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AVEVA Plant (12.

1) Structural Modelling

TM-1101

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TRAINING GUIDE

AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Revision Log
Date 14/10/2011 15/11/2011 16/11/2011 12/03/2012 15/03/2012 19/03/2012 Revision 0.1 0.2 1.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 Description of Revision Issued for Review PDMS 12.1 Reviewed Approved for Training PDMS 12.1 Issued for Review PDMS 12.1 SP2 Reviewed Approved for Training PDMS 12.1.SP2 Author KB KB KB KB KB KB Reviewed NG NG SB SB Approved

NG

NG

Updates
Revision 1.0 incorporates a number of significant alterations to this guide, including the amalgamation of the 12 Series Basic and Advanced Structural Modelling guides. Change highlighting has not been employed at Revision 1.0 but will be employed for all other revisions.

Suggestion / Problems
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Disclaimer
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1.3

1.4 1.5

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Copyright
Copyright and all other intellectual property rights in this manual and the associated software, and every part of it (including source code, object code, any data contained in it, the manual and any other documentation supplied with it) belongs to, or is validly licensed by, AVEVA Solutions Limited or its subsidiaries. All rights are reserved to AVEVA Solutions Limited and its subsidiaries. The information contained in this document is commercially sensitive, and shall not be copied, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Limited. Where such permission is granted, it expressly requires that this copyright notice, and the above disclaimer, is prominently displayed at the beginning of every copy that is made. The manual and associated documentation may not be adapted, reproduced, or copied, in any material or electronic form, without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Limited. The user may not reverse engineer, decompile, copy, or adapt the software. Neither the whole, nor part of the software described in this publication may be incorporated into any third-party software, product, machine, or system without the prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions Limited, save as permitted by law. Any such unauthorised action is strictly prohibited, and may give rise to civil liabilities and criminal prosecution. The AVEVA software described in this guide is to be installed and operated strictly in accordance with the terms and conditions of the respective software licences, and in accordance with the relevant User Documentation. Unauthorised or unlicensed use of the software is strictly prohibited. Copyright 1974 to current year. AVEVA Solutions Limited and its subsidiaries. All rights reserved. AVEVA shall not be liable for any breach or infringement of a third party's intellectual property rights where such breach results from a user's modification of the AVEVA software or associated documentation. AVEVA Solutions Limited, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HB, United Kingdom

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Contents
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 11 1.1 Aim................................................................................................................................................... 11 1.2 Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 11 1.3 Prerequisites .................................................................................................................................. 11 1.4 Course Structure ............................................................................................................................ 11 1.5 Using this guide ............................................................................................................................. 11 1.6 Setting up the Training Course .................................................................................................... 12 2 Overview of the Structural Modelling Application ............................................................................. 13 2.1 How PDMS Stores Structural Modelling Data ............................................................................. 13 2.2 Considerations When Creating the Hierarchy for Structural Models ....................................... 13 2.3 Starting the Structural Modelling Application ............................................................................ 14 2.4 Creating Administrative Elements ............................................................................................... 14 Exercise 1 Creating the Design Hierarchy ............................................................................................... 16 3 Creating Straight Sections .................................................................................................................... 17 3.1 How PDMS Represents Straight Structural Profiles .................................................................. 17 3.2 Initial Settings................................................................................................................................. 19 3.2.1 Section Specification ................................................................................................................ 19 3.2.2 Storage Areas .......................................................................................................................... 21 3.2.3 Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations ................................................................... 21 3.2.4 Pline Rules ............................................................................................................................... 21 3.3 Picking Control............................................................................................................................... 24 3.3.1 The Picking Control Form ........................................................................................................ 24 3.4 Creating Sections........................................................................................................................... 27 3.4.1 String Method ........................................................................................................................... 27 3.4.2 Create Option ........................................................................................................................... 28 3.4.3 Verification ................................................................................................................................ 29 3.5 Section Connectivity...................................................................................................................... 29 3.5.1 Secondary Node (SNOD) ......................................................................................................... 30 3.5.2 Secondary Joint (SJOI) ............................................................................................................ 30 3.5.3 Primary Node (PNOD) ............................................................................................................. 31 3.5.4 Primary Joint (PJOI) ................................................................................................................. 32 3.5.5 Tidying Nodes and Joints ......................................................................................................... 32 3.5.6 Checking Connectivity .............................................................................................................. 33 3.6 Creating a Pipe Rack - A Worked Example ................................................................................. 34 3.6.1 Initial Settings ........................................................................................................................... 36 3.6.2 Creating Sections Explicitly ...................................................................................................... 36 3.6.3 3D Aid Constructs Pre-Defined User Grids ........................................................................... 36 3.6.4 Creating Sections Using Graphical Selections ........................................................................ 38 Exercise 2 Creating an Equipment Support Frame ................................................................................. 40 4 Modifying Structural Sections .............................................................................................................. 43 4.1 Positioning ...................................................................................................................................... 43 4.1.1 Explicitly (AT) ........................................................................................................................... 43 4.1.2 Relatively (BY) .......................................................................................................................... 44 4.1.3 Extend Through ........................................................................................................................ 44 4.1.4 Extend By ................................................................................................................................. 46 4.1.5 Drag Explicitly........................................................................................................................... 47 4.1.6 Align Secondary Nodes ............................................................................................................ 48 4.1.7 Joint Freedom .......................................................................................................................... 48 4.2 Orientation ...................................................................................................................................... 49 4.2.1 Axes ......................................................................................................................................... 49 4.2.2 Rotate ....................................................................................................................................... 50 4.2.3 Angle (Beta Angle) ................................................................................................................ 50 4.2.4 Flip ............................................................................................................................................ 51 4.3 Copying ........................................................................................................................................... 51 4.3.1 Copying with Multiple Attached ................................................................................................ 51 4.4 Modifying the Pipe Rack - A Worked Example ........................................................................... 52 4.4.1 Copy Offset .............................................................................................................................. 52 www.aveva.com 4.4.2 Position Relative....................................................................................................................... 52 5 Copyright 1974 current year. 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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

4.4.3 Naming the Columns ................................................................................................................ 53 4.4.4 Using a List............................................................................................................................... 53 4.4.5 Extend Through ........................................................................................................................ 53 4.4.6 Create Additional Sections ....................................................................................................... 53 Exercise 3 Modifying the Equipment Support Structure ........................................................................ 55 5 Creating Curved Sections ..................................................................................................................... 57 5.1 How PDMS Represents Curved Sections .................................................................................... 57 5.2 GENSEC Hierarchy and Attributes ............................................................................................... 57 5.3 Creating Curved Sections ............................................................................................................. 58 5.3.1 Create Methods for Curved Sections ....................................................................................... 59 5.4 Modifying Curved Sections ........................................................................................................... 60 5.4.1 Modifying the Start or End Position .......................................................................................... 60 5.4.2 Accessing CURVE elements .................................................................................................... 61 5.4.3 Modifying the Curve Type ........................................................................................................ 62 5.4.4 Modifying the CURVE Radius .................................................................................................. 62 5.4.5 Deleting a CURVE element ...................................................................................................... 63 5.5 Creating and Modifying a Curved GENSEC - A Worked Example ............................................ 64 5.5.1 Setting up Additional Model Data. ............................................................................................ 64 5.5.2 Gantry Beam Requirements ..................................................................................................... 65 5.5.3 3D Aid Constructs Grid Elements ......................................................................................... 66 5.5.4 Creating a Right Angle GENSEC ............................................................................................. 68 5.5.5 Creating a Swan Neck GENSEC ............................................................................................. 69 5.5.6 Creating an Open Rectangle (Fillet) GENSEC ........................................................................ 70 5.5.7 Modifying GENSECs ................................................................................................................ 71 5.6 Creating Ring Sections ................................................................................................................. 73 5.6.1 Creation Methods for Ring Sections ........................................................................................ 73 5.6.2 Explicitly Defined Ring Sections ............................................................................................... 74 5.7 Modifying Ring Sections ............................................................................................................... 76 5.8 Creating and Modifying a Ring GENSEC - A Worked Example ................................................. 76 5.8.1 Setting up Additional Model Data. ............................................................................................ 76 5.8.2 Support Beam Requirements ................................................................................................... 77 5.8.3 3D Aid Constructs Working Planes and Line Constructs ...................................................... 77 5.8.4 Creating the Level 01 Support Beam ....................................................................................... 81 5.8.5 Creating the Level 02 Support Beam ....................................................................................... 82 Exercise 4 Creating & Modifying Gensecs .............................................................................................. 85 6 Structural Utilities .................................................................................................................................. 87 6.1 Bracing Configurations ................................................................................................................. 87 6.1.1 Available Bracing Configurations ............................................................................................. 89 6.2 Bracing Gaps .................................................................................................................................. 90 6.2.1 Available Gapping Configurations ............................................................................................ 92 6.3 Splitting Structural Elements ........................................................................................................ 93 6.3.1 Selecting Elements to Split ...................................................................................................... 93 6.3.2 Defining where the Elements will be Split ................................................................................ 94 6.3.3 Connections at Split ................................................................................................................. 95 6.3.4 Splitting the Elements .............................................................................................................. 96 6.4 Splicing Sections ........................................................................................................................... 96 6.5 Merging Structural Elements ........................................................................................................ 97 6.5.1 Merging Sections...................................................................................................................... 97 6.5.2 Merging Gensecs ..................................................................................................................... 98 6.5.3 Merging Panels ........................................................................................................................ 99 6.6 Filleting Structural Elements ...................................................................................................... 100 6.6.1 Filleting Sections .................................................................................................................... 100 6.6.2 Filleting Gensecs .................................................................................................................... 101 6.7 Mitring Structural Elements ........................................................................................................ 102 6.7.1 Mitring Sections ...................................................................................................................... 102 6.7.2 Mitring Gensecs ..................................................................................................................... 105 6.7.3 Mitring a Section and a Gensec ............................................................................................. 105 6.7.4 Mitring Sections or Gensecs with a Panel ............................................................................. 105 6.8 Bracing Configurations - A Worked Example ........................................................................... 106 6.8.1 Create a Pline Rule ................................................................................................................ 106 www.aveva.com 6.8.2 Create Bracing ....................................................................................................................... 106
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

6.8.3 Bracing Gaps .......................................................................................................................... 108 Exercise 5 Adding Bracing to the Equipment Support Structure ....................................................... 110 7 Section Fittings and Joints ................................................................................................................. 111 7.1 Section Fittings ............................................................................................................................ 111 7.1.1 The Create Fitting Form ......................................................................................................... 111 7.1.2 Creating Section Fittings ........................................................................................................ 113 7.2 Joints ............................................................................................................................................. 113 7.2.1 Joint Specification form .......................................................................................................... 114 7.2.2 Modify a Joint Specification .................................................................................................... 115 7.3 Creating Section Fittings and Joints - A Worked Example ..................................................... 116 7.3.1 Section Fittings ....................................................................................................................... 116 7.3.2 Joints ...................................................................................................................................... 117 Exercise 6 Adding Section Fittings and Joints to the Equipment Support Structure. ...................... 119 8 Panel & Plate Elements ....................................................................................................................... 121 8.1 How PDMS Represents Panels & Plates ................................................................................... 121 8.2 Panel Hierarchy and Attributes .................................................................................................. 121 8.2.1 PANE Element ....................................................................................................................... 121 8.2.2 PLOO Element ....................................................................................................................... 122 8.2.3 PAVE Element........................................................................................................................ 122 8.3 Initial Settings............................................................................................................................... 122 8.3.1 Panel Specification ................................................................................................................. 122 8.3.2 Storage Areas ........................................................................................................................ 122 8.4 Creating Panels ............................................................................................................................ 123 8.4.1 The Create Panel Form .......................................................................................................... 123 8.4.2 Hints on Creating Panels ....................................................................................................... 125 8.5 Modifying Panels.......................................................................................................................... 126 8.5.1 The Loop Vertex Editor form .................................................................................................. 126 8.5.2 Moving the Panel Origin ......................................................................................................... 130 8.5.3 Modifying Panel Thickness .................................................................................................... 130 8.5.4 Modifying Panel Justification .................................................................................................. 130 8.6 Connecting Panels ....................................................................................................................... 130 8.6.1 Connection Modes ................................................................................................................. 131 8.6.2 The Panel Connection Form .................................................................................................. 132 8.6.3 Panel to Section Connections ................................................................................................ 132 8.6.4 Panel to Panel Connections ................................................................................................... 133 8.7 Creating and Modifying Panels - A Worked Example .............................................................. 133 8.7.1 Creating the Panel.................................................................................................................. 133 8.7.2 Modifying the Panel ................................................................................................................ 135 8.7.3 Using a Vertex Group ............................................................................................................. 136 8.8 Connecting Panels A Worked Example .................................................................................. 138 Exercise 7 - Creating and Modifying Panels ............................................................................................. 139 9 Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings ............................................................................................ 141 9.1 Negative Extrusion Hierarchy and Attributes ........................................................................... 141 9.1.1 NXTR Element ....................................................................................................................... 141 9.1.2 LOOP Element ....................................................................................................................... 141 9.1.3 VERT Element........................................................................................................................ 141 9.2 Creating Negative Extrusions ..................................................................................................... 142 9.2.1 The Create Negative Extrusion form ...................................................................................... 142 9.2.2 Representation ....................................................................................................................... 142 9.2.3 Settings .................................................................................................................................. 142 9.2.4 Create Methods ...................................................................................................................... 143 9.3 Modifying a Negative Extrusion ................................................................................................. 143 9.4 Creating and Modifying Negative Extrusions - A Worked Example ....................................... 143 9.5 Creating a Panel Fitting ............................................................................................................... 144 9.5.1 The Create Panel Fitting Form ............................................................................................... 144 9.6 Modifying Panel Fittings ............................................................................................................. 146 9.7 Creating and Modifying Panel Fittings - A Worked Example .................................................. 146 Exercise 8 Creating and Modifying Negative Extrusions ..................................................................... 148 10 Volume Modelling ............................................................................................................................ 149 10.1 The Volume Model Hierarchy ...................................................................................................... 149 www.aveva.com 10.2 Creating VOLM and SVOLM Elements ....................................................................................... 149
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

10.3 Creating Primitives ...................................................................................................................... 150 10.4 Creating Volume and Sub Volume Models A Worked Example ........................................... 150 10.4.1 Creating the Slab UDET ......................................................................................................... 152 10.4.2 Creating the Slab Primitive ..................................................................................................... 153 Exercise 9 Creating Volume Models ....................................................................................................... 155 11 Material Assignment ........................................................................................................................ 157 11.1 How Structural Materials are Stored in PDMS .......................................................................... 157 11.2 Material Assignment .................................................................................................................... 157 11.2.1 Setting the Material Reference ............................................................................................... 158 11.2.2 Notes on Material Assignment ............................................................................................... 158 11.3 Assigning Material A Worked Example .................................................................................. 159 Exercise 10 Assigning Material References .......................................................................................... 161 12 Hole Management ............................................................................................................................ 163 12.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 163 12.2 Introduction to Hole Management .............................................................................................. 163 12.2.1 Hole Element Storage ............................................................................................................ 164 12.2.2 Request and Approval Workflow ............................................................................................ 164 12.2.3 Non-Penetration Managed Holes ........................................................................................... 166 12.2.4 Use of the Hole Management Application .............................................................................. 167 12.3 The Penetrations Toolbar ............................................................................................................ 167 12.4 Penetration Holes A Worked Example .................................................................................... 167 12.4.1 Creating a Pipe Penetration ................................................................................................... 168 12.4.2 Managing Holes ..................................................................................................................... 170 12.5 Structural Penetration Holes A Worked Example .................................................................. 181 12.5.1 Creating a Single Structural Penetration ................................................................................ 181 12.5.2 Creating a Merged Structural Penetration ............................................................................. 183 12.5.3 Modifying a Merged Penetration ............................................................................................ 184 12.5.4 Requesting and Approving the Holes..................................................................................... 185 12.6 Non-Penetration Managed Holes ................................................................................................ 185 12.6.1 Free Holes .............................................................................................................................. 186 12.6.2 Fitting Holes ........................................................................................................................... 188 12.7 Non-Penetration Managed Holes A Worked Example ........................................................... 190 12.7.1 Creating a Free Hole .............................................................................................................. 190 12.7.2 Creating a Fitting Hole ........................................................................................................... 192 12.7.3 Requesting and Approving the Holes..................................................................................... 193 Exercise 11 Hole Management ................................................................................................................ 194 Appendix A - Standard AVEVA Generic Types ........................................................................................ 195 Generic Type: BOX .................................................................................................................................. 195 Generic Type: ANG .................................................................................................................................. 196 Generic Type: BSC .................................................................................................................................. 197 Generic Type: BEAM ............................................................................................................................... 198 Generic Type: TUBE ................................................................................................................................ 199 Generic Type: TEE ................................................................................................................................... 200 Generic Type: DINI................................................................................................................................... 201 Generic Type: DINU ................................................................................................................................. 202 Generic Type: DINT ................................................................................................................................. 203 Generic Type: CHAN ............................................................................................................................... 204 Appendix B Additional 3D Aid Construct Information .......................................................................... 205 Aid Construct Representation ................................................................................................................ 205 Menu Options in the 3D Aid Constructs Form ..................................................................................... 205 Circle Constructs ..................................................................................................................................... 208 Line Constructs ....................................................................................................................................... 209 Work Point Constructs ............................................................................................................................ 209 Plane Constructs ..................................................................................................................................... 210 Copying 3D Aid Constructs .................................................................................................................... 210 Appendix C Additional Examples/Exercises ......................................................................................... 212 3D Aid Constructs A Worked Example............................................................................................... 212 Creating a Linear Grid ............................................................................................................................. 212 Creating Circle Constructs ..................................................................................................................... 213 Creating Line Constructs ........................................................................................................................ 213 www.aveva.com Modifying the Linear Grid ....................................................................................................................... 214
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Using the Copy and Modify Functions .................................................................................................. 214 Creating the Padeye Plate....................................................................................................................... 215 Creating the Stiffening Plate................................................................................................................... 217

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

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10

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

AVEVA PDMS allows designers to utilise an array of applications contained within the program modules. This training guide provides discipline specific training for the Structural Modelling application contained within the Design module.

1.1

Aim

The aim of this training guide is to provide designers with the knowledge and skills necessary to create and modify structural models.

1.2

Objectives
Introduce PDMS concepts specific to the Structural Modelling application. Make designers aware of the administration elements required by the application. Explain how to create a variety of structural elements. Explain how to manipulate and modify structural elements. Understand how to apply section fittings, section joints and panel fittings. Outline the use of aid constructs and working planes. Explain how to assign materials to structural elements. Explain how holes and penetrations effecting structural elements are managed in PDMS.

1.3

Prerequisites

It is expected that trainees will have completed the TM 1001 AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations training course. Trainees who can demonstrate a suitable understanding of other PDMS applications and techniques may also be permitted to undertake the training.

1.4

Course Structure

Training will consist of oral and visual presentations, demonstrations, worked examples and set exercises. Each workstation will have a training project populated with model objects. This will be used by the trainees to practice their methods and complete the set exercises.

1.5

Using this guide

Certain text styles are used to indicate special situations throughout this document. Menu pull downs and button press actions are indicated by bold dark turquoise text. Information the user has to Key-in will be bold red text. Additional information notes and references to other documentation will be indicated in the styles below.

Additional information Refer to other documentation

System prompts will be bold and italic in inverted commas i.e. 'Choose function'.
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Example files or inputs will be in the courier new font. If users are required to enter information as part of an example, appropriate fonts and styles previously outlined will be used.

1.6

Setting up the Training Course

Login to PDMS using the details provided by the Trainer. They will typically be as shown below:

Project: Training (TRA) Username: A.STEELMAN Password: A MDB: A-STRUCTURAL

Select Utilities > Training Setup from the main menu to display the Training Setup form.

Navigate to the Structural tab, select the Structural radio button then check the Setup Training Course checkbox. Click the Apply button and Close the form. Save Work.

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12

CHAPTER 2

Overview of the Structural Modelling Application

PDMS data is stored in a hierarchical structure, similar to the directories and sub-directories used to access computer files. The Structural Modelling application requires specific administrative elements to be in place in order to maintain the system hierarchy.

2.1

How PDMS Stores Structural Modelling Data


As with all PDMS Design databases that store design data, the topmost element is the WORLD which owns the administrative sub-level elements SITE and ZONE. For structural modelling, the element types used below a ZONE are: Structure (STRU) Framework (FRMW) Subframework (SBFR)

The SBFR level is optional as structural components may be owned by a FRMW, a SBFR, or, a combination of both. The elements that represent physical structural components are: Section (SCTN) Panel (PANE) Generic Section (GENSEC).

2.2

Considerations When Creating the Hierarchy for Structural Models

For some design disciplines the manner in which the database hierarchy should be arranged is readily apparent. For example pipes may be grouped in zones by system, piping class, or fluid code. Equipment may be grouped in zones by equipment type, systems, or physical location. This is not always the case for structural models. Some company/project procedures require the structural model to be broken down by project build methodology, while others may emphasise weight control or material purpose. To assist designers in meeting the required engineering deliverables, the structural hierarchy provides more administrative elements than other disciplines. Whatever the modelling objective may be, it is important that the hierarchy is well thought out and has a meaningful structure. The production of drawings and other deliverable documents are greatly aided by a good hierarchy breakdown and well named significant elements.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

2.3

Starting the Structural Modelling Application

The Structural Modelling Application is contained within the PDMS Design module. The Structural Modelling Application contains four utilities to assist designers in creating structural models. These utilities are: Beams & Columns creation of structural profile elements Panels & Plates creation of plate type elements Walls & Floors creation of wall, floor and screed elements Access Stairs & Ladders creation of access ways, stair towers, stair flights, ladders, platforms and hand railing elements. The Walls & Floors utility and the Access Stairs & Ladders utility are not covered in this training guide.

These applications may be accessed from the main menu by selecting Design > Structures > Beams & Columns (or another structural utility) from the main menu. Once the desired utility has loaded, the Structures toolbar is displayed. Beams & Columns Panels & Plates Walls & Floors The other utilities may be started by selecting from the main menu again, or by selecting one of the buttons on the Structures toolbar. The button for the utility currently being used will be disabled.

2.4

Options within the main menus change depending on which structural utility is loaded.

Creating Administrative Elements

Before modelling can commence, the required administrative hierarchy must be created. From the General application, in the Design Module, only SITE and ZONE elements can be created as these are common to all disciplines. The standard structural hierarchy elements may be created from the Create pull down menu in the Beams & Columns utility or the Panels & Plates utility.

SITE and ZONE elements may also be created from these Create menus in these utilities.The Walls & Floors utility and the Access, Stairs & Ladders utility create their own administrative elements.

To create the structural administrative elements, select Create > Structure, Create > Framework or Create > Sub-Frame from the main menu to display the relevant form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Significant elements, e.g. SITE, ZONE, STRU, FRMW and SBFR, are normally named to facilitate navigation around the model and to ease creation of Draw Lists and other model tools. The Create forms enable the elements Purpose attribute to be set. A pre-defined list of values can be accessed using the Purpose options list.

Standard Purpose attribute settings are used by the Walls & Floors utility and other applications. The Purpose attribute may be set manually via the command line to any value which may be used by the other applications.

Clicking the Attributes button on any of the Create forms displays the Attributes form. The Attributes form displays the attributes for the element type being created. Some attributes are common whilst others are specific to the element. Some attributes are editable and can be modified using the form. Clicking an editable attribute, e.g. Function, displays the attribute name at the bottom of the form and a relevant gadget that enables the attribute value to be set, e.g. a textbox, checkbox, etc.

Clicking the Apply button on the Attributes form modifies the attribute and refreshes the form. Clicking the OK button on the Create form creates the element and dismisses the form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Exercise 1 Creating the Design Hierarchy


The aim of this exercise is to create a simple hierarchy for the storage of structural elements created in the worked examples and other exercises of this training guide. Enter the Beams & Columns application by selecting Design > Structures > Beams & Columns from the main menu. In the Design Explorer navigate to SITE-STRUCTURAL-AREA01. Select Create > Zone from the main menu to display the Create Zone form: Enter ZONE-STRUCTURAL-AREA01 in the Name textbox: and press the Return key to confirm the name. Click the OK button on the form to create the ZONE element and dismiss the form. Note that the new element appears in Design Explorer as the current element. Repeat this process using the appropriate options from the Create menu to create a Structure named PIPERACK and a Framework named ROW_7.

The row IDs referred to in the worked examples and exercises, e.g. ROW 7, reflect pre-defined user grids that are maintained for training purposes. The Design Explorer should now look like this:

Save Work.

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CHAPTER 3

Creating Straight Sections

The Beams & Columns utility facilitates the creation of structural profiles (e.g. Pre-cast concrete profiles, steel I-beams, T-sections, Channels, Angles, Circular Hollow Sections, etc) in the design model. The application enables the profiles, once created, to be manipulated and modified to create the desired structural configuration. The application also enables the insertion of Catalogue fitting components (e.g. stiffeners, lifting lugs, etc) onto profiles and the application of Catalogue based joints to connected profiles.

3.1

How PDMS Represents Straight Structural Profiles

To ensure design consistency and conformity to national or company standards, the definition of all profile shapes used in structural modelling are held in a Catalogue database. Each individual straight structural profile (column, beam, brace, etc.) is represented in Design by a Section (SCTN) element. The SCTN has many attributes, some of which are set automatically by placing or manipulating the element via the appware, graphically or manually whilst others may be set by the user via appware or manually. The cross-sectional shape, or geometry, of the profile is defined in a catalogue database. The geometry is usually defined parametrically, such that the same definition may be used for many different profiles with the same generic shape but differing values e.g. depth, width, web thickness, flange thickness, etc. The SCTN has a Specification Reference (Spref) attribute which points to a Specification Component (SPCO) element in the catalogue database. The specification acts as a selection mechanism and filters the available profiles to the user depending on choices made on the selection form. The SPCO points at a Structural Profile (SPRF) element, which is also held in the catalogue database, via its Catalogue Reference (Catref) attribute. The Catref in turn references the geometry definition and other elements.

The SCTN may directly reference the SPRF via its Spref attribute. However, this must be done manually via the command line or programmatically via a user macro or application.

When a profile is added to the design model, the position, orientation, and other attributes are set for the element in the Design database. However, the physical properties of the profile are specified by the Spref attribute pointing at the geometry definition in the catalogue. Two of the most important attributes are the Position Start (POSS) and Position End (POSE) which effectively determine the length and orientation of the element. These positions are determined from graphical picks, explicit co-ordinates, direction and distance or a combination of these methods. The 2D cross-section is extruded from the POSS to the POSE. To provide a method of referring to individual edges of the SCTN, each edge is identified by a named line running along the length of the profile. These lines, which are specified within the 2D geometry in the Catalogue, are called Plines. A section has a number of Plines that have a two, three or four letter abbreviation set to its PKEY attribute.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 As an example, some of the most commonly used Plines for a parallel flanged I-shaped profile might be positioned and named as shown:

Where an asymmetric profile, e.g. an unequal angle, is used, an additional Pline representing the profiles centre of geometry is provided. This Pline has the PKEY CGEO. The position of the CGEO Pline is calculated and its location will be unique to the size of the profile. The CGEO Pline has significance for the Hole Management Utility. See Appendix A for Plines and Parameters of Standard AVEVA Generic Types.

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3.2

Initial Settings

Before starting to create sections in the model, some initial default settings must be made to suit the planned method of working.

3.2.1

Section Specification

The Default Section Specification, together with its Justification, Member line and Joint line settings (these terms are explained later), is displayed on the Beams & Columns toolbar.

The Default Section Specification is initially displayed as Unset, i.e. no section is specified. Clicking the Set Default Profile Specification button on the Beams & Columns toolbar displays the Section Specification (Default) form. The Specification Data area of the form enables a specific profile to be set as the default. The Specification, or Standard, is selected from the Specification options list.

This changes the available Generic Types (Gtype) displayed in the Generic Type options list, from which the required Gtype is selected.

Having selected the profile type, the available profile sizes are displayed in the list below. The appropriate profile size may be selected from the list. PDMS provides several standard specifications, for example British, American, Japanese, DIN, etc, which may be augmented or replaced by specific company standards. The Pline Settings area of the form enables the following attributes for the chosen profile to be set: Justification line Member line Joint line

Justification Line - sets the justification of the section, e.g.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Member line - sets the position of the line to be displayed in Draft, e.g. the section centreline.

Joint line - sets the Pline for joint geometry (normally NA). Clicking the Apply button on the Section Specification (Default) form sets the default section profile that will be used. The section specification and Pline settings are displayed on the Beams & Columns toolbar.

Pline settings are displayed in the order Justification / Member line / Joint line.

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3.2.2

Storage Areas

The Design database Storage Areas specify which Framework (or Subframe), sections and Primary Nodes (see Structural Connectivity) will be stored in when they are created. The storage areas should be specified prior to commencement of creating components for that particular area of the model. The current storage areas are displayed on the Beams & Columns toolbar.

Making the FRMW or SBFR where the components will be stored the CE and clicking the button to the left of the appropriate storage area sets the CE as the storage area and displays it on the toolbar.

The settings may also be made by selecting Settings > Storage Areas from the main menu to display the Storage Areas form.

Making the FRMW or SBFR where the components will be stored the CE, and then clicking on the storage area required in the form, sets the storage area.

3.2.3

Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations

Each time a new section is created it will automatically be associated with a profile from the catalogue, that is, the Default Profile Specification. Also by default, Primary Nodes will not be created automatically at unconnected section ends. These defaults are controlled by the following buttons on the Beams & Columns toolbar.

Connecting sections and the administrative elements required are detailed later in this training guide.

3.2.4

Pline Rules

The final setting to be made before commencing creation of profiles is the Pline Rule. When a section is created and connected to an existing section, the ends of the new section are trimmed automatically by referencing the current Pline Rule. If this rule has not been set-up correctly, the new section may not be trimmed correctly. Pline Rules determine which Pline of the existing section will be used to trim the new section to. With no Pline rule set, which is the default setting, the new section is trimmed to the extremities of the existing section.

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In this example, the new section has terminated at the extremity of the existing section instead of the web, i.e. the NARO Pline.

With an appropriate Pline rule set, the new section will trim to the required Pline (i.e. the NAR Pline) and give the desired result.

PDMS provides one predefined Pline rule named Normal that cannot be modified. The Normal Pline rule is: PKEY EQ NA OR CCON EQ ANY This means that a new section will connect to the NA Pline unless it first encounters a Pline whose Cconnection attribute (abbreviated to CCON) is set to ANY. Pline rules are also filter the availability of Plines for graphical picks when creating or positioning fittings, panels, etc. A Pline is only visible or available for selection if it meets the criteria of the Pline rule. Pline rules are set by selecting Settings > Pick Filters > Plines from the main menu to display the Pline Filter form. All available Pline Filters are displayed. Selecting the required rule with the cursor sets the rule and dismisses the form.

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3.2.4.1 User Defined Pline Rules


While the Normal rule will satisfy many of the connection requirements for standard section profiles, there are instances when a User Defined Pline Rule may be beneficial. User Defined Pline rules can be used to filter the displayed Plines, to restrict or clarify Pline selection, or for ensuring desired connectivity. Pline rules may be simple. For example, a rule to select only the NA Pline would be PKEY EQ NA. Pline rules can also include valid operators or expressions allowing users to build more complex rules. For example, a rule to select only the internal radial Plines on a Gtype TUBE would be MATCHWILD(PKEY, NA*). User Defined Pline rules are created from the Pline Filter form. Clicking the Define Rule button on the form displays the Define Rules form. When defining a rule it is necessary to enter a Name in the textbox. Entering a name appropriate to the rules function will assist in its use. In the example below a Pline rule to select only the Cardinal Plines for tubular elements is being created. As such, the name Tube Cardinals has been given to the rule.

Valid rule syntax must also be entered in the Rule textbox. The rule syntax refers to the Pkeys that describe the location of the Plines. In this example the Pkeys required are the AA, GG, MM, and SS Pkeys. A range of Pkeys can be referenced in the rule syntax by using the PML operator function INSET. The correct rule syntax would then be: PKEY INSET (AA, GG, MM, SS). It is good practise to include a detailed description of the rule in the Description textbox as it assists other users in understanding the purpose of the rule. Clicking the Include button will display the rule in the Defined list under the User Defined Rules section. Clicking the OK button on the Define Rules form will display the Name of the User Defined Rule in the Pline Filter form.

Clicking on the rule Name in the Pline Filter form sets it to be the active Pline Rule and dismisses the form.

The keyword INSET used in the rule definition is a PML operator function that takes a comma separated list of text strings (or numeric values) and applies it to the preceding attribute, i.e. the Pkey attribute of the PLINE element.

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3.3

Picking Control

Pline rules, coupled with the Positioning Control toolbar, give designers a number of ways to graphically select positions in the PDMS model. To further assist designers, additional picking control functionality is provided via the Picking Control form.

3.3.1

The Picking Control Form

Selecting Settings > Picking Control from the main menu displays the Picking Control form. This form allows designers to stipulate which elements within the model can act as snap points for a variety of element types. It also allows users to apply a default offsets to a picked position.

3.3.1.1 Setting Significant Snap Points


Elements such as Secondary Nodes, Fittings and Joints can be used as Snap Points for graphical selections within the model. If the Significant Snaps checkbox is selected (the default) then significant snap points will be available for selection within the model. If the checkbox is not selected, then only the start and end points of a Section will act as snap points. The type of elements that can act as a Significant Snap point varies depending on whether sections or panels are being considered. Clicking the Set buttons adjacent to the Section/Wall Pick Settings and Panel/Floor Pick Settings text opens additional forms that allow the user to select how these elements will be treated in the graphical view; including which elements will be available as significant snap points. As this section of the guide is primarily concerned with the creation of sections, consideration will now be given to the Section and Wall settings.

3.3.1.2 The Section/Wall Pick Settings form


The Section/Wall Pick Settings form is divided into three areas relating to the treatment of Section Ends, Pline Ends, and Significant Snap settings. The Section Ends area of the form determines where the snap point at the start or end of attached section in a connected member will be. If the Start/End radio button is selected (default) the pick point will be at the actual start or end of the section, i.e. where it is trimmed against the Posline of the owning section. The pick point is to the Justification line of the picked section. If the Projected radio button is selected the pick point is projected to the SNOD at the relevant end of the picked section. The Pline Ends area of the form governs where Plines terminate with respect to any negative geometry applied to the section end via a joint.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 If the Uncut radio button is selected (default), the Plines extend to the cut plane at the SNOD irrespective of any end preparations applied to the section. If the Cut radio button is selected, the Plines will terminate where negative geometry intersects the section, e.g a joint end preparation. The Significant Snap area of the form enables the user to specify which features relating to section elements will be considered as snap points. The default setting enables Nodes to be snap points, however, Fittings and Joints can be enabled in isolation or in any combination required. Clicking the Apply button on the form sets the selected options. The Reset button resets the form to the default options.

3.3.1.3 Offset Options


The Offset area of the Picking Control form presents a series of radio buttons that may be used to apply various types of offset to the picked point. Information displayed in the lower section of the form varies depending on to the Offset option selected. The default setting for offset options is None. The pick position selected by the user will only be affected by the active settings of the Positioning Control toolbar, i.e. no other offset will be applied to the pick position. Selecting the East/North/Up radio button enables a relative offset in each of the cardinal directions to be applied to the pick position.

Selecting the On Plane radio button enables an offset from a cardinal direction plane. The direction option lists refer to the normal direction of the plane.

The normal direction will be orientated with respect to the frame of reference of the selected element, not necessarily world coordinates.

Selecting the Distance Direction radio button enables a distance in a specific direction to be applied to the pick position.

Selecting the From Direction radio button enables a relative offset to be applied from a selected surface in the graphical display. The offset direction will be governed by the definition of the surface selected by the user.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Care must be taken when an offset is applied to a pick position. Other functions that utilise graphical pick points may also be affected by the offset. For example, the Measure Distance function will use the last offset condition specified. Hence the user must remember to select the None option from the offset area of the form before taking measurements in the model.

Using offsets with the Distance pick method on the Positioning Control toolbar will apply the specified distance in addition to any offset set via the Picking Control form.

The images below show the effect of the offset being set to None, i.e. the pick point is at the start/end of the element, and of the effect of the offset being set to Distance Direction, i.e. the pick point is offset East by 300mm.

Pick point with no offset

Pick point with offset option Distance Direction

The pick position may be modified by selecting the Justification, Member or Joint line, for either the owning or attached section, using the radio buttons in the Projection area of the form which are enabled when the Projected radio button is selected.

The Start/End and Projected options only function where the picked section is attached using a SNOD.

Pick Position Start/End

Pick position - Projected

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Projected option is very useful where a new section is to be created at a given centre to centre distance from another section. For example, in this image a centre to centre distance of 1000 is required. If a Positioining Control setting of Element/Distance (1000) was used together with a Start/End pick point on BEAM A near the column, the resulting centre to centre dimension would be 1000 + half the depth of the column. Using a Positioning Control setting of Element/Distance (1000) with a Projected pick point, the same pick would give the correct centre to centre distance.

Care should be taken when using these options to ensure the correct setting is being used for the required task.

3.4

Creating Sections

Selecting Create > Sections > Straight from the main menu displays the Section form and activates the Positioning Control toolbar.

The Section form is divided into three areas of functionality enabling users to stipulate: How the sections will be set out. How the start and end points of the section will be defined. What actions will be applied.

The functionality relating to each area is considered in the following sections.

3.4.1

String Method

The method used to specify how sections will be created and can be set by clicking one of the three radio buttons. Single Start and End Points are individually defined for each section.

Continuous Start point of a subsequent section is the end point of the previous section.

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Radial Start position for subsequent sections is the same as first section.

3.4.2

Create Option

Initially, when the Section form is displayed, only one button is active in the Create Option area of the form. The Explicit Position button allows the user to define the sections start position using a 3D co-ordinate, i.e. by entering explicit X, Y and Z co-ordinates.

If the PDMS model already contains suitable elements, the start position of the section may also be defined by making a graphical selection using the Positioning Control toolbar.

Clicking the Explicit button displays the Define section start form. The required East (X), North (Y) and Up (Z) co-ordinates may be entered and the Start position will be shown by an aid in the 3D View. The default wrt World, defines the co-ordinate system by which the position is specified. Clicking the OK button on the Define section start form confirms the entered co-ordinates. Once the start point of a section is defined, the options for defining the section end point are updated. The Direction & Distance button displayed in the Create Option area of the form will be activated.

The end position may now be defined by using the active create options or by making a graphical selection. Clicking the Explicit button again will display the Define section end form. This form is used in exactly the same way as the Define section start form. Clicking the Direction & Distance button will display a different Define section end form.

A direction in relation to a co-ordinate system must be entered. Entering a distance (applied from the section start position) and pressing the Return key will display an aid line with the start and end position marked in the graphical view. In addition to the Explicit Position and Distance & Direction creation options there are two other Creation Option buttons: Perpendicular From - creates a section perpendicular to the section specified for the new section start.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Perpendicular To creates a section perpendicular to a selected section.

Where sections connect, Secondary Nodes are automatically created. This facility may be switched off by un-checking the Secondary Nodes check box in the Create Option area of the form.

Connecting sections and the administrative elements required are detailed later in this training guide.

3.4.3

Verification

The Verification area of the Section form contains a Confirm check box. This feature allows the user to check the position of each new section before it is added to the database. If the Confirm box is checked the Accept and Reject buttons are enabled. The Redefine Start button may be clicked at any time during section creation to start the definition of the section again.

3.5

Section Connectivity

Sections are connected automatically when they are created, providing the Secondary Nodes check box on the Section form is checked. A connection between two SCTN elements is facilitated by a Secondary Joint (SJOI) element. The SJOI is owned by a Secondary Node (SNOD) element. The SNOD is positioned on the Justification line of the Owning section at the intersection between the Attached and Owning sections. SNODs and SJOIs will be created at each Owning/Attached intersection. The SJOI has a Cref (connection reference) attribute that points to the name of the Attached section. The Attached section has two attributes, Joistart (Joint start) and Joiend (Joint end) that point to the name of the SJOI element by which they are attached to their respective Owning members, thus creating a circular reference. When SCTN elements are connected the SJOI element is created, owned by the SNOD element of the Owning section. Where two or more sections connect to the Owning section at the same point, a single SNOD is created which owns two or more SJOI elements. The Cref attribute of each SJOI points to the name of the relevant Attached section. SCTN elements may also be connected explicitly by using the Connect menu.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Selecting Connect > Connect from the main menu prompts the user to choose the section to attach to and the section end(s) to be attached The selection process is terminated by pressing the Esc key. Connections may be updated following position changes to the owning or attached sections by using one of the following selections from the Connect menu: Connect > Trim to Pline - Trims the section to a Pline selected by the system in accordance with current Pline rule, i.e. the POSL attribute of the SJOI element is modified. Connect > Trim to Section - Trims the section according to the current Posline setting of the SJOI element. This may result in the attached member not being correctly connected, e.g. if the Beta Angle of the Owning SCTN has changed. The Joint Dominant and Joint Subordinate options are detailed later in this training guide.

3.5.1

Secondary Node (SNOD)


Secondary Node (SNOD) elements are positioned along the Justification line of the owning section where the Justification line of the attached member intersects it. An SNOD elements primary function is to own an SJOI element and allow one section to connect part way along another. The SNOD is positioned from the start of the owning section using the value stored in the Zdistance attribute. This is automatically set when the sections are connected. SNOD elements are owned by the Owning section.

3.5.2

Secondary Joint (SJOI)

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Secondary Joint (SJOI) elements are used to connect two sections where they intersect at an SNOD and their primary functions are: Providing connectivity to the structural model. Trimming attached members. Holding the Specification Reference for a joint.

The Cref attribute holds the name of the Attached section. This is set automatically when the connection is made. The Posline attribute holds the name of the Pline to which the Attached section is trimmed. This is set in accordance with the Pline rule current when the connection was made. The Spref attributes holds the name of the Specification Component (SPCO) of the joint applied to the connection (if any).

Applying a joint to connected sections is detailed later in this training guide.

SJOI elements are owned by an SNOD.

3.5.3

Primary Node (PNOD)


Primary Node (PNOD) elements have two main functions: As analytical points when using PDMS data for structural analysis. To own a Primary Joint for referencing a catalogue joint element on an unconnected section end.

A PNOD element may be created automatically at the ends of a SCTN when it is created, providing the end is not connected. This is achieved by enabling Primary Node creation. Alternatively, a PNOD may be created at the end of and existing SCTN by selecting Create > PNode at SCTN end from the main menu, providing Primary Node creation is enabled. PNOD elements are owned by FRMW or SBFR elements, and sit at the same level in the hierarchy as SCTN elements.

PNOD elements may own more than one Primary Joint element. The Nposition attribute holds the PNOD position with respect to its owner. As SBFR and FRMW elements do not have a Position attribute, this position is effectively with respect to the STRU element.

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3.5.4

Primary Joint (PJOI)


Primary Joint (PJOI) elements are used for referencing a catalogue joint element on an unconnected section end. This may occur where a baseplate is required on a column or an end plate is required on a beam. The Cref attribute holds the name of the section from whose end was used to determine the PNOD position.

This is only applicable if the PNOD/PJOI was created with the appware, otherwise the Cref attribute is unset.

The Spref attributes holds the name of the Specification Component (SPCO) of the joint applied to the connection, if any. PJOI elements are owned by a PNOD.

PNOD and PJOI elements are not commonly used in structural modelling with PDMS.

3.5.5

Tidying Nodes and Joints

Normally when a connected structural member is deleted, the SJOI element in the connection is also deleted. This can leave an SNOD owning no SJOI elements, i.e. the SNOD is empty. Graphical selections utilise SNOD elements as significant snap points in the PDMS model. To reduce the chance of selecting an incorrect point on a structural profile it is good practice to remove empty SNOD elements from the model. Selecting Delete > Tidy Nodes from the main menu displays the Tidy Nodes form. The command may be executed from any level in the hierarchy from SITE to SCTN. All empty SNODE elements below the CE will be found and the number reported on the form. If the Mark Nodes for Deletion checkbox is checked, a text aid showing the SNODE is displayed and the owning SCTN highlighted. Clicking the OK button on the Tidy Nodes form deletes all empty SNOD elements found.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 In some circumstances, e.g. if an attached member is deleted from the Command line, the Cref attribute of the SJOI is set to Nulref but the SJOI is not deleted. In this case the SJOI element is redundant and it is good practice to delete the SJOI. Selecting Delete > Tidy Joints... from the main menu displays the Tidy Joints form. The command may be executed from any level in the hierarchy from SITE to SCTN. All SJOI elements below the CE with the Cref attribute set to Nulref will be found and the number reported on the form.

If the Mark Joint for Deletion checkbox is checked, a text aid showing the owning SNODE is displayed and the owning SCTN is highlighted. As deleting the SJOI may leave the SNOD empty, checking the Delete Node if empty checkbox will also delete the SNOD if it does not own any other SJOI elements.

3.5.6

Checking Connectivity

The connectivity of sections in the model can be checked by navigating to a suitable element in the hierarchy (e.g. a FRMW or SBFR) then selecting Query > End Connections from the main menu. The Highlight Connections form will be displayed. The form will show all SCTN elements in the CE that have Both ends connected, Neither end connected, and One end connected.

Selecting an appropriate checkbox will graphically highlight the SCTN elements of the CE in each category in the colour shown on the form. The default colours can be changed by clicking on the colour button to display a colour form for that selection. Clicking a colour button will set that colour for the selected category.

For the One end unconnected category the SCTN will display a tag at the unconnected end as well as being displayed in the highlight colour.

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3.6

Creating a Pipe Rack - A Worked Example

This worked example demonstrates how to construct some initial frames for a simple pipe rack using different section sizes. The text and accompanying drawings provide step-by-step guidance to create the Pipe Rack. The General Arrangement of the Pipe Rack is shown on the following drawings:

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3.6.1

Initial Settings

Ensure the Beams & Columns application is current or select Design > Structures > Beams & Columns from the main menu to enter the application. Make initial settings for the storage areas. Ensure that FRMW ROW_7 is the CE and click the Set Section Storage Area and Set Node Storage Area buttons on the Beams & Columns toolbar. For the Default Profile Specification, click the Set Default Profile Specification button on the Beams & Columns toolbar, set the specification to British Standard and the Generic Type to Universal Columns. Select 203x203x46kg/m from the displayed list and set the Justification to NA, leaving the Member line and Joint line at NA. Click on the Apply button and then the Dismiss button on the form. The Beams & Columns toolbar should now look like this:

Set the Pline rule to Normal by selecting Settings > Pick Filters > Plines from the main menu and selecting Normal from the displayed Pline Filter form. Select Utilities > User Grid Systems from the main menu to display the User Grid Systems form. Check that the AREA_01_GRID is selected and click the Gridline IDs radio button. Click the Display button and the Set View Limits to Grid button.

3.6.2

Creating Sections Explicitly

Select Create > Sections > Straight from the main menu to display the Section form. Make sure that the String Method is set to Single and that the Create Secondary Nodes check box is checked. Click the Explicit button to display the Define section start form. Enter the co-ordinates West 305360, North 309680, Up 100400. Click the OK button.

Click the Direction and Distance button on the Section form to display the Define section end form. Enter the Direction as U and a Distance of 6000. Click the OK button.

3.6.3

3D Aid Constructs Pre-Defined User Grids

To assist users in positioning items and creating structural items with complex geometry PDMS utilises 3D Aid Constructs. 3D Aid Constructs are 2D Graphics and although not database elements, they can be copied, modified and deleted in a similar manner to PDMS elements. Aid constructs can be used in conjunction with the Aid pick type on the Positioning Control toolbar to give positional information for such items as the start and end of structural profiles or vertex elements in a panel. Aid constructs may be created in any of the structural utilities. A variety of construct can be created, including Grids, Planes, Circles, Lines, and Working Points. Constructs are only displayed for the duration of the Design session, but may be saved to a file and restored during subsequent Design sessions.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The drawings provided earlier in this section give sufficient information to determine the position of the next column required in Row 7. However a pre-defined user grid can also be used to assist in positioning the columns required for the pipe rack.

Pre-defined User Grids are slightly different to standard 3D aid constructs. Although they do not need to be saved and loaded in the same manner as other 3D aid constructs, they do need to be activated in each Design session.

With the Section form still displayed click the Explicit button again, noting on the Define section start form that the displayed coordinates are those defining the end position of the previously created SCTN. Rather than calculating and entering the West, North and Up positions, navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar and set the Pick Type to Aid and the Pick Method to Snap.

Pick the intersection point of grid line 7 and gridline J.

Notice that the Define Section Start form has updated the coordinates to reflect the position selected on the user grid. However, as this grid represents the surface of a support slab, the Up co-ordinate of the column start position must be adjusted. Type 100400 in the Up co-ordinate, press the Enter button then click the OK button. To define the column end position click the Direction and Distance button to display the Define section end form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Enter the Direction as U and a Distance of 6000. Click the OK button. Click the Walk to Draw List button on the 3D View and set the view direction to Iso 3. There should now be two parallel 203x203x46kg/m sections in the 3D View.

3.6.4

Creating Sections Using Graphical Selections

The next task is to create two horizontal beams for the pipe rack frame. Graphical selections will be used to select the start and end positions of the sections rather than entering explicit co-ordinates. Change the Default Section Specification to Universal Beams 203x133x25kg/m and set the Justification line to TOS. Navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar, set the Pick Type to Element and the Pick Method to Snap. Click the first column created near to its upper end to define the Start position of the new section, noting that the Start label is displayed adjacent to the section. Click the upper end of the second column created to define the End position of the new section. A new UB 203x133x25kg/m section is created spanning between the two columns. Note that the beams have been trimmed to the TOS or BOS Pline of the columns. Toggle wire frame display mode on by pressing F8 on the keyboard and zoom in to one of the connections and note the SNOD that has been created. Set the Positioning Control toolbar Pick Method to Distance and enter a distance of 1520.

Click near the upper end of the first column, then near the upper end of the second column, to create a new horizontal beam. A 1000mm long stub beam is required on the southern column. Set the Pick Method on the Positioning Control toolbar back to Snap and click near the top of the southern column. Use the Direction & Distance button with a direction of S WRT /* and a distance of 1000 to create the beam. Save Work.

The frame should now look like this:


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Exercise 2 Creating an Equipment Support Frame


The exercises contained in this training guide allow the user to create an equipment support frame using a range of standard sections, bracing members, panels, and fittings. The drawings below, coupled with instructions in each exercise, provide the information necessary to model the structure correctly. Equipment Support Structure Frame

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In the ZONE ZONE-STRUCTURAL-AREA01 create a new STRU named EQUIP_SUPPORT and a FRMW named ROW_H. Model ROW H, without the knee bracing, using the drawings above to ascertain co-ordinates, dimensions and profile sizes. The other parts of the structure will be modelled in later exercises.

The columns of Row H will not be orientated correctly when modelled, however they will be modified in a later exercise.

Remember to reset storage areas and check the Pline rule. Check all the sections are correctly connected.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 ROW H should now look like this:

Save Work.

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CHAPTER 4

4 4.1

Modifying Structural Sections Positioning

Elements that have position attributes (for example SCTNs) can be re-positioned in a variety of ways. The two main methods are position Explicitly and position Relatively.

4.1.1

Explicitly (AT)

Positioning explicitly allows the user to position elements at specific co-ordinates with respect to the WORLD or other design elements. Selecting Position > Explicitly (AT) from the main menu will display the Positioning Control toolbar and the Explicit Position form. By default the Start position of the current element is displayed showing East/West, North/South and Up/Down co-ordinates with respect to the world. The Datum options list allows the user to specify the point on the element to which the position co-ordinates will apply. The user may specify Start, End, Centre or Designate Position. Depending on the option specified, applying modified co-ordinates will have the following effect on the element: Start - Relocates the start position of the element to the specified co-ordinates, leaving its end position unchanged. End Relocates the end position of the element to the specified co-ordinates, leaving its start position unchanged. Centre Relocates the entire element, locating its centre at specified co-ordinates and modifying the start and end positions. Designate Position used in conjunction with the Positioning Control toolbar, the user can specify a point on the element for re-positioning. The entire element is relocated, or re-orientated, with the Designated Position at the specified co-ordinates and the start and end positions modified.

On opening the Explicit Position form a bounding box is displayed around the element together with an axes aid, showing the cardinal directions, and a label showing the Start position. Changing the Datum re-displays the axes aid and label to the specified position.

To define a position explicitly users must enter the required co-ordinates in the appropriate direction textbox. If necessary, the wrt textbox can be used to identify the element whose co-ordinate system is to be used for

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 the position data. The bounding box will adjust to show the new position and clicking the Apply button on the form will re-position the element. To define a position by reference to existing design items, use the Positioning Control toolbar and the cursor to identify the required positions by picking them in the graphical view. If required, use the Lock check boxes to fix the current co-ordinate along any axis. To position another section, use the Select menu options on the form to change the focus of the form. Use the CE or Owner option if the required item is selected in the design explorer, or use the Pick or Pick Owner option and then select the required item with the cursor when prompted. The form will display the current position and the user can then change any part of this by entering new values.

4.1.2

Relatively (BY)
Positioning relatively allows the user to position elements by a specified distance, along one or more axes, from its current position. The directions can be with respect to the world or other design elements. Selecting Position > Relatively (BY) from the main menu displays the Positioning Control toolbar and the Position By form. The form allows the user to specify a distance along a single axis or varying distances along any combination of the three axes. By default the axes directions are with respect to the world although any valid design element may be used. An axes aid is displayed at the start position of the current element. Entering distances against any of the axes will display a New Position label at the entered distance(s) from the current position, thus enabling the user to see if the new location for the element is correct. Clicking the Apply button on the form moves the entire element to its new location. The Positioning Control toolbar and the cursor can also be used to define distances graphically. Having picked two points the distances will be entered against the relevant axes on the form. If required, use the Lock check boxes to fix the current co-ordinate along any axis. An alternative method of re-positioning the start or end of a SCTN element is to use Extend Through or Extend By functions.

4.1.3

Extend Through

Extend Through allows the user to specify a plane, position and orientation to extend either end of the section to. The section will only extend along its Z axis, i.e. its extrusion direction, as the plane is infinite in its planar dimensions. In PDMS a planes direction is defined by the direction of a vecto r normal (i.e. perpendicular in all directions) to the plane. The position of the plane is defined by the start position of that vector. Selecting Position > Extend > Through displays the Extend Section Relative form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The End of Section list allows the user to specify which end of the section will be extended (or trimmed) to the plane. Four choices are available to the user. Nearest end This is the default setting. The end of the section nearest to the plane will be repositioned. Start The start position of the section will be moved. End The end position of the section will be moved. Pick On clicking Apply the user will be prompted to pick which end of the beam is to be re-positioned.

When the Extend Section - Relative form is displayed, a label is placed at each end of the section to identify which end is the Start and which is the End. The user can define the plane position explicitly by entering co-ordinates in the Plane Direction East/West, North/South and Up/Down textboxes, or by using the Cursor and Intersection options from the forms menu and graphically selecting the position. The Plane Direction is set by default to Up, however any direction can be entered to orientate the plane.

In the picture above the plane has been initially positioned using the Cursor > Element option and then moved be entering a new North co-ordinate. The Plane Direction has been set to South; note the plane aid and direction vector displayed to help the user visualise the position and direction of the plane. Clicking Apply button extends the end of the current element to the plane. The position of any Secondary Nodes owned by the section is measured from its start position. If the user requires the Secondary Nodes to stay in their original position when the start position of the section is moved, then the Maintain Sections Node Positions check box needs to be selected. Otherwise, the Secondary Nodes will move with the start position, i.e. their Z distance attribute will be maintained. Checking the Cut end(s) to plane check box on the form will orientate the end of the section to the plane direction after it has been extended or trimmed.

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4.1.4

Extend By

Extend By allows the user to lengthen or shorten the section by moving its Start or End position through a specified amount. Selecting Position > Extend > By from the main menu displays the Extend Section Explicit form. When the form is displayed a label is placed at either end of the section to identify the Start and End locations. The Extend pull-down allows the user to select which end of the section will be extended, the choices being Start, End or Pick. If the Pick option is selected the user will be prompted to select the end of the section that will be re-positioned when the Apply button is pressed.

The user can move the end of a section either by Distance or by a Proportion of the sections current length; by selecting the appropriate radio button and entering the desired amount. Entering a positive value will lengthen the section and entering a negative value will shorten it. To maintain the position of any Secondary Node owned by the section, click the Maintain Sections Node Positions checkbox.

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4.1.5

Drag Explicitly

The Drag Explicitly function allows the user to re-position a section, have any attached sections lengths adjust and realign the Secondary Nodes automatically. It is, therefore, equivalent to using three operations, that is Position > Explicitly (AT), Connect > Trim to Pline > all attached and Position > Align Secondary Nodes, in one. Selecting Position > Drag Explicitly from the main menu displays the Drag Explicitly form and Positioning Control toolbar. The Datum options list enables the user to select the element Origin or an ID Design point as the point for the dragging operation; however, the Origin co-ordinates with respect to the World are displayed by default. Any valid design element may be used to define the axis system for the direction boxes by entering the appropriate element in the wrt box. The Positioning Control toolbar may be used to determine the new position by graphical pick, as described earlier. A bounding box and axes aid at the start position are also displayed. Entering new co-ordinates in the axes boxes will move the bounding box to the new location. After clicking Apply the section is re-positioned and all attached sections trimmed to the new joint positions.

All connected sections will trim to the new position of the owning section, adjusting their length as necessary. The behaviour of the attached sections depends on whether the joint is dominant or subordinate, as described in Joint Freedom later in this chapter.

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4.1.6

Align Secondary Nodes

When a section that owns Secondary Nodes is repositioned or extended, it is possible that the secondary nodes may become misaligned. This can be corrected by selecting Position > Align Secondary Nodes from the main menu. This function realigns the node(s) with their attached member(s) and may be executed from SCTN, STRU, ZONE or SITE level.

4.1.7

Joint Freedom

Where two sections are connected via a joint, the joint may be defined as either dominant or subordinate. This setting, which is determined by the Jfree attribute of the SJOI, controls how the attached section behaves when the section owning the joint is moved. If the joint is subordinate, i.e. the attached section is dominant and Jfree is set to false, the attached sections will extend or trim, maintaining their original orientation, to the Pline that they were trimmed to on creation. If the joint is dominant, i.e. the attached section is subordinate and Jfree is set to true, the attached sections will realign to the new joint position.

The column is the owning section with two beam sections attached.

Joint is Subordinate. Column moved, beams extended to original Plines but maintain original orientation.

Joint is Dominant. Column moved, beams extended and realigned to new joint position and cut planes are automatically re-aligned.

The standard default is for joints to be subordinate. The default setting can be changed by selecting Settings > Tolerances from the main menu to display the Section Tolerances form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Joint freedom can be changed after the joint is created by selecting Connect > Joint Subordinate or Connect > Joint Dominant from the main menu. The user will be prompted to select the section ends to apply the chosen setting to.

4.2

Orientation

Like positioning, orientating elements in PDMS can be performed in a number of ways. SCTN elements do not have a direct Orientation attribute, however, a pseudo-attribute for orientation can be queried, e.g. Q ORI, which returns the normal orientation format information but is derived from the SCTNs frame of reference, the Start and End positions and the Angle (Beta Angle) of the SCTN.

Profiles in PDMS catalogues are defined with the NA Pline always pointing in a positive Y direction, i.e. Up, and the extrusion direction as positive Z, in accordance with the Right Hand Rule: The Beta Angle default is 0 which places the profile in the model in the orientation they are defined in the catalogue.

4.2.1

Axes

Selecting Orientate > Axes from the main menu will display the Orientate form. This form enables the user to change which axis is East, North and Up with respect to the World (or another design element) by using the option lists or entering the appropriate direction in the textboxes. This form only works with elements that have a direct Orientation attribute. If the user attempts to use this function on an element that does not have a direct orientation attribute, e.g. a SCTN, SBFR or FRMW, a warning message is displayed. For this reason, this command is not frequently used in the structural discipline.

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4.2.2

Rotate

Selecting Orientate > Rotate from the main menu displays the Rotate form. By default, the Rotation Axis direction is U and positioned at the Start position of the element. The Rotation Axis Direction may be changed by entering another direction or its reference altered by modifying the wrt data. The centre of rotation, that is, the origin of the Rotation Axis vector, may be positioned by entering a distance against one or more directions. The Angle in degrees by which the element is to be rotated, must be entered in the Angle () textbox prior to clicking the Apply button.

An axis direction aid is displayed, positioned at the centre of rotation, together with an axes aid showing the rotation angles at 90 degree intervals. In this picture the default Rotation Axis of U is shown, that is the extrusion direction of the section, and the centre of rotation is positioned at the default position of Start Position, that is at the justification Pline TOS. The centre of rotation can also be set graphically by using the Cursor and Intersection options from the form menu. The results of the rotate command may be simply reversed by giving a negative value to the Angle used and clicking the Apply button again.

4.2.3

Angle (Beta Angle)

The Angle of a SCTN defines the rotation around its Z axis. The effect of changing the Angle is shown in the diagram below.

In this diagram the Justification Line is set to TOAX. Modifying the Angle rotates the section around its Z axis defined by the Justification Line. Selecting Orientate > Angle from the main menu allows the user to modify the Angle in positive or negative increments of 90 degrees from the sub-menu. The Command Window must be used to set any other values. Entering BANG <value> on the data entry line and pressing the Return key will set the Angle to the entered value.

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4.2.4

Flip

Flip enables the user to change the orientation of sections by exchanging the Start and End positions, that is, the Z direction of the section is orientated through 180. This only really affects asymmetrical sections such as angles and channels although it may be applied to all section profiles. After selecting Orientate > Flip from the main menu the user will be prompted to select, using the cursor, the elements to Flip. Having made the selection, pressing the Esc key will flip the chosen sections.

4.3

Copying

PDMS provides three general methods to create copies of elements; Copy Offset, Copy Rotate and Copy Mirror. This functionality is covered in TM - 1001 AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations training guide.

4.3.1

Copying with Multiple Attached

If a connected section is copied using any of the copy methods, the newly created section will not be connected. There are often times when a multiple copy of a section needs to be made at regular centres, e.g. stringers in a deck or floor panel. This could be achieved by using a multiple Copy Offset; however, each end would need to be connected after copying. PDMS provides a utility that copies a selected member and produces multiple copies with connection details the same as the original. Selecting Create > Sections > Multiple Attached prompts the user to select the section to be copied if a SCTN element is not already the CE. Upon making an appropriate selection, the Section Copy form is displayed. The user can change the section to be copied by making another section the CE and clicking the CE button on the form. The Number of copies textbox shows the maximum amount of members that can be fitted to the shortest owning section at the current spacing, as shown in the Spacing textbox.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 If the spacing is changed from the default (1000) to the required distance and then the Max button clicked, the maximum number of copies that can be fitted will be recalculated. A graphical aid shows the user the direction for +ve or ve spacing with aid lines representing the positions of the new sections to help visualise the results.

In the picture above, the maximum number of sections has been calculated based on the length of the shortest owning section. When the arrangement shown is correct, clicking the Apply button copies the sections and connects them to the owning member(s). Any end preparations (see Structural Detailing) will also be applied. If a value greater than the maximum is specified in the Number of copies textbox (i.e. the copied elements will go beyond the length of the shortest owning section), the copies will be made but the free ends will not be connected nor end preparations applied.

4.4

Modifying the Pipe Rack - A Worked Example

In this worked example additional frames and horizontal beams required for the Pipe Rack structure will be created using some of the techniques described in this chapter.

4.4.1

Copy Offset

Make the Pipe Rack ROW_7 the CE and select Create > Copy > Offset from the main menu to display the Copy with Offset form. Select Rel. from the to options list, enter 3 in the Number of copies textbox and enter a 5180 in the X Offset textbox. Click the Apply button and click the Yes button on the subsequent confirmation message. Note that the STRU PIPERACK now owns three additional FRMWs. Make the FRMW adjacent to ROW_7 the CE (it should be FRMW2), select Modify > Name from the main menu to display the Name form, enter ROW_5 in the Name textbox and click the Apply button. Leave the form open, make the FRMW adjacent to ROW_5 the CE (it should be FRMW3), click the CE button on the Name form, enter ROW_2 in the Name box and click the Apply button. Repeat the procedure to name ROW_1. Dismiss the Name form.

4.4.2

Position Relative

Make ROW_1 the CE and select Position > Relatively (BY) from the main menu to display the Position By form. Select West from the East/West options list and enter 10 in the textbox then click the Apply button then Dismiss the form.

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4.4.3

Naming the Columns

Whilst individual profiles are not normally named, columns are often used for reference purposes and are commonly named in the model. Make the column at the intersection of gridlines K and 1 the CE. Right click the SCTN in Design Explorer and select the Rename option from the pop-up menu to display the Name form. Enter K1 in the Name textbox and click the Apply button. Rename the other seven column SCTNs with the appropriate grid references.

4.4.4

Using a List

Click the Create/Modify Lists button on the Default toolbar to display the Lists/Collections form. Select Add > List from the form menu to display the Create List form. Enter J2+J5 in the Description textbox and click the OK button. Select Add > Identified from the form menu and graphically select columns J2 and J5, pressing the Esc key to end the selection. The two SCTNs are now in the list. Select Control > Close from the form menu to dismiss the form.

4.4.5

Extend Through

Select Position > Extend > Through from the main menu to display the Extend Section Relative form. Select List from the options list at the top left of the form and select Nearest End from the End of Section options list. Ensure that the Maintain Sections Node Positions checkbox is checked and the Cut end(s) to plane checkbox is unchecked. Select Cursor > Element from the form menu and graphically select a point near the top of column J2 to place a plane aid at the top of the column and populate the co-ordinates on the form. Modify the Up co-ordinate to 107160 and click the Apply button to extend the columns. Dismiss the form.

4.4.6

Create Additional Sections

Create two new FRMW elements, owned by the PIPERACK STRU, named ROW_K and ROW_J. Make ROW_K the CE and set the storage areas to this FRMW. Set the Default Profile Specification to Universal Beam 203x133x25kg/m justified TOS and with the Member line and Joint line set to NA. Select Create > Sections > Straight from the main menu to display the Section form. Set the Positioning Control toolbar options to Element and Distance and enter a distance of 3710. Select near the bottom of column K1 to specify the start of the section and then at the bottom of column K2 to specify the end of the section. The section has been created at EL.(+) 104110 T.O.S. Create the beams on ROW_K between columns K2 and K5 and between columns K5 and K7. Make ROW_J the CE and change the storage areas. Create the beams between the columns as shown on the drawings. For the beam between columns J2 and J5 the Positioning Control toolbar should be set to Element/Snap and the columns picked very near the top.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Pipe Rack should now look like this:

Save Work.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Exercise 3 Modifying the Equipment Support Structure


Re-orientate the two columns in ROW_H by 90 degrees. Update the beam connections to these columns and trim the attached sections. Create FRMW elements for ROWS F, E, and C by copying ROW_H at the appropriate distances. Add the additional column at E6 for the stair landing to the ROW_E FRMW. Name all of the columns in accordance with the gridline intersections on which they are positioned, e.g. C3, C5, E3, E4, etc. Create FRMW elements EL(+)104880_TOS and EL(+)107820_TOS. Create the beams between, and extending from, the rows at EL(+)104880_TOS. Create the stair half landing east of ROW 5. Remember to check the Default Profile Specification before creating the landing. Create a list of all beams, except the stair landing, at EL(+)104880_TOS. Use the List option on the Copy Offset form to create the beams at EL(+)107820_TOS. Ensure all copied sections are correctly connected. Create the top stair landing at EL.(+) 107820 T.O.S. adjacent to column H5. Check the end connections for the whole STRU.

The Equipment Support Structure should now look like this:

Save Work.

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CHAPTER 5

5 5.1

Creating Curved Sections How PDMS Represents Curved Sections

Curved structural sections are represented in PDMS using Generic Section (GENSEC) elements, the geometry of which is defined by extruding a 2D catalogue profile along a path. This path lies on a plane and is represented by a SPINE element, owned by the GENSEC, whose route is specified by a sequence of Spine Points (POINSP). Spine points are created at the start, the end, and at each change of direction. Each segment linking adjacent spine points can be a straight line or circular arc, achieved by inserting Curve (CURVE) elements. GENSECs can be connected to each other or to SCTN elements. Fixings and joints can also be applied to them. Although GENSECs may look and behave in a similar manner to SCTN elements, their definition and hierarchy structure are quite different.

5.2

GENSEC Hierarchy and Attributes

A GENSEC element sits at the same level in the hierarchy as SCTN, PANE & PNOD elements, i.e. it may be owned by a FRMW or a SBFR.

Each element in the GENSEC hierarchy has specific attributes that combine to create the curved section. GENSEC element The Position attribute holds the origin of the frame of reference of the GENSEC with respect to the WORLD. Note: this point will be the start of the section for GENSECs containing straights portions (Curved sections) and the centre of the circle/arc for a GENSEC that is solely a partial or complete circle (Ring sections). The Orientation attribute holds the orientation of the frame of reference of the GENSEC with respect to the cardinal axes.

SPINE element The Ydirection attribute holds the local Y axis direction of the profile with respect to the frame of reference of the GENSEC. Modifying the Y direction of the SPINE is similar to modifying the Bangle (Beta Angle) attribute of the GENSEC. However, the effect of the Y direction attribute is independent of the Bangle.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 POINSP element The Position attribute of the POINSP element holds its position with respect to the origin of the frame of reference of the GENSEC.

CURVE element The Position attribute of the CURVE element holds the centre point of the curve for a Centre type curve or the apex point for a Fillet type curve, see below. The Cposition attribute holds the position of a point that defines the sense of the CURVE. The Radius attribute holds the radius of the CURVE. The CurTyp attribute holds the type of curve of the CURVE element. Two types of curve are used in GENSEC elements: 1. Centre the point held by the Position attribute is the centre of the curve. 2. Fillet the point held by the Position attribute is the apex of the curve.

5.3

Creating Curved Sections

A Curved GENSEC is made up of straight and curved segments. Selecting Create > Sections > Curved... displays the Curved Section form. The Create Methods area contains buttons that, in conjunction with the positioning control toolbar, enable the user to create predefined closed and open shapes.There is also a button to enable free definition of Spine Points and Curves. The Radius text box (default 1000mm) enables the user to enter a value for the radius of the curves. The Undo button is active during the GENSEC creation process, enabling the user to step back through the picked points and correct any errors in the pick sequence.

There is no Apply button on the Curved Section form.The creation process is carried out automatically once the specified points for a given creation method are established. The only exception to this is the Free Definition method.

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5.3.1

Create Methods for Curved Sections


Free definition This option enables the user to select any number of Spine Points to define a curved section. A Fillet curve type is added at each change in the direction of the selected path, using the current Radius value. The point creation process is terminated by pressing the Esc key. Right angle This option enables the user to pick three points to create an L-shaped curved section with a Fillet type curve. The current Radius value will be applied at the change in direction of the straight segments. Closed rectangle (fillet) This option enables the user to pick three points to create a closed rectangle with Fillet type curves. The current Radius value will be applied at each corner. Open rectangle (fillet) This option enables the user to pick three points to create an open rectangle (three sides) with Fillet type curves. The current Radius value will be applied at each corner. Swan neck This option enables the user to pick three points to create a swan neck (two opposed right angle bends) with Fillet type curves. The current Radius value will be applied at the change in direction of the straight segments. Obloid This option enables the user to pick two points, defining the centres of two semicircular ends (Centre curve type). A third point is also required to show in which of the straight sides the start and end points are positioned. The current radius value is applied at each of the Centre curves.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Closed rectangle (centre) This option enables the user to pick three points to create a closed rectangle with Centre type curves. The current Radius value is applied at each corner.

Open rectangle (centre) This option enables the user to pick three points to create an open rectangle (three sides) with Centre type curves. The current Radius value will be applied at each corner.

5.4

Modifying Curved Sections

If the CE is a curved section, selecting Modify > Section > Definition... from the main menu displays the Modify Section (Curved) form. The Spine Point area of the form enables the user to select a POINSP (start or end) or CURVE element to modify.

Intermediate POINSPs cannot be edited via this form.

The Attributes area of the form displays the X and Y coordinates (with respect to the GENSEC origin) of the current POINSP or CURVE element and the Radius of the CURVE element.

5.4.1

Modifying the Start or End Position

The position of the POINSP element at the Start or End of the GENSEC may be modified by selecting Start or End from the options list in the Spine Point area of the form. The position may be modified graphically or explicitly, with respect to the GENSEC origin, in the appropriate text boxes. A graphical aid, showing the local axes of the GENSEC, is displayed to assist the user in positioning the Start or End. When a new position is entered the graphical aids are modified to reflect the new position.

In the following example note the change in angle of the subsequent CURVE element, even though the CURVE point itself has not been modified.

When a new position has been defined the Modify button on the Modify Section (Curved) form becomes active. Clicking this button will reposition the Start or End.

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Although the Start point of the GENSEC has been modified the Position attribute of the GENSEC is not effected. As such the local axis displayed at the GENSECs has not moved.

5.4.2

Accessing CURVE elements

CURVE elements in the SPINE definition may be accessed by selecting Curve from the options list in the Spine Point area of the form. This selection activates four gadgets on the Modify Section (Curved) form: A Curve counter in the Spine Point area of the form. This may be used to step through, forwards or backwards, the different CURVE elements (if more than one exists). A Curve Type options list in the Spine Point area of the form. A Delete button in the Spine Point area of the form The Radius textbox in the Attributes area of the form. .

The X and Y textboxes in the Attributes area of the form display the co-ordinates of the curve point, with respect to the GENSEC origin. The curve type, i.e. Centre or Fillet, is displayed in the adjacent option list. Graphical aids show the local axes of the GENSEC element and the location and type of the curve point.

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5.4.3

Modifying the Curve Type

The Curve Type may be modified by selecting Fillet or Centre from the options list in the Spine Point area of the form. The X and Y co-ordinates will change to reflect the new curve point position and the graphical aids will update to show the new position and curve type.

The Modify button will not be activated until data in the Attributes area of the form has been modified. This can be affected by re-entering the same radius. Clicking the Modify button, when activated, will change the Curve Type.

5.4.4

Modifying the CURVE Radius

The Radius of the CURVE element may be changed by entering a new value in the Radius textbox in the Attributes area of the form. The graphical aid changes to reflect the new path of the SPINE and the Modify button will be activated. Clicking the Modify button will update the CURVE with the new Radius.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The new radius is applied, however the curve point coordinates remain the same and have not been modified. If the value entered for the Radius is too large an error message is displayed.

5.4.5

Deleting a CURVE element

A CURVE element may be deleted from the SPINE definition by making it the CE and clicking the Delete button in the Spine Point area of the form.

The graphical aid changes to reflect the new path of the SPINE and a confirmation message is displayed. Clicking the Yes button will delete the CURVE element and modify the SPINE path as shown by the graphical aid.

The position of subsequent CURVE points are not effected.

One CURVE element must be present within a SPINE definition in order for the GENSEC to be valid. The application checks that a CURVE element is present in the GENSEC prior to deleting any CURVE elements. Any attempt to delete the last CURVE element of a GENSEC will result in a warning message being returned and the action being aborted.

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5.5

Creating and Modifying a Curved GENSEC - A Worked Example

This worked example demonstrates a number of creation and modification processes that will assist users to model Curved GENSEC elements. It will also introduce the use of additional 3D Aid Constructs that will make the modelling process easier.

5.5.1

Setting up Additional Model Data.

Contained within AREA02 of the training model are a number of additional structures that will be utilised in this chapter. Using the Design Explorer navigate to SITE-STRUCTURAL-AREA02 then to ZONE BUILDING_B02 and add the zone to the 3D view. The ground floor (Level 01) of this building has a number of reserved areas for equipment items. A gantry beam will be constructed to facilitate access to these items while avoiding clashes. Modify the view to show only the Columns, Beams, Walls and Floor of Level 01. Navigate to SITE-EQUIPMENT-AREA02, then to ZONE-EQUIPMENT-AREA02B02. Add the EQUI items RES-SPACE-1, RESSPACE-2, RES-SPACE-3, and RESSPACE-4 to the 3D view. The 3D view should look similar to this Iso 3 view.

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5.5.2

Gantry Beam Requirements

Due to the positions of the reserved areas a number of curved sections will be used to form the gantry beam. The gantry beam could be defined explicitly as a single Gensec. However it is often more convenient to divide a complex shape up into a number of simple shapes. The shape required for this example could be thought of as three basic shapes; a right angle bend, a swan neck, and an open rectangle. These basic shapes will be created, then modified, to model the gantry beam in the sections that follow.

The gantry beam will be modelled using a Universal Beam profile. Click the Set Default Profile Specification button in the Beams & Columns toolbar. From the British Standard specification ensure Universal Beams is the selected Generic Type. Select the 254x146x31 kg/m profile and set the justification to BOS. Click the Apply button then the Dismiss button. New hierarchy for the storage areas is also required. In the Design Explorer navigate to STRU BUILDING_02_Level_01 and open the hierarchy tree. Navigate to FRMW B02_LEVEL_01_BEAMS. Create a new SBFR and name it B02_LEVEL_01_GANTRY_BEAMS. Make the new SBFR the current element then click the Set Section Storage Area button and the Set Node Storage Area buttons.

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5.5.3

3D Aid Constructs Grid Elements

In the previous worked example, a pre-defined user grid was used to assist in positioning sections. Other types of aid constructs, including a variety of grids, can also be created. To assist with the positioning of the gantry beam a Plant Grid will be created. 3D Aid Constructs can be created, modified and deleted from the 3D Aid Constructs form. Select Utilities > Constructs from the main menu to display the 3D Aid Constructs form. Opening the Create Menu demonstrates the range of construction aid options available. Navigate down the menu to the Create > Grids option. A further sub-menu will be displayed showing the different grid types that can be created.

Select Create > Grids > Toolbar from the menu. The Grids form will be displayed. The buttons on the Grids form correspond to the sub-menu creation options. Three grid types can be created: Linear Grids Radial Grids Plant Grids

Select the Plant Grid button from the toolbar to display the Reference Plant Grid form. The form is divided into three significant frames; Options, Position, and Orientation. The Options area of the form enables the user to: Label and Detail the grid with text aids by checking the appropriate check box. Specify the X and Y spacing for the grid lines. One grid line will be created for each entry in the X Spacing and Y Spacing text box. The spacings are relative, i.e. they are measured from the last grid line. Once spacing details have been entered a Preview of the grid can be seen by clicking the Preview button. Click in the X Spacing box and enter the following spacings: 6200, 100, 2700, 100, 1700, 100, 2500. Click in the Y Spacing box and enter the following spacings: 9500, 100, 1300, 100, 1700, 100, 3000, 100, 1300, 100, 2000. The Position area of the form enables the user to position the grid origin, i.e. the lower left corner of the grid (for positive X/Y spacings). The position can be set explicitly by entering the required co-ordinates in the East/West, North/South and Up/Down textboxes. Alternatively, the Positioning Control toolbar can be used to position the grid using a graphical pick.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Set the Positioning Control toolbar pick type to Graphics and the pick method to Snap. The south west corner of Building B02 will be used as the initial origin for the grid. Select the south west corner of the floor slab. The grid axis will be displayed at the selected point. Click the Preview button in the Options area of the Reference Plant Grid form. Aid lines corresponding to the X and Y spacings will be displayed.

Although the Grid lines are displayed, the Grid has not yet been created.

The grid is correctly located in terms of its X and Y position. However, as the beam will run over head, the elevation requires modification. Lock the X and Y co-ordinates by checking the lock box adjacent to the co-ordinate.

Change the Positioning Control toolbar pick type to Pline. Select one of the LBOS, RBOS, or BOS Plines on one of the beams running in a North/South orientation. The new grid origin will be:

The Orientation area of the form enables the user to change the plane in which the grid will be applied. This can be done using any of the three methods outlined below. Orientating a grid does not alter its position. Clicking the Through three points button prompts the user to graphically pick three points to define the plane of the grid. When the orientation points have been picked, the Y is and Z is text boxes are updated with new directions defined by the grid plane. Clicking the Through origin and two points button prompts the user to graphically pick two points which, together with the origin point, define the plane of the grid. When the orientation points have been picked, the Y is and Z is text boxes are updated with new directions defined by the grid plane. The orientation can also be set by typing a direction in the Y is and Z is text boxes. The X direction is automatically derived, using the Right-hand Rule and is displayed beneath the two text boxes.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Only one direction may be altered at a time, thus two or more entries may be required to re-orientate the grid. If an invalid orientation is defined using this method an error message is displayed. Due to the method used to position the grid, it is also correctly orientated and no further action is required. To create the grid click the OK button. The form will be dismissed and the aid lines will be displayed in the 3D view.

5.5.4

Creating a Right Angle GENSEC

Select Create > Sections > Curvedfrom the main menu. The Curved Section form will be displayed. From the Create Methods area of the form click the Right Angle button . Clicking the Right Angle button starts the Gensec creation process. The primary prompt area will display a series of messages instructing the user to select points that will define the position of the Gensec. Leave the Radius set to 1000 and the Connect Ends checkbox unselected. Navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar and adjust the Pick Type to Aid. Select the points in order as shown below.

Once valid picks have been made the Gensec will be created. To exit this Gensec creation method press the Esc key.

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5.5.5

Creating a Swan Neck GENSEC

From the Create Methods area of the Curved Section form click the Swan Neck button .In a similar manner to creating a right angle Gensec, clicking the Swan Neck button instigates the Gensec Creation process. Once again, the user is prompted to make selections that will define the position of the Gensec. Select the points in order as shown below.

Once the points have been selected press the Esc key to end the creation method. The Gensecs should now look like this:

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5.5.6

Creating an Open Rectangle (Fillet) GENSEC

From the Create Methods area of the Curved Section form click the Open Rectangle (Fillet) button . As with the other Gensecs created, clicking the Open Rectangle (Fillet) button instigates the Gensec Creation process. Three graphical selections are required. The first two selections place the apex points of the two fillet curves. The third selection defines the length of the open legs. Select the points in order as shown below.

Once the points have been selected press the Esc key to end the creation method. The Gensecs should now look like this:

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5.5.7

Modifying GENSECs

The three basic shapes provide most of the geometry required for the gantry beam. However, the right angle gensec needs to be extended toward the west, while the open rectangle gensec requires its western most leg to be extended to the north. Dismiss the Curved Section form then make the Right Angle Gensec the CE. Select Query > Measure Distance from the main menu. Set the Positioning Control toolbar Pick Type to Graphics and the Pick Method to Cursor. Measure from the western end of the Gensec back to the inside face of the western wall over the main door opening. Select Modify > Sections > Definition from the main menu. The Modify Section (Curved) form will be displayed and an aid axis will be positioned at the Start of the Gensec.

The Gensec needs to be extended in a negative sense, based on the Y direction indicated by the aid axis. Enter -1062 in the Y position textbox then press Enter. The Modify button will now be active and the graphical aids will update to show the proposed Start position of the Gensec. Click the Modify button then dismiss the Modify Section (Curved) form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Make the Open Rectangle Gensec the CE then select Modify > Sections > Definition from the main menu.

The Start and End points of the Gensec are labelled in the 3D view and an aid axis is provided at the origin of the Gensec. The western leg of the open rectangle needs to be extended to the north. To achieve this the position of the End spine point must be modified. From the Modify Section (Curved) form, select End from the option list in the Spine Point area of the form. The position of the End spine point can now be expressed in term of the Gensecs origin. In the Attributes area of the form enter -4000 in the Y position text box.

Once again, a preview of the new position is provided and the Modify button is now active. Click the Modify button then dismiss the form. Aside from the small gaps between the three Gensecs, the geometry of the gantry beam is now complete. Merging the Gensecs into one model element will be considered later in the training guide.

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5.6

Creating Ring Sections

A Ring GENSEC does not contain straight segments and is used to create full or partial circles. Selecting Create > Sections > Ring... displays the Ring Section form. The Circle Definition area of the form enables an Arc or a Full circle to be specified to avoid any ambiguity. In a similar manner to Curved GENSECs, the Positioning Control toolbar is active and may be used to facilitate the creation of ring sections. For an Arc ring section, the Flip Sense button toggles between an anti-clockwise and clockwise direction for the arc, i.e. the sense of the arc is changed. For a full ring section, the Flip Sense button has the same affect as using the Orientate > Flip command from the main menu.

5.6.1

Creation Methods for Ring Sections


Through 3 points this option enables the user to pick three points through which the circle is to pass. For an Arc the first point selected is the start and the third point is the end. Derive from a picked item - this option enables the user to pick a design item from which the radius and centre of circle can be derived. The ring will be superimposed on this circle, which can then be repositioned as required. Fillet - this option enables the user to enter the required radius on a separate form and then pick two linear design items that will be tangential to the required circle. For an Arc, the contact point with the first line is the start and the contact point with second line is the end. The plane of the ring is normal to both lines and through the first line. Tangential to 3 lines - this option enables the user to pick three linear design items to define the circle which will fit between these tangents. The plane of the ring is normal to, and midway between, the first two lines. Fixed radius, tangential to a circle - this option enables the user to enter the required radius on a separate form, pick a position towards which the circle will be directed (the control point), and then pick a design item from which the circle can be derived. The ring will be tangential to the derived circle on the side specified by the control point. Fixed radius, passing through 2 points - this option enables the user to enter the required radius on a separate form and then pick two positions defining the start and end of the ring. A control point is then picked. This is the point to which the circle will be directed. Tangential to a circle this option enables the user to pick a position defining the centre of the ring, then pick a design item from which the circle can be derived. The ring will be tangential to the derived circle and the radius will be the distance from first pick to the tangent point. Tangential to 2 circles - this option enables the user to enter the required radius on a separate form. Then, on two coplanar circular design items, pick positions near points where the ring is to touch tangentially and also a point near the centre of ring. Derived diameter this option enables the user to pick two positions representing opposite sides of a circle (distance between picks defines diameter), then pick a position towards which the circle is to be directed (control point). For an Arc the first point is the start position and the second point is the end position. Derived diameter on working plane for this option a Working Plane must be active. This option enables the user to pick two positions representing opposite sides of the circle (the distance between the picks defines the diameter). The picked positions will be projected onto the Working Plane and the ring will lie in this plane. For an Arc the first point is the start position and the second point is the end position.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Fixed diameter This option enables the user to enter the required radius on a separate form, then pick a position for the centre of the ring and two positions aligned with start and end of the ring (in that order). The ring lies in plane through the three points. Fixed diameter on working plane for this option a Working Plane must be active. This option enables the user to enter the required diameter on a separate form and pick a position for the centre of the ring. The ring will be a 180 arc, created anticlockwise about the Z-axis of the working plane, with a start position on the X-axis. Derived radius this option enables the user to pick a position for the centre of the ring, the start of the ring, and a position aligned with the end of the ring. The distance between the later two picks defining the rings radius. The ring lies on the plane through the three picked points. Derived radius on working plane - for this option a Working Plane must be active. This option enables the user to pick two positions representing the centre and the start of the ring (the distance between the picks defines radius). The picked positions will be projected onto the working plane and the ring will lie in this plane. The ring will be a 180 arc, created anticlockwise about the Z-axis of the working plane. Fixed radius This option enables the user to enter the required radius on a separate form, then pick positions for the centre of the ring, the start, and the end of ring (in that order). The ring lies in the plane through the three picked points. Fixed radius on working plane - for this option a Working Plane must be active. This option enables the user to enter the required radius on a separate form then pick a position for the centre of ring. The ring will be a 180 arc, created anticlockwise about the Z-axis of the working plane, with the start position on the X-axis. Define explicitly this option displays the Create Section (Ring). Details relating to this method are provided in the section that follows.

5.6.2

Explicitly Defined Ring Sections

Ring sections can be created by explicitly defining the position, orientation, radius and direction attributes. If the Define Explicitly creation option is selected, the Create Section (Ring) form will be displayed. The Settings area of the form enables the user to specify the Radius, Start and End angles. Angles are measured anti-clockwise from East wrt the current frame of reference. The sense of the arc, i.e. whether Anti-Clockwise or Clockwise, can also be set

Anti-Clockwise

Clockwise

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Position area of the form contains an options list and a series of co-ordinate text boxes. These mechanisms allow the user to define the position of the ring section and stipulate which part of the ring the co-ordinates relate to. The default setting positions the Origin of the ring section i.e. the centre of the ring. Other position options include: Radius the co-ordinates refer to a point, measured along the X axis from the Origin, which corresponds to the value in the Radius text box in the Settings area of the form. If the value of this coordinate is changed, the value of the Radius will change automatically. Conversely, if the Radius value is changed the co-ordinates automatically change. Start Angle the co-ordinates refer to a point, measured from the Origin, that corresponds to the start point of the ring based on the Radius and Start Angle values. If the value of one, or either, of the coordinates is changed, the value of the Start Angle will change automatically. Conversely, if the Start Angle value is changed the co-ordinates will be changed automatically. End Angle - the co-ordinates refer to a point, measured from the Origin that corresponds to the end point of the ring based on the Radius and End Angle values. If the value of one, or either, of the coordinates is changed, the value of the Start Angle will change automatically. Conversely, if the Start Angle value is changed the co-ordinates will be changed automatically.

In addition to the co-ordinate text boxes, the Positioning Control toolbar is also active and can be used to set the section position using graphical picks. The Orientation area of the form provides the user with three methods by which the ring section can be orientated. Clicking the Through three points button prompts the user to graphically pick three points to define the plane of the ring section. When the orientation points have been picked, the Y is and Z is text boxes are updated with new directions defined by the ring section. Clicking the Through origin and two points button prompts the user to graphically pick two points which, together with the origin point, define the plane of the ring section. When the orientation points have been picked, the Y is and Z is text boxes are updated with new directions defined by the ring section. The orientation can also be set by entering a direction in the Y is and Z is text boxes. The X direction is automatically derived, using the Right-hand Rule and is displayed beneath the two text boxes. It should be noted that only one direction may be altered at a time so it may require two or more entries to re-orientate the ring section. If an invalid orientation is defined using this method an error message is displayed.

Orientating a ring section does not alter its position. The wrt text box enables the position and orientation to be set with respect to other design elements.

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5.7

Modifying Ring Sections

If the CE is a ring section, selecting Modify > Section > Definition... from the main menu will display the Modify Section (Ring) form. The Modify Section (Ring) form is similar in appearance and functionality to the Create Section (Ring) form. A notable exception to the forms functionality relates to the way in which the Anti-Clockwise and Clockwise radio buttons effect the section being considered. To modify the sense of the ring, the Start and End angle values must be swapped as appropriate. It should be noted that when opening the Modify Section (Ring) form the frame of reference of the GENSEC will be displayed with East (X) through the Start POINSP, regardless of how the ring section was created, with the Orientation values reflecting this direction. Thus, if the orientation values are modified, i.e. the frame of reference changes, and the Start and End angles are unchanged, clicking the Apply button will modify the Start and End positions.

5.8

Creating and Modifying a Ring GENSEC - A Worked Example

This worked example demonstrates creation and modification processes that will assist users to model Ring GENSEC elements. It will also build on the the use of 3D Aid Constructs that will make the modelling process easier.

5.8.1

Setting up Additional Model Data.

Using the Design Explorer, navigate to SITE-STRUCTURAL-AREA02 then ZONE BUILDING_B01. Add the zone to the 3D view. The Southern walls of Building B01 are curved. Additional support beams are required to support the floor of level 2 and also the roof slab. Modify the view to show only the Columns, Beams, and Floor of Level 01. The 3D view should look similar to this Iso 3 view.

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5.8.2

Support Beam Requirements

The support beam will be modelled using a Parallel Flange Channel. Click the Set Default Profile Specification button in the Beams & Columns toolbar. From the British Standard specification select the Generic Type Parallel Flg Channels then select the 200x75x23PFC profile. Set the justification to LTOC leaving the Member line and the Joint line set to NA. Click the Apply button then the Dismiss button. The storage areas for the new beam also need to be set. In the Design Explorer navigate to STRU BUILDING_01_LEVEL_01 and open the hierarchy tree. Navigate to FRMW B01_LEVEL_01_BEAMS and set this framework for the node and section storage areas. The support beam will be constructed as an arc that broadly follows the curvature of the floor slab and ties into the south west and south east columns as shown.

5.8.3

3D Aid Constructs Working Planes and Line Constructs

The support beam needs to be positioned such that the top of the section coincides with the underside of the floor slab. This can be achieved in a number of ways during element creation, however one means of ensuring the correct elevation is to establish a Working Plane. A Working Plane may be a plane or a grid and can be used to control positioning operations. If a working plane is active, picked positions will be projected onto the plane. Only one Working Plane may be active at any given time. A Working Plane can be created explicitly using the Utilities > Working Plane option from the main menu. Alternatively, a 3D Aid Plane or Grid can be created and then made to be the active Working Plane. Select Utilities > Working Plane from the main menu to display the Working Plane form. Navigate to the Define form menu and select the Define > Plane option. The Working Plane form will be displayed.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Working Plane form is divided into two significant frames; Options and Position & Orientation. The functionality of these frames is similar to that described for Plant Grids. The Options area of the form enables the user to Label the plane, display the plane Axes, and toggle between a filled and unfilled graphical representation of the plane (if displayed). The Size of the graphical representation of the plane can also be adjusted by changing the values in the X and Y textboxes. The Position & Orientation area of the form enables the user to position the plane origin and orientate the plane. Planes can be positioned explicitly by entering co-ordinates, or through graphical selections. Clicking the OK button on the form sets the defined plane as the active Working Plane, automatically checking the Active and Visible checkboxes. A graphical selection will be made to position (and orientate) the working plane.Set the Positioning Control toolbar Pick Method to Element and the Pick Type to Snap.

Change the 3D view to show a plan view north. Select one of the beams running from East to West near the North East corner then click the OK button. Aid graphics showing the working plane with axis at the plane origin will be displayed. The aid graphics can be removed from the view by un-checking the Visible setting on the Working Plane form.

Dismiss the Working Plane form. With the working plane suitably defined additional circle and line aid constructs can be created. Select Utilities > Constructs from the main menu. The 3D Aid Constructs form is displayed. Select Create > Circle > Toolbar from the form menu to display the select the Circles toolbar. An arc shaped aid line will be created from the existing geometry of the Level 01 floor slab. Click the Through Three Points button on the Circles toolbar. This action instigates the Events Driven Graphics (EDG) mode. In the Primary Prompt area the user is instructed to make a graphical selection for the first point of the aid line. Navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar and change the Pick Type to Graphics and the Pick Method to Snap.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Select the Southeast corner of the floor slab. This marks the start position of the arc aid line. As a working plane is active, the picked point is transposed to the working plane. An aid graphic indicating the point selection sequence is displayed.

The second pick point needs to be made approximately mid way around the circumference of the curved floor. Position the cursor over the floor slab then hold down the left mouse button. The cursor will change to a parallelogram shape. While holding down the left mouse button move the cursor toward the edge of the curve. When the cursor shape changes to a dumbell shape release the mouse button. The third pick point defines the end of the arc aid line. Select the Southwest corner of the floor slab. On selecting the final pick point the aid graphic will be displayed with an arrow at the origin of the arc and two text boxes at the start and end of the defined angle.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 To assist in creating the Gensec a further aid line, bisecting the arc aid line, will be created. Dismiss the Circles toolbar then select Create > Line > Toolbar from the 3D Aid Constructs form. Click the Bisect the Picked Lines button prompt area. from the Lines toolbar. Two lines need to be selected as noted in the primary

Select the line defined between the arc origin and the arc start position. For the second line select the line defined between the arc origin and the arc end position. The aid graphics should now look similar to the picture below.

The arc aid graphic is based on the geometry of the floor slab. The position of the support beams must account for the exterior wall and the smaller sized floor of Level 02. Rather than reposition the beam after it is created the aid graphics will be modified to ensure the beams are created the correct position Close the Lines toolbar then select Modify > Definition from the 3D Aid Constructs form. In the primary prompt area the user is asked to pick the aid to be modified. Graphically select the arc aid line. The Modify Circle form will be displayed. The origin of the aid graphic needs to be positioned 200mm to the North. In the Position frame lock the West and Up co-ordinate by selecting the checkbox adjacent to each co-ordinate. In the North coordinate textbox type 331223.24 then press the Enter key. The aid graphics will display the proposed new position. Click the OK button to modify the position of the aid. Dismiss the 3D Aid Constructs form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The completed aid graphics should look similar to the picture below.

5.8.4

Creating the Level 01 Support Beam

Select Create > Sections > Ring from the main menu. The Ring Section form will be displayed. Ensure the Arc radio button is selected then click the Through Three Points button in the Creation Methods area of the form. Three points defining the start, a point on the circumference, and the end of the arc must be selected graphically. The start and end of the support beam will tie into the existing Level 01 beams and columns while the intersecting aid lines define the point of curvature. The Positioning Control Toolbar can be adjusted for each pick point to provide the correct position for the support beam. Navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar. Set the Pick Method to Element and the Pick Type to Intersect. Near the Southwest corner of the structure, select a beam aligned East/West followed by the column in the Southwest corner. An aid graphic will be displayed at the elevation of the active working plane. Navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar and set the Pick Method to Aid. Pick a position somewhere along the arc aid line then select the bisecting aid line. Navigate back to the Positioning Control toolbar and reset the Pick Method to Element. In the Southeast corner select the beam aligned East/West followed by the column in the Southeast corner. A ring Gensec will be created and the Flip Sense button on the Ring Section form will be active. Zoom the 3D view out, then click the Flip Sense button to see the effect it has on the Gensec created. Click the Flip Sense button again to restore the Gensec to the correct sense. Save work.

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5.8.5

Creating the Level 02 Support Beam

A similar support beam is also required for the roof structure. Navigate to STRU BUILDING_01_LEVEL_02 in the Design Explorer and expand the hierarchy. Make FRMW B01_LEVEL_02_BEAMS the current element and add them to the 3D view. Change the node and section storage area to this framework also. Select Utilities > Working Plane from the main menu. In the Settings area of the form turn off the working plane by de-selecting the Active checkbox. Select Define > Reposition from the form menu. Navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar. Set the Pick Method to Element and the Pick Type to Snap. Graphically select the top of one of the beams in Level 02. Re-select the Active checkbox on the Working Plane form. The working plane will be visible in the new location. Close the Working Plane form.

The existing 3D aids will be used again, however a different creation method will be used. From the Ring Section form click the Fixed Diameter on Working Plane button . This option will only work if a working plane is active. An error message is returned to the user if no active working plane is found.

A number of Gensec creation methods only work if an active working plane exists. However, there is usually an equivalent method designed for use without a working plane.

On clicking the Fixed Diameter on Working Plane button the Diameter form will be displayed. The user can type the required diameter or click the Measure button and populate the form by making EDG picks. Enter a diameter of 29500mm in the Diameter form. When this creation method is instigated the user is also prompted to select the centre of the ring section. The existing aid graphics can be used for this task. Navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar and change the Pick Method to Aid and the Pick Type to Snap. Pick the origin of the arc aid denoted by an arrow.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Upon selecting the centre of the ring section a semi circle Gensec of the specified diameter will be created.

The sense of the section needs to be corrected. Click the Flip Sense button. The Gensec is now correctly aligned but the start and end positions require modification. With the semi circular gensec as the current element select Modify > Sections > Definition from the main menu. To display the Modify Section (Ring) form. From the Position area of the form open the option list and select Start Angle. A graphical selection can now be made for the start position of the gensec. Navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar and change the Pick Type to Element. Click the Southeast column. A text box indicating the proposed position is displayed. Click the Apply button at the base of the Modify Section (Ring) form. The start of the Gensec will be updated to the new position. Return to the Position area of the form and open the option list. Select the End Angle option. To position the end of the Gensec click the Southwest column followed by the Apply button at the base of the Modify Section (Ring) form. Dismiss the Modify Section (Ring) form and Save work. The completed support beams should look similar to the image.

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Exercise 4 Creating & Modifying Gensecs


Using the Design Explorer, open the Zone WORKSHOP_BUILDING and navigate to STRU AREA02_WORKSHOP. Create a new FRMW AREA02_WS_GANTRY and set the section and node storage areas to the new FRMW. Create a linear grid aid construct centred on the intersection of the beams in FRMW AREA02_WS_ROW_B3. Ensure the spacing is 1000mm by 1000mm and increase the number of visible lines to 20. Choose suitable construction methods to create the Gensec shown below. The beam used is a 356 x 171 UB 45 from the British Standard. The TOS should be 2850mm above the base of the columns. A radius of 1000mm has been used for all curves.

Iso1 View Purlins and grid constructs removed for clarity.

Plan View North

Plan view with grid construct reference.

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CHAPTER 6

6 6.1

Structural Utilities Bracing Configurations

PDMS provides functionality that enables the user to create bracing from pre-defined configurations which may be adapted to suit most situations. The advantages of using the pre-defined configurations to create bracing, rather than create sections individually are: All sections in the configuration are created simultaneously. Initial gaps can be set so that geometry is realistic. Created sections are automatically connected.

Selecting Create > Sections > Bracing configurations from the main menu displays the Bracing form. The Storage area and Section Data areas of the form allow the user to specify a storage area and profile for bracing. This is done in a similar manner to setting the default section specification and storage areas. Settings made via the Bracing form override the default settings. If the bracing configuration selected has more than one element, all sections will be modelled using the section specified. Any of the elements that make up the bracing configuration can be modified. Attributes can be changed retrospectively using standard modification functions. The Available Bracing Configurations list displays the available configurations. Clicking on a configuration text in the list displays a picture of the configuration. There is more than one choice for some of the configuration styles, for example A/K Bracing, which cover the majority of possible scenarios. The configurations may be used where the members are in different orientations to those shown providing the configuration is the same. The Bracing Plane options list enables the user to specify the plane in which the bracing will be created. The choices are: Derived by Section This is the default and the most commonly used option. The bracing plane direction is orthogonal to both the first section picked and the incoming section nearest to the first pick point. Derived by Points This option is useful for adding bracing between two sections that do not have a third section connected directly between them. The bracing plane is constructed by projecting the second picked point onto the first picked section. Defined - This option allows the user to define the bracing plane explicitly and projects the picked points onto the defined plane. Selecting this option displays the Bracing Plane form and Positioning Control toolbar.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The plane origin may be entered explicitly or by use of the Positioning Control toolbar. Having made the appropriate settings on the Bracing form, clicking Apply will display a bracing dimensioning form which will differ depending on the bracing configuration chosen.

A distance may be entered in A and B to make the initial gap, as shown on the corresponding diagram of the Bracing form. Having entered the distances, the sections used to define the bracing configuration are picked in the sequence indicated in the diagram on the Bracing form. If the Confirm check box is selected, aids representing the bracing plane and bracing elements will be displayed. Clicking the Accept or Reject button will create or discard the bracing. If Confirm is unchecked, the bracing is created without further input.

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6.1.1

Available Bracing Configurations

The diagrams below show the currently available bracing configurations. The dimensions marked A and B correspond to the A and B values on the bracing dimensioning forms. The ballooned numbers indicate the sequence of picks. The sections must be picked in the order shown to ensure the bracing is configured correctly.

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6.2

Bracing Gaps

Having created bracing sections either as individual sections or using the standard configurations, gaps between the bracing members may be adjusted to suit the design. Selecting Modify > Bracing Gap from the main menu displays the Brace Gaps form. The Available Gapping list displays a description of the gap types that may be adjusted. Clicking on a text option displays a picture of the gap configuration. These gap configurations may be used in different orientations to suit a specific situation, provided that the basic configuration is the same.

The Bracing Plane option is not used in this release.

A Default Gap may be specified to save entering a distance each time. Having selected the appropriate configuration, clicking Apply displays the Brace Gaps(s) form.

The Gap A textbox displays the default gap. The appropriate input, that is Plines or section selection, is made in the order shown on the corresponding diagram of the Brace Gap(s) form. If the Confirm check box is selected a dimension aid is displayed showing the current gap dimension which will be repeated in the Gap A textbox on the Brace Gap(s) form. The gap may be changed to the correct distance before clicking the Accept or Reject button to modify or discard the gap change. If Confirm is unchecked, the gap will be modified to that shown in the Gap A textbox.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 This picture shows the apex of an A Bracing configuration, with a large gap between the two bracing sections.

Bracing gap configuration No.6 has been selected and the appropriate Plines have been picked. The aids show the current gap and the selected Plines. The gap is also displayed in the Brace Gap(s) form.

The required gap is entered on the Brace Gap(s) form and the aids reflect the change.

Clicking the Accept button will modify the gap.

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6.2.1

Available Gapping Configurations

The diagrams below show the currently available bracing gap configurations. The ballooned numbers indicate the sequence of picks for sections or Plines.

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6.3

Splitting Structural Elements

It is often easier to model an overall structure then split it into smaller components for fabrication or assembly purposes. The split function allows Sections, Generic Sections, and Panels to be split from the Beams & Columns or Panels & Plates utilities.

6.3.1

Selecting Elements to Split

Selecting Modify > Sections > Split from the main menu in the Beams & Columns application, or Modify > Split from the main menu in the Panels & Plates application, displays the Split Steel form. The elements to be split are added to the Elements to split list using the options available in the Add to list options list.

The following options are available: CE this option adds the Current Element to the list. CE Members this option adds all members of the Current Element. The CE Members option can only be applied to Frameworks and Sub-frames. This option will not work if a Structure, Zone, or Site is selected. Current list this option adds the current active list (if one exists). Graphical pick this option allows the user to select elements from the graphical display. Graphical window selection this option allows the user to select a range of items by dragging a selection box over them in the graphical display.

The graphical selection must be made before the Graphical window selection option is selected.

The selected elements are highlighted in red in the 3D view. Right clicking anywhere in the Elements to split list displays a popup menu with the same selection options as those described above. The pop up menu is available at any time and does not require the Elements to split list to be populated. If the Element to split list is empty, the options to remove items from the list are greyed out.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 If the list is populated, the two element removal options are active. There functions are described below. Remove Selected from list this option removes the selected members from the Elements to split list. Multiple element selection may be made using standard Windows selection methods. Clear List this option removes all elements from the Elements to split list.

6.3.2

Defining where the Elements will be Split


Once the required elements have been added to the Elements to split list, the user must define where the elements will be split. The Define split-on area of the form has an options list with the following choices:

Pick Section(s) to split on this option enables the user to graphically select one or more sections to be split on from the 3D View. Selecting this option displays the prompt Pick a section to split on: . One or more sections may be selected, the selection process being terminated by pressing the Esc key. The selected items are highlighted in cyan. The SCTN(s) selected to split on does not have to touch the elements that will be split. However the Neutral Axis must intersect the elements to be split in at least one plane. Define Graphical Aid Line(s) to split on this option enables the user to create one or more aid lines to split on by selecting points in the graphical display. Selecting this option displays the prompt Line start (Snap) Snap: One or more aid lines may be created, the creation process being terminated by pressing the Esc key. Define Graphical Plane(s) to split on this option enables the user to create one or more planes to split the selected elements on. Selecting this option activates the Plane Size and Plane Direction textboxes in the Define split-on area of the form and the checkboxes adjacent to them. The prompt Pick to Position Plane (Snap) Snap: is displayed. One or more planes may be created, the Plane Size and Plane Direction being set before the next plane is created. The creation process is terminated by pressing the Esc key.

Graphical selections activate the Positioning Control toolbar. The prompts for these options may vary depending on the Pick Method used. Checking the Fill checkbox fills the plane aid. Checking the checkbox adjacent to the Plane Direction textbox locks the Plane Direction, for any subsequently created plane(s), to the current setting. Once graphical aid lines and/or planes have been defined the Modify Graphical aid line/plane and Delete Graphical aid line/planes buttons are enabled.

Clicking the Modify Graphical aid line/plane button displays the prompt Pick aid to be modified pick Aid:. Picking a line or plane from the 3D view displays the appropriate aid modification form, i.e. Modify Line or Modify plane.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Clicking the Delete Graphical aid line(s)/plane(s) button displays the prompt Pick aid(s) to be deleted. <esc to finish> pick Aid:. One or more lines or planes may be selected for deletion. The selection process is terminated by pressing the Esc key.

6.3.3

Connections at Split

The Connections at split area of the form enables the user to define what will happen to the sections at the split. This functionality is applicable to SCTN elements only. If the Pick Section(s) to split on option is selected the Connections at split options section of the Split Steel form becomes active. The user can define how the ends of the split section(s) will relate to one another after the split by selecting one of three options.

None The section is split at the Justification line of the section it is split on (default setting). However, there is no connectivity created between the sections.

Nodes The section is split at the Justification line of the section it is split on. SNOD and SJOI elements are created connecting the split sections to the section(s) they were split on.

Trimmed The section is split at the Justification line of the section it is split on. SNOD and SJOI elements are created connecting the split sections to the section(s) they were split on. The split sections are trimmed to the Pline at the extremity of the section(s) they were split on.

Soft types of panel elements, e.g. STWALL, GWALL, FLOOR & SCREED are outside the scope of this training guide.

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6.3.4

Splitting the Elements

When all selection options have been made, clicking the Split button on the bottom of the Split Steel form will split the elements. One part of the split element retains the original Database Reference Number and the remaining part(s) are allocated new Database Reference Numbers.

6.4

Splicing Sections

Splicing allows the user to divide sections into smaller lengths at any point along their length and, optionally, connect the abutting ends created by the splice. Selecting Modify > Sections > Splice displays the Splice Section on Plane form which enables the user set a plane to create the splice. The splice may be applied to the CE, the current list or elements picked from the graphical view by selecting CE, list or Pick from the options list on the top left of the form. If the List or Pick option is selected, all of the elements selected will be spliced at their intersection with the plane. The size of the plane may be specified by entering a value in the Plane size textbox. The plane may be positioned using the Cursor or Intersection options from the form menu or by entering co-ordinates in the appropriate textboxes. If the Confirm before splicing check box is selected the user will be prompted to confirm the splice. This can be useful if the splice utility is applied to a list or pick selection.

When a SCTN is spliced a Secondary Node (SNOD), owned by the original section, is created at the splice position, i.e. the end of the section, on the Justification Line. A Secondary Joint (SJOI), owned by the SNOD, is also created. The Cref attribute of the SJOI is set to point to the newly created SCTN. The Posline attribute of the SJOI is set to DRNE (Direction of End) of the original section. The Joistart attribute of the new section is set to point to the newly created SJOI on the original section, as with norma l section connectivity. The original section maintains its db Reference N umber. The new section has a new db Reference Number. The SJOI may be used to apply lap or splice joints between the end-to-end connected sections.

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6.5

Merging Structural Elements

Structural elements of the same type, i.e. SCTN, PANE or GENSEC, may be merged together to form a single element. However, it is only possible to merge elements that are colinear (or coplanar in the case of panel elements). Any number of elements may be merged but the first element selected will be the dominant section, i.e. the section that all other selected sections will be merged into and whose attributes the merged sections will inherit.

6.5.1

Merging Sections

Any number of SCTN elements may be merged regardless of their specification, beta angle, or position provided they are colinear. Selecting Modify > Sections > Merge from the main menu in the Beams & Columns application displays the prompt Pick Panel/Section or End of first gensec to merge. The first section picked is the dominant section, i.e. the section that all other picked sections will be merged into and whose attributes the merged sections will inherit. On picking the first (dominant) section the prompt changes to Pick Section to merge or <esc> to finish: The remaining sections to be merged may then be graphically picked form the 3D view. The picking process is terminated by pressing the Esc key. If one or more of the picked sections are not collinear, an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the merge.

If the Esc key is pressed before at least one section to merge has been picked, an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the merge.

If all picked sections are co-linear a merge confirmation message is displayed. Clicking the Yes button merges the picked sections with the first (dominant) section picked. Clicking the No button abandons the merge. The merged section retains the database Reference Number of the section picked first, i.e. the dominant section.

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6.5.2

Merging Gensecs

Two GENSEC elements may be merged regardless of their specification, beta angle, or position provided the line of the gensec at the ends to be merged is collinear. Selecting Modify > Sections > Merge from the main menu in the Beams & Columns application displays the prompt Pick Panel/Section or End of first gensec to merge. The first gensec selected is the dominant gensec, i.e. the gensec that the other picked gensec will be merged into and whose attributes the merged gensec will inherit. On picking the first (dominant) gensec end the prompt changes to Pick the end of the second gensec to merge: The end of the second gensec to be merged may then be graphically picked form the 3D view. The end of the gensecs used for the merge depends on the pick point position on the gensec, i.e. the nearest end to the pick point is selected.The two ends to be merged are labelled in the 3D view with aid text. If the ends of the picked gensecs are not co-linear, an error message will be displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the merge.

If the second gensec pick point is more than 50% of the gensecs length away from the first selected end, i.e. the opposite end of the gensec to that required, an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the merge.

If the two picked gensec ends are co-linear a merge confirmation message is displayed. Clicking the Yes button merges the second selected gensec with the first (dominant) selected gensec. Clicking the No button abandons the merge.

The merged section will have the database Reference Number of the section picked first, i.e. the dominant gensec.

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6.5.3

Merging Panels

Any number of PANE elements may be merged regardless of their thickness or justification providing they are coplanar and at least one vertex on each adjacent panel loop is coincident. Selecting Modify > Merge from the main menu in the Panel & Plates application displays the prompt Pick Panel/Section or End of first gensec to me rge. The first panel picked is the dominant panel, i.e. the panel that all other picked panels will be merged into and whose attributes the merged panels will inherit. On picking the first (dominant) panel the prompt changes to Pick Panel to merge or <esc> to finish: The remaining panels to be merged may then be graphically picked form the 3D view. The picking process is terminated by pressing the Esc key. If one or more of the picked panels are not coplanar, an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the merge.

If the Esc key is pressed before at least one panel to merge has been picked, an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the merge.

If all picked panels are coplanar, and have at least one coincident vertex in adjacent panel loops, a merge confirmation message is displayed. The panels to be merged are highlighted in the 3D view. Clicking the Yes button merges the highlighted panels with the first (dominant) panel picked. Clicking the No button abandons the merge. The merged panel retains the database Reference Number of the panel picked first, i.e. the dominant panel.

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6.6

Filleting Structural Elements

Filleting enables two non-parallel sections or gensecs to be merged to form a single gensec, regardless of specification, justification or beta angle, so long as they are not parallel and are coplanar. As a gensec cannot own fittings, any fittings on sections to be filleted will be deleted.

6.6.1

Filleting Sections

Selecting Modify > Section > Fillet from the main menu of the Beams & Columns application displays the prompt Pick end of first gensec/section to fillet . The first section picked is the dominant section, i.e. the section whose attributes the created gensec will inherit. On picking the end of the first section, the prompt changes to Pick the end of the second section to fillet. If the sections picked are parallel an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the filleting operation.

If the sections picked are not coplanar an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the filleting operation.

As a gensec cannot own fittings, the user is warned that filleting sections will remove all fittings and a confirmation message is also displayed. Clicking the Yes button on the confirmation message displays an input form for the fillet curve radius. Clicking the No button abandons the filleting operation.

The default value of 1000mm may be accepted by clicking the OK button or a value (greater than 0mm) may be entered in textbox before clicking the OK button. Clicking the No button on the confirmation message or entering a fillet radius of 0mm will abandon the filleting operation. Once the fillet radius has been entered, the Fillet Point and Start and End of the gensec are displayed with aid graphics. A further confirmation message is also displayed. Clicking the Yes button creates the filleted gensec. Clicking the No button abandons the filleting operation. The new filleted gensec is given a new database Reference Number.

Care should be taken when entering a curve radius as inappropriate values (e.g. very large radii) can produce unexpected results.

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6.6.2

Filleting Gensecs

Filleting gensecs is similar to filleting sections; however, the prompts and messages are slightly different. Selecting Modify > Section > Fillet from the main menu in the Beams & Columns application displays the prompt Pick end of first gensec/section to fillet . The first gensec picked is the dominant gensec, i.e. the gensec whose attributes the filleted gensec will inherit. On picking the end of the first gensec, the prompt changes to Pick the end of the second gensec to fillet. If the picked ends of the gensecs are parallel an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the filleting operation.

If the picked gensecs are not coplanar an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the filleting operation.

The default value of 1000mm may be accepted by clicking the OK button or a value (greater than 0mm) may be entered in textbox before clicking the OK button. Clicking the No button on the confirmation message or entering a fillet radius of 0mm will abandon the filleting operation. Once the fillet radius has been entered, the Fillet Point and Start and End of the gensec are displayed with aid graphics. A further confirmation message is also displayed. Clicking the Yes button creates the filleted gensec. Clicking the No button abandons the filleting operation. The new filleted gensec is given a new database Reference Number.

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6.7

Mitring Structural Elements

Provided certain conditions are met, PDMS allows users to mitre sections and gensecs either to another section (or gensec) or to panel elements. The workflow required to create each type of mitre representation is discussed in the following sections.

6.7.1

Mitring Sections

To successfully mitre two section ends the following points concerning relative position, orientation and other attributes of the two sections must be considered: The sections must not be parallel. The sections do not have to be the same Gtype but unacceptable results may occur. The sections do not have to have the same Beta Angle but unacceptable results may occur. The sections do not have to be co-planar but must be within the Offset depth tolerance. The Y direction of the sections does not have to be the same but unacceptable results may occur.

Selecting Modify > Sections > Mitre Ends from the main menu in the Beams & Columns application displays the prompt Pick Section/Gensec/Panel Elements to be mitred:. On picking the first section, the prompt changes to Pick Section or Gensec to Mitre with or Panel to Mitre to:. The end of the section may then be picked from the 3D view.

If the picked sections are parallel an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the mitring operation.

If the picked sections are of different Gtypes an warning message is displayed. Clicking the OK button continues the mitring operation. The UNDO function from the Model Editor toolbar may be used if the resulting mitre is not acceptable. If the picked sections have different Beta Angles a warning message is displayed. Clicking the OK button continues the mitring operation. The UNDO function from the Model Editor toolbar may be used if the resulting mitre is not acceptable.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 If the picked section ends are not coplanar but within the Offset depth tolerance, a warning message is displayed. Clicking the OK button continues the mitring operation. The UNDO function from the Model Editor toolbar may be used if the resulting mitre is not acceptable. If the picked sections are not coplanar and outside the Offset depth tolerance, an error message is displayed. Clicking the OK button abandons the mitring operation.

The permissible value displayed is the current setting of the Offset depth tolerance.

If the sections selected are valid, graphical aids will display the angle bisector and additional information together with a confirmation message.

Clicking the Yes button mitres the ends of the selected sections. Clicking the No button abandons the mitre operation.

The section ends are now are extended or shortened to the mitre plane and the start or end direction (DRNS or DRNE) attribute of the section set to the mitre plane.

The connectivity of the mitred ends, if any, has not changed.

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6.7.1.1 Location of Pick Points for Mitring Sections


When selecting the sections to mitre, the location of the pick points and the arrangement of the sections relative to each other has a bearing on the resultant mitring. Where the sections physically cross, the retained portion of the sections depend on which side of the intersection point the sections are picked on.

Where the sections do not physically cross but the projected line of one section would physically cross the other section, the retained portion of the crossed section depends on which side of the projected intersection of the crossed section is picked.

Where the sections do not physically cross or the projected line of one would not physically cross the other section, there is only one point of convergence and it does not matter where either section is picked.

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6.7.2

Mitring Gensecs

Mitring gensecs is similar to mitring sections and the same considerations to positioning, orientation and other attributes apply. The location of pick points is significant in that the first straight part of the conveging ends of the gensec must be selected. Selecting one straight at the converging end of a gensec and then the straight at the non-converging end of the other gensec displays an error message. Clicking the OK button aborts the mitring process.

6.7.3

Mitring a Section and a Gensec

Mitring a section and a gensec is possible provided the general rules required for a successful section mitre are followed. Depending on the justification and creation direction of the gensec, occasional errors relating to mitre offset tolerances may be encountered. This can be overcome by making a careful change to the Mitre Offset tolerance value.

6.7.4

Mitring Sections or Gensecs with a Panel

A section or gensec may be mitred against a panel (PANE) element such that the start or end direction (DRNS or DRNE attribute) of the section or gensec is modified to the plane of the panel. The section or gensec must intersect the panel within the boundary of its loop otherwise the mitring operation is abandoned. Selecting Modify > Sections > Mitre Ends from the main menu in the Beams & Columns application displays the prompt Pick Section/Gensec/Panel Elements to be mitred:. If a panel is picked first the prompt changes to Pick Section or Gensec to Mitre with:. If a section or gensec is picked first the prompt changes to Pick Section or Gensec to Mitre with or Panel to Mitre to: as described previously. Picking a valid combination of panel and section/gensec displays aid lines on the panel and from the section/gensec, extending along the Justification Line, and a confirmation prompt.

Clicking the Yes button mitres the section/gensec to the panel. Clicking the No button abandons the mitring operation.

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6.8

Bracing Configurations - A Worked Example

The Pipe Rack in SITE-STRUCTURAL-AREA01 will be used in this worked example. This example demonstrates how to create a Pline rule, how to utilise bracing configurations, and how to the modifiy bracing gaps. The splitting of diagonal bracing sections around a horizontal beam is also demonstrated.

6.8.1

Create a Pline Rule

To assist the designer in creating bracing and modifying the bracing gap, a suitable user defined Pline Rule will be created. Select Settings > Pick Filters > Plines from the main menu to display the Pline Filter form and then click the Define Rule button to display the Define Rules form. Enter the following in the appropriate textboxes: Name: RHS Bracing Rule: PKEY INSET (TOS, BOS, LEFT, RIGH, NAL, NAR) Description: Rule for RHS Bracing Click the Include button to create the User Defined Pline Rule and click the OK button on the Define Rules form. The new rule is displayed on the Pline Filter form. Click the entry RHS Bracing to set it as the current Pline rule.

6.8.2

Create Bracing

Create a Subframe below FRMW ROW_K named ROW_K-BRACING and make it the CE. Select Create > Sections > Bracing Configurations from the main menu to display the Bracing form. Enter CE in the Storage area textbox. Click the Profile button in the Section Data area of the form to display the Section Specification form. Select British Standard from the Specification options list and Rect Hollow Sections from the Generic Type options list. Select a 150.0x100.0x5.0 profile, leave the three Pline Settings as NA. Click the Apply button to set the bracing specification and dismiss the Section Specification form. Leave the Bracing Plane at the default option of Derived by Section. Select 4. A/K Bracing(3), 3 picks from the Available Bracing Configurations list and click the Apply button to display the A/K Bracing(3), 3 picks form. Click the / \ Bracing (K) radio button and enter 200 in the Gap A text box and 150 in the Gap B textbox. Click the Confirm checkbox to set confirmation on.

Create the K bracing on ROW K between ROWS 1 and 2 by graphically picking column K1 at the bottom,
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 the beam at EL. (+) 104110 T.O.S. between ROWS 1 and 2 and column K2 at the bottom, in that order.

Click the Accept button to create the bracing. Create the K bracing on ROW K between ROWS 5 and 7 using the same gap values. Dismiss the A/K Bracing(3), 3picks form. From the Bracing form select the Defined option from the Bracing Plane option list. The Bracing Plane form will be displayed. The position and orientation of the bracing plane can be specified by entering co-ordinates and a plane direction in the form. Alternatively, graphical selections can be made of model elements using EDG picks. Navigate to the Positioning Control toolbar. Set the Pick Method to Pline and the Pick Type to Snap. Select the TOS Pline on the beam that spans between ROWS 2 and 5. On the Bracing Plane form select the Plane Fill/Unfill check box and set the Plane Direction to North. Click the Apply button followed by the Dismiss button. In the Bracing form, select option 1. Cross Bracing from the Available Bracing Configurations list and click the Apply button. The Cross Bracing form will be displayed. Enter 200 in both the Gap A and Gap B textboxes and click the Confirm checkbox. Create the cross bracing between ROWS 2 and 5 by graphically picking very near the bottom of column K2, then selecting just below the horizontal beam (at EL. (+) 104110) on column K5. Click the Accept button followed by the Dismiss button on the Cross Bracing form.

Create a SBFR below FRMW ROW_J named ROW_J-BRACING and make it the CE.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Create a list of the K bracing members on ROW K. Mirror copy the list to the ROW_J-BRACING SBFR. Connect the K bracing on ROW J to the appropriate beams and columns using the Connect > Connect option from the main menu. Revert to the Derived by Section Bracing Plane option on the Bracing form. Create the knee bracing on ROWS 1, 2, 5 and 7 using option 8, Knee Bracing(2). Remember to change the storage area for each ROW on the Bracing form.

6.8.3

Bracing Gaps

The bracing gap associated with the cross brace between ROW 2 and 5 will now be adjusted. Manipulate the 3D-view such that the bottom of column K5 and the intersecting cross brace can be clearly seen. Select Modify > Bracing Gap from the main menu to display the Brace Gaps form. Select option 4. Distance from start/end to Pline intersections from the Available Gapping list and click the Apply button to display the Brace Gap(s) form. Click the Confirm checkbox to turn confirmation on. Click and hold down the left mouse button on the RHS bracing member to display the Plines. Move the pointer to select the Pline running along the bottom of the RHS. When the cursor changes shape, release the mouse button. Click and hold down the left mouse button on the UB column to display the Plines. Select the nearest Pline at the centre of the web of the UB, this will either be the NAL or NAR Pline. The Gap A textbox on the Brace Gap(s) form will display the current measured gap value. Enter 75 in the Gap A textbox and click the Accept button to adjust the gap. Repeat this procedure with the other cross brace at the bottom of column K2. Adjust the bracing gap at the top of the two cross braces using option 2. Distance on picked Pline from a fixed point. Adjust the bracing gaps for the K bracing on ROWS K and J to comply with the drawings using similar methods. Make column K1 the CE. Select Position > Align Secondary Nodes from the main menu to re-align the SNOD elements after adjusting the bracing gaps. Repeat this for each section that has bracing attached.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Select Modify > Sections > Split from the main menu to display the Split Steel form. Select Graphical pick from the Add to list options list. Pick one of the the cross brace members on ROW K to be split then press the Escape key. From the Define split-on frame, select Pick Section(s) to split on from the options list. Graphically pick the other cross brace member on ROW K then press the Escape key. Click the Trimmed radio button then click the Split button. The Pipe Rack bracing should look like this:

Save Work.

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Exercise 5 Adding Bracing to the Equipment Support Structure


Create the ROW 3-BRACING in a new FRMW. Justify the bracing Angles at TOAX. Adjust the bracing gaps in accordance with the drawings. This will require a new Pline rule using the Plines TOAX, LBOA, NAL, NAR, BOS and TOS. Copy the ROW 3-BRACING FRMW to create a new ROW 5-BRACING FRMW and connect all the members. Create the knee bracing on ROW C, ROW E, ROW F and ROW H. The Equipment Support Structure bracing should now look like this:

Return to the GENSECs created for the Gantry beam in building B02. Merge the 3 GENSECs to create a single element. Save Work.

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CHAPTER 7

Section Fittings and Joints

This chapter describes how the 3D structural model may be detailed by adding section fittings and joints.

7.1

Section Fittings

Section fittings are catalogue items defined in Paragon. They are referenced in Design by FITT elements which are owned by SCTN elements. Each fitting is designed to be associated with one or more appropriate Plines for the particular section profile it is attached to. Due to catalogue parameterisation, one fitting type may be applied to all section sizes of a particular profile category it was designed for. A section fitting is positioned relative the start position of a SCTN element along its extrusion direction, i.e. its Z direction.

7.1.1

The Create Fitting Form

Selecting Create > Fitting > Single from the main menu, with a SCTN element as the CE, displays the Create Fitting form. The function of the form is briefly described in the sections that follow.

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7.1.1.1 Specification Data Area


The Specification Data area of the form enables the user to specify the exact fitting required. The Specification button and options list enables the user to select the type of fitting required, e.g. web stiffeners, lifting lugs, fire insulation, etc. The Section Type option list shows the Generic Type (GTYPE) of the SCTN that will own the fitting, i.e. the current element. The Sub-Type options list enables the user to select the sub-type of fitting e.g. a particular type or shape of stiffener. The scrollable list displays all available fittings for the Specification, Section Type and Sub-Type selected.

7.1.1.2 Settings Area


The Settings area of the form enables the user to select the position and orientation of the fitting. The Justification options list enables the user to select the Pline to which the fitting will be attached. The Pick Justification button from the options list. can be used to select the required Pline graphically rather than selecting

The Zdistance textbox enables the user to enter the distance from the section start to the fitting along the selected Pline. The Position Element button button may be used, in conjunction with the Positioning Control toolbar, to determine the position of the fitting and, therefore, the Zdistance graphically. The Beta Angle box is used to specify the rotation of the fitting around the owing sections Z axis. The Properties button is used to specify any Design Parameters that may have been used in the catalogue definition of the fitting. If Design Parameters have been used the Modify Properties form is displayed.

If no Design Parameters have been used an error message is displayed. The Plotfile button is used to display a sketch of the fitting if one has been supplied in the catalogue data set.

If no Plotfile has been supplied for the fitting an error message is displayed.

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7.1.2

Creating Section Fittings

When a section fitting is designed in Paragon, it is usually intended for use on one or more specific Plines which may be shown on the Plotfile. For the fitting to work as intended, the Justification Pline should be carefully selected. When a Justification Pline has been selected from the options list or graphically identified, an aid arrow is displayed at the Pline location on the section, pointing in the Z direction of the Pline. The aid arrow is identified by a text aid showing the Pkey of the fitting, i.e. the Pline name. The aid arrow is positioned along the Z direction of the section at the distance specified in the Z Distance textbox. The default Z Distance is 0. Fittings are usually designed in Paragon to a specific orientation such that the Beta Angle does not need to be modified from the default of 0. However, some fittings may work at different Beta Angles and entering a value in the Beta Angle textbox orientates the fitting around the fittings Z axis, i.e. the Z axis of the Justification Pline; the direction of the aid arrow.

The standard AVEVA catalogue provides simple examples of section fittings that are used for demonstrations and training. It is important for companies to develop their own catalogues for all section fitting requirements.

7.2

Joints

Like section fittings, joints are catalogue items that may be referenced by SJOI or PJOI elements. Joints may have positive geometry, to represent stiffeners, haunch plates, flange inserts, end plates, etc., or negative geometry to represent section end cutbacks, rat holes, bolt holes, etc., or a combination of positive and negative geometry. The positive and negative geometry definitions are held by the catalogue component and are, generally, parameterised so that the joint may be applied to any combination of similar shaped owning and attached sections. The joint is referenced by the Spref attribute of the SJOI or PJOI element.

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7.2.1

Joint Specification form

Selecting Modify > Joints > Specification prompts the user to Identify end of section joint is connected to. Although the SJOI is owned by an SNOD element, which is a member of the owning section, the user must select the attached section end. PDMS determines the attached and owning section generic types via the attached section attributes and present, via the specification, relevant joints based on these types.

The function of the form is briefly described in the sections that follow.

7.2.1.1 Specification Data Area


The Specification Data area of the form enables the user to select the exact joint required. The Specification button and options list enables the user to select the general type of joint required, e.g. column connections, tubular connections, end preparations, etc. The Sub-Type options list enables the user to select the sub-type of joint e.g. a joint with a certain number of bolt holes or specific stiffener thickness. The scrollable list displays all available joints for the Specification and Sub-Type selected.

7.2.1.2 Settings Area


The Settings area of the form allows the user to orientate the joint around the attached section. The Justification options list shows the Plines defined in the joint. This is commonly only one Pline, the NA. This Pline exists as a default alignment for the joint as it is aligned with the NA Pline of the attached section.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Beta Angle textbox is used to specify the rotation of the joint around the attached sections Z axis. Normally this is 0 for one end of a section and 180 for the opposite end. Which end is which depends in how the joint was created in the catalogue and how the section was defined. The Properties button is used to specify any Design Parameters that may have been used in the catalogue definition of the joint. If Design Parameters have been used the Modify Properties form is displayed.

If no Design Parameters have been used an error message is displayed.

The Plotfile button is used to display a sketch of the joint if one has been supplied in the catalogue data set. If no Plotfile has been supplied for the fitting an error message is displayed.

If Design Parameters have been used and a Plotfile has been specified in the joint data set, a combined sketch and Design Parameter input form is displayed.

7.2.2

Modify a Joint Specification

Having selected the required joint from the list and set any Design Parameter requirements, clicking the Apply button on the Joint Specification form creates the joint using the parameters of the owning and attached sections together with any design parameters used. Joints may be applied to ends of section individually. However, if a number of sections have the same Owning and Attached generic types and require the same end connections, a previously applied joint may be copied and applied to these section ends. Selecting Modify > Joints > Joint Like > Maintain Pline from the main menu prompts the user to Identify end of section to be copied like. Selecting an appropriate section end will then prompt the user www.aveva.com
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 to Identify end of section to be modified. Any number of ends may be selected and pressing the Escape key will end the selection process. The Spref attribute for each valid SJOI element in the selected section ends will be set to the same value as the copied section end and the geometry displayed in the graphical view. It should be noted that the joint geometry is adjusted to suit the section sizes of each joint. In cases where a joint is copied from one end of a section to the other, the Beta Angle of the new joint(s) may be orientated incorrectly by 180 degrees. Adjusting the Beta Angle value will rectify this.

7.3

Creating Section Fittings and Joints - A Worked Example

This worked example demonstrates the creation of some simple section fittings and joints based on the supplied catalogues.

7.3.1

Section Fittings

On the Pipe Rack make the horizontal beam on ROW J, between columns J1 and J2 the CE. Zoom into the centre of the beam where the two RHS bracing members connect. Select Create > Fitting > Single from the main menu to display the Create Fitting form. Select Stiffeners from the Specification options list, Double Full Depth from the Sub-Type options list and 8mm_Double_Stiffener from the list of available stiffeners. Select NAL from the Justification options list and click the Position Element button adjacent to the Zdistance textbox.

Set the Positioning Control toolbar to Pline and Snap. Graphically select a Pline on the inner sloping face of one of the RHS braces. Note that the arrow aid, labelled NAL, moves to the selected position. Click the Apply button to create a double stiffener aligned with the edge of the RHS brace. Repeat the process to place double stiffeners aligning with the other three faces of the two RHS braces.

Create a list of the FITT elements just created. Copy offset the FITT elements to the equivalent beam on ROW K between columns K1 and K2. Create similar stiffeners for the ROW J beam between columns J5 and J7 and copy offset these fittings to the equivalent beam on ROW K. Make column J2 the CE. Display the Create Fitting form and select Single Full Depth from the SubType options list and 8mm_Flange_Stiffener from the list of available stiffeners. The Justification should still be set at NAL from the previous task. Create two single full depth stiffeners to align with the horizontal beam between column J2 and J5 at EL (+) 107160 T.O.S. Note that the stiffener opposite the top flange is not flush with the TOS. This is because the stiffener is centre justified and, therefore, must be moved down by half the stiffener thickness.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Click the Navigate to Element button on the Utilities toolbar and pick the top stiffener to make it the CE. Select Modify > Attributes from the main menu to display the Modify Attributes from. Click in the Value cell adjacent to the Zdistance attribute. Note the current value and enter a new value that is 4mm less than the current value and press the Return key. The top of the stiffener is now flush with the top of the column.

Repeat the procedure to create two single full depth stiffeners on column J5. Make the beam between columns J2 and J5 the CE. Display the Create Fitting form and select Lifting Lugs from the Specification options list, Welded from the Sub-Type options list and 10mm_welded_lifting_lug (the only option) from the list. Select TOS from the Justification options list and enter 300 in the Zdistance textbox. Click the Apply button to create the lifting lug 300mm from the end of the beam. Set the Positioning Control toolbar to Pline and Distance and enter 300 in the distance textbox. Select the TOS Pline at the other end of the beam. The arrow aid is positioned 300mm from the selected end of the beam and the Zdistance textbox updated with the new distance. Click the Apply button to create the new lifting lug and then click the Dismiss button.

7.3.2

Joints

Select Modify > Joints > Specification from the main menu to display the prompt Identify end of section joint is connected to in the secondary prompt area. Pick the end of the beam between the tops of column J2 and J5 nearest the column J2 to display the Joint Specification form. Select Column Connections from the Specification options list, Column Web from the Sub-Type options list and 4M20_web from the list of available joints. Click the Properties button to display the Modify Properties form. Enter the following values in the appropriate textboxes: Dist from TOS Dist from BOS Thickness of Plt Notch Depth 0 12 12 0

Click the OK button on the Modify Properties form and the Apply button on the Joint Specification form to create the joint. Dismiss the Joint Specification form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Select Modify > Joints > Joint Like > Maintain Pline from the main menu to display the prompt Identify end of section to be copied like in the primary prompt area. Graphically pick the end of the beam to which the joint has just be applied to display the prompt Identify end of section to be modified in the primary prompt area. Graphically pick the other end of the beam near column J5. Press the Escape key twice to end the selection process and create the joint.

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Exercise 6 Adding Section Fittings and Joints to the Equipment Support Structure.
At the connection of the stair landing beam with the ROW 5 beam at EL(+) 107820 TOS, place an 8mm Single Partial Depth stiffener to align with the centreline of the stair landing beam. The partial depth stiffeners should be positioned in the upper part of the UB. Use a value of 150 for the Long length and 90 for the Short length.

Create a similar stiffener for the stair half landing beam at EL.(+) 104880 TOS. Where the ROW 3 horizontal beams connect with the column webs at EL(+) 107820 TOS create a 4M20_web joint (Specification Column Connections, Sub-Type Column Web) with the following properties:

Apply this joint to other beam/column web connections at EL(+) 107820 TOS. Where the horizontal beams on ROWS C to H (inclusive) at EL(+) 107820 TOS connect to the column flanges apply a 4M20_flange column connection.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 On the Equipment Support Structure create a PNOD at the bottom of all the columns. Apply a 20mm_thick_attached_base plate joint to the bottom of the columns.

Save Work.

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CHAPTER 8

Panel & Plate Elements

This chapter considers the way panel and plate elements are created in PDMS. Consideration is given to the hierarchy requirements for panel elements along with creation and modification methods. In order to create panels and plates users must switch structural utilities, via the Design main menu.

8.1

How PDMS Represents Panels & Plates

A panel (PANE element) can be used to represent any sheet material in a structural model. Using a similar principal to that for representing a section (which is an extruded 2D catalogue profile), a panel is represented by extruding a user defined 2D shape through a specified thickness. Two types of data define the panel geometry: 1. The panels planar area is defined by a Panel Loop (PLOO) element. A PLOO is defined by a set of Panel Vertex (PAVE) elements. Each PAVE has a specific position in the panels 2D geometry system. A line joining adjacent vertices defines each panel edge. 2. The panel thickness is defined by the Height attribute of the PLOO element. This represents the distance through which the 2D PLOO is extruded to form the 3D panel.

8.2

Panel Hierarchy and Attributes


Each element in the panel hierarchy has specific attributes that combine to define the panel geometry. Further consideration is given to the panel hierarchy and the geometry attributes in the sections that follow.

8.2.1

PANE Element

The Position attribute of the PANE holds the position of the panel origin with respect to the WORLD. The Orientation attribute of the PANE holds the orientation of the panel with respect to the cardinal axes. The Y (North) direction of a panel is defined as the direction from the first panel vertex to the second panel vertex.

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8.2.2

PLOO Element

The Height attribute of the PLOO element holds the thickness of the panel. The Sjustification attribute of the PLOO element holds the justification, i.e. top, centre or bottom, of the panel.

8.2.3

PAVE Element

The Position attribute of each PAVE element gives the vertex position with respect to the panel origin.

8.3

Initial Settings

As with creating sections and GENSECs, some initial default settings must be made prior to modelling panel elements.

8.3.1

Panel Specification

A panel specification can be set so that a range of thicknesses or an explicit panel thickness can be used. As panels are not catalogue items the Specification Reference (SPREF) does not have a Catalogue Reference (CATREF) and the selected thickness may be overwritten when creating the panel. The specification may be left unset and the panel thickness specified during panel creation. The Default Panel Specification is shown on the Panels & Plates toolbar and is initially unset.

Clicking the Set Panel Default Specification button displays the Plate Specification (Default) form. The default panel specification is selected by clicking the Specification button. Following specification selection, the default panel thickness may be selected from the range of values displayed. Selecting unset will not set the specification. Having selected the thickness clicking the Apply button sets the specification and default thickness.

8.3.2

Storage Areas

The Design database storage areas for panels are similar to the Section and Node storage areas for the Beams & Columns utility. The storage areas specify the Framework or Subframe where Panels and Primary Linear Joints (see Connecting Panels later in this training guide) will be placed when created.

The storage area can be set by navigating to an appropriate Framework, or Subframe, and clicking the button to the left of the appropriate textbox. If storage areas are not set the elements will be created under www.aveva.com the current element.
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The storage areas may also be set by selecting Settings > Storage Areas from the main menu to display the Storages Areas form, in the same way as described in section creation.

8.4

Creating Panels
Panels are created by selecting Create > Panel from the main menu to display the Create Panel form.

8.4.1

The Create Panel Form

The Create Panel form is divided into three areas which are described in the following sections.

8.4.1.1 Settings
Individual panels may be named or a given a description for additional information processing or model data extraction by entering the required text in the Name or Description textboxes. Where a panel specification has been selected the default thickness will appear in the Thickness textbox. The default thickness may be overridden by entering a new value; however, the following message will be displayed. Clicking Yes overrides the thickness value and sets the PANEs Spref attribute to Unset. Clicking the No button disregards the entered thickness value and leave the PANEs Spref set to the default value. If no panel specification has been set, a thickness must be entered in the Thickness textbox. This value is the distance the panel loop will be extruded through.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 A panel may be justified Top, Centre or Bottom. The justification determines which direction the panel loop will be extruded. Top Centre Bottom The panel loop will be extruded downwards by the panel thickness. The panel loop will be extruded downwards by half the panel thickness and upwards by half the panel thickness. The panel loop will be extruded upwards by the panel thickness.

8.4.1.2 Representation
As panels are not catalogue items, where Drawing Levels and Obstruction values are normally set, they may be set via the Create Panel form.

Drawing Levels and Obstruction Values are explained in TM - 1001 AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations.

8.4.1.3 Create Methods


Various methods of defining panel vertex positions or fillet arcs, which determine the vertex positions, are provided via the buttons in the Create Methods area of the form. The buttons are: Derive points from graphic picks allows the user to pick a point graphically using the Positioning Control toolbar. Derive points from centres & plines allows the user to construct a point using the intersection of two Plines with an existing panel. Trace boundary of another extrusion/panel allows the user to create vertices which follow the shape of an existing panel. Explicitly defined position allows the user to specify a position by entering explicit co-ordinates. Point offset from previous allows the user to specify a distance and direction which define a point relative to the position of the preceding vertex. Define arc fillet allows the user to construct a fillet arc with a specified radius between two picked tangent lines. Derived arc passing through three points allows the user to construct a fillet arc passing through three picked points. Fixed radius arc, passing through 2 points allows the user to construct a fillet arc with a specified radius, passing through two picked points, which curves towards a picked direction.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Below the Create Methods buttons a message displays the number of vertices that have been created for the panel loop. A panel loop requires a minimum of three vertices to be valid. After the definition of the first vertex, the message changes to display whether the panel has been created. The Remove Previous Point button becomes active, which allows the user to delete previous vertex definition. In the graphics view an aid will show the location of the first vertex, i.e. the default panel origin. The panel will not be displayed in the graphics view until the third vertex is defined, at which time the message will change to show that the panel has been created. As each vertex is defined an aid showing the position of the last vertex will be displayed in the graphics view. Once the third vertex has been defined and the panel created, an axis aid is displayed at the default panel origin. The aid shows the panels axis system, the Y (North) direction being defined by the direction from vertex 1 to vertex 2.

8.4.2

Hints on Creating Panels

A minimum of three vertices are required to create a panel. Panel vertices should always be created in a clockwise direction, as viewed from above. Anti-clockwise creation will give the wrong justification and direction. Vertices should maintain a clockwise numbering sequence, i.e. the loop should not self intersect. If several smaller panels are required, it is often quicker to create a large panel and split it as required. If edge cut-outs are required, it is often quicker to create the main panel and modify it for the cut-outs.

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8.5

Modifying Panels

Having created a panel, the PLOO geometry may be modified by moving, adding and deleting vertices, edges and arcs. The vertices may also be expanded or contracted by a specified amount. A group of vertices may be selected to be copied and inserted in a different part of the loop. Tools are provided to modify the group, e.g. move the origin or mirroring, before the group is inserted.

8.5.1

The Loop Vertex Editor form

With the panel to be modified as the CE, selecting Modify > Extrusion/Panel from the main menu displays the Loop Vertex Editor form. As with many of the forms used in PDMS, the Loop Vertex Editor form fulfills several functions. The form is divided into several areas which are described in the following sections.

8.5.1.1 Form Menus


The Loop Vertex Editor form menus contains the following options: Control > CE - When the form is displayed, the CE name is displayed beneath the form menu. Navigating to another panel and selecting this option makes the new CE the panel being edited by the form. The new CE name is displayed on the form. Control > Close - This option dismisses the form. Settings > Confirm - This is a toggle option. When set On the user must click the Create or Modify button at the bottom of the form to implement each creation or modification, depending which mode is current. When set Off, each creation or modification is implemented immediately. Settings > Confirm on delete This is a toggle option. When set On, the user must confirm each deletion in order to complete the command. When set Off, deletions are implemented immediately. Settings > Tag edges - This is a toggle option. When set On, each edge is tagged with the number of the vertex at its start. Edges are tagged automatically, regardless of this setting, if the panel has incorrect geometry for any reason (e.g. zero thickness). Settings > Free rotate - This is a toggle option. When set On this option allows groups of vertices to be oriented automatically when they are positioned relative, to say one edge, and are then moved to a different edge. Utilities > Remove Redundant - This option deletes redundant vertices in situations where two or more vertices have the same position.

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8.5.1.2 Mode Selection


The options in the Mode Selection area of the form enable the user to select a single vertex, an edge or a group of vertices to be modified or create a new vertex. Select all allows the user to select all vertices in the loop allowing them to be modified as a group. Select group to modify allows the user to select any number of individual vertices so they can be modified as a group. Select edge to modify allows the user to pick an edge to be modified. The adjacent Edge gadget shows the current edge number (i.e. the number of the vertex at its start). Select point to modify allows the user to pick a vertex to be modified. The adjacent Vertex gadget shows the current vertex number. Create points allows the user to create a new vertex, which will be allocated the next number in the sequence after the current vertex.

8.5.1.3 Vertex/Edge
The Vertex/Edge area of the form contains a Select button and a counter that shows the current vertex or edge, depending on the current mode. If the Select edge to modify button is clicked, the counter label will change to Edge and the counter will show the current edge. The Select vertex/edge button allows the user pick a vertex in the 3D View. The adjacent Vertex/Edge counter shows the current vertex/edge number, which is also tagged in the 3D View. The user can navigate to a specific vertex/edge by typing its number in the textbox or by using the up/down arrows to step through the list.

8.5.1.4 Group Definition


When a group of vertices are modified, the buttons in the Group area of the form become active. These options let the user modify the current group in the following ways.

These buttons affect only the Groups behaviour; they do not affect the vertex numbering for the panel loop. A Group may be the entire loop if the Select all button has been used. Reverse group definition - reverses the group definition by implicitly re-numbering all of the group vertices in the opposite sense (i.e., clockwise or anticlockwise). The origin moves to the other side of the gap. The sense of the current vertex sequence is shown by the aid arrow in the 3D View. Move start forwards - moves the open-side of the group, and the origin, one position forwards; that is, in the sense of the vertex numbering. Move start backwards - moves the open-side of the group, and the origin, one position backwards; that is, in the opposite sense to the vertex numbering.

8.5.1.5 Group Expand/Contract


A Group may be expanded or contracted by the value specified in the textbox adjacent to the buttons. Expand group - expands the group area by moving each edge outwards, by the distance specified in the adjacent Expand/Contract textbox, normal to its own direction. Contract group - contracts the group area by moving each edge inwards, by the distance specified in the adjacent Expand/Contract textbox, normal to its own direction.

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Expand/Contract applies to all edges in the Group, including those on panel protrusions. Excessive expansion or contraction of Groups may lead to invalid loop geometry being created.

8.5.1.6 Line
If an edge is modified, the buttons in the Line area of the form become active. These options enable the user to modify the current edge in the following ways. Extend start of line - moves the Start vertex along the edge direction to align it through a picked position. Use the Positioning Control options to pick the required position. Alternatively, if a line is selected, the Start vertex will be moved along the edge direction until it intersects the picked line. These operations can change the edge length. Extend end of line - moves the End vertex along the edge direction to align it through a picked position. Use the Positioning Control options to pick the required position. Alternatively, if a line is selected, the End vertex will be moved along the edge direction until it intersects the picked line. These operations can change the edge length. Make line parallel - moves the free vertex (lowercase tagging) around the reference vertex to align the edge with a picked line (another edge, a Pline etc.). This operation maintains the edge length.

8.5.1.7 Rotate
The options in the Rotate area of the form enable the user to rotate groups of vertices in the following ways. Rotate anti-clockwise - rotates the edge anticlockwise, through the rotation angle specified in the Angle textbox, about the reference end (uppercase tagging). This operation maintains the edge length. Rotate clockwise - rotates the edge clockwise, through the rotation angle specified in the Angle textbox about the reference end (uppercase tagging). This operation maintains the edge length.

8.5.1.8 Modify
The options in the Modify area of the form enable the user to carry out the following operations on the current Group selection. Insert selected enables the user to move a vertex group by inserting it at a different position in the loop sequence. Use the Vertex selector to navigate to the required point in the sequence; the group will be inserted after the current vertex. Mirror enables the user to move the current vertex, edge or group such that the new positions are derived by reflecting the original positions about a picked line (an edge, Pline, etc.). Delete selection enables the user to delete a group, edge or vertex from the loop definition. Define/Modify arc enables the user to manipulate a fillet arc at the current loop vertex. When this button is selected the Modify Arc form will be displayed and the Loop Vertex Editor form will become temporarily inactive.

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8.5.1.9 Aid Diameter


This section of the Loop Vertex Editor form allows users to control the size of the Aid Spheres displayed when modifying groups of vertices. The sphere diameter may be entered in the Aid Diameter textbox. Alternatively, the up and down arrows adjacent to the textbox may be used. Using the arrows will increase or decrease the size of the aid spheres in 5mm increments.

8.5.1.10 Vertex/Edge/Group Coordinates


The bottom area of the Loop Vertex Editor form displays co-ordinate data about the current vertex, edge or group, depending on the Selection Mode, together with radius information where applicable. For a vertex the X and Y (East and North) co-ordinates, with respect to the panel origin, are displayed. There is no Z co-ordinate as the panel loop is a 2D object. The Radius textbox allows the user to specify a radius to be applied to the loop at that vertex. This value is applied to the Fradius attribute of the vertex and may be positive or negative value. A value of 0, the default, will produce a sharp corner at the vertex. A positive value will produce a convex radius at the vertex. A negative value will produce a concave radius at the vertex.

For an edge the co-ordinates are given for the start or end of the edge. An aid is displayed in the 3D View showing which is the start and which is the end. By default the START of the edge, i.e. the vertex with the lowest number that forms the edge, is shown in uppercase and the end shown in lowercase. This means that any modifications made to the currently displayed co-ordinates will affect the START only. The options list in this area of the form becomes active when an edge is selected and enables various options of how the edge is to behave to be selected. Selecting the End option displays the END of the edge in uppercase and the start of the edge in lowercase. Modifications made will apply to the END of the edge only. It should be noted that modifying the length in either of these cases will move the edge start or end accordingly. The Aligned option displays both the START and the END of the edge in uppercase. Generally the user will only be able to modify an orthogonal edge in a direction normal to the edge itself. Care should be taken when modifying a non-orthogonal edge as unexpected results may occur. www.aveva.com
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Modify or Create button at the bottom of the form depend on the mode. In Modify mode clicking the button will change the current vertex or edge using the values in the X, Y, Radius or Length textboxes. In Create mode, i.e. when adding a new vertex, clicking the button will create a new vertex with the values displayed in the X, Y or Radius text-boxes.

8.5.2

Moving the Panel Origin

When creating a panel the Origin is placed at the first vertex by default and the X and Y co-ordinates of all other vertices in the panel relate to this position. Selecting Position > Panel Origin from the main menu and selecting a different vertex when prompted enables the user to use a different vertex in the PLOO as the panel origin. If the origin is redefined in this way, the coordinates of all vertices owned by the current panel loop are recalculated relative to the new origin such that their positions in the design model remain unchanged.

8.5.3

Modifying Panel Thickness

Although the panel thickness is set during creation it can be modified at any time. Make the panel to be modified the CE and select Modify > Thickness from the main menu to display the Panel Thickness form. Entering a value in the textbox and clicking the Apply button modifies the panel thickness.

8.5.4

Modifying Panel Justification

Although the panel justification is set during panel creation it can be modified at any time. Make the panel to be modified the CE and select Modify > Justification from the main menu. This displays the Set Justification form. Selecting Bottom, Centre or Top from the Justification list and clicking the Apply button modifies the panel justification. The In/Out checkbox enables the user to set the direction relative to the plane used to justify the panel as shown in the following diagram. In/Out justification is significant when Panel Fittings are considered.

8.6

Connecting Panels

Specified panel vertices or panel edges may be connected to other panels or section profiles. There are a number of connection mechanisms available, subject to the connection mode used.

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8.6.1

Connection Modes

Three principle modes for connecting panels exist; Edge to, Edges to, or Drag to Edge. These modes are considered in the sections that follow.

8.6.1.1 Edge to
These options connect a single edge to the selected item to be connected to. If the vertices describing the edge do not align with the selected item they are modified to align. Other edges adjacent to the selected edge remain at their previous locations.

8.6.1.2 Edges to
These options connect selected edges to the selected item to be connected to. If the vertices describing the edges do not align with the selected item they are modified to align. Relative geometry between the selected edges is not maintained.

8.6.1.3 Drag Edge to


These options drag the selected edges such that the nearest edge connects to the selected item but maintains the relative geometry of the selected edges.

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8.6.2

The Panel Connection Form

Selecting Connect > Connect from the main menu displays the Panel Connection form.

The form contains the following buttons to facilitate connections. Vertex to vertex - connects a vertex from a panel to a vertex of another panel. Edge to surface - connects an edge of a panel to the surface of another panel. Edges to surface - connects selected edges of a panel to the surface of another panel. Drag edge to surface - drags selected edge of a panel to surface of another panel. Edge to edge - connects selected edge of a panel to an edge of another panel. Edges to edge - connects selected edges of a panel to an edge of another panel. Drag edge to edge - drags selected edge of a panel to the edge of another panel. Edge to section - connects selected edge of a panel to selected Pline of a section. Edges to section - connects selected edges of a panel to selected Pline of a section. Drag edge to section - drags selected edge of a panel to selected Pline of a section. Trim all edges - trims all edges of current panel to suit current connections.

The way the panel geometry is modified depends on the selected option and is depicted graphically on the buttons.

8.6.3

Panel to Section Connections

Connecting a panel to a section creates a Section Linear Joint (SELJ) element owned by the selected section. The SELJ owns two Section Vertex (SEVE) elements that have Zdistance attributes to fix their position along the section. Two PAVE elements of the PLOO have logical connections, via their Mvertex attributes, to the SEVE elements.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Where the panel edge being connected is shorter than the section, the two PAVE elements describing the edge have their Mvertex attributes set to the name of the SEVE elements. Where the panel edge is longer than the section, the SEVE elements are set at the extremities of the section, and two new PAVE elements are created in the PLOO. The positions of the PAVE elements correspond to the SEVE elements and have their Mvertex attributes set to the name of the SEVE elements.

8.6.4

Panel to Panel Connections

Connecting a panel to another panel creates a Panel Linear Joint (PALJ) element. The PALJ owns two PAVE elements whose positions, generally (see below), coincide with the start and end positions of the connected panel edge. Two PAVE elements of the Attached panel have logical connections, via their Mvertex attributes, to the PAVE elements of the Owning panel.

When connecting a panel to the surface of another panel, the PALJ element is owned directly by the PANE element, even if the storage area for Panel Linear Joints has been set.

8.7

Creating and Modifying Panels - A Worked Example

This worked example uses the equipment rack created in previous exercises. It demonstrates the creation and modification of a panel.

8.7.1

Creating the Panel

Enter the Panels & Plates application by selecting Design > Structures > Panels & Plates from the main menu. Clear the Draw List and add back the /EQUIP_SUPPORT structure. Set the limits to the Draw List and view direction to Iso 3. Create a SBFR named EL(+)107820_TOS_PLATE owned by FRMW EL(+)107820_TOS. Make the SBFR the CE and set the Storage Areas by clicking the appropriate buttons on the Panels & Plates toolbar. Select Create > Panel from the main menu to display the Create Panel form and enter 20 in the Thickness textbox and select Bottom from the Justification options list. Leave the Representation settings at their defaults.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Make sure the Pline rule is set to Normal and click the Derive points from graphic picks button in the Create Methods area of the form. Set the Positioning Control toolbar to Pline and Intersect. Zoom into the top of column C3 and select the outer top of steel (LTOS or RTOS) Plines of the two connecting beams (not the cantilever beam). A text aid will be displayed at the intersection of the Plines showing the Origin of the panel. Note that the message on the form now reads: 1 Vertices defined (no Panel created).

Pan the view to the top of column H3 and again select the outer top of steel (LTOS or RTOS) Plines of the two connecting beams. Another text aid will be displayed at the intersection of these Plines at the position of the new vertex. Note that the message on the form now reads: 2 Vertices defined (no Panel created).

Pan the view to the top of column H5 and again select the outer top of steel (LTOS or RTOS) Plines of the two connecting beams (not the stair landing beam). Another text aid will be displayed at the intersection of these Plines at the position of the new vertex. Note that the message on the form now reads: 3 Vertices defined (Panel created).

Continue picking vertex points At the corners of the cantilevered stair landing using this method. It may be necessary to switch to wireline mode (F8 key) where the landing meets the main structure.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Finish the panel by panning to the top of column C5 and selecting the outside TOS Plines on the two connecting beams (not the cantilever beam). Click the OK button on the Panel Creation form to create the panel.

The deck plate should look like this:

8.7.2

Modifying the Panel

The panel requires modification to create cut-outs in the panel edge around the columns. This is achieved by introducing new vertices into the loop. Make sure the panel is the CE and select Modify > Extrusion/Panel from the main menu to display the Loop Vertex Editor form. Note that an axis aid, showing the axes with respect to the panel, is placed at Vertex 1, the panel origin. First new vertices will be added to the PLOO to make a cut-out around the top of column C3. Zoom into the top of column C3. Change the Positioning Control toolbar settings to Pline and Snap and press the F8 key to change the 3D View to wire-line. Make sure the Vertex counter is on 1 and the co-ordinates are X 0 and Y 0. The first new vertex is to be positioned between vertex 1 and vertex 2 and will have the same X co-ordinate as vertex 1. Click the Create points button and note that the Modify button at the bottom of the form has changed to the Create button, i.e. the form is now in Create mode. Click the X checkbox to lock the co-ordinate and pick the Pline on the north-west corner of column C3. A New vertex label is displayed at the new vertex position. Click the Create button on the form to create a new vertex 2. Rewind the vertex counter to vertex 8, i.e. the last vertex in the loop. Unlock the X co-ordinate and lock the Y co-ordinate. Pick the Pline on the south-east corner of column C3. A New vertex label is displayed at the new vertex position. Click the Create button on the form to create a new vertex 9.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Vertex 1 needs to be moved to a new location. Click the Select point to modify button in the Mode Selection area of the form and select vertex 1. The Create button has changed to the Modify button, i.e. the form is now in Modify mode. Unlock the Y co-ordiante and select the Pline on the north-east corner of column C3. A New position text displays the new position for vertex 1. Click the Modify button to move vertex 1 to its new location.

Similar cut-outs need to be made around column E3. Set the vertex counter to 2, lock the X co-ordinate and click the Create points button. Pick the Pline on the south-west corner of column E3 and click the Create button to create the new vertex 3. Unlock the X co-ordinate and lock the Y co-ordinate. Press the F8 key and pick the Pline on the south-east corner of column E3. Click the Create button to create new vertex 4. Unlock the Y co-ordinate and lock the X co-ordinate. Pick the Pline on the north-east corner of column E3 and click the Create button to create new vertex 5. Unlock the X co-ordinate then lock the Y co-ordinate. Pick the outside TOS Pline on the beam between column E3 and F3 and click the Create button to create the new vertex 6.

8.7.3

Using a Vertex Group

Column F3, F5 and E5 require similar cut-outs to column E3. This may be achieved by creating a group of the vertices that form the cut-out around column E3 and moving it to the correct location before inserting it into the loop. Rewind the vertex counter to 2. Click the Select group to modify button in the Mode Selection area of the form to display the prompt Pick points <escape> to select in the prompt area. When selecting vertex groups it is good practise to use an orthogonal view e.g. Plan North. Graphically pick four points, in a clockwise direction around the cut-out at the top of column E3 and press the Esc key. The group will be defined by four spheres, one at each of the four vertices that form the cutout with a larger sphere at the first vertex on the group, i.e. the group origin.

The group must be moved to column F3. Lock the X co-ordinate and unlock the Y co-ordinate. Pick the Pline on the south-west corner of column F3. The group moves such that its origin is on the edge of the www.aveva.com 136

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 panel and aligned with the corner of the column. Set the vertex counter to 6 and click the Insert selected button in the Modify area of the form to insert the group into the loop and create the cut-out.

Unlock the X co-ordinate and lock the Y co-ordinate. Pick the south-east pline of column F5. The group is now located correctly at column F5, however, the order of the vertices in the group must be reversed to fit the clockwise numbering sequence and the group must be mirrored to form a cut-out and not an outstand. Click the Reverse group definition button in the Definition area of the form. Note the group origin has been placed on the north side of the group. Click the Mirror button in the Modify area of the form to display the Pick line to mirror about prompt and graphically pick the edge of the panel. The group is mirrored to form the correct sequence of vertices for a cut-out. Set the vertex counter to the vertex before the group origin (i.e. 15) then click the Insert selected button.

Ensure the Positioning Control toolbar settings are set to Pline and Snap. Unlock the Y co-ordinate and lock the X co-ordinate. Pick the Pline on the north-east corner of column E5 to move the group. Set the vertex counter to 19 and click the Insert selected button to create the cut-out around the top of column E5. Create cut-outs around the tops of columns H3, H5 and C5. Click the Select All button in the Mode Selection area of the form. Enter 10 in the textbox in the Expand/Contract area of the form and click the Contract group button. Note that the vertex indicators move to their new positions. Click the Modify button to contract the whole loop by 10mm. Save Work.

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8.8

Connecting Panels A Worked Example


Create a centre justified gusset plate between column C3 and the cantilever stub beam south of ROW C at EL.(+) 107820 T.O.S., using the following dimensions:

Select Connect > Connect from the main menu to display the Panel Connection form. Click the Edge to Section button on the form to display the prompt Identify edge of panel to be connected in the secondary prompt area. Graphically pick near the top edge of the panel. The prompt changes to Identify pline on section to be connected to. Pick the BOS Pline on the beam and click the Yes button on the displayed confirmation message. Press the Esc key to complete the connection process. Make the beam the panel is connected to the CE and note the SELJ element and the two SEVE elements created by the connection. Query the attributes of each SEVE element and note the Zdistance and Posline values. Make the gusset plate the CE and query the attributes of PAVE 1 and PAVE 2, noting that the Mvertex attributes contain the name of one of the SEVE elements of the SELJ. Go to the Beams & Columns application and modify the Specification Reference of the cantilever stub beam to 152x89UB16kg/m. The line of the SELJ (Section Linear Joint) is visible on the underside of the beam. Go back to the Panels & Plates application and select Connect > Trim from the main menu. Select the gusset plate when prompted and press the Esc key to end the selection process and update the connection.

Reset the Specification Reference of the beam back to 203x133UB25kg/m and update the connection again. Save Work.

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Exercise 7 - Creating and Modifying Panels


On the Equipment Support structure create a 20mm thick deck plate at EL(+) 104880 TOS, including the stair half landing, in an SBFR. Create cut-outs around the columns. Contract the entire panel loop by 10mm. The deck plate should now look like this:

Save Work.

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CHAPTER 9

Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

Negative extrusions are negative geometry created in design to represent a hole or a cut-out in the body of the panel away from the edges. A panel fitting is a predefined catalogue item consisting of positive and/or negative geometries. Panel fittings are referenced in Design by PFIT elements. Panel fittings are similar to section fittings, described earlier in this training guide, but are owned directly by PANE elements.

9.1

Negative Extrusion Hierarchy and Attributes

A negative extrusion (NXTR element) is an extruded 2D polygonal shape that creates a cut-out in the owning panel. NXTRs are owned by PANE elements and have a similar hierarchy structure to them:

The planar area of the negative extrusion is defined by a LOOP element. The Loop element is defined by a set of vertices (VERT elements). The elements of the negative extrusion contain attributes that combine to create the cut-out in the owning panel.

9.1.1

NXTR Element

The Position attribute of the NXTR holds the position of the negative extrusion origin with respect to the PANE. The Orientation attribute of the NXTR holds the orientation of the panel with respect to the PANE. The Height attribute of the NXTR holds the thickness of the extrusion.

9.1.2

LOOP Element

The LOOP element holds no attributes affecting the extrusion geometry.

9.1.3

VERT Element

The Position attribute of each VERT element gives the vertex position with respect to the extrusion origin.

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9.2

Creating Negative Extrusions

As negative extrusions are owned by PANE elements the panel that will contain the NXTR must be the CE. Negative Extrusion are created by selecting Create > Negative Extrusion from the main menu to display the Create Negative Extrusion form.

9.2.1

The Create Negative Extrusion form

The Create Negative Extrusion form is similar to the Create Panel form; however, there are some significant differences. The form is divided into three areas which are described in the following sections. Individual extrusions may be named by entering a name in the textbox, however, it is not usual to do so.

9.2.2

Representation

As negative extrusions are not catalogue items, where Drawing Levels and Obstruction values are normally set, they may be set via the Create Negative Extrusion form.

Drawing Levels and Obstruction Values are explained in TM - 1001 AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations.

9.2.3

Settings

The Settings area of the form enables the user to select a surface of the panel, i.e. top or bottom, on which the LOOP will be created and to specify the depth of the negative extrusion. Clicking the Surface button prompts the user to Pick a surface to be used as a datum. Clicking on a surface of the panel automatically sets the orientation for the negative extrusion, e.g. if the panel is bottom justified and the top surface is selected, the LOOP will be created on the top of the panel and extruded downwards. Entering a value in the Hole depth textbox will set the depth of the negative extrusion. If the panel is to be penetrated completely, enter a hole depth slightly greater than the thickness of the panel. This will avoid any co-planar conflicts with the graphics display. Entering a Hole depth value less than the panel thickness will create a partial depth hole.

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9.2.4

Create Methods

The Create Methods area of the form is similar to the Create Panel form except that there are fewer options. All of the buttons function in exactly the same way as described for Panel creation. The same rules apply to creating a negative extrusion as to creating a panel, i.e. A minimum of three vertices are required to create the extrusion. Vertices should always be created in a clockwise direction. Vertices should maintain a clockwise numbering sequence.

9.3

Modifying a Negative Extrusion

Negative extrusions are modified by selecting Modify > Extrusion/Panel from the main menu to display the Loop Vertex Editor form. The form functions in exactly the same way for Negative Extrusions as described for Panels.

9.4

Creating and Modifying Negative Extrusions - A Worked Example

This worked example demonstrates the creation and modification of a negative extrusion in a panel, using the Equipment Support Structure. Set Holes Drawn to off on the Representation tab of the Graphics Settings form. Make the panel at EL(+) 107820 TOS the CE and select Create > Negative Extrusion from the main menu to display the Create Negative Extrusion form. Click the Surface button in the Settings area of the form and pick the top surface of the panel. As the panel is 20mm thick enter 22 in the Hole depth textbox. Click the Explicitly Defined Position button in the Create Methods area of the form to display the Define Vertex form, note that the default co-ordinates are set to 0, 0, 0 wrt World. Enter CE in the wrt textbox and press the Return key. The co-ordinates now show the panel origin position. Enter 0 for all three co-ordinates and note that a Vertex position label is now displayed at the panel origin. Enter co-ordinates of East 500, North 500 and Down 0. Note that the Vertex position label has moved to the co-ordinates specified. Click the Apply button on the form and note that a new label, Origin, is displayed at the co-ordinates. Dismiss the Define Vertex form. Click the Point offset from previous button to display the Define Vertex form. Enter N in the Direction textbox and 300 in the Distance textbox. Click the Apply button on the form and note that the Last Vertex label is displayed at the new co-ordinates and the New Vertex label is displayed at the direction and distance specified. Enter E and 500 respectively in the Direction and Distance textboxes and click the Apply button again to create the third vertex. The extrusion is defined and the extrusion shape appears as black lines on the surface of the panel. Enter S and 300 respectively in the Direction and Distance textboxes and click the Apply button again to create the fourth vertex. Dismiss the Define vertex form. Check the Display modification form checkbox on the Create Negative Extrusion form and then click the OK button. The Create Negative Extrusion form is dismissed and the Loop Vertex Editor form displayed.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Modify each vertex to add a 50mm radius curve at each corner of the negative extrusion. Turn Holes drawn on to display the negative extrusion hole. Save Work.

9.5

Creating a Panel Fitting

Panels are often used to model floor and wall elements. These elements may require access points through them. PDMS allows users to model access hatches, doors, windows, and other catalogue elements, as panel fittings.

9.5.1

The Create Panel Fitting Form

With a suitable panel set as the current element, users can display the Create Panel Fitting form by selecting Create > Fitting > Single from the main menu. The main features of this form are considered in the sections that follow.

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9.5.1.1 Specification Data area


The Specification Data area of the form enables the user to select the exact fitting required. The Specification pull-down enables the user to select the type of fitting required, e.g. standard access, standard doors, standard windows, etc. The Generic Type pull-down enables the user to select the generic type of fitting described in the specification. The Sub-Type pull-down allows the user to select the sub-type of fitting e.g. a particular style of standard access. The scrollable list displays all available fittings for the Specification, Generic Type and Sub-Type selected.

9.5.1.2 Settings area


The Settings area of the form is where the fitting is justified, orientated and positioned with respect to the owning panel. The Justification options list enables the user to specify the positioning of the fitting within the thickness of the panel and the direction of the fitting with respect to the panel.

The origin of the fitting, as defined in the catalogue, can be positioned on the Top, Centre or Bottom of the panel. Inwards and outwards relates to the plane direction used to justify the panel. If the selected direction is incorrect it may easily be modified to ensure the fitting is correctly orientated. The Beta Angle textbox is used to specify the rotation of the fitting around its Z axis. The Position box displays the current position of the fitting origin. By default the position is set to the origin of the owning panel and is displayed wrt /*. Clicking the Pick Position button displays the Positioning Control toolbar and the Pick Fitting Position form. The form shows the default fitting origin position, i.e. the panel origin, wrt the WORLD. The position may be specified wrt the owning panel by entering CE in the wrt textbox and pressing the Return key. The position co-ordinates may then be adjusted to correctly position the fitting origin. It is important to take into account the orientation of the panel when specifying the co-ordinates. A text aid shows the position of the fitting as the co-ordinates are adjusted. The Properties button is used to set any Design Parameters that may have been used in the catalogue definition of the fitting. The Plotfile button is used to display a sketch of the fitting, if one is supplied in the catalogue data set. Having selected, positioned and oriented the fitting, clicking the Apply button on the form creates the fitting.

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9.6

Modifying Panel Fittings

Selecting Modify > Fitting from the main menu displays the Modify Panel Fitting form. The Modify Panel Fitting form functionality is the same as the Create Panel Fitting form except that altering the settings modifies an existing fitting. The position of a panel fitting may also be modified by selecting the Position > Explicitly (AT) or Position > Relatively (BY) options from the main menu. It should be noted that the user cannot re-position the panel fitting in the Up or Down directions, i.e. Z wrt panel, using these options. The orientation of a panel fitting may also be modified by selecting the Orientate > Rotate or Orientate > Angle options from the main menu. The Angle may also be modified from the Command Line.

9.7

Creating and Modifying Panel Fittings - A Worked Example

This worked example demonstrates how to create and modify a panel fitting. Make the panel at EL(+)107820 TOS the CE. Select Create > Fittings > Single from the main menu to display the Create Panel Fitting form. Select Standard Access from the Specification options list, Access Cover from the Generic Type options list and Standard Manhole Access from the Sub-type options list. Click the Pick Position button to display the Pick Fitting Position form and enter CE in the wrt textbox. Enter 0, 0, 0 in the co-ordinate textboxes and the Through Position label is displayed at the panel origin. Enter co-ordinates of East 2000, North 750 and Up 0 and note that the label has moved to the new coordinates. Click the OK button on the Pick Fitting Position form and note that the Position coordinates have changed on the Create Panel Fitting form. Click the Apply button on the Create Panel Fitting form to create the fitting, then dismiss the form.

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Make the panel fitting the CE and select Modify > Fitting from the main menu to display the Modify Panel Fitting form. Enter 90 in the Beta Angle textbox and click the Apply button. The access cover fitting is rotated by 90. Try each of the Justification options and note the changes to the position and orientation of the fitting. Dismiss the Modify Panel Fitting form. Save Work.

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Exercise 8 Creating and Modifying Negative Extrusions


Create a 1000mm diameter negative extrusion in the centre of the panel at EL(+)104880 TOS between grids C and E.

Save Work.

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CHAPTER 10

10 Volume Modelling
Volume Models are sometimes used to model civil items such as concrete base slabs, plinths, site roads, or dedicated space for access and egress. Volume models are essentially, equipment items that are not EQUI elements. They may be used to model any item in PDMS that is to be constructed from primitives, but is not required to appear as an EQUI element in the Design Explorer.

10.1 The Volume Model Hierarchy


Volume Model (VOLM) elements are owned by Zones (ZONE). VOLM elements have some of the attributes of an EQUI and may own primitives directly, with the exception of Nozzles. VOLM elements may own one or more optional Sub-Volume Models (SVOLM) elements which may own any primitive except Nozzles. The SVOLM elements are used to break down Volume Models into sub-parts. They are similar to SUBE elements, sharing a number of the same attributes.

10.2 Creating VOLM and SVOLM Elements


In the Design General application, selecting Utilities > General from the main menu displays the User General Utilities form.

With a ZONE as the CE, selecting Create > (c) Volume Model from the form menu displays the Volume Model form. The form is similar to the Create Equipment form.

See TM - 1001 AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations.

VOLM elements may be named and the Position option lists and textboxes enable its origin to be set with respect to any element.

With a VOLM as the CE, selecting Create > (c) SubVolume from the form menu displays the Sub Volume Model form. This form is similar to the Create Sub-equipment form.

See TM - 1001 AVEVA Plant (12.1) PDMS Foundations.

SVOLM elements may be named and the Position option lists and textboxes enable its origin to be set with respect to any element.

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10.3 Creating Primitives


Primitives may be owned directly by a VOLM element or by a SVOLM element. All primitives, except NOZZ elements may be owned by the elements. Selecting Create > (c) Primitives from the User General Utilities form menu displays the Create Primitive form (as used in the Equipment application).

10.4 Creating Volume and Sub Volume Models A Worked Example


This worked example creates some civil engineering items, specifically the concrete base slab, in Area 01. It is common in PDMS to represent concrete civil engineering works with EQUI elements; however, for this example the slab is a UDET based on a VOLM. The plinths and bases will be UDETs based on a SVOLM, owned by the slab. Exit PDMS and login to again as a Civils Designer using the details provided by the Trainer, for example: Project: Training (TRA) Username: A.CIVILMAN Password: A MDB: A-CIVIL Module: Design

The details of the slab are shown in the following General Arrangement drawing.

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10.4.1 Creating the Slab UDET


Select Utilities > User Grid Systems from the main menu to display the User Grid Systems form. Ensure AREA_01_GRID is selected on the form then click the Gridline IDs radio button followed by the Display button. Set the view direction to Iso3 and click the Set View Limits to Grid button.

Click the Close button to dismiss the form. Enter the Equipment application and navigate to /SITE-CIVIL-AREA01. Create a new Zone /ZONE-CIVILAREA01 and make it the CE. In the Command Window enter NEW :SLAB /BASE_SLAB. The User Defined Element Type :SLAB has been previously defined in Lexicon. Query the attributes and note that the ActType is :SLAB and the Type is VOLM. Select Position > Explicitly (AT) from the main menu to display the Explicit Position form. On the Positioning Control Toolbar, set the Pick Type to Aid and the Pick Method to Snap. Left click on the grid at the intersection between Gridline ID A and Gridline ID 0, i.e. the south-west corner of the horizontal grid. The Explicit Position form should now show the origin of the slab at W 322000 N 289000 U 100000. Click the Apply button and then the Dismiss button.

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10.4.2 Creating the Slab Primitive


The slab profile could be made of several BOX primitives; however, it may also be made from an extrusion. Select Create > Primitives from the main menu to display the Create Primitive form. Click on the Extrusion button or link label to display the Create Extrusion form. Enter 22000 in the Thickness textbox. Leave the Representation at Default, Levels 0 10, Obstruction Hard. Click the Explicitly defined position button to display the Define vertex form.

Extrusions are similar to panel elements. 2D shapes are created using vertex points that define a loop. The loop is then extruded through a distance. Enter /BASE_SLAB in the wrt textbox so that the extrusions origin is with respect to its owner. The co-ordinates will be updated on the form. Enter 0 in each of the three co-ordinate textboxes so that the extrusion origin is at the origin of the :SLAB. Click the Apply button to create vertex 1 and then click the Dismiss button.

A text aid showing the Origin of the extrusion is displayed in the 3D View. Click the Point offset from previous button on the Create Extrusion form to display the Define vertex form. Enter D (with respect to world) in the Direction textbox and 600 in the Distance textbox. Click the Apply button to create vertex 2. Do not dismiss the form. A text aid showing the Last Vertex is displayed in the vertex 2 position. Note that on the Create Extrusion form the text 2 Vertices defined (No extrusion created) is displayed. As with panel elements, a minimum of three points are required to describe a shape; therefore the extrusion is not displayed until after the creation of the third vertex.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Using the Define vertex form, continue creating the remaining vertices using the data from the following table, remembering to click the Apply button on the Define vertex each time new data is entered. The number of vertices created is displayed on the Create Extrusion form. Vertex No. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Direction E D E U W D W U W D W U Distance 17400 600 1600 1200 450 900 900 900 16950 400 450 400

After creating vertex 14, click the Dismiss button on the Define vertex form. Click the OK button on the Create Extrusion form. The Stabiliser BASE_SLAB should now look like this:

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Exercise 9 Creating Volume Models


This exercise creates further civil engineering elements for the Stabiliser Plant Area 01, specifically equipment bases and column plinths. To see where equipment bases are required, add the Site SITE-EQUIPMENT-AREA01 from the Design Explorer. The Plinths and Bases will be created using UDETs that have been created for this purpose. Both the :PLINTH and the :BASE UDET are based on a SVOLM element and will be owned by the slab created in the worked example. Each plinth should be named using its grid reference, i.e. PLINTH_C3, PLINTH_C5, etc. A plinth will be modelled using a single BOX primitive 400mm square on plan and 400mm high (i.e. the top of each plinth is at EL.(+) 100400). Plinths for the Equipment Structure are located at the intersection of gridline IDs C3, C5, E3, E5, E6, F3, F5, H3, and H5. Seven equipment bases are required; one for Stabilizer Column C1101, two for the Reboiler E1301 and one each for the Pumps P1501A, P1501B, P1502A and P1502B. The base for C1101 is to be created as a UDET :BASE. The base will be 2200mm square in plan and be 305mm high, i.e. the top of the base is at EL. (+) 100305. The base should be centred on the centreline of the Stabilizer Column and consist of a single BOX primitive. The bases for E1301 is to be created as a UDETs :BASE. Each base is 750mm long in the East/West direction, 500mm long in the North/South direction and is 845mm high, i.e. the top of the base is at EL. (+) 100845. The bases should be centred on the equipment saddles and consist of a single BOX primitive. The bases for P1501A and P1501B are to be created as UDETs :BASE. Each base will be 1440mm long x 560mm wide x 305mm high, i.e. the top of the bases is at EL. (+) 100305. The bases should be centred on the pump baseplates and consist of a single BOX primitive. The bases for P1502A and P1502B are to be created as UDETs :BASE. Each base will be 1730mm long x 840mm wide x 305mm high, i.e. the top of the bases is at EL. (+) 100305. The bases should be centred on the pump baseplates and consist of a single BOX primitive. The finished civil works for the Stabilizer Plant Area 01 should look like this:

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CHAPTER 11

11 Material Assignment
The structural elements in a model may be assigned a material reference so that mass properties, i.e. weight and Centre of Gravity, may be calculated and reported.

11.1 How Structural Materials are Stored in PDMS


Structural materials are stored in the Properties database as Solid (SOLI) elements. The SOLI element has Name and Description attributes that are used in the assignment of materials for structural elements. The SOLI owns a Table of Density (TDEN) element that owns a Spot Density (SDEN) element. The SDEN element has a Density attribute that holds the materials density in kg/m. Materials are, generally, defined by the Administrator and may be Project specific, depending on the structural material naming required for a project. For example, steel grade ASTM A36 may be defined as Type 1 steel on certain projects with the definition being held in the Project Specification.

11.2 Material Assignment


Materials are assigned to structural elements via the Material Reference ( Matref) attribute for the following elements: Framework (FRMW) Subframe (SBFR) Section (SCTN) Generic Section (GENSEC) Section Fitting (FITT) Primary Joint (PJOI) Secondary Joint (SJOI) Panel (PANE) Panel Fitting (PFIT)

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11.2.1 Setting the Material Reference


Selecting Modify > Material... from the main menu in the Beams and Columns or Panels & Plates application displays the Set Material form. The current element is displayed at the top of the form and may be changed by navigating to a new CE in Design Explorer and selecting CE from the adjacent options list.

The options list contains the following additional options: list this option makes the current list the starting point for the material assignment. If no list exists an error message is displayed.

Pick this option enables elements to be picked form the 3D view to apply the material reference to.

The scrollable list on the Set Material form displays all of the material in the Properties database that may be assigned to the structural elements. The names in the list are the Description attribute of the SOLI elements and the displayed density is the value from the Density attribute of the SDEN element owned by SOLI element. Selecting an entry in the list highlights the material. The Cascade Material to all offspring checkbox, if checked, assigns the selected material to all valid elements below the selected CE, in the current list or elements picked from the 3D view. For the CE and list options, clicking the Apply button after selecting a material highlights the valid elements to which the material will be applied and displays a confirmation message. For the Pick option, clicking the Apply button enables elements to be picked form the 3D view. The picking process is terminated by pressing the Esc key. The picked elements are then highlighted and a confirmation message displayed. Clicking the Yes button sets the Matref attribute for the valid elements to the Name of the SOLI element. Clicking the No button abandons the material assignment.

11.2.2 Notes on Material Assignment


If a structural model contains many members that have the same material reference, it is often more expedient to assign all elements with the predominant material and then modified the few (specific) elements that have a different material, i.e. assign the material at, say, STRU level and then assign a different material to primary beams, columns or plate. If material is assigned to a FRMW or SBFR before any elements are created below them, the valid created elements will inherit the same material reference as their owner.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Positive geometry in catalogue fittings and joints may be assigned a different material to the owning section or panel by applying a different Matref to a FITT, SJOI or PFIT. However, all positive geometry in the catalogue fitting or joint will have the same material reference. If individual components of a fitting or joint require different material references they must be created as template fittings and joints which contain individual sections and panels that may be individually assigned materials. If a FITT, SJOI or PFIT do not have a Matref set then any mass property calculations will assume that these elements have the same material reference as their owner.

11.3 Assigning Material A Worked Example


Exit PDMS and re-enter as a Structural Designer using the details provided by the Trainer, for example: Project: Training (TRA) Username: A.STEELMAN Password: A MDB: A-STRUCTURAL Module: Design

Navigate to STRU EQUIP_SUPPORT below SITE SITE-STRUCTURAL-AREA01 to make it the CE and add it to the 3D view. Make the view direction Iso 3 and click the Walk to Draw List button on the 3D view. Make the FRMW ROW_3_BRACING the CE and in the Command Window enter Q MATREF and press the Return key. Note that PDMS returns Matref unset, indicating that no material has been assigned to the FRMW. Repeat this process with some of the SCTNs in the FRMW and check some of the other FRMWs, SCTNs and PANEs. Make STRU EQUIP_SUPPORT the CE and select Modify > Material from the main menu to display the Set Material form. Select the material S275JR Steel from the list, check the Cascade Material to all offspring checkbox and click the Apply button to highlight the complete Equipment Support Structure and display the confirmation message.

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Click the Yes button on the confirmation message. Do not dismiss the Set Material form. Select various members of the STRU EQUIP_SUPPORT and check the Matref setting. All of them will return /GR275.

At the 12.1 release a number of material definitions have been updated in PDMS. However, to maintain compatibility with reports created in previous versions of PDMS, the old Matref descriptions have been maintained. Hence there is a distinction between the description selected and the Matref description returned.

Make a list named COLS and add the nine columns of the Equipment Support structure to it. Close the List/Collections form. On the Set Material form select list from the options list at the top of the form and note that the name COLS is displayed next to the options list. Select material S355J0 Steel from the list and click the Apply button on the Set Material form. Note that the nine columns have been highlighted. Click the Yes button on the confirmation message. Navigate to column D3 and check that the Matref attribute is /GR355I. Navigate to SNOD 7 of column E3 and check the Matref of each of the three SJOI elements owned by the SNOD. Note that each one is set to /GR355I and, therefore, the end plates on the beam to column joints will be assigned this material. On the Set Material form select Pick from the options list at the top of the form, select material GR275 from the list and click the Apply button to display the prompt Identify element in the secondary prompt area. Pick the panel on the top level of the Equipment Support Structure and press the Esc key. A message is displayed saying that no modification is required. This is because the panel material was previously set to S275JR Steel. Click the OK button on the form to dismiss it.

Select material TREAD GRADE from the list and click the Apply button on the Set Material form to display the Identify element prompt again. This time pick the both the upper and lower panels of the Equipment Support Structure and press the Esc key. Note that both panels are highlighted. Click the Yes button on the confirmation message. Check that the panel Matref attributes are set to /TREAD. Save Work.

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Exercise 10 Assigning Material References


For the PIPERACK structure assign the material S275JR to all horizontal beams and bracing members and material S355J0 to all columns. Save Work.

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CHAPTER 12

12 Hole Management 12.1 Overview


On a typical AVEVA Plant project it is necessary for designers to create holes in panel elements, i.e. deck plates, grating, walls, floors, etc. This can have a significant impact on design integrity and cost. Within PDMS the Hole Management utility can be used to assist designers in managing the processes of hole creation and modification.

12.2 Introduction to Hole Management


PDMS controls and manages holes using the Hole Management utility which facilitates: Communication of hole data between disciplines including the Request and Approval processes. Ensuring holes are only created by users with appropriate write access permissions. Performing validation checks on managed holes and providing feedback to users on the hole status. Generation of reports for managed holes.

Generally in AVEVA Plant projects discipline Designers do not have write access to items created by other disciplines, i.e. a Piping Designer does not have write access to Structural elements and Structural Designers do not have write access to Piping elements, etc. In the Hole Management utility penetration holes are specified and requested by the penetrating discipline, normally piping, HVAC or equipment designers. Approval of hole requests is provided by the team that owns the penetrated element, normally structural Designers. For cases where a penetration is required, say, for a steel section through a deck/floor plate, the hole would be specified, requested and approved by the structural discipline. The specification of a penetration hole by the relevant discipline in the appropriate Design application creates a virtual hole in the panel element, consisting of a FRMW and two FIXING elements. Each fixing element has a Specification Reference (Spref) attribute that points to the hole definition in the catalogue. An Association (ASSOC) element that references all of the hole elements is also created. Once the virtual hole has been created the penetrating discipline enters the Hole Management application and requests the hole. The owner of the panel, normally the Structural discipline, then reviews and approves (or rejects) the hole request using the mechanism provided by the Hole Management application. The act of approving the request creates the actual hole as a PFIT owned by the PANE element. The Hole Management application checks and validates the hole using the association restrictions and stores data on the hole history and status. Only valid holes may be approved. For a structural penetration the Structural Designer may be both the requester and approver. Specific company procedures, controlled by Data Access Control (DAC), may be required if the Originator and Reviewer need to be different personnel.

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12.2.1 Hole Element Storage


The virtual hole FIXING elements are stored in a FRMW owned by a STRU whose Purpose attribute is set to HOLE. The image shows a typical setup.

The STRU element is normally pre-defined by the System Administrator in a specific Design database. If a suitable STRU does not exist, the following error message is displayed: The Hole Management associations are stored in an Association Group (ASSOGP) element owned by an Association World (ASSOWL) element. The ASSOGP must also have its Purpose attribute set to HOLE. The ASSOWL and ASSOGP elements are normally pre-defined by the System Administrator. An association is created for each hole and named on a simple sequential numbering system. Each association has several members of different element types that are not within the scope of this training guide. The Design Explorer may look like this:

If no ASSOGP element with the Purpose set to HOLE can be found, the Hole Management application will create an ASSOGP in the first writeable ASSOWL element and set the Purpose attribute. If no writeable ASSOWL element can be found the following error message is displayed.

12.2.2 Request and Approval Workflow


Once the penetration hole has been specified and the virtual hole created, the Hole Management application provides a series of tasks for the Originator (Penetrating discipline) and Reviewer (Structural discipline). These tasks are: Originator Tasks Request Redundant Cancel Request Delete Entry Reviewer Tasks Approve Reject Agree Redundant

There are three main workflow scenarios for the request/approval cycle that are detailed in the following sections.

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12.2.2.1 Hole Creation/Modification Workflow

In this workflow the Originator creates the virtual hole and then either requests it or deletes the entry. Once requested, the Originator may cancel the request and delete the entry prior to it being reviewed. If requested and not cancelled or deleted, the Reviewer checks the hole details and, if acceptable, approves it, thereby creating the actual hole. If the Reviewer rejects the hole, the Originator may re-request the hole without modification, modify the virtual hole and then re-request it, cancel the request or delete the entry.

12.2.2.2 Redundant Hole Workflow

In this workflow the actual hole has been created. The Originator decides that the hole is now redundant and sets its status to Redundant. Before the Originator can delete the entry the Reviewer must agree that the hole is redundant.

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12.2.2.3 Rejected Hole Workflow

In this workflow the actual hole has been created. The Reviewer, possibly due to changed conditions, decides to reject the hole. The Originator has the option to: Modify the hole and re-request it, whereby it will go through the normal review and approval cycle. Cancel the request, in which case the virtual hole details remain Delete the entry, in which case the entire hole is deleted and the virtual hole and association deleted. The actual hole is deleted and the panel restored to its original state.

12.2.3 Non-Penetration Managed Holes


In addition to penetration holes, the Hole Management application enables creation of non-penetration holes in structural panels. These holes fall into two general categories: Holes is structural elements to allow access, e.g. access through a panel to a valve stem. Holes that are created by panel fittings, e.g. a hatch, door, window, etc.

For non-penetration managed holes that are not created by a fitting, with the exception of a User Defined hole type, the virtual hole is created as a single FIXING in a new FRMW . This fixing has a Specification Reference (Spref) attribute that points to the hole definition in the catalogue. An Association (ASSOC) element that references all of the hole elements is also created. Approving the hole creates an PFIT owned by the PANE. User Defined hole shapes are created using a template and negative extrusion in a similar way as described below for Fitting holes. For non-penetration holes that are created by a panel fitting, the virtual hole is created as a single FIXING in a new FRMW. The fixing owns a Template (TMPL) element that owns a negative extrusion (NXTR) whose vertices describe the required hole shape. The fitting is created as a FIXING element owned by the PANE whose Spref attribute points into the catalogue to the selected fitting. An Association (ASSOC) element that references all of the hole elements is also created. Approving the hole creates an NXTR owned by the PANE that is a copy of the virtual hole NXTR. Non-penetration managed holes, of either type, may be associated with any other element in Design. The holes have the same request/approval process as penetration holes, however, as they are created solely by the structural discipline the Structural Designer may be both the requester and approver.www.aveva.com
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12.2.4 Use of the Hole Management Application


The Hole Management application, as with other applications that use associations, is passive, i.e. the user is not alerted if a hole association is broken or invalidated. The user must enter the Hole Management application and actively verify if the association is still valid. The use of the application will vary from company to company. In some it may be down to the individual Designers to request and approve holes, whilst in others it may be the discipline lead Designer or a designated user who performs the tasks.

12.3 The Penetrations Toolbar


The Penetration toolbar is displayed by default provided suitable storage areas for vitrual holes, coaming, and hole associations exist. The toolbar replicates functionality that can be accessed via the main Utilities menu. The Penetration toolbar has been designed for use with the piping and HVAC applications only, and it should not be used for hole management within the Structural Applications or other design disciplines.

12.4 Penetration Holes A Worked Example


Although the creation and requesting of a non-structural penetration hole is generally performed by nonstructural personnel, e.g. Piping Designers, Equipment Designers, HVAC Designers, etc., for the purposes of this worked example, i.e. to show the complete workflow, these types of holes will be created and requested as well as approved. Hole Management workflow depends on the various discipline elements being in different databases with no write access from other disciplines, e.g. Structural Designers do not have write access to Piping components and vice-versa; this would normally require the user to be logged in as a specific discipline Designer. For the purposes of this worked example the Switch User tab in the Training Setup form will be used. This tab allows users to switch to the appropriate discipline for the request/approval workflow without exiting and re-entering PDMS. This would not normally be the case in real projects. Select Utilities > Training Setup from the main menu to display the Training Setup form. Navigate to the Switch User tab. The current MDB and user details will be displayed in the form. The first penetration to be considered is a pipe passing through a panel. The penetration will be created by the piping discipline. As such, the user details for a piping user need to be entered. The trainer will provide the required login details, typically they will be of the form: Username: A.Piper Password: A Enter the login details in the New User Name and New User Password textboxes in the Switch User tab. Click the Switch button and click the Yes button on the resulting save work confirmation message. Close the Training Setup form.

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12.4.1 Creating a Pipe Penetration


Select Design > Pipework from the main menu to enter the Piping application. Empty the drawlist then navigate to SITE-STRUCTURAL-AREA02 and add ZONE AREA02_WORKSHOP_BUILDING. Navigate to SITE-PIPING-AREA02, open ZONE-PIPING-AREA02, then add PIPE FIRE-1 to the view. Click the Walk to Drawlist button and set the view direction to Iso 3. The 3D View will now look like this:

Select Utilities > Pipe Penetration > Create Penetration from the main menu to display the Create Penetration form. Click the Pick Penetrated Items button on the form and graphically select the panel at the western end of the workshop building. The panels system name is displayed in the grid below the button. Click the Pick Penetrating Items button on the form and select the northern most pipe entering the workshop (Branch 1 of pipe FIRE1). The pipe name is displayed in the grid below the button.

Multiple penetrated items and multiple penetrating items may be selected. The same penetration hole is applied to all selected penetrating items.

Leave the Specification options list set to Penetrations and click the OK button on the form to dismiss it and display the Hole Management Definition form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Hole Shape selection area of the form contains Class options lists that enables the user to select the class of hole, i.e. Standard Types, Piping penetration piece tables and Pipe Duct. The Type options list changes depending on the Class selected. For this example Standard Types will be used. The Type options list has the following entries.

The default is Circular Hole Type D.

A description of the different types of hole shapes is outside the scope of this training guide.

The Hole shape parameters area of the form displays different parameter textboxes for the different hole types. For a circular hole the only parameter is Diameter. This field is automatically populated and is set to the OD of the penetrating pipe.

If multiple pipes of differing outside diameters are selected, the diameter value defaults to 100. The user must then enter a suitable diameter for all pipes or re-select the pipes individually.

The Penetrating item clearance area of the form contains the Clearance textbox that enables a clearance around the penetrating item to be specified. Enter 25 in the textbox and press the Return key. Note that the Diameter value has increased from 61mm to 111mm, i.e. the pipe OD + 2 x the clearance. The virtual hole clearance fixing is displayed at the specified clearance diameter.

Modify the required hole diameter by entering 130mm in the Diameter textbox and pressing the Return key. This increases the diameter of the virtual hole such that it is greater than the specified clearance. This would be required for an eccentric hole. The virtual hole fixing is displayed at the specified diameter (the outer of the two fixing extrusions shown).

The Set to Minimum button resets the hole shape parameters to the minimum value(s) required to create a valid hole. In this example clicking the button would set the Diameter back to 61mm.

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The number and description of parameters in the Hole shape parameters area of the form varies depending on the Hole type selected. The Positioning area of the form enables an offset in the X and Y directions for the penetration hole to be specified by entering appropriate values in the X Offset and Y Offset textboxes. This enables the penetrating item to be eccentric to the penetration hole, which may be required in some circumstances. The Rotation gadget enables the hole shape be rotated to align the hole in a different direction. This is only relevant on non-circular hole shapes. The rotation value may be set by using the up or down arrow or by entering a value in the textbox. The Single or Merged hole penetrations area at the top of the form enables individual single holes or a merged hole to be specified for multiple penetrating items by selecting the appropriate radio button. As there is only one penetrating item in this example the options are disabled. Clicking the OK button on the Hole Management Definition form creates the FRMW and two virtual hole FIXING elements, one for the clearance diameter and one for the penetration hole, in the STRU whose Purpose attribute is set to HOLE; STRU VH-Stru in the SITE HM-Virtual-Holes for this example. The top level fixing is auto-numbered using the format HM-VH-nnnn, where nnnn is a four digit sequential number starting at 0001. The secondary level fixing is auto-numbered using the format HM-VH-nnnn-SUBnn, where HM-VH-nnnn is the name of the top level fixing and nn is a two digit sequential number starting at 01. The association is created in the ASSOGP whose Purpose attribute is set to HOLE and is automatically named using the format HM-ASSOC-nnnn, where nnnn is a four digit sequential number starting at 0001.

12.4.2 Managing Holes


Select Utilities > Hole Management from the main menu to display the Hole Association Manager form.

This form is used to display the Hole Associations in the model and is controlled by the Hole Association Filters.

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12.4.2.1 Using the Hole Association Filters


The Hole Association Filter area of the form enables the user to limit the display of the hole associations in the Hole Associations grid below by using the various radio buttons and options lists. The three radio buttons have the following function: Current Element(s) applies the filters to the current element only. List of elements applies the filters to the elements in the Elements to manage list at the bottom right of the form. If this option is selected the Elements to manage list and its associated link labels are enabled. The Add Current Element link label adds the current element to the list. The Reset link label clears the list and adds the current element to it. The Refresh link label starts the filtered search for all managed holes that reference any item in the list. Right clicking an item in the list displays a pop-up menu that enables the selected item to be removed from the list.

All Managed Holes applies the filters to all the managed holes in the project. The four filter option lists have the following function: Discipline enables the user to select only holes belonging to a specific discipline.

Status enables the user to select only holes with a specific approval status.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Claimed enables the user to select holes with a specific Claim status.

Valid enables the user to select only holes that have passed/failed the validation test.

Note that having any other option other than Not Checked may significantly slow down the list generation, as the validation tests will be run for every hole that passed the previous three filter options.

The Invalid checkbox, if checked, will include all hole associations that have any bad references or invalid data. The checkbox is enabled if the List of elements or All Managed Holes radio buttons are selected. The Apply filter link label refreshes the Hole Associations list according to the element and filtering

12.4.2.2 Validating a Hole


Make the panel the CE and select the Current Element radio button. Leave the filter option list at their defaults, i.e. Discipline: All, Status: All, Claimed: All and Valid: Not Checked. Click the Apply filter link label. This displays all the hole associations that reference the panel (this example contains only one).

The associations(s) are displayed in a grid gadget that gives information about the association including its status and validity. The standard grid gadget sorting and grouping functionality may be used on the data. The Association column contains the auto-named association identifier.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Right clicking in the column headers or any of the fields displays a pop-up menu that has the following options: Navigate To this option has a sub-menu enabling the Association, Penetrated Item or Penetrating item to be selected. The selected item is navigated to in Design Explorer and becomes the CE.

Validate this option validates the hole association by checking the four restrictions. Details of the restrictions are given later in this worked example. If all restrictions are satisfied the Valid column entry for the association is changed to Passed. If one or more of the restrictions are not satisfied then the Valid column entry is changed to Failed. Add to 3D View this option adds the association elements, i.e. the panel, branch and virtual hol e fixings, to the 3D View. Remove from 3D View this option removes the association elements from the 3D View. Focus on Hole this option zooms in to the selected hole. This is very useful in a complex model with many penetration holes. Modify Definition this option displays the Hole Management Definition form, enabling modifications to be made. The form is populated with the settings for the current association hole. If the penetrating item has been moved since the hole was created and before it has been requested, selecting this option re aligns the hole with the penetrating item. If the hole has been requested or approved selecting this option displays the following warning message: Save/Unclaim - this option enables the user to save the data and release the claim(s) to the selected holes. Export list to Excel this option displays the Save Hole Association List As file browser form where a location and filename for the exported grid may be specified. Clicking the Save button on the browser creates an .xls file with the specified name. Print list this option displays a Print Preview form that enables the association list to be viewed and printed.

Right click on the single entry in the grid and select Focus on Hole from the pop-up menu. Note the 3D View has zoomed into the penetration hole. Right click on the entry in the grid again and select Validate from the pop-up menu. The Valid column entry will change to Passed. Make sure the hole is highlighted (if there was more than one hole any number may be selected) and click the Manage Selected Holes link label to display the Hole Management form:

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The selected hole(s) are displayed in a grid gadget with different information to that of the Hole Association Manager form.

Note that the Status column entry is blank, indicating that this hole has not been previously managed.

Selecting the Show Tags checkbox at the top of the form places a text aid graphic in the 3D view at the hole association being considered.

Right clicking in the column headers or any of the fields displays a pop-up menu. The pop-up menu has same options to the Hole Association Management form pop-up menu described earlier, except that the Navigate To option does not have a sub-menu and navigates to the Association (ASSOC) element.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Hole Management form contains fold-up panels for Selected hole data, Hole validation results and Hole History. Open the Selected Hole Data fold-up panel to display the data for the hole:

Note that each element involved in the penetration hole is listed, including the two virtual hole fixings. One element, in this case the branch, i.e. the penetrating item, is the Primary Member.

Close the Selected Hole Data fold-up panel and open the Hole validation results fold-up panel.

The grid shows the results of the validation tests using the four association restrictions; the result for each one being either PASS or FAIL. The tests are: Check existence of all associated elements this test checks that all of the elements involved in the association exist. It is possible that the panel, branch or other elements may have been deleted after the penetration hole was created. Check all associated elements intersect the Hole Owner this test checks that the associated elements actually pass through the owning panel. It is possible that the panel or the branch may have been moved since the penetration hole was created. Check all ATTAs/FITTs and FIXINGs are coincident this test checks that all of the ATTAchments (for pipe and HVAC branches) and FITTings (for structural sections) are coincident with the virtual hole fixings. Check FIXINGs are within the owning FIXING this option checks that the clearance fixing is within the penetration hole fixing.

If one or more of the test fail, then the whole association fails and the hole cannot be requested.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Additional information may be obtained on the validation tests by hovering the cursor over a line in the Hole validation results list, thereby displaying a tooltip with further information.

Close the Hole validation results fold-up panel and open the Hole History fold-up panel. Note that there not entries in the panel as no tasks have been actioned for the hole. Close the Hole History panel. The Hole Comment textbox enables a comment to be added to the latest action by entering an appropriate comment and clicking the Save button. Only the latest action comment is kept as no provision is made to store them.

12.4.2.3 Requesting a Hole


Below the Hole Comment textbox are the Originator and Reviewer Task link labels. Certain tasks are active dependant on the status of the hole and the write access of the user. In this case only the Request and Delete Entry Reviewer tasks are active as no other course of action is possible. Click the Request link label and click the Yes button on the displayed confirmation message.

Open the Hole History fold-up panel and note that an entry has been made detailing the change in status of the hole.

Note that the Originator tasks are now inactive. Return to the Hole Association Manager form then dismiss the form.

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12.4.2.4 Approving a Hole


Open the Training Setup form and navigate to the Switch User tab. Enter login details for the Structural user and click the Switch button. Accept the savework confirmation message then dismiss the Training Setup form. Open the Hole Association Manager form, select the displayed hole and click the Manage Selected Holes link label. The Approve and Reject Reviewer tasks are now active. With the graphical view of the penetration hole visible, click the Approve link label and click the Yes button on the displayed confirmation message.

Note that the virtual hole fixings have disappeared and the actual hole has been created in the panel. If necessary, turn on Holes Drawn from the Graphics Settings form.

The virtual hole fixings have not been deleted but removed from the Drawlist. There are retained in event of the hole being modified.

Open the Hole History fold-up panel and note the new Status column entry.

Click the Return to Hole Associations link label at the bottom of the Hole Management form to return to the Hole Association Manager form. Close the Hole Association Manager form.

12.4.2.5 Rejecting a Hole


The Reviewer may make reject a hole on initial review or after it has been approved. In either case Originator has the option to modify the hole and re-request, cancel the request or delete the entry.

12.4.2.5.1 Rejecting on Initial Review


Open the Training Setup form and navigate to the Switch User tab. Enter login details for the Piping user and click the Switch button. Accept the savework confirmation message then dismiss the Training Setup form. Select Utilities > Pipe Penetration > Create Penetration from the main menu to display the Create Penetration form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Click the Pick Penetrated Items button and select the western most panel of the workshop structure. Click the Pick Penetrating Item button and select the second most northerly pipe entering the workshop panel. Click the OK button on the Create Penetration form to display the Hole Management - Definition form.

Select Rectangular Hole Type HR from the Type options list. Enter 25 in the Clearance textbox, 250 in the Width textbox and 250 in the Height textbox. Leave the Radius at the default of 25 and set the Rotation to 45. Click the OK button on the Hole Management Definition form to create the virtual hole. Select Utilities > Hole Management from the main menu to display the Hole Association Manager form. With the penetrated panel as the CE, click the Apply filter link label to update Hole Associations grid. Right click on the new hole in the grid and select Validate from the pop-up menu. Click the Manage Selected Holes link label to display the Hole Management form. Click the Request link label under the Originator Tasks and click the Yes button on the warning message. Click the Return to Hole Associations link label at the bottom of the Hole Management form to return to the Hole Association Manager form. Close the Hole Association Manager form. Open the Training Setup form and navigate to the Switch User tab. Enter login details for the Structural user and click the Switch button. Accept the savework confirmation message then dismiss the Training Setup form. Open the Hole Association Manager form, select the displayed hole and click the Manage Selected Holes link label. In the Hole Comment textbox enter Hole must be circular then press the Return key and click the Save button.

Click the Reject link label under the Reviewer Tasks and click the Yes button on the confirmation message. The hole has been rejected by the Reviewer, however, the comment indicates that if the hole is circular then it will be approved. Therefore, the Originator must decide if the square hole is definitely required or a circular hole will be OK. For the purpose of this worked example the latter will be used. Click the Return to Hole Associations link label. Dismiss the Hole Association Manager form. Open the Training Setup form and navigate to the Switch User tab. Enter login details for the Piping user and click the Switch button. Accept the savework confirmation message then dismiss the Training Setup form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Open the Hole Association Manager form, select the rejected hole and right click in the grid. From the pop-up menu Modify Definition. The Hole Management Definition form will be displayed. Select Circular Hole Type D from the Type options list. Note that the entry of 130 has been retained from the previous use of this hole type and click the Set to Minimum button to make the entry 111 in the Diameter textbox. Click the OK button on the Hole Management Definition form. With the penetrated panel as the CE, click the Apply filter link label to update Hole Associations grid. Right click on the rejected hole and select Validate from the pop-up menu. Click the Manage Selected Holes link label to display the Hole Management form. Click the Request link label and the Yes button on the confirmation message. Click the Return to Hole Associations link label. Dismiss the Hole Association Manager form. Open the Training Setup form and navigate to the Switch User tab. Enter login details for the Structural user and click the Switch button. Accept the savework confirmation message then dismiss the Training Setup form. Open the Hole Association Manager form, select the requested hole and click the Manage Selected Holes link label. Click the Approve link label under the Reviewer Tasks to create the actual hole. Open the Hole History fold-up panel and note the entries.

Click the Return to Hole Associations to display the Hole Association Manager form.

12.4.2.5.2 Rejecting after Approval


Select the first penetration hole created in the grid to make it the current association and click the Manage Selected Holes link label to display the Hole Management form. This hole has previously been approved so the only Reviewer task available is Reject. Click the Reject link label under the Reviewer Tasks and then click the Yes button on the confirmation message. The hole status has now changed to Rejected.Click the Return to Hole Associations link label. Dismiss the Hole Association Manager form. Open the Training Setup form and navigate to the Switch User tab. Enter login details for the Piping user and click the Switch button. Accept the savework confirmation message then dismiss the Training Setup form. Open the Hole Association Manager form, select the rejected hole then click the Manage Selected Holes link label.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Originator now has the option to modify the hole definition, as described above, Cancel Request or Delete Entry, which have the following affects: Cancelling the request removes the actual hole and resets the Hole History Status to blank, i.e. it has been reset to its original status after the virtual hole was creat ed but before it was requested. The virtual hole fixings and hole management associations are retained so that the hole may be modified and re-requested later. Deleting the entry deletes the actual hole, the virtual hole fixings and the hole managem ent associations, restoring the panel to its original state before the penetration was created. All references to the virtual hole are deleted.

For this worked example the request will be cancelled and then the entry deleted. Click the Cancel Request link label under the Originator Tasks to display the cancel confirmation message. Click the Yes button to cancel the request.

Open the Hole History fold-up panel and note that the hole status is blank, i.e. Note also that the virtual hole fixings are still present. Click the Delete Entry link label under the Originator Tasks to display the remove confirmation message. Click the Yes button to remove the selected hole.

Note that all references to the hole have been deleted from the Hole Management form and the virtual hole fixings have also been deleted, restoring the panel to its original state before the penetration was created.

12.4.2.6 Making a Hole Redundant


From the Hole Association Manager form, select the second penetration hole created in the grid to make it the current association and click the Manage Selected Holes link label to display the Hole Management form. This hole has previously been approved so the only Originator task available is to make it Redundant. Click the Redundant link label under the Originator Tasks to display the redundant confirmation message. Click the Yes button to make the selected hole redundant. Click the Return to Hole Associations link label. Dismiss the Hole Association Manager form.

Before the Originator can delete the entry the Reviewer has to agree it is redundant. Open the Training Setup form and navigate to the Switch User tab. Enter login details for the Structural user and click the Switch button. Accept the savework confirmation message then dismiss the Training Setup form. Open the Hole Association Manager form, select the redundant hole then click the Manage Selected Holes link label.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Click the Agree Redundant link label under the Originator Tasks to display the redundant confirmation message. Click the Yes button to make the selected hole redundant. Open the Hole History fold-up panel and note that the hole status has been set to Withdrawn Click the Return to Hole Associations link label. Dismiss the Hole Association Manager form. Open the Training Setup form and navigate to the Switch User tab. Enter login details for the Piping user and click the Switch button. Accept the savework confirmation message then dismiss the Training Setup form. Open the Hole Association Manager form, select the withdrawn hole then click the Manage Selected Holes link label. The only Originator task now available is Delete Entry. Click this link label to delete the hole entry and restore the panel at the penetration. Dismiss the Hole Management form. Open the Training Setup form and navigate to the Switch User tab. Enter login details for the Structural user and click the Switch button. Accept the savework confirmation message then dismiss the Training Setup form.

12.5 Structural Penetration Holes A Worked Example


The previous worked example created a non-structural (piping) penetration hole and demonstrated the Originator and Reviewer tasks. In this example penetration holes for structural profiles penetrating panels, including merged penetrations, are created and modified. As mentioned previously, as both elements normally belong to the structural discipline the user has write access to both elements and, therefore, may be the Originator and Reviewer. If company procedures require the Originator and Reviewer are different personnel then DAC would need to be established to control the workflow.

12.5.1 Creating a Single Structural Penetration


Select Design > Structures > Beams & Columnsfrom the main menu to enter the Beams & Columns application.

Structural penetrations may also be created from the Panels & Plates application. Clear the the Drawlist and add Zone BUILDING_B01 to the 3D view. Click the Walk to Drawlist button and set the view direction to Iso 3. Remove the roof panel and make the column immediately east of the south west corner the CE. Select Utilities > Steel Penetration > Create Penetration from the main menu to display the Create Penetration form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Click the Pick Penetrated Items button and select the ceiling panel. Click the Pick Penetrating Items button and select the column immediately east of the south west corner. Click the OK button on the form to display the Hole Management Definition form. Select Rectangular Hole Type HR from the Type options list and enter the following values in the appropriate textboxes: Clearance 25 Width 400 Height 400 Radius 25

Leave the X Offset, Y Offset and Rotation values at the defaults of 0. Click the OK button to create the virtual hole.

Navigate to the first level fixing for the penetration (the virtual hole) and query its attributes, noting that the Spref attribute has been set to /HM-HOLE/TYPE-HR.

Navigate to the second level fixing for the penetration (the clearance) and query its attributes, noting that the Spref attribute has been set to the same reference.

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12.5.2 Creating a Merged Structural Penetration


The column in the southwest corner of building B01 will be used to demonstrate merged penetrations. Make this column the CE then, using Create > Copy > Offset, create 2 additional columns. One column needs to be created 700mm to the east, the other column should be created 700mm to the north. The completed columns should look similar to this Iso 1 view: Select Utilities > Steel Penetration > Create Penetration from the main menu to display the Create Penetration form.

Click the Pick Penetrated Items button and select the ceiling panel.

Click the Pick Penetrating Items button and select the three columns in the southwest corner of building B01.

Click the OK button on the form to display the Hole Management Definition form. As more than one penetrating item has been selected the Single or Merged hole penetrations area of the form is now enabled. Click the Merged radio button and select User Define Profile from the Class options list. Enter a value of 25 in the Clearance textbox. The shape of the user defined hole should look similar to the Iso 1 view shown here. Click the OK button on the Hole Management Definition form to create the virtual hole.

Navigate to the virtual hole fixing and note that it owns a template ( TMPL) element that owns an extrusion (EXTR) that defines the shape of the hole. www.aveva.com
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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 When the hole is approved a negative extrusion (NXTR) is created in the panel whose shape is copied from the EXTR. The virtual hole EXTR is not deleted in case the hole is subsequently rejected and the shape needs to be modified.

Note that the virtual hole fixing owns three other fixings, one for each of the clearances around the penetrating items.

12.5.3 Modifying a Merged Penetration


Before requesting the hole, the penetration may be modified, if required. For the worked example the profile shape of the penetration will be changed and enlarged. Make the virtual hole fixing the CE and select Utilities > Steel Penetration > Modify from the main menu to display the Hole Management Definition form. If required, additional sections could be added to the merged hole by selecting the Add button to the right of the Single or Merged hole penetrations area of the form. Selecting this button displays the Add Penetration form. Users can add penetrating elements by clicking the Pick Penetrating Items button and making a suitable selection from the 3D view. Once the additional sections are selected clicking the OK button will update the shape of the virtual hole and return the user to the Hole Manaagement Definition form In the Hole shape boundary area of the form click the Edit profile shape link label to display the Loop Vertex Editor form. This form was used previously when creating and modifying panel elements and behaves in a similar fashion in the Hole Management utility. With the form in modify point mode, advance the vertex counter to Vertex 5 then lock the X co-ordinate. Change the mode to Create Points. Change the Y co-ordinate to -180mm then click the Create button. Click the Select All button to select all loop vertices. Enter 25 in the Expand/Contract textbox and click the Expand group button followed by the Modify button. This expands the loop by 25mm all round. Select Control > Close from the Loop Vertex Editor form menu to dismiss the form. Click the OK button on the Hole Management Definition form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The virtual hole should now look similar to this Iso 1 view.

12.5.4 Requesting and Approving the Holes


Select Utilities > Hole Management from the main menu to display the Hole Management Associations form. Make the ceiling panel the CE and click the Apply filter link label on the form. Two hole associations, named HM-ASSOC-0001 and HM-ASSOC-0002, with a Discipline of STRU are displayed. Select both associations, right click in the grid and select Validate from the pop-up menu. Both associations will pass. Click the Manage Selected Holes link label to display the Hole Management form. Select HM-ASSOC0001 from the grid and click the Request link label under Originator Tasks followed by the Approve link label under Reviewer Tasks, clicking the Yes button on the Status change confirmation messages. Select HM-ASSOC-0002 from the grid and repeat the Request and Approval tasks. Click the Return to Hole Associations link label to re-display the Hole Association Manager form and dismiss the form. Select Settings > Graphics from the main menu to display the Graphics Settings form. On the Representation tab check the Holes Drawn checkbox and enter a value of 0.1 in the Arc Tolerance textbox. Click the Apply button and then the OK button.

12.6 Non-Penetration Managed Holes


Sometimes access is required through structural panels, i.e. walls, cladding, decks, floors, etc., in order to maintain and operate items of plant. To facilitate this process the Hole Management application allows the creation and management of Non- Penetration Managed Holes. Non-penetration managed may be created by any valid discipline and go through the same Request and Approval workflow as described for penetration holes. Non penetration managed holes fall into two categories: Free Holes these are standard hole shapes, some of which include sleeves or kicker plates. A User defined shape is also available. Fitting Holes these are managed holes created by a catalogue fitting, e.g. a window, door, hatch, access cover, etc. Fitting Holes can only be created using the Panels and Plates utility.

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12.6.1 Free Holes


Select Utilities > Steel Penetration > Create Hole from the main menu to display the Create Hole form. Clicking the Pick Item for Hole button prompts the user to Pick a face on the penetrated object.

Unlike penetration holes, only one penetrated item may be selected.

The Hole Type list shows the available holes. The first six entries are the same hole types available for penetration holes. The remaining hole types are circular or rectangular with additional components, i.e. kicker plates or sleeves. The last entry is a User Defined which enables a user defined shape for the hole to be specified.

After selecting a hole type from the list, clicking the OK button on the form displays the Hole Management Free Hole Definition form. The selected hole shape is displayed graphically, using default sizes, on the penetrated item with aid graphics that indicate the Hole X and Hole Y directions and the default X and Y offsets from the panel origin. The default hole location is the pick position from the penetration item selection. This default position may be subsequently changed on the Hole Management Free Hole Definition form.

The Hole Management Free Hole Definition form has two tabs: Hole Definition to define the shape, size, position and rotation of the hole. Associated elements to define the element(s) the hole is to be associated with, e.g. piece(s) of equipment.

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12.6.1.1 Free Hole Definition - Hole Definition Tab


On the Hole Definition tab the hole type may be changed from that specified on the Create Penetration form by simply selecting and different type from the list. The graphical representation of the hole type will change to the new type. The Hole shape parameters area of the form changes depending on the hole type selected with the required parameters shown for the different types. The Hole Position and Orientation area of the form enables the X Offset and Y Offset, i.e. X and Y distances from the panel origin, to be set. The values default to the picked position and reflect the displayed values on the graphical aids. The X Offset and Y Offset values may be changed manually by entering the required value in the appropriate textbox. Alternatively, clicking the Align in X or Align in Y buttons prompts the user to Align Hole to picked position and activates the Positioning Control toolbar. The user may pick any position, using any of the positioning control options to align the hole with in the specified direction. The X Offset or Y Offset values are changed automatically to reflect the picked position. Clicking the Explicit Position button prompts the user to Pick a face on the penetrated object. A hole position may be picked on the panel using the cursor. The X Offset and Y Offset values are updated accordingly. The Rotation gadget enables the rotation around the Z axis of the panel to be specified between a +ve180 degree to -ve180 degree range. This can be done by entering a value in the textbox or by using the up or down arrows to change the angle in 5 increments.

Selecting the User Defined hole type displays the Loop Vertex Editor form, i.e. the same form used for modifying panels and negative extrusions. A default hole, an NXTR with four vertices, is displayed graphically. The Loop Vertex Editor form is displayed with vertex 1 current and a text aid is displayed at the vertex. The hole shape may be defined by adding, deleting or modifying vertices to the NXTR loop in the same way as editing a panel or normal negative extrusion.

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12.6.1.2 Free Hole Definition - Associated Elements Tab


On the Associated elements tab the elements associated with the hole are shown in the Current association items grid. Initially these include the panel and hole references. Clicking the Pick Items button prompts the user to Pick associated item. Any item(s) may be picked to associate the hole with, however, this would normally be a piece of equipment, a valve, an actuator, etc. The selection process is terminated by pressing the Esc key. The selected item(s) appear in the Current associated items grid. Selecting an associated item from the grid and clicking the Remove selected item button removes it from the grid and all references to it from the association.

The Primary Panel and Hole Reference items are required to create the hole and attempting to remove them displays an error message.

Having specified all of the requirements for the hole, clicking the OK button on the Hole Management Free Hole Definition form will create the virtual hole. The hole must be requested and approved using the procedure previously described. The Project Administrator should give consideration to the unique situation that may occur where the team responsible for originating the hole is also responsible for approving the hole. Company or Project specific procedures may be required to ensure the hole creation process is correctly managed.

12.6.2 Fitting Holes


In the Panels & Plates utility, selecting Utilities > Steel Penetration > Create Fitting Hole from the main menu displays the Create Hole Fittings form. The form gives access to catalogue panel fittings that, when inserted, create a virtual hole in the panel. The Create Hole Fittings form has two tabs: Fitting Definition to define the fitting and its position, rotation and justification. Associated elements to define the element(s) the hole is to be associated with, e.g. piece(s) of equipment.

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12.6.2.1 Creat Hole Fittings form Fitting Definition Tab


The Table and Type option lists enable the user to select the types of fittings to be used.

Currently each list is restricted to one entry.

The grid displays the available panel fittings for the selected table and type. These items are catalogue components. Selecting an item in the grid displays the fitting in the 3D View. The view may be manipulated using the middle mouse button or right clicking to display a pop-up menu. If the fitting has Design Parameters, clicking the Properties button displays the Modify Properties form, which enables the property values to be set. If the fitting has no Design Parameters , clicking the Properties button displays the following message:

If a Plotfile of the fitting is available, the Plotfile button is activated. Clicking the button displays the Plotfile. The Pick Penetrated Item button enables a panel to be selected to apply the fitting to. The Hole Position and Orientation area of the form enable the fitting origin to be positioned with respect to the panel origin, either by entering values in the X Offset and Y Offset textboxes, picking a position graphically or by aligning it with other design elements in the X and Y direction.

The fitting may also be rotated using the Rotation gadget. The Panel side options list in the Adjust fitting orientation area of the form enables the fitting to be placed on the Front Face or Back Face of the panel. These options are not active until a panel has been picked.

12.6.2.2 Create Hole Fittings form Associated Elements Tab


The Hole Fittings form Associated elements tab looks like, and is functionally the same as, the Free Hole Definition form Associated elements tab described previously.

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12.7 Non-Penetration Managed Holes A Worked Example


This worked example creates two free holes, with and without a sleeve, and a fitting hole in a panel.

12.7.1 Creating a Free Hole


Select Design > Structures > Panel & Platesfrom the main menu to enter the Panels & Plates application. Empty the drawlist then add building B01 to the 3D view. Select a plan view north, then remove the roof panel from building B01. Select Utilities > Steel Penetration > Create Hole from the main menu to display the Create Penetration form. Click the Pick Penetrated Item button and pick the ceiling panel in the somewhere near the north west corner of the panel. The panel name is displayed in the upper form grid. Select Rectangular Hole - Type HR from the Hole Type list and click the OK button. The hole is displayed graphically, using the default values at the point where the panel was picked.

Aids showing the position and the X and Y directions with respect to the panel are also displayed. Clicking the OK button also displays the Hole Management Free Hole Definition form. In the Hole shape parameters area of the Hole Management Free Hole Definition form enter the following details: Width - 2800 Height - 4000 Radius - 50

The hole shape changes to the reflect the new values in the 3D View. The width is in the Y direction and the height is in the X direction. The axes directions depend on the relative positions of the first two vertices of the panel upon creation, i.e. the panels st nd Y direction is the direction between the 1 and 2 vertices. In the Hole Position and Orientation area of the form enter a value of 2000 in the Y Offset textbox. Note that the hole has moved in the Y axis and the Y Offset value has been updated on the form. Click the Align in X button. Set the Positioning Control toolbar to Element/Mid-Point and select the beam running east/west adjacent to the north west column.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Click the Associated elements tab on the form to make it current. In the Modify associated items area of the form click the Pick items button, note the prompt Pick associated item:, and select the beam that was used to align the hole in the X direction. The SCTN, and db reference no., are displayed in the Current associated items grid. Press the Esc key to end the selection process.

This example is only to demonstrate the principle of associating design items.

Click the OK button on the form to create the virtual hole. Navigate to the vir tual hole fixing and query the attributes. Note that the Spref has been set to /HM-HOLE/TYPE-HR and that the Design Parameters contain the entered values. Create a new free definition hole in the north east corner of buiding B01. This time select a Rectangular Hole Type HR with Sleeve from the hole type list. Enter the following values in the Hole shape parameters textboxes: Width 1500 Height 1500 Radius 25 Sleeve Height 150 Sleeve Thickness 10

Click the Align in X button. In the Positioning Control toolbar set the Pick Type to Element, the Pick Method to Distance and enter 1000mm. Select the beam running east/west close to the north east column. Click the Align in Y button. Leave the Positioning Control toolbar settings and select the beam running north/south close to the north east column. Ensure the rotation is set to 0. Click the OK button on the form to create the virtual hole. It should look similar to the Iso 3 view shown. Navigate to the virtual hole fixing and query the Spref. Note that it is set to /HM-HOLE/SL/TYPE-HR, i.e. a different catalogue component to the first free hole created.

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12.7.2 Creating a Fitting Hole


Add the roof panel back to Building B01. Make the roof panel the CE and select Utilities > Steel Penetration > Create Fitting Hole from the main menu. The Create Hole Fittings form will be displayed. On the Fitting Definition tab Select /ManagedAccess-Holes from the Table options list and Managed Access Holes from the Type options list. Select STANDARD-HATCH from the Item grid and note that a representation of the hatch is displayed in the form 3D View. Click the Pick Penetration Item button and pick a point in the northeast corner of the panel. The fitting is displayed graphically with its origin at the picked point. Graphical aids display the fitting/hole position and axes with respect to the panel origin. The Hole Position and Orientation and Adjust fitting orientation areas of the form are now active and the X Offset and Y Offset textboxes contain the respective values of the picked position Enter a value of 13000mm in the X Offset textbox. Enter a value of 0mm in the Y Offset textbox. Select Back Face from the Panel side options list. Rotate the panel and note that the fitting is now on the reverse side of the panel. Select Front Face from the options list to bring the fitting back to the original side of the panel. Click the OK button on the form to create the virtual hole. The virtual hole fixing owns a template (TMPL) element that owns an NXTR. This NXTR will be copied to the panel when the hole is approved.

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12.7.3 Requesting and Approving the Holes


Select Utilities > Hole Management from the main menu to display the Hole Association Manager form. Make the panel the CE and click the Apply filters button on the form to update the Hole Associations grid. The Hole Associations grid on the form should display three new hole associations, HM-VH-0003, HM-VH0004 and HM-VH-0005 with a Discipline entry of GEN, GEN and FITT respectively. Select the three associations by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking on each one in turn. All three associations will be highlighted. Right click in the grid and select Validate from the pop-up menu. All three holes will pass.

Click the Manage Selected Holes link label to display the Hole Management form. Make HM-ASSOC-0003 current; click the Request link label under the Originator Tasks and then the Approve link label under the Reviewer Tasks, clicking the Yes button on the two status change confirmation messages. Repeat the process for the remaining two holes. Click the Return to Hole Associations link label and dismiss the form. Save Work.

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Exercise 11 Hole Management


This exercise creates various types of penetration holes and non-penetration managed and then use both the Originator and Reviewer Tasks to manage the holes. Clear the Drawlist and add back the Zone AREA02_WORKSHOP_BUILDING and SITE SITE-HVACAREA02. Create a penetration for the HVAC element protruding through the southern wall. Using the HVAC Designer and Panels & Plates applications, create a number of penetrations through floors and ceilings for other HVAC items in building B01. The penetration utility is an option of the Utilities menu in all applications.

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194

APPENDIX A

Appendix A - Standard AVEVA Generic Types


This appendix gives the Plines and Parameters for each Generic type (Gtype) shape used to construct the AVEVA Standard Profile Catalogues.

Generic Type: BOX

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Generic Type: ANG

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Generic Type: BSC

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Generic Type: BEAM

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Generic Type: TUBE

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Generic Type: TEE

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Generic Type: DINI

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Generic Type: DINU

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Generic Type: DINT

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Generic Type: CHAN

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204

Appendix B

Appendix B Additional 3D Aid Construct Information Aid Construct Representation


The colour of 3D Aid Constructs is controlled from the Colours form. Selecting Settings > Graphics > Colour from the main menu and selecting the Aids colour button.

Clicking a colour button then dismissing the form will set the Aid line colour.

Menu Options in the 3D Aid Constructs Form


The 3D Aid Construct form contains a number of menus. The basic functions contained within each menu are described below.

The Control form menu has the following options:

List - this option displays the Aid Constructors form which details all constructs created by type. Save - this option displays the Save Construction Graphics file browser form that enables the user to save all of the constructs to a specified pathname and filename. Load - this displays the Load Construction Graphics file browser form that enables the user to restore the constructs from a saved pathname and filename. Close - Selecting the Close option closes the 3D Aid Constructs form.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 The Settings menu has the following options:

Repeat - If this option is set ON, indicated by a checkmark adjacent to the menu label, the user can continue to create the same type of construct until the Esc key is pressed. If the option is OFF the construct creation is discrete. The option is toggled ON and OFF by alternate selections. Size - this option displays the Working Point Size form. The size of working points can be specified by entering a value in the Diameter text box. The Apply to radio buttons enable the user to apply this value to New working points or those already Defined.

All Create form menu options have sub-menus that enable the user to select various construction methods. At the top of each sub-menu (excluding Copy) is a Toolbar option. The toolbar displays a form containing all the construction methods in the submenu.

Copy - The sub-menu options enable the user to Copy Offset, Copy Rotate and Copy Mirror functions with any aid construct type. Circle - The sub-menu options enable the user to create circle constructs in different ways. Line - The sub-menu options enable the user to create line constructs in different ways. Work Point - The sub-menu options enable the user to create working point constructs. Plane - The sub-menu options enable the user to create plane constructs. Grids - The sub-menu options enable the user to create different types of grid construct. The Modify menu options enable the user to modify the size, shape, position and orientation of constructs once they are created. Move this option displays a sub-menu with Offset, Rotate and Mirror options. These choices display the Aid Move Offset, Aid Move Rotate and Aid Move Mirror forms respectively. The forms are identical in both appearance and function to the respective Copy forms described previously except that Move is the default in the Copy Settings area of the form and the copies text box is greyed out. Cut - this option enables the user to Cut (delete) one selected aid. Copy - this option copies a selected aid to the clipboard. Paste - this option activates the Positioning Control toolbar and prompts the user to select a position to paste the aid from the clipboard.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Toolbar this options displays the Modify toolbar: The toolbar options are: Delete picked aid item this option allows the user to delete an aid. Reposition picked aid item after picking the aid the Positioning Control toolbar is displayed allowing the user to reposition the aid origin using the forms options. Redefine radius of picked circle after selecting a circle aid the Positioning Control toolbar is displayed allowing the user to graphically change the circle radius. Note that the circle origin does not change. Extend end of picked line after selecting a line aid the Positioning Control toolbar is displayed allowing the user to specify a position through which the line will be extended (or trimmed) using the options available on that form. Note that the direction of the line does not change. Definition - this option allows the user to modify an aid definition via a form. After selecting this option from the menu the user is prompted to select an aid to be modified using the cursor. Once the aid is selected an appropriate form is displayed depending on the type of aid that has been selected. The form contains all the data that defines that particular aid type and it can be modified by entering new values. Position - this option prompts the user to select an aid to re-position. After selection, the Positioning Control toolbar is activated and the aid origin can be graphically re-positioned using the options available on that form. Other data that defines the aid, e.g. radius, orientation, length, etc, is not modified. This option is the same as Reposition picked aid item on the Modify toolbar. Radius - this option prompts the user to select a Circle aid. After selection, the Positioning Control toolbar is displayed and the radius can be changed by graphically picking a point using the options available on that form. Other data that defines the circle, e.g. position, orientation, etc, is not modified. This option is the same as Re-define radius of picked circle on the Modify menu. Extend - this option prompts the user to select a Line aid. After selection, the Positioning Control toolbar is displayed and the length of the line may be changed by graphically selecting a point through which the end of the line, nearest the selected point, will pass through. The orientation of the line is not modified. This option is the same as Extend end of picked line on the Modify menu. Project on to Plane - this option is greyed out if there is no active Working Plane. If a Working Plane is active this option enables the user to project the aid onto the Working Plane and orientates the aid to the plane.

The Delete form menu has the following options:

Pick - This option enables the user to pick a single construct to delete. All Constructs - This option deletes all constructs. Confirmation is required from the user prior to the command being executed.

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Circle Constructs
Circle constructs can be accessed by selecting Create > Circle from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu. A sub-menu with the different circle creation methods will be displayed. Selecting Create > Circle > Toolbar from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu displays the Circles form.

The toolbar options mirror the construction options available in the sub menu. In addition, it allows users to select a number of creation options without the need to repeatedly open the sub-menu. The construction methods work in conjunction with the Positioning Control toolbar enabling the user to select model elements, displayed graphics, and other 3D aid constructs in creating a Circle. Selecting any of the Circle construction method buttons displays relevant prompts in the Prompt Area of the 3D View. Where a construction method requires a fixed radius or diameter, an appropriate form is displayed when the button is clicked. The Measure button enables the user to set the diameter or radius by graphical picks.

Circle construction methods that act in conjunction with a Working Plane require the working plane to be active; otherwise an error message is displayed.

Tool tips that describe the construction method can be accessed by hovering over the appropriate button on the toolbar. The toolbar contains 17 construction options. Through 3 points Fillet Fixed radius, tangential to a circle Tangential to a circle Derived diameter Fixed diameter Derived radius Fixed radius Define explicitly Derived from a picked item Tangential to 3 lines Fixed radius, passing through 2 points Tangential to 2 circles Derived diameter on working plane Fixed diameter on working plane Derived radius on working plane Fixed radius on working plane

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Line Constructs
Line constructs can be accessed by selecting Create > Line from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu. A sub-menu with the different line creation methods will be displayed. Selecting Create > Line > Toolbar from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu displays the Lines form.

The toolbar options mirror the construction options available in the sub menu. In addition, it allows users to select a number of creation options without the need to repeatedly open the sub-menu. The construction methods work in conjunction with the Positioning Control toolbar enabling the user to select model elements, displayed graphics, other 3D aid constructs, etc. in creating a Line. Clicking any of the Line construction method buttons displays relevant prompts in the Prompt Area of the 3D View. Tool tips that describe the construction method can be accessed by hovering over the appropriate button on the toolbar. The Lines Toolbar contains seven construction options. Between two points Derived from a picked item Point to circle tangent Define explicitly Angle from copied Bisect the picked lines Tangential to 2 circles

Work Point Constructs


Work Point constructs can be accessed by selecting Create > Work Point from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu. A sub-menu with the different work point creation methods will be displayed.

Selecting Create > Work Point > Toolbar from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu displays the Points form:

The buttons on the Points form correspond to the sub-menu creation options. The two methods of creating line constructs are: Derive position Define explicitly The Derive position button works in conjunction with the Positioning Control toolbar enabling the user to select model elements, displayed graphics, and other 3D aid constructs in positioning a Working Point. The Define explicitly button displays the Modify Work Point form and the Positioning Control toolbar which enables the user to position the Working Point using explicit co-ordinates or graphical picks.

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Plane Constructs
Selecting Create > Plane from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu displays a submenu with the different work point creation methods. Selecting Create > Plane > Toolbar from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu displays the Plane form: The buttons on the Points form correspond to the sub-menu creation options. The two methods of creating line constructs are: Through 3 points Define explicitly The Through 3 points button works in conjunction with the Positioning Control toolbar enabling the user to select model elements, displayed graphics, and other 3D Aid constructs in defining a Plane construct. The Define explicitly button displays the Modify Plane form and the Positioning Control toolbar which enables the user to size, position, and orientate the Plane. The Modify Plane form is identical to the Working Plane form.

Copying 3D Aid Constructs


Selecting Create > Copy from the 3D Aid Constructs form displays a sub-menu with three choices; Offset, Rotate, and Mirror.

Selecting Copy > Offset displays the Aid Copy Offset form. The Graphic Aids area of the form enables the user to select the Aid(s) to be copied. Clicking the Pick button displays a prompt and enables the aid(s) to be selected with the cursor. Pressing the Esc key ends the selection process. The number of aids selected is displayed after the Selected: text. The Clear button, when active, clears the selection.

The Apply button is greyed out until the selection has been completed. Having selected the aids, the Copy Settings area of the form enables the user to select whether to Copy or Move the selection using the Option options list and specify the number of copies required. The Offset Settings area of the form enables the user to select the Type of offset required and then specify the appropriate Cardinal offsets using the East/West, North/South and Up/Down option lists, or specify a Distance and Direction for the offset. If multiple copies have been specified then each aid is offset by the specified amount from the previous copy. Clicking the Apply button executes copies or moves the selected aids.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Selecting Copy > Rotate displays the Aid Copy Rotate form. The Graphic Aid and Settings area of the form are the same as those described for the Copy Offset form, except that the Rotation Angle (in degrees) must also be specified. The Rotation Axes area of the form enables the user to select or specify the Position and Direction of the rotation axis. The area contains two buttons to assist the user: Pick Position of Rotation - clicking this button displays the Postioning Control form and enables the user to specify the origin of the rotation axis using the forms options. Pick rotation line - clicking this button enables the user to select a 3D Aid whose position will be the origin of the rotation axis. The Direction will also be set to the aids direction. The rotation axis origin may also be specified manually by entering appropriate co-ordinates in the text boxes. If the Pick Position of Rotation button is used, or the rotation axis origin is specified manually, the direction of the rotation axis may be specified in the Direction text box. Using the Pick rotation line button sets the Direction to the direction of the selected 3D aid. Irrespective of the method used to specify the Position and Direction of the rotation axis, the values may be edited manually at any time. If multiple copies have been specified then each aid is rotated the specified angle from the previous copy. Clicking the Apply button executes the command. Selecting Copy > Mirror displays the Aid Copy Mirror form. The Graphic Aid and Settings area of the form are the same as those described for the Copy Offset form, except that multiple copies cannot be specified. The Mirror Plane area of the form enables the user to select or specify the Position and Direction of the mirror plane. The area contains two buttons to assist the user: Pick position of mirror plane - clicking this button displays the Postioning Control form and enables the user to specify the origin of the mirror plane using the forms options. Pick mirror plane - clicking this button enables you to select a 3D Aid with an origin position defined at the mirror plane. The mirror plane origin may also be specified by manually entering appropriate co-ordinates in the appropriate textboxes. If the Pick position of mirror plane button is used, or the rotation axis origin is specified manually, the direction of the mirror plane, i.e. the direction of the vector normal to the plane, may be specified in the Direction text box. Using the Pick mirror plane button sets the Direction to the direction of the selected 3D aid. Irrespective of the method used to specify the Position and Direction of the mirror plane, the values may be edited manually at any time. A vector aid and representation of the plane are displayed using the specified settings. Clicking the Apply button executes the command.

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211

Appendix C

Appendix C Additional Examples/Exercises 3D Aid Constructs A Worked Example


In this worked example 3D Aid Constructs are created, copied and modified in order to create two panels with complex shapes representing a stiffened padeye plate.

Creating a Linear Grid


Select Utilities > Constructs from the main menu to display the 3D Aid Constructs form. From the form menu select Create > Grids > Toolbar to display the Grids form. Click on the Linear Grid button to display the Reference Linear Grid and the Positioning Control toolbar. In the Spacing area of the Reference Linear Grid form enter 50 for the X value and 50 for the Y value. Enter a value of 20 for the Number of visible lines, click the Preview button on the form and zoom in to the displayed graphics. Change the view direction to Iso 3. In the Orientation area of the form enter the following values in sequence, noting the changes in axis and aid direction: Z is E - press the Return key. Y is U - press the Return key. Z is S - press the Return key.

Click the Preview button again. The grid should now look like this in an Iso 3 view.

Click the OK button to create the Linear Grid.

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Creating Circle Constructs


Select Create > Circle > Toolbar from the 3D Aid Constructs form to display the Circles form. Click the Fixed radius, passing through 2 points button to display the Radius form. Enter a value of 250 for the radius. Set the Positioning Control toolbar to Aid/Snap and click on the top horizontal grid line where it intersects with the sixth vertical grid line, i.e. 250 from the top right hand corner of the grid. This is the first point defining the circle. Click on the same vertical grid line where it intersects with the centre horizontal grid line, i.e. 10 spaces below the first point, a distance of 10 x 50mm = 500mm. This is the second point defining the circle. There are two possible arcs that can be drawn with the specified radius between these two points. A prompt is displayed asking the user to select a Polar Control point, i.e. a point that will define where the arc will pass through. Pick an intersection of the right hand vertical grid line with any of the horizontal grid lines between the first and second points selected. An arc will be drawn as shown in the left hand picture below.

Creating Line Constructs


Select Create > Line > Toolbar from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu to display the Lines form. Click the Between two points button. Create three lines to form the shape shown in the left hand picture below. Click on the Point to circle tangent button on the Lines form and create a line as shown in the right hand picture below.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Modifying the Linear Grid


Select Modify > Position from the 3D Aid Constructs form and pick the grid. Make sure the Positioning Control toolbar is set to Aid/Snap and click on the top of the vertical Line aid. The grid origin will reposition to the selected point. Select Modify > Definition from the 3D Aid Constructs form, then pick the grid again to display the Modify Grid form. Set the Number of visible lines to 22. In the Orientation area of the form enter the following values in sequence: Y is E - press the Return key. Z is U - press the Return key.

Click the OK button on the form to modify the grid construct.

Using the Copy and Modify Functions


Create a Circle and Lines to form a shape similar to the picture below utilising Create > Copy > Offset/Mirror and Modify > Definition where appropriate.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Delete the grid and the larger circle using Delete > Pick from the 3D Aid Constructs form menu. The aids should now look like this.

Creating the Padeye Plate


Using the Panels & Plates application create panel elements to model the Padeye Plate. Make sure that the Positioning Control toolbar is set to Aid/Snap. Using the vertical aids that were constructed first, create a 25mm thick, centre justified panel. Use the Derive points from graphic picks option in the Create Panel form to create the first three vertices as shown.

Using the Fixed radius arc, passing through 2 points button on the Create Panel form, create the curved part of the panel. Enter a value of 250 in the Radius form and select the two points and the Polar Control point as shown.

For point 5 select near the upper end of the sloping line. For point 6 (Polar Control point) change the Positioning Control toolbar settings to Aid/Cursor.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Use the Derive points from graphic picks button, change the Positioning Control toolbar settings to Aid/Snap and select the last vertex position.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101

Creating the Stiffening Plate


Using the 3D aid lines, create a 20mm thick, bottom justified panel with the pick sequence shown below. Create the first four points using the Derive from graphical picks option. Use the Intersection and Snap settings along with the Aid setting on the positioning toolbar.

After creating vertex 4, change the vertex creation method to Derived arc passing through three points option. Remember to change the positioning toolbar to Aid and Cursor when selecting pick position 6.

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AVEVA Plant (12.1) Structural Modelling TM-1101 Delete the 3D aid constructs. The completed panels should look like this.

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218