You are on page 1of 7

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 47-53 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET

© I A E M E

by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD AND ANOVA

APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD AND ANOVA IN OPTIMIZATION OF CUTTING PARAMETERS FOR MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN TURNING OPERATION

Vishal Francis*, Ravi.S.Singh, Nikita Singh, Ali.R.Rizvi, Santosh Kumar

Department of Mechanical Engineering, SSET, SHIATS, Allahabad – 211007, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA *Corresponding Author- Assistant Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, SSET, SHIATS, Allahabad – 211007, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA

ABSTRACT

The intend of this research work is to employ Taguchi method and Analysis of Variance to find out the influences of cutting parameters such as spindle speed, depth of cut and feed on material removal rate and surface roughness for their optimization. The experimental results obtained were analyzed to find out the most significant factor effecting MRR and surface roughness. Spindle speed was found to be the most significant parameter influencing material removal rate followed by feed and depth of cut in turning of mild steel (0.18% C). Feed rate was found to be the most influencing parameter in case of surface roughness.

Keywords:

Taguchi Method, ANOVA, Mild Steel, Material Removal Rate, Surface

Roughness.

INTRODUCTION

Turning is one of the common metal cutting operations used for manufacturing of finished parts. The surface texture of the produced parts must fulfill the specified limitations so it is vitally important to produce parts with adequate surface finish in order to ensure product performance and reliability. The present work investigates the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and material removal rate, experiment was conducted with a

47

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

HSS tool for turning of mild steel. Mild steel is a malleable and ductile material with a low tensile strength. The surface hardness can be increased through carburizing. The experiment was designed using Taguchi method, an L 27 orthogonal array was selected and the three process parameter, depth of cut, feed and spindle speeds were varied to analyze the results obtained in order to find the optimal levels of the parameters for maximum material removal rate and minimum surface roughness. ANOVA was employed to find out significance of the different parameters on MRR and surface roughness.

METHODOLOGY

Essentially, traditional experimental design procedures are too complicated and not easy to use. A large number of experimental works have to be carried out when the number of process parameters increases. To solve this problem, the Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal arrays to study the entire parameter space with only a small number of experiments. This method uses a special set of arrays called orthogonal array. This standard array gives a way of conducting the minimum number of experiments which could give the full information of all the factors that affect the response parameter instead of doing all experiments. Analysis of variance was invented by Sir Ronald Fisher, who was a Statistician and Geneticist. He coined the phrase "analysis of variance," defined as "the separation of variance ascribable to one group of causes from the variance ascribable to the other groups. It is a statistical method of comparing means between groups; it computes the F-statistics, named after the inventor Fisher. The computed F value is compared with the critical F value to determine the significance of the parameters on the response. Variation observed (total) in an experimental attributed to each significant factor or interaction is reflected in percent contribution (P), which shows relative power of factor or interaction to reduce variation.

MATERIALS AND METHOD

A Mild steel rod of 150mm length and 32mm diameter was used for the experimental work.

The chemical composition consists of (0.18%) carbon and (0.68%) manganese. The experiment was performed by high speed steel tool in dry cutting condition. Turning operation was performed 27 times in Sparko Engineering Workshop, Allahabad (U.P.) India. The total length of the work piece was divided into 4 equal parts and the surface roughness was measured for each 37.5mm length across the lay. Correspondingly MRR was calculated using standard relation:

MRR= VFD mm 3 /min

(1)

Where, MRR= Material Removal Rate, V= cutting velocity in mm/min, F= feed rate in mm/rev, D= depth of cut in mm. The three process parameters, viz. depth of cut, feed and spindle speeds were varied

as shown in table 1.

48

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

Table 1: Process parameters and their levels

Process Parameters Depth of cut (mm) Feed (mm/rev) Spindle speed (rpm)

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.08

0.20

0.32

780

1560

2340

REULTS AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS

Table 2 shows the values of the responses obtained from the experimental runs, designed by Taguchi method, the corresponding value of S/N Ratio is mentioned for each run.

Table 2: Results for Experimental Trial Runs

Exp.

Depth

Feed

spindle

Surface

Material

S/N Ratio for Surface Roughness

S/N Ratio for Material Removal

No.

of cut

(mm/rev)

speed

Roughness

Removal

(mm)

(rpm)

(microns)

Rate

(mm

3 /min)

 

Rate

1

0.5

0.08

780

97.5

3134976

-39.7801

129.925

2

0.5

0.08

1560

22.5

6269952

-27.0437

135.945

3

0.5

0.08

2340

100.0

9404928

-40.0000

139.467

4

0.5

0.20

780

95.0

783744

-39.5545

117.883

5

0.5

0.20

1560

105.0

15674880

-40.4238

143.904

6

0.5

0.20

2340

137.5

23512320

-42.7661

147.426

7

0.5

0.32

780

150.0

12539904

-43.5218

141.966

8

0.5

0.32

1560

110.0

25079808

-40.8279

147.986

9

0.5

0.32

2340

55.0

37619712

-34.8073

151.508

10

1.0

0.08

780

87.0

6269952

-38.7904

135.945

11

1.0

0.08

1560

95.0

12539904

-39.5545

141.966

12

1.0

0.08

2340

96.0

15674880

-39.6454

143.904

13

1.0

0.20

780

90.0

31349760

-39.0849

149.925

14

1.0

0.20

1560

96.0

12539904

-39.6454

141.966

15

1.0

0.20

2340

86.0

47024640

-38.6900

153.447

16

1.0

0.32

780

98.0

25079808

-39.8245

147.986

17

1.0

0.32

1560

100.0

50159616

-40.0000

154.007

18

1.0

0.32

2340

98.0

75239424

-39.8245

157.529

19

1.5

0.08

780

85.0

9404928

-38.5884

139.467

20

1.5

0.08

1560

96.7

18809856

-39.7085

145.488

21

1.5

0.08

2340

97.0

28214784

-39.7354

149.010

22

1.5

0.20

780

85.0

2351232

-38.5884

127.426

23

1.5

0.20

1560

93.0

47024640

-39.3697

153.447

24

1.5

0.20

2340

89.0

70536960

-38.9878

156.968

25

1.5

0.32

780

95.0

37619712

-39.5545

151.508

26

1.5

0.32

1560

100.0

37619712

-40.0000

151.508

27

1.5

0.32

2340

89.0

112859136

-38.9878

161.051

 

49

International Journal of Mech anical Engineering and Technology (IJMET),

6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(O nline) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

ISSN 0976 –

A. Analysis of the S/N Ratio Taguchi method stresses the importance of studying the response varia tion using the

signal – to – noise (S/N) ratio,

resulting in minimization of quality character istic variation

due to uncontrollable parameter. The S/N Ratio is calculat ed using larger the better characteristics for MR R.

ed using larger the better characteristics for MR R. And the S/N Ratio for characteristics. Surface

And the S/N Ratio for characteristics.

Surface roughness is calculated using smal ler the better

Surface roughness is calculated using smal ler the better Where n is the number of meas

Where n is the number of meas surement in a trail/row and Yi is the measured run/row.

value in the

Table 3 and 4 shows the Responses for Signal to Noise ratios of larger the better and

smaller the better for each level

of the parameters.

Table 3: Response Table for Signal to Noise Ratios Larger is bette r

Level

Depth of cut (m m)

Feed (mm/rev)

Spindle spee d(rpm)

1

139.6

140.1

138.0

2

147.4

143.6

146.2

3

148.4

151.7

151.1

Delta

8.9

11.5

13.1

Rank

3

2

1

 

Table 4: Response

Table for Signal to Noise Ratios Smaller is bette r

Level

Depth of cut (m m)

Feed (mm/rev)

Spindle spee d(rpm)

 

1 -38.75

-38.09

-39.70

 

2 -39.45

-39.68

-38.51

 

3 -39.28

-39.71

-39.27

Delta

0.70

1.61

1.19

Rank

3

1

2

A greater value of S/N ra tio is always considered for better performance regardless of the category of the performance characteristics. The difference of S/N Ratio be tween level 1 and level 3 indicates the signif icance of the process parameters, greater the d ifference, greater will be the significance. Table 3 shows that the s pindle speed contributes most significantly tow ards MRR as the delta valve (difference bet ween maximum and minimum values) is h ighest (13.1), followed by feed (11.5) and dept h of cut (8.9). Table 4 indicates that for surface roughness the parameter that had the m ost influence is feed with delta value of (1.61) , followed by spindle speed (1.19) and depth of cut (0.70).

50

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

Figure 1 and 2 shows the main effect plot for S/N ratio for MRR and surface roughness. It is clear from figure 1 that MRR increases on increasing the values of spindle speed, feed and depth of cut. The greatest variation found was due to spindle speed, MRR increases on increasing the spindle speed. In case of surface roughness, feed has the greatest variation; as there is a considerable increase of surface roughness on increasing the feed.

M a in E ffe c ts P lo t for S N r a
M a in
E ffe c ts
P lo t for
S N
r a tio s
Da ta
M
e a ns
DEP TH O F C U T(mm)
F EED R A TE (mm/re v )
15
2
14
8
14
4
14
0
0.5
1 .0
1 .5
0 .0 8
0 .20
0. 32
S PINDLE S PEED (rpm)
15
2
14
8
14
4
14
0
780
156 0
234 0
S ign a l-to -no ise :
La rge r
is
b e tte r
Mean of SN ratios

Figure 1 Effect of depth of cut, feed and spindle speed on MRR

M a in E ffe c ts P lo t fo r S N r
M a in
E ffe c ts
P lo t fo r
S N
r a tio s
Da ta
M
e a n s
DE PTH O F C U T(mm)
F EE D R A TE (mm/re v )
-38. 0
-38. 4
-38. 8
-39. 2
-39. 6
0
. 5
1 . 0
1. 5
0. 08
0 . 20
0 . 32
S PIN D LE S PEE D (rp m)
-38. 0
-38. 4
-38. 8
-39. 2
-39. 6
7
80
1 560
23 40
S ig n a l-to -n o is e :
S m a lle r
is
b e tte r
Mean of SN ratios

Figure 2 Effect of depth of cut, feed and spindle speed on MRR

B. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) The response data obtained via experimental runs for MRR and surface roughness were subjected to ANOVA for finding out the significant parameters, at above 95% confidence level and the results of ANOVA thus obtained for the response parameters are illustrated in table 5 and 6.

51

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

Table 5: ANOVA table for S/N Ratios for MRR

Source

DF

SS

MS

F

P

Depth of

2

424.29

212.14

6.54

0.007

cut(mm)

Feed

2

631.84

315.92

9.73

0.001

(mm/rev)

Spindle speed

2

793.97

396.98

12.23

0.000

(rpm)

Error

20

649.09

32.45

   

Total

26

2499.19

     

Table 6: ANOVA table for S/N Ratios for Surface Roughness

Source

DF

SS

MS

F

P

Depth of

2

2.426

1.213

0.13

0.877

cut(mm)

Feed

2

15.327

7.663

0.83

0.449

(mm/rev)

Spindle speed

2

6.547

3.273

0.36

0.705

(rpm)

Error

20

183.935

9.197

   

Total

26

208.235

     

From Table 5, one can observe that the spindle speed (p=0.000) is the most significant parameter having 31.77% effect on MRR followed by feed (p= 0.001) having 25.28% influence on the response whereas depth of cut (p=0.007) influences the response only by

16.98%.

On comparing the percentage contribution of the process parameters on response from table 6 it was found that feed have 7.36% influence on surface roughness whereas spindle speed and depth of cut contributes less towards surface roughness.

CONCLUSION

The study discusses about the application of Taguchi method and ANOVA to investigate the effect of process parameters on MRR and surface roughness. From the analysis of the results obtained following conclusion can be drawn: -

Statistically designed experiments based on Taguchi method are performed using L 27 orthogonal array to analyze MRR and surface roughness. The results obtained from analysis of S/N Ratio and ANOVA were in close agreement.

Optimal parameters for MRR are spindle speed 2340rpm; feed 0.32mm/rev and depth of cut 1.5mm. Whereas for surface roughness the optimal parameters found were spindle speed 1560rpm; feed 0.08mm/rev and depth of cut 0.5mm.

Spindle peed was found to be most significant parameter for MRR.

52

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

REFERENCES

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_steel

2. Rama Rao.S and Padmanabhan.G (2012), “Application of Taguchi method and ANOVA for metal removal rate in electrochemical machining of Al/5%SiC composites”, International journal of engineering research & Application. vol. 2, issue 3, pp. 192-197

3. Gulhane U.D., et. al. (2013), “Investigating the effect of machining parameters on surface roughness of 6061 Aluminum Alloy in end milling”, International journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology. Vol.4, issue 2, pp. 134-140.

4. http://www.informatics-review.com/wiki/index.php/ANOVA.

5. J.Pradeep Kumar and P.Packiaraj (2012), “Effect of drilling parameters on surface roughness, Tool wear, Material removal Rate and hole diameter error in drilling of OHNS”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies. Vol. I/ Issue III/April-June, 2012/150-154.

6. K.Krishnamurthy and J.Venkatesh (2013), “ Assessment of surface roughness and material removal rate on machining of TIB2 reinforced Aluminum 6063 composites: A Taguchi’s approach”, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. Vol. 3, Issue 1.

7. Adeel H. Suhail, et. al. (2010). “Optimization of Cutting Parameters Based on Surface Roughness and Assistance of Workpiece Surface Temperature in Turning Process”, American J. of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3 (1): 102-108

8. Karin Kandananond (2009), Characterization of FDB Sleeve Surface Roughness Using the Taguchi Approach”, European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450- 216X Vol.33 No.2 , pp.330-337 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc

9. Yigit Kazancoglu, et. al. (2011), Multi Objective Optimization Of The Cutting Forces In Turning Operations Using The Grey-Based Taguchi Method” Original scientific article/Izvirni znanstveni ~lanek. MTAEC9

10. Puertas. I. Arbizu, C.J. Luis Prez (2003), “Surface roughness prediction by factorial design of experiments in turning processes”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 143- 144 390-396

11. B. S. Raghuwanshi (2009), A course in Workshop Technology Vol.II (Machine Tools), Dhanpat Rai & Company Pvt. Ltd.

12. Nitin Sharma, Shahzad Ahmad, Zahid A. Khan and Arshad Noor Siddiquee, “Optimization of Cutting Parameters for Surface Roughness in Turning”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 86 - 96, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.

13. R. R. Deshmukh and V. R. Kagade, “Optimization of Surface Roughness in Turning High Carbon High Chromium Steel by using Taguchi Method”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 321 - 331, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

14. Rahul Davis and Mohamed Alazhari, “Analysis and Optimization of Surface Roughness in Dry Turning Operation of Mild Steel”, International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 1 - 9, ISSN Online: 0976 - 6979, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6987.

53