and menaced them in the Iharpeft terms. But menaces are very The Affrivolous, when not fuftained with power. culans enraged fell upon him, killed him with his Lieutenant Fonteius, and afterwards' put all the Romans who were in the place to the fword. This maflacre was the fignal for the general revolt of Italy. All the ftates mentioned before took arms. Butthefirll who fignalized themfelves were the Marfi, at the head of whom was Pompedius Silo, the princi-

The reft did not delay to pal incendiary of this war. All their meafures, concerted follow their example. long before, were foon put in execution. The Arand the danger mies and Generals took the field Romans, that it was declared the great to fo fcemed fo they called an im[tumultus,'] tumult a was there there confequence In war. dangerous and portant all the Triin the city bufinefs all put to ; was a ftop
•,

bunals, except that eftablifhed by the law Varia, were the people quitted the toga, which was the Ihut up habit of peace, and wore the military veft ; and Rome feemed a town of war. Both the Confuls fet
:

i

out to make head againft the enemy, but not without the precaution of leaving troops in the city in cafe of They chofe Lieutenant-Generals out of the infult. moft
.

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,
moft
illuftrious

Confuls.

40 r

warriors, Marius, Sylla, Cn.

Pom-

A.R.66,e.
"^g^^*

peius Strabo, father of Pompey the Great, and T. Didius, who had triumphed twice, over the Scordifci after his Prastorfhip, and the Spaniards after his Confullhip. Hiltory alfo mentions Q^ Metellus Pius, Rutilius had the Marfi for Caepio, and many others. That firft camhis province, and Julius Samnium. paign an hundred thoufand men v/ere in arms, without including the garrifons of places. However, before they entered upon aftion, the allies fent an embafTy to the Romans, to make a laft effort, and represent the juftice of their pretenfions, as they only demanded to be admitted citizens of a ftatethat was partly indebted for its greatnefs to them. They probably thought, that their requeil, fupported by their arms, would have more effed: than for the pafl. But the Senate, alv/ays true to the Roman maxim of never fuffering the law to be given them,
replied, " That if the allies acknowledged their fault and fubmitted, they might be heard. That otherwife, they might fpare themfelves the pains of finding Thus all hopes of peace being embaffies to Romx."
at an end, hoftilities began.

For the reft, we muft not believe that amongfl the people who took arms the Romans had no friends. The thing is impoffible in itfelf and Vclleius pleafes Vell/ia'^. himfelf with citing the example of his great-grandfather's father Minatius Magius, who defcended from Decius Magius, that faithful and conftant ally of Rome, at the time of the revolt of Capua. Mina:

who inherited his grandfather's fentiments, raifed a legion in the country of the * Hirpini, with which he joined the Roman troops, and fignalized himfelf in the courfe of the war by many important exploits. And he was rewarded for it accordingly he was made a Roman citizen nominally, and his two fons were created Prsetors at a time when, as Velleius
tius,
:

* This country in the

was part of that now

called the Ulterior Princi

niii

y,

kingdom of Naples.

Vol.

VL

D

d

takes

402
R. 662.

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,
to

Confuls.

A. takes care ^;;.^- only nx.
Diod. & Dio, apud

obferve,

the

Commonwealth

had

No
y^^LTS,

and this was The more mankind
the

wars are made with greater cruelty than civil really one, as I obferved before.
are

ties,

more

violent their hatred

bound by ftri6t and facred becomes when thofe

broke through. The allies proceeded to all kinds of inhumanity, both againft the Romans, and againft fuch of the Italians as continued faithful to Rome ; and that they might have a proper inftrument of their cruelties, the people of Afculum fet a Cilician Captain of pirates at liberty, whom the Romans had taken, and left prifoner in their keeping. Nothing was fpared, not even women and children. They invented an unheard-of punifliment for the women, which was to tear off their hair and the Ikin of And the people of * Pinna, not being their heads. willing to Ihare in the revolt, faw their children, which by misfortune had fallen into the hands of the It is well that rebels, butchered before their eyes. preferves the remembrance of thefe horrible hiftory afhamed make mankind deeds, to of their barties are

barity.

T.

The reader may juftly expe6t in this place an account of military operations of the greateft importance, But I innumerable incidents, battles, and fieges. have already taken notice, that the times of which we are fpeaking, are perhaps the moft barren of inftructive menioirs of the whole hiftory of the Roman have only abridgments, and Commonwealth. and Appian, who thoie executed with little tafte fuppliesrnore circumftances than the reft, affords almoft only a dry and trifling lift of a6tions either little in themfelves, or meanly related, wicliout connexion, without explaining caufes and circumftances, and without any of thofe ftrokes that paint the different charadlers of men, and render hiftory ufeful and agreeI Ihall therefore be obliged able, at the fame time.

We

:

»v

,:

.-i::.;...

The

citizens of

Penna in Abruz^o

Ulterior.
.

cOAui

L

'1

to

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,

Confuls.

405

to content myfelf with giving a general idea of theA.R. 66a^ Ant. C. feries of fa6ls, and to make choice of fuch as were 90.

moft important.

At
where

firft
:

the allies had the advantage almoft every and Freinfhemius happily enough finds the

Suppl.
^^"^^

^^^"'

caufe of this fuperiority in the union, concuri-ence, and zeal, which ufually attend new enterprizes
-,

whereas the diffenfions with which extended even to the armies.

Rome

abounded,

TheConful

Rutilius encreafed the evil by his unjuft Dio. apud
fufpicions.

and ill-founded

As he

obferved that the
pafied in his

'^^^'

enemy knew every circumilance of what
camp,
-he

was

alTiired that the principal Officers

and

always had intelligence with the allies, gave them thefe informations and without farther enquiry, he wrote on that head to the Senate. Thefe letters tended to fetting all things in a flame at Rome. Happily fom.e fpies of the Marfi were difcovered, who mixed with the Roman foragers, and even entered the camp with them, as is very eafily done in a war, wherein the language, habits, and arms, are and afterv/ards apprized their the fame on both fides General of every thing they had been able to learn. In confequence thefe fufpicions fubfided, and tranquility was reftored. To cement it, the Senate de- Afcon. creed, that the law Varia fliould be fufpended during ^^the war this was a fource' of divifion to which the Senate very opportunely put a Hop, by the v/ifdom
Nobility,
:
•,

who had

in

?^-'"°

:

of

this decree.

Conful Rutilius appears to have been a man do. of little genius, envious, umbrageous, and more greedy of glory than capable of deferving it. Marius, who was his relation, advifed him to protract the war ; no doubt to give the firft ardour of the allies

The

time to cool

•,

befides which, he reprefented, that

in the Roman camp, and could not be wanting, v/hilft they had an open communication with Rome, and all the great part of Italy behind them ; whereas the enemy, in the country where they made war, would foon be reduced to famine.

provifions

abounded

D

d

2

Rutilius

404
A.R.
66:.
'^"oo.^*

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,

Confuls.

Rutilius imagined that Marius, in propofing this plan of condiid, conlulted only the motives of his own
that he was defirous that the year fhould ambition elapfe without adion, in order that he might be created Conful for the feventh time, and have the hoWith thefe nour of terminating the war himfelf. thoughts he rejected Marius's counfels entirely, and took offence at them. He was encamped on the * Tolenus, a little river in the country of the Marfi, and below him, on the fame fide, at fome diftance, was Marius. Each had a bridge upon the river ; and oppofite to them, but neareft to Marius's bridge, on the other bank, lay The Vettius Cato, one of the Frsetors of the allies. latter conjeduring that the Conful would pafs the Tolenus to attack him, polled an ambufcade upon the way in a very obfcure valley. His ftratagem took
•,

Applan.

effed.

they were

Rutilius advanced againft at blows, the troops in

him and whilft ambuih appeared
•,

on

Roman army, and put it thoufand Eight Romans perifhed in into the fword, or by being pufhed either by this battle, drowned. The Conful himfelf re^ and river, into the he died. in the head, of which wound ceived a that he knew more than either ihewed Marius then encamped have faid that he was I of thofe Generals. what guefTed below the Conful. Elaving accordingly came that had pafTed, from the bodies of the Romans down the. ftream to him, he fet out that moment, and finding the camp of Vettius almoft without any auards, he carried it with little or no refiftance. The vi6lor, in confequence, deprived of his camp and bago-age, was obliged to pafs the night upon the field of battle, and retired the next day, without being able to make any advantage of his viftory. It is eafy to judge, that the death of Rutilius ocBut that grief was cafioned great grief at Rome. much increafed, when the body of that Conful, and
a fudden, attacked the
diforder.

Now

tha Turano, in

Abruzzo Ulterion

thofe

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,

Confuls.
killed

405
inA.R.662.

thofe of feveral other illiiflrious perfons,

the fame battle, were brought thither to be laid in ^"^q.^* the tombs of their anceftors. The v/hole city was in mourning and conflernation, which continued feveral

The Senate apprehended, that fuch fights, if repeated, might entirely difcourage the citizens ; and decreed, that for the future, fuch as fhouid be killed
days.
in war, fhouid be interred

upon the

fpot.

The

allies

palfed a like decree on their fide.

Caspio commanded a body of troops as Rutilius*s Lieutenant, and gained a confidcrable advantage with them, that occafioned his deltru6lion. For, in confequence of that fuccefs, the Senate having decreed, that the remaining foldiers of the army of Rutilius ihould be divided between Marius and him, he conceived on a fudden, that he was become as great a General as he to whom this decree feemed to make him equal and that prefumption inclined hiti) the more to give blindly into the fnare Pompedius laid for him.
:

That

artful Italian,

whofe camp was

diftance from that of C^pio, night, giving
fides,

came

him

to underftand that

no great him in the he would change
at

to

and adhere to the Romans. As a pledge for his fidelity, he brought to him two children as hoftages, which he faid were his own, but they were Befides which, pretending to be afraid really flaves. that the allies would revenge themfelves, by depriving him of his eflate, and for that reafon to ufe the precaution of faving at leaft fome part of it, he brought with him counterfeit ingots of gold and filver, that is, of lead gilt with both. Upon thefe proofs Csepio confided in him and the impoftor having advifed him to march and attack the camp of the allies, which would be much difconcerted when they faw themfelves without a leader ; the Roman followed that counfel with entire fecurity, and began his march. But Pompedius, in the fpace between the two camps, had polled an ambufcade and when he was near the place, he went up an hill, un:

;

D

d 3

der

Ao6
'

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,

Confuls.

A.R. 66-.(ier pretence of going to view the pofture of the enemy, but in reality to give his troops the fignal 1q^

agreed upon.

feated, killed,

Caspio that moment was attacked, deand great part of his army were cut to pieces. Marius drew together fuch as found means efcape, to and joined them with the troops under his

command.

The

Hitherto the affairs of the Romans went very ill. Conful L. Julius was the firft who had the glory of an important fuccefs, which began to raife their

He commanded in the war againfl: the Samwho kept him fo continually employed, that it was not polllble for him to find time to go to Rome,
hopes.
nites,

to chufe a Collegue to fucceed Rutilius ; fo that from the i.'th of June, the day of the defeat and death of that unfortunate Conful, Julius continued alone to th'- end of the year, at the head of the Commonwealth.

He had received a blow at firfl, which probably conduced to make him more wary. He in confequence encamped near Fapius, General of the Samnites, who was befieging the city of Acerrse, in Cambut he contented himfelf with keeping him pania in continual alarm, and diftrefling him otherwife in the operations of the fiege, and avoided coming to a batHe found himfelf obliged to weaken his army tle. by a firatagem of the enemy. The Romans had Nu:

midian
tas,

auxiliaries with

them.

Papius caufed Oxyn-

the

fon of Jugurtha,

all the ornaments of fovereignty, he They defrequently fliewed him to the Numidians, multitudes King: and to join their Julius ferted in had no other remedy in his power, than to fend back

Venufium, to made him affume

who had been prifoner at be brought to his camp; and having

all

the

Numidians

in his

army

to Africa.

Papius, flufhed with his advantages, refolvcd to give the Roman Conful battle and feeing that he did not quit his camp, he defpifed him fo much as to
;

undertake to'force his entrenchrftcnts. The Romans defende4 themfelves with valour; and whilft they
kept.

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,

Confuls.

40;

kept the enemy employed at the place attacked, the A^ R* 6^2^" "'^' Conful made his horfe falley through another gate, 90. who charging the Samnites in the rear, entirely broke them, fo that they left fix thoufand men upon the This vi6lory gave the Romans both joy and fpot. The Conful was declared Imperator by his hope. and at Rome the people quitted the habit of foldiers war to refume the toga. The fame good fortune did not attend Julius to the end of the campaign. Fie fuflered a confiderable lofs, to which an illnels, that made him incapable of a<5ting, and obliged him to be carried to and fro in
-,

contributed. For the reft, all and many that I omit, produced nothing decifive and the war continued with equal heat, and almoft equal forces on both fides. Marius did not diftinguifh himfelf in it by great exploits. Whether through the neceflity ofcircumftances, or perhaps the ilownefs and chill of age, it appears that the general courfe of his condud was to gain time, and to hazard nothing. He however defeated the Marfi in a battle but they began the attack, and when he had pufhed them into vineyards furrounded Vv^ith hedges, obferving that they found it difficult to crofs them in retiring, he was afraid of breaking his own ranks, and gave over the purfuit. Sylla, as if it had been his deftiny to comipleat what Marius had begun, happened accidentally to be on the other fide of thofe vineyards, with the. body of He fell upon the Marfi, troops under his command. and made a great flaughter of them. The number of the fiain in both the adlions of this day are faid to amount to fix thoufand. In this battle fell Herius
his
in a litter,

army
:

thefe battles,

:

lies,

Afinius, one of the principal comm.a,nders of the alwho was probably the grandfather of the famous

Afinius Polico. This nation of the Marfi were very vv^arlike ; and it was a common faying at Rome, that they had never triumphed either over the Marfi, or without them. Plut.

b

Perhaps that confideration made Marius the more'^^^^"' cautious Dd 4

4o8
'^'lo.

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,
^^P''

Confuls.
that were, ex-

A. R. 662. cautious in attacking them.

However

have related, he tenacioufly Vv^ithin his camp, without regarding either the kept complaints of his own foldiers, or the inl'ults of the enemy. And one day when Pompedius Silo advanced v/ithin hearing, and cried out with a loud voice, " If *' you are a great General, Marius, why don't you " fight ?" Marius anfwered, " You fhould rather be "^ afked, if you are a great General, why don't you

^^

^^^'^

occafiohs

I

*'

force

me

to fight ?"

ritis's

Plutarch mentions another a61:ion, in which Mafoldiers behaved ill, and did not take an advantage given them by the enemy, fo that the two arSoon after, Marius afked mies retired back to back. leave to quit the fervice, and returned to Rome, having loft much of his reputation. He pleaded the rheumacifm, with which he was much afflifled, as the motive for* his retreat pretending that he had fupported his fpirits a great while with a courage beyond
-,

his ftrength,

and that

his illnefs

had

at length

become

could withftand it no longer. SaUrft.ap. Sertorius, though he had no command in chief in '"* this war, however fignaiized himfelf by a great num^^^ But Salluil ber of actions worthy of remembrance. himfelf complains of not being fufficiently informed of them J becaufe at firft the obfcurity of the perfon who did them, and afterwards the malice of thofe who envied him, had buried them in oblivion. He Plut.in was Qufeftor this year, and had Gallia Cifalpina for
fo excedive, that he
^t'l.or, j^-^

province.

diers and

Having received orders to levy folmake arms there, he acquitted himfelf of
acSlivity and vigour, which him highly from other perfons of his

both commiffions with an
diftinguifhed
years,

who were generally voluptuous and indolent, an office as a title to make others take confidered and to difpenfe with any application of their pains, and
own.
did not confine himfelf to thofe eafy fundions care, but do not expofe a perfon to any danger. He was prcfent at feveral battles, wherein

He

which require

he

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,

Confuls.

405

he expofed his perfon with the fame bravery, of which A.R.66a. As he "0. he had given proofs in his firft campaigns. went to battle without fparing himleif, he often received wounds, and one in particular, by which he * But that deformity of his countenance loft an eye. was matter of joy and triumph to him. He faid f, that others had not always the advantage of carrying marks of their valour about them ; that they were forced to diveft themfelves of bracelets, crowns, and other military rewards, in order to fhew them. But as for him, the proofs of his bravery accompanied him every where ; and nobody could be a fpecSlator of his difgrace, without being at the fame time an admirer of his virtue. The people did him juftice: and one day on his entering the theatre, he was received with
applaufes and acclamations, which the oldeft Generals and moft refpeded citizens did not always eafily
obtain.

Virtue is of all ranks and conditions and after one Sen. de of the greateft men Rome ever produced, I am not^^"""** afraid to mention here an admirable action of two flaves. I cannot tell the exaft time when it happened but it undoubtedly was in the war 1 am now relating. The Romans befieged Grumentum J, in Lucania and when the city was reduced to the laft extremity, two Haves efcaped into the camp of the befiegers. Soon after, the place was taken by ftorm, and plundered. The two flaves at this time ran to the houfe of their miftrefs, whom they feized with a kind of violence, and carried off, threatening her both with and when they were afls.ed their words and gefture who flie was, they faid llie was their miftrefs, and a moft cruel miftrefs, upon whom they were going to take revenoe for all the barbarous treatment they had
;
:
-,

:

fuffered
* Quo

from

her.

In this manner they

made her

ille

T

T;sf /jiiv

yap

dehoneftamento corporis maxime lastabatur. Sallust. aMsc »'« ail rat /AufjCisict Tm dpig-iiov 'aripi<i)ic,iiv, a\\«i aTrtiTi'
x",

^i^ai

s'P'.TtTa ly

i'iptna.,

Kj

s-e<ya'i'af

^ictpiajua'^a.,

Tkf dhrit

'f;tovT/ <r)7j

dvJp^yj-^ta; inrapa/uhiiy t«^dpniic a/uajy tUc a-u/ui.<f>op£c QiXirdi. Plut.
at/ra
S'\

T«f

X This city was in the country

now called

Balilicata,

4T0
A. R. 662. Ant. c.
^}.gj-g

JULIUS, RUTILIUS,
quit the city, and
|-|^ey

Confuls.

conveyed her to a fafe retreat. concealed her with great care. Then, when the fury of the foldiery was over, and every thing quiet in the city, they made her return into it, and were ready to obey her as before. She gave them their liberty, which was the greateft reward in her power to beftow, but certainly extremely fhort of
the fervice fiie had received. I refume the feries of our hiftory. Cn. Pompeins Strabo had * Picenum for his province. He was not fuccefsful at firft, as had happened to moft of the Roman Generals in this war. Immediately after the malTacrc at Afculum, he atBeing tacked the place, and was repulfed with lofs.

Applan.

afterwards attacked himfelf near the river Tenna -f-, by three Generals of the allies, Afranius, Ventidius, and Judacilius, he was defeated, and obliged to reHe was befieged there by tire to the city of Fermo.
'

Afranius alone, the other two Italian Praetors having employment elfewhere. Pompeius kept a great while on the defenfive. But at lenj?;Lh having advice that Sulpicius approached with a Roman army, he conAt certed a plan with hi fn for attacking the enemy. falley. Afranius, vigorous the time fixed he made a who thought he had only Pompeius to deal with, emBut v/hilft they ployed all his forces to repulfe him. were engaged v/ith almoft equal advantage, Sulpicius The arrived, and fet the camp of the allies on fire. fight of the flames terrified the Italians, and to compleat their misfortune, Afranius being killed, the Thofe who could whole army broke and difperfed. efcape the vidor, fled to Afculum ; and Pompeius immediately invefl:ed that city. The vidory, which I have juft related, reftored After that of the Conful the tranquility of Rome.
Julius, the citizens had

of peace
*

j

this

made
d'

the

refumed the toga, or habit magiftrates put on the

Now

called

Marche

Acona.

f Now

the Tingo.

robe

1

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,

Confuls.

41

robe prsetexta, and afllime the other ornaments ofA.R.66*. * Thus every thing returned to its an"^^ their dignity. cient order: and the war, in the ftate it was, was, conlidered only as a common war, that did not prevent the city from enjoying the fweets of peace. In the mean time, a new event fhewed the Romans that they could not hope to extricate themfelves out of danger folely by the force of arms. Mod of the Um•

brians, and fome Tufcan ftates, quitted their alliance, The example might have and joined the rebels. and the Romans apprehended fatal confequences
:

they fhould be left alone, if they perfevered in reThe Conful Jufuiing the' general defire of Italy. lius therefore, with the advice, and by the authority of the Senate, pafled a law to grant the freedom ofRome to fuch of the allies as had continued faithful hitherto. By this law, Latium, and part of Tufcany and Umbria, at length acquired the right, that made them equal with the Romans. They adhered in confequence more firmly to the Commonwealth and the other ftates of Italy alfo conceived hopes of fharing that privilege with them ; at leaft by laying down their arms. And the war in reality was terminated only by this method. But to bring things to this point much blood was ftill to be fhed. The greatnefs of the danger, and the fcarcity of men, forced the Romans to admit freedmen into their land-forces, who till then had either been excluded, They raifed twelve cohorts or very rarely employed. of them, whom they pofted to guard the fea-coafts
:

from Cumae

to

Rome.
A.R.
663.

Cn. POMPEIUS StRABO.
L. PoRcius Cato.

Ant. C.
89.,

Pompeius and Porcius had deferved the Confulfhip conferred upon them by confiderable fervices. have mentioned the viftory which the firft gained over

We

Afranius

in

Picenum

j

and Porcius, towards the end of

412
A. R.
663.
'

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,

Confuls.

of the preceding year, had alfo defeated the ftates of Tufcany, who had revolted, in a pitched battle. Appian. Pompeius in his Confulfhip had confined himfelf particularly in carrying on the fiege of Afculum, which, as I have faid, he began before he was eleded This fiege was one of the moft important Conlul. The Romans were the more operations of the war. eager to take it, as it was this city which had given and the allies defended it the fignal of the revolt Vell.ii.6i.with no lefs vigour. Armies of feventy-five thoufand Romans, and fixty thoufand Italians, fought before Afculum to haften, and prevent, the taking of it. Appian. The efforts of the allies could not make the Romans raife the fiege ; but they occafioned its continuand it appears that Pompeius left ing a great while the command of it during fome time to L. Julius, Conful of the precediwg year, in order to keep the field himfelf, and oppofe the different nations of the enemy. He gained a great vid:ory over the Marfi. He reduced the Veftini * and Peligni to fubmit and But we have few particulars of lay down their arms. ^enec. de thcfe fads. Seneca has preferved a very remarkable Scnef. ui. circumftance, which relates to the time of the reducC. Vettius, who was of that nation of the Peligni. tion, and one of the principal Generals of the allies, had been taken prifoner, and was brought to the ConOne of his Haves fnatched the foldier's fword ful. who was dragging him along, and firft killing his mafter, and then turning the point of it againft himfelf, " It is time," faid he, " that I fliould provide " for miyfelf ; I have fet my mafter at liberty." On faying thefe words, he plunged the fword into his own " What J flave, cries Seneca, breaft, and fell dead. mafter in a more glorious manhis delivered ever
3^'.
: :

*
lius,

The

a river

Veftini inhabited the country upon the now called Pefcara, in the Abruzzo.

banks of the Aterfervarit.

I

Da

mihi quemquam, qui magnificentius

dominum

ner

?'»
r

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,
ner ?"

Confuls.
this

4,j
aftion A. R. 665.
^"*' ^*

But
be,

as

to us,

however glorious

of the Chriftian Morality, in refped: to homicide, does not permit us to praile And indeed, how many events might have it. delivered Vettius in a gentler and more happy
the
feverity

may

manner

?

L. Porcius,

as well as his Collegue, carried

on the

gained various advantages over the Marfi, whom he feems to have made it his folc employment to fubdue. But at laft, in attacking their camp near the lake * Fucinus, he was killed, and by his death gave the vi6bory to the enemy. Orofius Orof.v.it imputes his death to young Ma.nus, who defired ta revenge a pretended iniult done by the Conful to his father. For Porcius, who had the fame troops that old General had commanded the year before, had boafted, that " Marius had not done greater things than him." Thofe words were fatal to him and in the heat of the battle, an unfeen ftroke, but from the Roman army, and according to the words of Orofius, from the hand of young Marius, laid him dead at the foot of the enemy's intrenchments. So black a crime would be incredible, if that young man had not too fully proved in the fequel, by the moft horrid cruelties, that he was capable of it. Dio tells us, that this Conful had enraged his fol-Dio.apud ^'^^"* diers againft him by fevere reproaches and haughty behaviour, which had even occafioned a fedition, in which he was very near perilhing. The refentment of the troops may have been either the caufe of Porcius's death, or the occafion of Marius's better confuccefs.
;

war with

He

cealing his guilt. Sylla fignalized himfelf in this war above all the Roman Generals. I have related in the foregoino:

book,

what manner he compleated a viftory left This year is more produdive imperfefb by Marius. glorious for him. events He commanded, as the of Conful Porcius's Lieutenant, a body of troops in

m

Now

called the lake of Celano.

Campania,

4-14

POMPEIUS, TORCIUS,
^'

Confuls.

A. R.
"^"o

663.

Campania, where he deftroyed the city of Stabia; oil From thence he marched to the lad day of April. a city fituated at the mouth of Pompeii, befiege he was employed at this fiege, Whilft the Sarno. in augmented the manner I proceed to his forces were
relate.

The Romans had

a fleet under the

command

of"

Liv. Epit.

Plurin
Sylla.

was an haughty and violent Poftumius Albinus. foldiers abhor him to fuch a deman, who made his him, and accufing him of gree, that they rofe againft with the enemy, they treafon apd holding intelligence Sylla took upon him the comftoned him to death. mand of thefe foldiers, who had embrued their hands in the blood of their General, and incorporated them into his army, without punifhing the crime they had He palliated this bad indulgence lately committed. with as bad an excufe ; and faid, that thofe troops would Only ad: with more ardour, to expiate the crime But his real they had committed by their fervices. The enmity motives were ambition and felf-intereft. between him and Marius was then rofe to excefs j and he propofed no lefs than to reduce his enemy to extreBefides which, as the mities, and to deftroy him. towards an end, he afpired at drew allies the with war havino- the command of that againft Mithridates, for which preparations were making. With thefe views he applied himfelf in gaining the affection of the foldiers, even at the expence of the moft inviolable laws And he was in effect the firft of military difcipline. fet the pernicious example of who General, Roman himfelf, to to the prejudice of troops attaching the to fubftitute the rights of his and the Commonwealth, foldiers under the views, fo that private country to his and not of Sylla, the troops his command became condu6t ambitious People. The thofe of the Roman fequel. the of this General will appear more fully in For the prefent, he made himfelf really ufeful to the

He

Commonwealth.
Appian.

Cluentius, one of the Generals of the allies, came with a great army of the Samnites to the relief of the 8
city

;:

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,
city of Pompeii, and boldly

Conful?.

4,5
A.R.66j.
^g*' ^'

dred paces from the himfeif defpifed and infulted, moved to attack the enemy, though he had fent great part of his troops to forage. He had reafon to repent his prefumption, and was repulfed with lofs. But he foon had his revenge when his foragers had rejoined him, he attacked the enemy again, and Cluentius was defeated and obliged
:

encamped a,t four hunRomans. Sylla, who thought

to retire.

advantage was not decifive, and the Itahaving received a reinforcement of Gauls, have feen, in the courfe returned to the charge. of tiie Roman Hiftory, feveral fmgle combats with Gauls, in which they were never fuccefsful. It here gives us another with the fame effed:. Gaul of very great ftature advanced out of the line, and challenged the braveft of the Romans to fight. Moor was fent againfb him, who was as little as the other was big, and however killed his adverfary. The confequence was as is natural on fuch events. The Gaul's death terrified thole of his nation. They made a bad defence, were loon broke, and drew after them the reft of the army. Sylla's vi6lory was compleat he took the enemy's camp, who continued flying, and did not believe them.felves fafe till they were near Nola. The vidlor purfucd them thither: and without giving them any time, he attacked them again, and entirely ruined that army with its General, who

This

firft

lian General,

We

A

A

was killed in the acftion. Appian makes the number of the dead in the firft action amount to thirty thoufand, and in this to twenty. And what is more furprlhng, and even. incredible, according to Eutropius, Sylla did not lofe a fingle man. But a greater authority than that of
to

make

,fo mean a writer, is neceffary us believe a fad: fo remote from ail pro-

babihty.

.ot/.rnc

in his memoirs, that his foldiers had honoured him at Nola with a crown Olidionalis. This crown was not, like others, granted by the Ge-* neral to foldiers who had diftinguifhed themfelves
::;.';

Sylla had v/rote

PHn. ^^"•^*

bur

:

4i6
A. R.663. but

POM?EIUS, PORCim,

Conruh."

on the ontrary, conferred by the troops on thelf who had extricated them out of fome great General, ^fg.^' and the grafs, of which It was only of turf danger. was to be taken only from the very formed, it was army had been the furrounded by the fpot where which from the wifdom and valour of enemy, and We do not fee, the commander had brought it off. from the fads which I have related after Appian, in what manner Sylla had deferved this crown. But we muft afcribe that to the negligence of this author, and others, to whom we are obliged to have recourfe This crown was the greateft honour for thefe times. that could be conferred upon a citizen and Sylla, who was defirous to perpetuate an event fo much to his
:
:

glory, caufed

it

to be painted in his country-houfe at

Tufculum, which afterwards belonged to Cicero. * But as Pliny obferves, it was in vain for the author of a profcription to take honour to himfelf from a Corona Obfidionalis. He himfelf tore it from his head,

when he
of
Appian.

citizens than he

afterwards deftroyed a much greater had ever laved.

number

Sylla, after fo great a vidory, improved his adHe entered the country of the Hirpini vantages. and the inhabitants of Eculanum, which was in a mariner the capital, not furrendering foon enough, he

This example of fevehis troops plunder it. and reft, a few days the whole^ the in intimidated rity province fubmitted. From thence he marched to Samnium, where he was at firft in a perplexing fituation. He had entered

made

a defile near the city of Efernia, having an army of Samnites, commanded by Papius Mutilius, to oppofe Sylla was a man of prefence of mind in diffihim.
in fuch a manner, that he had of the enemy, under General an interview with the accommodation. Nothing pretext of negociating an

culties.

He

managed

* Quod fi verum eft, hoc exfecrabiliorem eum dixerim quando" <iuidem earn capiti fuo profcriptione fua ipfe detraxit, tanto paucioribusciviumfervatis, quam poftea occifis.
:

was

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,
Was concluded
in
it.

Confuls,

417
R. 663.
g^"^

by a very natural A. occaiioned a lecurity amongil effedt, the Samnites, which kflened their attention and vigilance. The Roman took his advantage of this ; and favoured by the filence and oblcuriry of the night, made his troops fet out, leaving only one trumpet in his camp to found as ufual the beginning of each watch, every three hours. At the fourth v/atch the trumpet himfelf withdrew to rejoin the army, which by this means got
truce,
fafely out of the defile.

BuL the

Sylla did not fatisfy himftrlf with only efcaping the Having marched round the camp of the danger. Samnites, he attacked them in a part where he was lead expefted, defeated them, and took their camp. Papius efcaped wounded by Efernia. Sylla put an end to this glorious cam.paign by a confiderable conFie attacked "^ Bovianum, a very confiderable queft. city, where the Samnites held their general aflembly, and which was fortified with three citadels. He affaulted it in federal places at the fame time, and in three hours carried the place. After fo m.any great exploits Sylla returned to Rome, to (land for the Confulfhip, to v;hich few candidates had ever offered themfelves with the recommendation of fuch great and glorious fervices. He brought with him the mod unexceptionable reputaAll the world confidered him as a great wartion.
rior
:

P'^it.
^^'^^^^

in

his

friends
;

extolled

him
his

as

the principal

Ge-

enemies could not refufe him the title of fuccefsful Captain. He took no manner of offence at this lan^uase of On the contrary, he was extremely dehis enemies. lighted with palTing for the favourite of fortune ; whether that was out of oflentation, and to take honour to himfelf on the prote6lion of heaven, or perhaps from conviction of mind. Plutarch repeats circumneral of
flances

Rome

and even

from

Sylla's

memoirs
faid in

to this eiTed:,

entirely fingular.

He

which are them, that he fucceeded

Now

Boiano, in the covuity of Molifa,

Vol. VI,

E

e

better

8

41
A. R.
g*
663.
*

fOMPElUS, PORCIUS,

Confuls.

better in accidental enterprizes, than in thofe he

had

premeditated, and intended to condud prudentially. He confefled that he was more fortunate than capable in war ; and advifed Lucullus, to whom he dedicated them, to rely on nothing fo much as on what the gods ihould infpire him with in dreams. All this feems to prove, that he adually believed in fortune. And the thing cannot appear fo ftrange in fo odd and Plutarch in the fame place capricious a genius as his. gives us a defcription of him, which I ought not to

omit
well.

to readers

who

are defirous to

know mankind

He

was

inconfiilent,

didlion to himfelf.

He

and perpetually in contratook away from fome with
:

and bellowed upon others with profufion he honoured perfons without reafon, and infulted in he made his court with addrefs to the fame manner thofe of whom he had occafion ; and behaved haughtily to fuch as flood in need of him fo that }t was doubted, whether he was mod proud, or mod a flatterer. H« was the fame unequal man in his refentments and revenge fometimes he would infli^ punifhment for the flighteft faults, and on other occaviolence,
:
-,

:

he would the eafily be reconciled to thofe revenged the flighteft immoft extreme injuries, and prudences with murder and confifcation of fortune. Perhaps, fays Plutarch, this inequality of condud in refpect to thofe he hurt might be explained, by faying, that his difpofition and intereft fwayed him alternately; and that, though naturally incHned to revenge,, he checked and moderated himfelf by reflexion, when the good of his affairs required it. And may not the fame key Iblve moit of his other inconfiftencies ? I return to the war with the allies, of which I have fl:ill
fions fuffered the greateft offences patiently
:

who had done him

fome events
•ad vantage

to relate, all

more and more

to the dif-

of the
it,

Italian league.

The
paft

Marfi,

ports, quitted
loflTes,

its fl:rongeft fupbeing tired and fubdued by their and the new ones they fuftained from Mu-

who had been one of

rsens

POMPEIUS, PORCitrS,
ra:na

Confuls.

419

and Metellus Pius.
I

mittcd, as

have related.

The Peligni had alfo fub-A. R. 663* The Romans in confe- "^g^'/^'
Liv. Epit.
j^.'^Y"

quence being maflers of Corfinium, which the rebels had made their metropolis, it was neceflary to transfer the general council to Efernia, a city of the Samnites, who, by the defection of the Marfi, found
themfelves alone at the head of
five Prsetors or Generals,
all

e

ixxxviu

the ftates that per-

fifted in their fidelity to the afTociation.

They eleded

they gave the principal authority to Pompedius Silo. He deferved this preference by his ability in war, his courage, and especially, his tenacioufnefs in the revok, of which himfelf had been the firft author, and which could not make him abandon the example even of his own nation, that is, of the Marfi, who had lately-

amongft

whom

He aflembled an army of and a thoufand horfe and being reduced by neceffity to try every kind of refource, he even gave Haves, who would join him, their liberty ; and having drawn together about twenty thoufand of them, he armed them in the beft manner he could. With thefe troops he retarded for fome time the entire ruin of his party. In the mean time, the fiege of Afculum^ which had Appiarix, continued part of the year, at length ended to the advantage of the Romans. When the city was reduced to extremities, Judacilius, who was a native of it, He was one of the tried a laft effort to preferve it. principal leaders of the Italians, a man of vigour and courage. For this purpofe, he drew together eight * cohorts, and beginning his march, fent a courier to the Afculani, to advife them to watch his arrival, and to fally upon the befiegers, whilll he fhould attack their entrenchments on the other fide. He was in hopes, that the Romans enclofed between two fires, might be put into confufion, and that he might perhaps have occafion to give them a great blow, and thereby force them to raife the fiege. The plan v/a3 not ill conceived but the inhabitants waiKed coumade
their

fubmiffion.

thirty thoufand foot

:

:

The

cohort ufually confifted of 500 men,

E

e

2

rage

%

:

420
A. R- 663. ^"^" ^*

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,
rage
into
i

Confuls.

fo that all Judacilius

could do, was to break

with part of his followers. He recountrymen in the warmeft terms with proached and feeing that he had nothing farcowardice : their
the
city

his

but ther to hope, he refolved to die mined to be revenged of his enemies,
:

firft

he deter-

taken pleafure in oppofing his before had prevented the execution of his laft orders. As he was ftrongeft in the city, he caufed them all to be fcized and put to death. After having fatiated his revenge, he thought it a6ling for his own glory, to revive the example fet by Vibius Virius at the taking

who had often defigns, and who juft

He invited his friends to a great entertainment, and exhorted them to prevent with him the difafter of their common country, by a voluntary Every one praifed his courage, but none death. would imitate it. In confequence, he took the poifon and as he had taken care beforehand to have a funeral pile erefted, he caufed himfelf to be carried to the top of it, and ordered his friends to fet it on fire. Thus periled this brave man, feduced, no doubt, by the idea of glory, which the Pagan world annexed to felf-murder. But, according to the mere tights of reafon, what glory does a death deferve, that was of no utility to the pubhck and the common caufe, and of which the whole fruit could only terminate in preferving the perfon, who killed himfelf, from the evils which he dreads frill more than death ? Though the authors, who have fpoke of the death App.Orof. of Judacilius, feem to place that event at the beginning of the fiege, I have chofe to relate it at the end ; becaule it did not feem probable in the leaft, that this General ihould have taken fo defperate a refolution, if he had feen his country in a condition to make a I alTure myfelf, therefore, that the longer refiftance. taking of Afculum foon followed his death ; and that the defpair of the leader, having occafioned that of the multitude, the city either furrendered at difcretion, or being ill defended by the difcouraged inhaThe Conful Pompeius bitants, was taken by florm.
of Capua.

made

WAR
made
this

OF THE

ALLIES.
:

421

unfortunate city an example of feverity. a.r. 66j. The principal citizens, and all the officers of war, "^^I' ^' were fcourged with rods, and beheaded he fpared the lives of the reft, but deprived them of their flaves and all they pofTefTed the city itfelf was demoliflied to its foundation. In this manner the blood of the Roman citizens, who had been mafiacred there, at the beginning of the war, was revenged. Hitherto it had not been the cuilom to grant a
:

triumph for having reconquered what had formerly belonged to the Commonwealth. Hovv'ever, Pom- ^^^iCapit. peius triumphed over the Afculans, and people of Picenum, the fixth day before the calends of January, that is, the * 25th of December. Amono-ft 7^^1.15.65. the prifoners, which he led in triumph, feveral writers vii."i3. have mentioned P. Ventidius, who undoubtedly was A- Cell, the fon of him whom we have named amongil the '^^' ** moft illuftrious leaders of the allies. This fame Ventidius, now led in triumph, vi^ill triumph himfelf in fifty years a memorable example of the viciffitude and inftability of all human things, in good as well
:

as

ill.

Pompeius had caufed all the plunder of Afculum *^^"^^' to be fold but though the publick treafury was exhaufted, he carried no part of the money he had raifed by that faie into it. He was a man whofe abi- P'^"^lity in war conftituted his fole praife for the reft, he ^°'"P* was excefiively avaricious, and little fcrupulous in refpeft to the means of enriching himfeif. And
:
:

'

this

is

him,

as

not the only vice with which hiftory reproaches we Ihall have occafion to obferve in the

fequel.

The Italian league was extrem.ely weakened, &nd ^'R- ^^4the following year loft the perfon who was its foul J^^-'^^^^S;*
and mover, Pompedius Silo. He had however fome firft, and had even retaken the city of Bovianum. Intent upon purfuing the fyftem he had
fuccefs at
* In Numa's calendar, which the
J)ad only 19 d^ys.

Romans then

followed,

December

E

e

3

laid

42a
/Lr.
6^4. laid
*

WAR
down
on
a level with
quefl.

OF
that

THE

ALLIES.
Commonwealth

to himfelf, of fetting his

^5/

of Rome, he was defirous to triumph, and adiially did triumph in his new con-

But

fuperftitious antiquity has obferved, that
-,

he thereby gave an omen of his future defeat becaufe it was into the vidorious city that he entered in triumph, and not into one conquered. Soon after he loft a great battle, in which he was killed and with him expired the Vv'hole glory of his party, v;hich from thenceforth only dwindled. It feems very probable to me, that the embafly fent by the allies to Mithridates, to implore his aid, and
:

invite

him

to unite with

them

againft

Rome,

is

to

be afcribed to this obftinate enemy of the Roman name. For the reft, if the author of this delibera-^ tion is not certainly known, the fad: is however certain from Diodorus Siculus. The hatred of thefe Italians muft have rofe to madnefs, to have induced them to feek fo remote a proteftion, and one which ought to have been fufpeded and odious to them, from fo many caufes and hence it appears, that it is after ftridl hiftorical truth one of our greateft poets
:

introduces Mithridates faying to his children

:

Non^

Princes^ ce n'eji foint an lout de fUniverSy

^e
Et

Rome fait fent ir

tout le poids defesferf:
les

de pres infpranl les frames

plus fort es^

^es plus grands enemis, Rome, font a tesporte^.

In Englilh
**
**

;

**

*

not only at the world's extremities the nations feel her iron yoke \ At home they figh, and they abhor her fway, And her worft enemies are at her gates.'*
'tis

No,

Rome makes

of Pontus did not afford much attention to ^nd replied coldly, that when he Ihould have terminated the affairs of Afia, which adlually employed him, he would go ^nd join |iis forces with
this embafty,

The King

ihofe of the Italians,

This

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,
This was the
bels.

Confuls.

425

laft confiderable ftcp taken by the rethenceforth, though the Lucaniajis and Samnites continued (till in arms, I find no more events that diredly and folely belong to the war with the

^^^ ^^4.
*

From

"gg^

allies. They no longer make a party alone, but are confounded with thofe of Marius and Cinna. Almoft all the ftates of Italy had then the freedom Appiaa. of Rome. For it had been granted them in proporFrom hence arofe tion as they laid down their arms. a prodigious number of nev; citizens, which extremely perplexed Rome. As * their multitude was immenfe, to diftribute them into the five-and-thirty Tribes was. making them mailers of every thing-, it was annulling all the dignity and power of the ancient citizens ; and thefe new comers, adopted through favour, would have crulhed thofe from whom they held their privilege. It was therefore refolved to form eight new Tribes, in which all the new citizens fhould be included. This plan, copied from that of King Ser- J^°J- ^• vius Tullius, in the eftablifhment and diftribution of The old the centuries, remedied all inconveniences.
*

their fuperiority, as being number-, they had thirty-five voices, whilft the others had but eight and beiides, as thefe new Tribes were to be only called to vote laft, it was natural, that the majority fhould be very frequently

citizens entirely retained

much

lefs

in

:

formed before
frages.

it

came

to their turn to give their fufcitizens, acquiefced

The

allies,

now become
-,

whether they did not perceive the great advantage that regulation gave the ancient citizens over them, or were fatisfied with acquiring the freedom of Rome at any rate whatfoever. It is probable, that in order to cftablifh this, twoA,R.6«j* Cenfors were created in the year of the Confullhip of Cn. Fompeius, who were P. Crafius, and L. Julius Caviar, Conful the year before. Nothing eife, that
at that time in every thing
*

Ne

eeret, ;ret, plufqu* plufqui

potentia eorum, multkndo \'eterum civium dignitatem franpoUeut rerepti in beneficiunj quxm audiores beueficii.
20:>

&

'HLh.

ii.

E

e

4

palTcd

42^
"^"s'g.^'

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,
tlecrees againft the luxury

Confuls.

A. R-663.pafied in the Cenforfhip, except that they

of the table,

is

made fome come down

to us.

This fame year €61,^ a crime was committed in the publick Forum of Rome, unheard of before, and which dcmonftrated that the laws had loft their whole credit and authority, and were reduced to give way to force, which took place of right and juftice. Debts

had

in

all

times occafioned great troubles at

Rome.

We

have frequently mentioned them in this hiftory. The avidity of thofe who lent money, v/as not contented with the intereft allowed by the Roman lav/s, and exaded greater. The debtors were entirely ruined, and did not pay. This evil was excefTivcly felt at the time of which we are fpeaking, becaufe the circumilance of a war fo near home, fo dangerous, and which required fuch great expences, had made money very fcarce, and had ruined the fortunes of a great number of particulars. The mercilcfs creditors, however, abated nothing of their rigour fo that the debtors called out for the protc6lion of the laws, and pretended not only to a right to be allowed delays of payment on account of the bad date of their affairs, but to have their creditors treated as violators of the laws, in exading greater interells than they allowed. A. Sempronius Afellio, Praetor of the city, and in that capacity fupreme judge of this kind of contefts, endeavoured to moderate the affair, and put an end to the quarrel by the method of accommodation. But that not being polTible, as he was ajuft man, he opened the tribunals to the debtors, and caufed juftice Upon this, the creditors became to be done them. furious, and not being able to overcome the Magiftrate's conftancy, they refolved to rid themfelves of him and executed their defign with incredible auSupported by L. Caftius, Tribune of dacioufnefs. the People (for it was necefiary that the Tribunes ftiould have a fhare in all the violences comimirted at
:
•,

Rome), they attacked

Afellio in the

Forum

itfelf,

whilft

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,
whilft he

Confuls.

425

unfortunate Prjetor, A^R- «^3. * '29. finding himfelf ftruck by a ftone, and feeing an enraged multitude around him, threw down the facred cup which he held in his hand, and endeavoured to But they interpofed, and fiy to the temple of Vefta. forced him to retire into a publick houfe, where they

was

facrificing.

The

knocked him on the head. Some of thofe who purfued him, and who had feen him running towards Vefta's
afraid

temple, believed he had got into it, and were not to force the barriers of that facred afylum. Notwithftanding the moft facred laws, which did not permit men to enter it, they made the ftrideft fearch.
in places that religion

to them.

Thus

Forum. And the authors of this enormous crime had combined together in fuch a manner, and knew lb well hov/ to fhut all mouths that could accufe them, that it was not The pofiible to find proofs againil any one of them. Senate publifned a decree in vain, to invite all fuch as haci any knowledge of the guilty, to deckre what they knew, promifing them rewards ; liberty, if they were flaves ; a fum of money, if free ; and pardon, if Nobody appeared to make the difcoaccomplices. very j and fo atrocious a crime remained unpunifhed. What juftice could private perfons exped in a city, where it had cofl a magiftrate his life for having done juftice ? Did not Rome in confequence fall back into the confufion afcribed by the poets to the firil men in the lavage ftate of nature, before the inftitution of
focieties
.^

at a facrilice, that at neon-day, in the publick

ought to have made inviolable employed dreffed in the facred ornaments, and
perifhed a Praetor, aftually

probably to prevent the like exceiTes for the M. Plautius Sylvanus, Tribune of the people, propofed and pafled a law concerning publick
It v/as

future, that

violence, de vi publica.
ferve, that the

The

Civilians differ in their

conftruftion of thofe words.
force of

contrary to

Let it fuffice to obthem intends all violence, the peace and good order of the publick and
:

426
A.R.663.
V^^^
'

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,
very great extent.

Confuls,

and that idea includes many things, and may have

Afcon. in The fame Tribune of the People reinftated the Se^^° nators in a fliare of the adminiflration of juftice. Cs-

?m

pio andDrufus had attempted the fame thing, but and the Knights had been the fole ineffedtually judges fince the law of C. Gracchus. Plautius gave a new turn to that he propofed, which perhaps conduced to its being paffed with more eafe. He decreed, that each Tribe fhould nominate fifteen citiAccording to this zens every year to acl as judges. be judges might indifferently either Senathe plan, even or of order the of the People. Knights, tors, accepted, and was in till Sylla's was force The law Didatorfhip. To conclude what remains of the year 66^^ I have I have only to fpeak of the eledion of the Confuls. His fervices faid that Sylla was returned to Rome. fpoke highly in his favour. He however had a comThis petitor it cofl him great pains to overcome. was C. Casfar, the brother of L. Csfir, who had been Conful the firfl year of the war v/ith the allies, and was then Cenfor. He was alfo brother, by the mother's fide, to Catulus, who conquered the Cimbri. Supported by the credit of two fuch illuflrious broand with abundance of perfonal merit, he ^jp 5^ thers, Orat. pro thought he might fet himf-lf above rules, and preScauro. ^^^^ to the Confulfhip, though he had been only It is probable that he was TEdile, and not Praetor. fupported by * IMarius, who was for excluding Sylla. For as Sylla and Caefar were both Patricians, they could not be Confuls together. P. Sulpicius, the young orator, of whom we have fpoke on the occafion of the trial of Norbanus, being then Tribune, oppofed the irregular flanding of C. They were Csfar, who was however his friend. Vc^ manner. different but in a quite eloquent, both
: -

* Diodorus Siculus,
this affair, lays, that

puld

who is the only author that mentions Manusin he afted againfl Caviar. Eut Sylla's competitor not have Marius agaiuft him,
^

hemence

POMPEIUS, PORCIUS,

Confuls.

427
'

hemence conftituted the charadter of Sulpicius, as we A. R. 663. have faid. * C^far had pleafantry, and the graces. ^3, His ftile had the moft delightful urbanity, and never

man knew better how to feafon his difcourfe with fait and humour but he wanted force and fpirit. He however fhewed both on the occafion of which we
:

are fpeaking, as well as his adverfary. Speeches were made on both fides before the people, not without debates and fedition. At length C. Casfar was obliged to give way and Sylla was eledted Conful with C^ Pompeius Rufus. The fuccels of Sulpicius in this affair flulhed and ruined him. fhall fee him next year turn again in favour of Marius againft Sylla, become one of the principal caufes of the publick calamities, and at
:

We

length draw an unhappy death upon himfelf.
* C. Julius orator fuit minime ille quidem vehemens : fed urbanitate, nemo kpore, nemo luavitate conditior.

nemo
Cic,

unquam

Pxuto, n. 177,

THE

THE

ROMAN
By Mr.
ProfefTor of

HISTORY,
CREV
I

&c.

E

R,
Beauvais
:

Rhetorick

in the College of

Bemg

the Continuation of

Mr.

ROLLIN's Work;

[

43-

]

ADVERTISEMENT
TO THE
Tenth Volume
of the
Firft

Edition,

was perhaps without much re* Writer of reputation in feveral kinds of literature had advanced, as I have obferved in the Advertifement to the Ninth Volume, that the ferious ftudy of Hiftory ought not to be began till towards the end of the fifteenth century. I was deceived it was not an opinion that had efcaped.

1 Thought,

that

it

flexion, a certain

-,

; it feems, it is a Syftem, a Thefis, that he maintains with argumentation and proofs.

him

inconfiderately

Ancient Hiftory," fays he, " * is, in fome truths with a thoufand That Hiftory is perhaps ufeful as Fable is fo.— lies. The exploits of Alexander are to be known only as we know the Labours of Hercules."
treat

" To

my

opinion, to compile

I admit that a critical difcern