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By: IEEE-IAS Cement Industry Committee Tommy Nunn, Market Development Manager, AB6
This paper assembles data from various sources in order to provide information to evaluate liquid-filled and drytype transformers. The first basis of comparison is a general product description of product development and design. The second comparison is a specific comparison of electrical characteristics based on standard and optional ratings. A general description of industry standards with their prevailing focus as well specific references to the applicable industry standards for the products being compared in this review is also provided. The comparison of kilovolt-ampere (kVA) sizes and voltages is based on distribution ratings most commonly used in the United States. Only ANSI and NEMA standards are used as references for the electrical characteristic comparison. General Comparison In recent years, the variety of transformer types available for use in small and medium power applications has grown considerably. Below is a listing of only the major categories available: Oil-filled Non-flammable Liquid FiI led Biodegradable Fluid Liquid Filled VPllConventional Dry Types Gas-Filled Dry Types VPE Dry Types Epoxy Coated Dry Types RESIBLOC Epoxy Cast Dry Types Epoxy Cast Dry Types Within each of the above categories, a number of distinct processes by which these units are manufactured exist. Given the complexity of choices available, the task of selecting the best unit for a given application has become exceedingly difficult. Within this discussion, we will attempt to provide information, which the reader may find useful in arriving at a sound selection. Before jumping into the specifics of each category, one should recognize that each of these categories contain certain advantages and disadvantages in relation to each other. Historically, the oil--filled units were the original option; but due to certain problems associated with them, others have evolved. However, when properly applied, each device will give exceptional service.
A consideration of at least equal importance to that of
selecting a particular category is selecting a particular manufacturer. A s noted above, each category will provide exceptional service when properly applied; however, this is true only if the device was properly designed and manufactured. Certain checks can be made to evaluate a given vendor with regards to their “quality” of manufacturing. However, without extensive transformer knowledge, it is extremely difficult for an end user to evaluate all the permutations in the design of the various categories. Thus, it is suggested that a manufacturer’s previous performance in a particular category of transformer be given added emphasis in an evaluation. With no prior purchase history from a given manufacturer, the end user should at least require, and use, a Customer List of “similar” installed devices as well as a mean time to failure analysis per ANSI C57.1171986 from the prospective manufacturer. OIL-FILLED TRANSFORMERS These units were historically the primary option available for use in the small to medium power range. In transformer design there is a constant struggle between the dielectric, thermal and cost properties of the materials selected for the insulation system. Typically, these properties are such that improvement in one decreases the performance in the other. In oil-filled transformers, the insulation system consists primarily of transformer oil and cellulose paper. This combination has proved to exhibit outstanding thermal and dielectric properties at a relatively inexpensive cost. Indeed, it is the properties of these units by which all other transformer designs are judged. Oil filled units offer the lowest purchase cost of all the options available. In addition, they provide the smallest dimension and lowest losses per purchase dollar of all the options and offer a very high ability to operate in adverse conditions.
0-7803-5823-6/00/$10.00 0 2000 IEEE
but the only type of electrical equipment where they found limited use was in capacitors. became available at a competitive price. problems still exist as to the probability of these fluids being found to represent a health hazard in the future . have been done so at the expense of some of the beneficial properties of the conventional dry-type. the polyester sealant is typically BIODEGRADEABLE FLUID LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS In recent years environmental concerns have been raised by electric utilities regarding the use of mineral oil and some synthetic fluids. silicone. recognize and provide for the differences and environmental effects for the classes of biologically derived fats and oils. fire. gas-filled) have evolved in an effort to address this problem. etc. Coast Guard. In the early years. for a “non-flammable” transformer. Vegetable oils were not used in transformers due to the unavailability of a suitable fluid which was both stable in the transformer environment and which was available in plentiful quantities. they were mainly employed in relatively small transformers at low voltages and utilized the same materials as oil-filled transformers. flammability and leakage. As the dielectric capabilities of this air were subject to contamination (mainly in the form of moisture).thus creating a situation similar to that of PCB’s today. In addition. 15 CFR part 990. As high temperature papers were developed. The units have evolved considerably over the years mainly due to the creation of many improved materials. While these units meet the need. these units possess a higher flash point than oil. As noted. While this tended to increase the losses somewhat. These units are comparable in size and electrical performance to conventional liquid filled units filled with the less flammable dielectric fluids mentioned above. tends to be poorer than oil resulting in increased unit size and weight. such as silicone and high temperature hydrocarbons with low biodegradability in transformers. The conventional dry type transformer of today consists of an insulation system of carefully coordinated high temperature (220 degree C) materials coated with a high temperature moisture resistant polyester sealant. These fluids tend to attack a number of the materials used in the oil-filled units and extreme care must be exercised if retrofitting is anticipated. However. epoxy coated. In essence. the PCB insulated transformer was the backbone of this industry . the major ones being. all these units will still burn. perchloroethylene. that states in its preamble that the US EPA and Coast Guard have recognized that 106 . the flash point is considerably higher than oil. The fluids have environmentally friendly properties that include biodegradable characteristics up to 97% in 21 days and they come from non-toxic renewable natural resources. epoxy cast. and maintenance associated with these units. and mixtures of oil with perchloroethylene. EPA. to varying degrees. a transformer capable of addressing the major problems of the oil-filled units. high temperature hydrocarbons. which stipulated that it was the Sense of Congress that the regulatory agencies. many of the materials utilized in these units proved to be truly non-flammable. Any insulation fluid spill could be considered hazardous by regulatory agencies and a major spill could mean expensive clean-up procedures. For a number of years. (PCB) and Perchloroethylene (C2C14). All the other transformer products (VPE. The drawback to these units is that the major dielectric medium external to the windings is ambient air and the ambient air influences the winding dielectric system. Now. The advantages of transformers with biodegradable fluids are elevated fire and flash points for flammability concerns. it allowed the cost of the units to approach those of the oilfilled transformers. Transformer manufactures have released transformer designs that utilize vegetable oil-based dielectric fluids. animal fats and vegetable oils are substantially less harmful to the environment than petroleum oils. VPllCONVENTlONAL DRY TYPE TRANSFORMERS The conventional dry-type transformer has been in existence actually longer than oil-filled units. Vegetable oils have been considered for several decades as electrical insulating fluids.If it were not for the environmental concerns. leakage. epoxy wet wound. with the exception of Polychlorinated Biphenyls. especially at higher voltage ratings. However. while addressing the effect of contaminated air. Thus. shopping centers and near waterways. These concerns are magnified particularly for those transformers that are located in densely populated areas. public law 104-55. the “non-flammable” liquid filled transformers evolved.until environmental concerns made this material unacceptable. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issued a document. it became possible to reduce core and conductor material by increasing the operating temperature of the windings. with the exception of C2C14. NON-FLAMMABLE LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS With growing recognition of the fire problems well as non-thermal liabilities associated with the oil-filled transformers. The thermal conductivity of the fluids. Some of these units. there would be no need for most of the other options. these transformers were prone to failure in contaminated environments. a number of different fluids are being offered. it is primarily due to the increased awareness and cost of these factors that has prompted the creation of all the other options. Their dielectric properties tend to be similar to oil. In October of 1995 an act was passed by the US Congress.. On the better quality units. DOT.
they are conventional dry-type transformers installed in a hermetically sealed pressure vessel. Indeed. This results in an enhanced ability to withstand thermal shocks. due to government regulation. MIL-1-240926. These capabilities included such items as surviving steam-line breaks over the transformers. .approximately twice the purchase cost of a comparable oil-filled transformer. In addition. These gases provide the dielectric medium external to the windings. radiation exposure. When properly designed and constructed. the premium required for these enhancements is the lowest of all the other dry-type options. the short-term overload capability is also enhanced. C and still meet their salt water exposure criteria. The military rates the thermal classification of an insulation system differently than the commercial industry. Typically. the size of these units is typically 20% to 30% larger than a comparable oil-filled device. GAS-FILLED major drawback is cost . but could be applied in any environment. they are the best transformer option in a number of “critical” applications. which does not degrade some feature of the conventional VPI. 10 MVA ratings) when installation costs are included. and maintain the moisture seal provided. applications related to the direct control of the nuclear reactors. C2F6 transformers do not exceed 3750 kVA and N2 units do not exceed 2000 kVA. and seismic events. Among the requirements for the “IE” transformers was the demonstration of the capability of the transformer to perform its intended functions at the end of 40 years of use. Their EPOXY SYSTEMS GENERAL DISCUSSION The three epoxy options currently available in dry-type transformers result from experiences initially related to motor design. The steam-line break tests have adequately demonstrated the moisture resistance capability to atmospheric moisture. The significance of this thermal capability is extended life expectancy over the polyester systems. both motor and transformer 1 07 . Indeed. but employ a silicone resin instead of a polyester resin. these transformers exhibit the ability to operate in any environment while remaining truly non-flammable. the silicone system was the only system to qualify as a 220 degree C system. In addition. none of the epoxy insulated dry types have ever been qualified for “1E applications mainly due to the inability to support the 40-year life expectancy. Another unique feature of the silicone VPE transformer is that the resin system when cured is “soft” when compared to polyester or epoxy systems. these are the only dry-type transformers that can make this claim. These units are highly resistant to most chemical contaminants. Historically. including enhanced moisture protection.SEALED DRY TRANSFORMERS Gas-filled transformers were developed to provide the beneficial features of the dry-type. Indeed. the ratings of these devices have been restricted.applied with a vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) process. C2F6. One such application is installation in dry-docks where they provide local power for the construction of ships. Only oil-filled transformers have more data available to support the thermal life expectancy of the transformer. In addition. As noted. VPE DRY TYPE TRANSFORMERS The VPE dry-type transformer was developed to meet the needs of shipboard use by the military. over the conventional VPI transformer with no degradation of any of its other features. As will be explained. all the epoxy options result in decreased thermal ratings among other things. they also act as the thermal medium to move the heat form the windings to the tank walls. They are highly resistant to atmospheric borne moisture as evidenced by their expanding use in outdoor applications. the VPE resin does not provide any short circuit strength enhancement. motor and dry-type transformer insulation system designs have paralleled each other. Under these conditions. the VPE transformer provides a number of additional benefits. Their size is on par with the oil-filled units and their installed weights are lower. With respect to the life expectancy of these units in an industrial setting one need only look to the nuclear utility industry. When polyester resins became available in the late 1950’s. They are similar to the VPI transformers. Due to the limited thermal capabilities of the gas media. In spite of their cost. The gases currently employed in these designs are N2. they have proven to be the most economical transformer option in medium voltage distribution class equipment (through 15 kV. Under their guidelines. Essentially. the gas-filled are somewhat limited in capacity and occupy a greater volume. the most transformer manufacturers obtain the thermal classification of their impregnation systems from UL 1446. The conventional dry-type exhibits the highest fire rating of all transformer option. they can be applied virtually anywhere that is acceptable to human habitation. The conventional dry types have been employed in a significant number of what are termed “1E applications. and SF6. In fact. In summary. When properly designed and constructed. The thickness of the resin costing of the VPE is also greater .typically by a factor of four. both extreme cold and hot. the dry-dock (including the transformer) is flooded with seawater to float the ship away from the construction site. The VPE option is the only option available for dry-type transformers. These units have been successfully applied in a variety of industrial and commercial environments at voltages exceedingly 15 kV class for more than 30 years. In addition. Upon completion of a ship.
the winding’s internal insulation system could be effectively hermetically sealed form the ambient resulting in some enhanced dielectric capabilities.000 hours. In one group. As the motor industry continued to look for alternatives. In the other approach. Thus. this characteristic could be improved and allow the transformer to be applied in a greater variety of adverse atmospheric environments. conventional VPI. the thermal rating of the transformer is downgraded. epoxy in general. application of Monsignor’s 10 degree C factor. In the subgroup with no polyester resin. with respect to the cast designs only. However. and no epoxy is assumed to penetrate to the interior. a conventional VPI dry-type is given an overcoat of epoxy varnish. Thus. has a slightly improved water absorption rate as compared to polyester. the dielectric capability of the insulation system is 108 . the hot spot temperature is 200 degree C.000 hours). weight. the insulation medium external to the windings is still the ambient air and appropriate precautions (such as elimination of condensation) must still be maintained. Originally. The maximum temperature rise known in the industry for epoxy cast coils is 185 degree C. however.manufacturers converted to their use. If the epoxy insulated system were rated 155 degree C (at 40. this results in increased size. EPOXY COATED DRY TYPE TRANSFORMERS There are two variants of this group of transformers.0 years of service. which equates to 4. a conservative number in any “good” design. the life of a transformer is highly dependent of the temperature to which it is operated. In addition. it should be noted that in all dry-type designs. weight and cost. problems were encountered in the motor industry. these units have a slightly enhanced ability to resist moisture contamination. The coil is removed from the winding machine and the mixture is cured in a continuously rotating oven. epoxy saturated fiber glass ribbon is wound directly with the wire during the winding process. as in most cast epoxy systems. indicates the estimated “life” to be (2) (2) (4. The net result in either case is a lessening of the thermal capability of the drytype transformer. The resin content of the varying suppliers differs considerably.0 years. In the subgroup with the polyester resin. By US standards.0 years of service. they employed B-staged epoxy coated paper. As noted. then the transformer would require and average temperature rise rating of I 15 degree C to give the same 18. especially the high temperature polyesters. Most 155 degree C manufacturers design their units for 80 degree C providing some additional safety margin. Adequate internal re-enforcement must be provided in order to avoid “cracking” from thermal shock and long-term aging. and epoxy (but not gas-filled). In addition. which states the life of organic materials will halve or double for every I O degree C change in temperature.0 can be anticipated. then the transformer would require and average temperature rise rating of 85 degree C to give the same 18.5)=18. various methods of casting and wet winding evolved. life expectancies greatly exceeding 18. As can be seen. In a transformer rated 150 degree C rise (at 40. As noted in the general discussion. As the loads on most transformers are below the “rating” of the device. ambient temperature. If the epoxy insulated system were rated 185 degree C (at 40. In order to reduce costs. the European transformer manufacturers began to use epoxy as their primary sealant in dry types in the late 1960’s. In these units. As this is 20 degree C below the 220 degree C rating. VPE. thus. the epoxy is the dielectric material on the interior of the winding. cost and flammability. One characteristic noted with the epoxy material was a lower moisture absorption rate as compared to the conventional dry-type. In Europe. the polyester sealant is completely replaced with an epoxy vanish. RESIBLOC EPOXY CAST TRANSFORMERS These epoxy cast coil dry-types represent a departure from the conventional VPI dry-type in that no insulation papers are employed in the windings. The manufacturing process allows production of a cast winding without the use of a mold or vacuum process. the unit has the same temperature classification as the conventional VPI drytype. As noted. In the RESIBLOC dry-type. and the associated temperature rise is lower. and the hot spot differential (the difference between the hottest spot temperature rise and the average temperature rise). the thermal classification of the material is lower and has resulted in increased size. polyester resin systems were not as available as epoxy systems. at least in the unaged condition. Due to the lower thermal rating of the polyester resin available and the growing use of epoxy systems in motor manufacture. epoxy emerged as the best option for their needs. the hottest spot differential is assumed to be 30 degree C. Most manufacturers of these units claim a 180 degree C classification. the conventional VPI systems and the VPE system) have a 220 degree C classification. The temperature rating of a transformer is based on three components: rated average temperature rise.5 years) with a 20 degree C ambient and a 30 degree c hot spot differential. some manufacturers claim that as the material “within” the windings is the same 220 degree C insulation system as the conventional VPI dry-type.000 hours).
2500. which aid in periodic maintenance cleaning.dependent on formulation. Another benefit to this design. Vacuum technology now allows on load tap changing on small power dry type transformers. Materials.5 to 10 mils). manufacturing processes. ________________________________________---_-------- 109 . core materials and computer design programs allow dry type transformers the capability of matching the electrical characteristics of liquid-filled units. Dry 500. Vacuum pressure impregnation/encapsulation systems and cast coil windings with solid insulation are available which allow dry type transformers to be placed in severe applications which once were considered only suitable for liquid filled units. Improved insulation systems. One is its outstanding capability to withstand very high BIL levels and short circuit forces at a moderate cost increase. This feature along with the capability of providing cooling ducts in the windings allows RESIBLOC to be the largest dry type transformer produced. is that the units typically have extremely smooth exterior surfaces. Indicator Liquid Level Gauge Pressure Vacuum Gauge Pressure Relief Valve Cooling Fan Packages Fan Packages Bus Terminations Nameplate Lifting Provisions Jacking Facilities Ground Pads Construction Bushings Features Nameplate Lifting Provisions Jacking Facilities Ground Pads RATINGS CONCLUSION Choosing between a liquid-filled or dry type transformer is more difficult today than 20 years ago. As is realized from the above process. relieving the vacuum and applying an over pressure to force the epoxy into all voids. placing the coil in a mold. A s noted in the general discussion of epoxy transformers. Tap Tap Changer with Tap Connections on coil winding with re-connectable links Changer external Operating No Load Handle (De-energized) Gauges Liquid Temp.750. The fiber glass reinforcement is alternately wound linearly and diagonally in the coil in a manner to bind the coil together. Should the unit become wet. EPOXY-CAST DRY TYPE TRANSFORMERS The epoxy cast transformer is produced by winding a coil with saturable materials. with extremely smooth exterior surfaces. Gauge Three Phase Electronic Winding Temp.2500. filling the mold under vacuum with an epoxy formulation. only surface moisture needs to be removed. RESIBLOC fiber glass reinforced windings have extended the maximum operating size of dry type transformers through 25000 kVA. 1500. The surface condition of these units tends to be extremely smooth and readily cleaned with use of compressed air versus vacuuming. Operational characteristics as well as environmental issues play dominant roles in the evaluation process. enhancement is achieved with respect to moisture absorption and chemical resistance. Less flammable and environmentally friendly fluids have been developed to extend the application of liquid-filled transformers.1000. loads. putting the coil/mold combination into a vacuum chamber. the characteristics of the epoxy These designs employ the highest content of glass giving them a distinct advantage with respect to flammability and mechanical strength. This thickness together with the reduced moisture absorption characteristic of the epoxy and the hermetic sealing achieved results in the highest level of moisture protection provided by any of the dry type options. protection devices and application technology have all improved and continue to advance. hermetically sealed. The final product is a void-free winding design. Standard Kilovolt-ampere Ratings Liquid 500. The environmental restrictions since the demise of PCB-filled units in the early 70’s created a need for high efficiency environmentally friendly transformers and toady’s dry type transformers have met the challenge. as well as the cast designs. Thus. 2000. which results in maximum mechanical strength. The epoxy cast transformer offers some unique features. 1500. lengthy drying procedures after extended shutdown can be avoided.1000. transferring the coil/mold/resin unit from the vacuum chamber to a curing oven and curing the assembly. The glass fibers are bonded together by the epoxy resin.750. the resin coating afforded by this system is the greater than the VPI conventional dry-type options.2000. Surface thickness can range from 60 to 200 mils depending on the manufacturer (conventional VPI dry-type options vary from 0.
75 5...7 15 25 35 OPT 20...1000 1001-1500 1501-2000 2001-2500 2501-3000 3001-4000 4001-5000 5001-6000 6001-7500 7501-10 000 FA 67 67 68 69 71 71 73 74 75 76 --- --- Standard Temperature Rise (Degree C) Liquid 55 65 55/65 Dry 80 100 115 150 801100 801115 801150 1151150 IMPEDANCES Liquid LV 2400V LV Below and 2400V above 5. 10 000 .. 3000.......... 7500........150 175......5000....60 60.2 2. .....3750..110 125..3000. Overload Capability * For transformers above 5000 kVA these values shall be the same as shown for 150 kV HV BIL.5 5...... ....00 Dry LV 600V 2400V and and above above 5...75 7.. SOUND LEVELS 110 ANSI American National Standards Institute 0 The primary standards organization in the US Approves standards by other organizations for classification as an American National Standard Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers 0 IEEE The primary source for transformer standards in the US ..200 501-700 70 1.............50 --8.. 7500.00 HV BIL (kV) 10-60 60-110 150 200 250 350 --- --- ....3750...95 95..lO 000 ..25 7...00 7.Optional 50% Fan Overload available through 2500 kVA...75 5....75 7..30 30..........75 5.......10 000 kVA) 25% (3750 .75 5..45 45...00 7.......75 5.75 5...... 5000..50* 6......75* 5.75 5..00 7......25 000 kVA (NEMA TR-1) Liquid OA AA 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 67 68 69 70 Dry AA 62 64 65 66 68 68 70 71 72 73 Distribution Voltage BIL Ratings Liquid OPT BIL 30 45 60 75 95 150 125 150 200 Dry BIL 10 20 30 45 60 110 150 (kV) 1.......10 000 kVA) Dry ...50 7.00 7....0 8... STANDARDS DESCRIPTION Fan Overload Capacity ..75 6...... Liquid Dry 15% (UP TO 2499 kVA) 33% (UP TO 3750 kVA) 25% (2500 ...
dry type specialty transformers 0 UL1 561 .Most. Switchgear.dry type transformers 0 CSNC88 .National Electrical Safety Code 0 Mission: safeguarding of life (does not mention property) 0 Electrical utility installations from point of generation to point of delivery to a customer’s facility Part 1. c34kV NFPA National Fire Protection Association 0 ISO-9001 Quality Systems 0 Model for quality assurance in design.transformers 0 Part 3. IEEE standards become ANSI standards A consensus organization . production.non-utility 0 Adopted by most states and municipal governments 0 Article 450 .energy efficiency National Institute of Science and Technology Formally NBS (National Bureau of Standards) 0 Test equipment calibration and traceability 0 0 Canadian Standards Association CSNC9 . 34.liquid filled transformers International Organization for Standardization 0 Worldwide federation of national standards bodies One of three international standards dealing with quality system requirements used for external quality assurance purposes 0 ISO-9000 Quality management and quality assurance standards 0 Guidelines for selection and use 0 NlST IS0 UL Underwriters Laboratories.dry type power <1500 kVA.dry type power <5000 kVA. installation and servicing ISO-9003 Quality Systems 0 Model for quality assurance in final inspection and test NEC . 33.vaults International Electrotechnical Commission 0 0 For use when conformance to specified requirements is to be assured by the supplier solely at final inspection and test REFERENCE STANDARDS A.expired 0 NEMA 250 . Sections 32.transformers 0 NESC . development. 37 .Circuit Breakers. development. Liquid-Filled Transformers IEC 111 .sound levels NEMA TRI & TR27 . installation and servicing ISO-9002 Quality Systems 0 Model for quality assurance production. Inc. Substations and Fuses IEC 76 and its appendices 0 Power transformers IEC 726 and its appendices 0 0 Dry type transformers NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association 0 0 0 Manv subtle differences from ANSVIEEE Manufacturers only . Power and Regulating Transformers 0 0 The primary international organization Technical Committee 14 0 0 Power transformer standards development organization 0 C37 . installation and servicing 0 For use when conformance to specified requirements is to be assured by the supplier during design.manufacturers & end users 0 C57 .product standards Historical source of transformer standards CSA 0 In general. <600V 0 UL1562 . Section 15 . Relays. 0 Installations . but not all.enclosure clarifications 0 NEMA TPI . compliance to ANSVIEEE ensures compliance to IEC (ANSIAEEE is the more restrictive) 0 NEMA ST20 .Distribution. installation and servicing 0 For use when conformance to specified requirements is to be assured by the supplier during production. production.National Electrical Code 0 Mission: safeguarding life and property from hazards arising from the use of electricity. Non-profit organization dedicated to consumer safety 0 Product standards and product testing 0 0 Third party certification (Listing) Dry Type Only 0 ABB Bland first with UL Listed Cast Coil 0 UL506 .
IEEE C57. 833/958 through 8333110417 kVA single phase. operation.12.12. 112 .recommended practice for the detection of partial discharges and the measurement of apparent charge in dry-type transformers (ANSI) NEMA TR-1-1980 -. regulators. low voltage 208Y/I20 .00-1991 -standard general DRAFT requirements and test procedure for outdoor power apparatus bushings (ANSI).guide for conducting a transient voltage analysis of a dry-type transformer coil (ANSI) IEEE C57.111-1989 (Reaffirmed 1995) -.91-1979 -.1 2. three phase without load tap changing.12. 501 kVA and larger.test code for dry-type distribution and power transformers.primary and secondary unit substations.124-1991 -.00-1993 -.primary unit substations. and 3750/4687 through 60 000/80 000/100 000 with load tap changing.requirements for ventilated dry-type 501 kVA or larger. B.12.guide for acceptance and maintenance of less flammable hydrocarbon fluid in transformers (ANSI) NEMA TR-1-1980 -.10-1988 -.55-1987 -conformance standard for transformers -. IEEE (257. and 750/82 through 60 000/80 000/100 000 kVA three phase. (257. power. ANSI C57.12.58-1991 -.12. C57.IEEE standard test code for liquid-immersed distribution power and regulating transformers and guide for short-circuit testing of distribution and power transformers (ANSI).recommended practice for establishing transformer capability when supplying non-sinusoidalload currents (ANSI) IEEE C57.12. IEEE (257. application.4160 V.12.70-1978 (Reaffirmed 1993) -.transformers.01-1991 -.standard general requirements for dry-type distribution and power transformers. and reactors.standard general requirements for liquid-immersed distribution. IEEE C57.transformers up to and including 100 MVA with 55°C or 65°C average winding rise (ANSI).standard performance characteristics and dimensions for outdoor apparatus bushings IEEE C57.109-1993 -.121-1988 (Reaffirmed 1995) -. C57. regulators.guide for acceptance of silicone insulating fluid and its maintenance in transformers.105-1978 (Reaffirmed 1992) -.recommended practice for installation.transformers.safety requirements for transformers 230 000 V and below.STANDARDS relating to liquid-filled transformers include the following: ANSI (257. ANSI C57.19.90-1993 -.standard terminology for power and distribution transformers. IEEE C57.80-1978 (Reaffirmed 1992) -.104-1991 -.12.standard test procedure for thermal evaluation of insulation systems for ventilated dry-type power and distribution transformers (ANSI).19.12. with high voltage 601-34 500 V.120-1991 -.12. including unit substations.guide for loading dry-type distribution and power transformers (ANSI) IEEE C57. DRAFT C57.92-1981 (Reaffirmed 1991) -.51-1981 (Reaffirmed 1989) -.114-I990 -. Dry-Type Transformers Standards relating to dry-type transformers include the following: C57.trail-use standard test procedures for thermal evaluation of insulation systems for solid-cast and resin-encapsulated power and distribution transformers. including unit substations (257.standard loss evaluation guide for power transformers and reactors (ANSI) IEEE C57.59-1989 -. and regulating transformers (ANSI) ANSI C57.94-1982 (Reaffirmed 1987) -.standard test procedure for thermal evaluation of oil-immersed distribution transformers (ANSI).106-1991 -.guide for acceptance and maintenance of insulation oil in equipment (ANSI).12. IEEE C57.conformance requirements for liquid-filled transformers used in unit installation.guide for dry-type transformer through-fault current duration (ANSI).guide for transformer throughfault current duration (ANSI). three phase with high voltage 601-34 500 V. ANSI C57.60-1992 -.50-I 981 (Reaffirmed 1989) -.01-I989 -. C57. C57. ANSI C57.terminal markings and connections for distribution and power transformers. IEEE (37. NEMA 201-1970 (Reaffirmed 1982) -.98-1993 -.12. and reactors.seismic guide for power transformers and reactors (ANSI) IEEE C57.12.96-1989 -. IEEE C57. NEMA 201-1970 (Reaffirmed 1982) -. C57.secondary unit substations.guide for transformer impulse tests (ANSI). including those with solid cast/or resin-encapsulated windings. three phase. IEEE C57.100-1986 (Reaffirmed 1992) -.guide for application of transformer connections in three-phase distribution systems (ANSI) IEEE C57.dry-type transformers used in unit installations. and maintenance of dry-type general purpose distribution and power transformers (ANSI) IEEE (37.requirements for ventilated dry-type power transformers.56-1986 (Reaffirmed 1993) -.guide for the interpretation of gases generated in oil-immersed transformers.1 10-1986 (Reaffirmed 1992) -. NEMA 201-1970 (Reaffirmed 1992) -.13-I982 -. low voltage 208Y/120-4160 V.