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Advanced Training

Steel Connections

Steel Connections All information in this document is subject to modification without prior notice. No part or this manual may be reproduced, stored in a database or retrieval system or published, in any form or in any way, electronically, mechanically, by print, photo print, microfilm or any other means without prior written permission from the publisher. SCIA is not responsible for any direct or indirect damage because of imperfections in the documentation and/or the software. Copyright 2008 SCIA. All rights reserved.

Table of contents

Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................................... 1 Frame Connect : column-beam joints ........................................................................................ 2 Scope .................................................................................................................................................. 2 The Moment-Rotation characteristic ............................................................................................... 3 The resistance properties................................................................................................................. 9 The component strength ................................................................................................................ 9 The strength assembly ................................................................................................................. 12 The influence of the normal force................................................................................................. 14 The design shear resistance ........................................................................................................ 16 The stiffness properties.................................................................................................................. 18 The component stiffness .............................................................................................................. 18 The stiffness assembly................................................................................................................. 19 The classification on stiffness ...................................................................................................... 20 The required stiffness ................................................................................................................... 21 Transferring the joint stiffness to the analysis model .................................................................. 22 Ductility classes .............................................................................................................................. 23 Ductility classification for bolted joints .......................................................................................... 23 Ductility classification for welded joints ........................................................................................ 24 Examples .......................................................................................................................................... 25 Calculation of bolted connection .................................................................................................. 25 Calculation of welded connection................................................................................................. 26 Calculation of connections in 3D Frame ...................................................................................... 30 Special features ............................................................................................................................... 31 Use of haunches .......................................................................................................................... 31 Column in minor axis configuration .............................................................................................. 33 Base plate connections : shear iron, flange wideners ................................................................. 34 The use of 4 bolts / row ................................................................................................................ 35 RHS beam .................................................................................................................................... 38 Frame Connect : pinned joint.................................................................................................... 39 Examples .......................................................................................................................................... 39 Welded fin plate connection ......................................................................................................... 39 Bolted fin plate connection ........................................................................................................... 43 Bolted cleat connection ................................................................................................................ 45 Flexible end plate connection....................................................................................................... 48 References and literature .......................................................................................................... 49

Introduction
The design methods for connection design are explained. More details and references to the applied articles can be found in (Ref.[30]) Scia Engineer Connect Frame & Grid Theoretical Background Release : 5.2 Revision : 05/2008 The explained rules are valid for Scia Engineer 2008.0 and higher. The examples are marked by Example The following examples are available :

Project CON_001.esa CON_002.esa CON_003.esa CON_004.esa CON_005.esa

Subject 2D Frame with pinned connections 2D Frame with semi-rigid semi connections 2D Frame with rigid connections Bolted connection welded connection RHS connection Base plate connection

CON_006.esa CON_007.esa CON_008.esa CON_009.esa CON_010.esa CON_011.esa CON_012.esa

Connection with haunch Connection with column in i minor axis bending Connections in 3D Frame Welded fin plate Bolted fin plate Cleat connection Flexible end plate connection

Steel Connections

Frame Connect : column-beam joints Scope


The design methods for the column-beam joints are taken from EC3 Revised Annex J and EN 19331-8. More detailed information about the applied rules and specific implementations are found in Ref.[1]. The following chapters are valid for the bolted and welded column-beam joints. The design methods for the beam-column joints are principally for moment-resisting joints between I or H sections in which the beams are connected to the flanges of the column.

Figure 1 : Typical configurations

The difference between joint and connection is given in Figure 2. In the text, the name joint will be used.

Figure 2 : Connection vs. Joint

The Moment-Rotation characteristic


The joint is defined by the moment rotation characteristic that describes the relationship between the bending moment Mj,Sd applied to a joint by the connected beam and the corresponding rotation Ed between the connected members.

Figure 3 : Joint and Model

This moment-rotation characteristic defines three main properties : - the moment resistance Mj,Rd - the rotational stiffness Sj - the rotation capacity Cd

Steel Connections

Figure 4 : Moment-rotation characteristic (1 = limit for Sj)

The general analytical procedure which is used for determining the resistance and stiffness properties of a joint, is the so-called component method. The component method considers any joint as a set of individual basic components. Each of these basic components possesses its own strength and stiffness. The application of the component method requires the following steps : identification of the active components in the joint being considered evaluation of the stiffness and/or resistance characteristics for each individual basic component assembly of all the constituent components and evaluation of the stiffness and/or resistance characteristics of the whole joint

Figure 5 : Basic components according to EN 1993-1-8 (1)

Steel Connections

Figure 6 : Basic components according to EN 1993-1-8 (2)

Figure 7 : Basic components EN 1993-1-8 (3)

Steel Connections

Figure 8 : Components in bolted beam-column joint

Zone Tension

Ref a b c d e [f] [g] bolts in tension end plate bending column flange bending beam web tension column web tension flange to end plate weld web to end plate weld column web panel shear beam flange compression beam flange weld column web in compression web to end plate weld bolt shear bolt bearing

Horizontal shear Compression

h j [k] l, m

Vertical shear

[n] p q

Figure 9 : Application of the component method to a welded joint

The resistance properties


The component strength
In EC Revised Annex J and Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-8, evaluation formulae are provided for each of the basic components.

The equivalent T stub


The endplate bending and the column flange bending or bolt yielding, are analysed, using an equivalent T-stub. The three possible modes of failure of the flange of the T stub are : complete flange yielding bolt failure with flange yielding

Steel Connections bolt failure

Figure 10 : Complete flange yielding

Figure 11: Bolt failure with flange yielding

Figure 12 : Bolt failure

The plastic moment capacity of the equivalent T-stub is related to the effective length of the yield line. The effective length is a notional length. The values of the effective length for the different bolt locations are defined in EN 1993-1-8.

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Figure 7 : Effective length for unstiffened column flange

The use of national code


The capacities of the underlying steel parts are calculated by the formulas given in the respective national codes (EC3, DIN18800 T1 or BS 5950-1:2000), depending on the national code set-up. For other codes (NEN, CM, ONORM, CSN, ), the default EC3 capacities are used. Remark : the frame bolted, frame welded and frame pinned joint types are affected. The concrete parts (for base plate joints) are not affected. The concrete parts are designed according the EC definitions. Examples : Column web panel in shear

EC3

Vwp,Rd =

0.9f y ,wc A vc 3 M 0 0.9f y,k ,wc A vc 1.1 3 M

DIN

Vwp,Rd =

BS

Pv = Vwp ,Rd = 0.6p yc t c D c

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Steel Connections Bolts in tension

EC3

B t ,Rd =

0.9f ub A s Mb

B t ,Rd = N Rd = min A1,Rd , A s 2,Rd


DIN

1,Rd = 2,Rd =

f y ,b ,k 1.1 M f u ,b ,k 1.25 M

BS

Pt' = p t A t

The strength assembly


The design model is based on a plastic distribution of bolt forces. Suppose the following joint :

Figure 84 : Plate-to-plate joint

The failure may occur in 3 different ways : 1. The plastic redistribution of the internal forces extends to all bolt-rows when they have sufficient deformation capacity. The resulting distribution is called plastic.

Figure 15 : Plastic distribution

2. The plastic redistribution of forces is interrupted because of the lack of deformation capacity of a given bolt row. In the bolt-rows located lower than this bolt row, the forces are linearly distributed. The resulting distribution is called elasto-plastic.

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Figure 16 : Elasto-plastic distribution

3. The plastic or elasto-plastic distribution of internal forces is interrupted because the compression force Fc attains the design resistance.

Figure 9 : Reduced distribution

The concept of individual and group yield mechanisms is explained in EC3 EN 1993-1-8. When adjacent bolt-rows are subjected to tension forces, various yield mechanisms are likely to form in the connected plates (end-plate or column flange). Individual mechanism develops when the distance between the bolt-rows are sufficiently large. Group mechanism includes more than one adjacent bolt row. To each of these mechanisms are associated specific design resistances.

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Steel Connections

Figure 10 : Individual vs. group yield mechanism

The influence of the normal force Default Interaction check according to EC Revised Annex J
When the axial force NSd in the connected member exceeds 10 % of the plastic resistance Npl,Rd of its cross-section, a warning is printed out and the value of the design moment resistance Mj,Rd is decreased.

For bolted joints The value of the design moment resistance Mj,Rd is decreased by the presence of the axial tensile force NSd.

M j,Rd = M j,Rd N Sd .
with h

h 2
the distance between the compression and tension point in the connected member

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If there is an axial compression force NSd, we check the following :

Fc = min(Vwp ,Rd , Fc , wc ,Rd , Fc,fb , Rd ) N = max(0, M j, Rd (Fc Ftot )) 2 = M j,Rd N h


with h the distance between the compression and tension point in the connected member Design compression resistance for column web Design compression resistance for beam web and flange Design shear resistance of column web The sum of the tensile forces in the bolt rows at Mj,Rd

N Sd

Fc,wc,Rd Fc,fb,Rd Vwp,Rd Ftot

For welded joints

Ftot = min(Vwp,Rd , Fc,wc,Rd , Fc,fb, Rd , Ft,fc, Rd , Ft, wc,Rd )


When an axial tensile force NSd is present :

Fc = min(Ft,fc, Rd , Ft, wc,Rd ) N = max(0, M j,Rd (Fc Ftot )) 2 = M j, Rd N h N Sd

When an axial compressive force NSd is present :

Fc = min(Vwp, Rd , Fc, wc,Rd , Fc,fb, Rd ) N = max(0, M j, Rd (Fc Ftot )) 2 = M j,Rd N h


with h Fc,wc,Rd Fc,fb,Rd Vwp,Rd Ft,wc,Rd Ft,fc,Rd the distance between the compression and tension point in the connected member Design compression resistance for column web Design compression resistance for beam web and flange Design shear resistance of column web Design resistance of column web in tension Design resistance of column flange in tension

N Sd

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Steel Connections

Interaction Check according to EN 1993-1-8 (Ref.[32])


If the axial force NEd in the connected beam exceeds 5% of the design resistance, Npl,Rd , the following unity check is added :

Mj.Rd is the design moment resistance of the joint, assuming no axial force Nj.Rd is the axial design resistance of the joint, assuming no applied moment
Nj,Ed is the actual normal force in the connection Mj,Ed is the actual bending moment in connection

The value for Nj,Rd is calculated as follows : If Nj,Ed is a tensile force, the Nj,Rd is determined by critical value for the following components (Ref.[32], table 6.1.): - For bolted connection, as a combination for all bolt rows : - component 3 : column web in transverse tension - component 4 : column flange in bending - component 5 : end plate in bending - component 8 : beam web in tension - component 10 : bolts in tension - For welded connection : component 3 : column web in transverse tension, where the value for tfb in formulas (6.10) and (6.11) is replaced by the beam height. component 4 : column flange in bending, by considering the sum of formula (6.20) at the top and bottom flange of the beam. If Nj,Ed is a compressive force, the Nj,Rd is determined by the following components (Ref.[32], table 6.1.): component 2 : column web in transverse compression, where the value for tfb in formulas (6.16) is replaced by the beam height. component 4 : column flange in bending, by considering the sum of formula (6.20) at the top and bottom flange of the beam.

In all cases, Nj,Rd Npl,Rd.

The design shear resistance

The design shear resistance for normal bolts

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EC3

VRd = Fv ,Rd 0.28 nt + Fv ,Rd * nn

Fv, Rd = Fv, Rd =
DIN

0.6 f ub A s for grade 4.6, 5.6, 8.8 Mb 0.5 f ub A s for other grades Mb

VRd = Fv ,Rd 0.25 nt + Fv ,Rd * nn

Fv,Rd = Va ,R ,d =

a f u , b ,k A s M

for grade 4.6 , a=0.60 for grade 5.6 , a=0.60 for grade 8.8 , a=0.60 for grade 10.9 , a=0.55 for other grades, a=0.55

BS

VRd = Fv,Rd 0.40 nt + Fv,Rd * nn Fv,Rd = Ps = p s .A s


for grade 4.6 , ps=160 N/mm for grade 8.8 , ps=375 N/mm for grade 10.9 , ps=400 N/mm for other grades, ps=0.4 fub with nt nn number of bolts in tension number of bolts not in tension

Remark : For anchors, the shear (Fv,Rd, Va,R,d and Ps) are reduced by multiplying them with a factor 0.85

The design shear resistance for preloaded bolts


Suppose we have ntot number of bolts. EC3

Fp ,Cd = 0.7 f ub A s Fs ,Rd = k s n (Fp,Cd 0.8 Ft ,Sd ) Ms

BS

Po = 0.7 f ub A s PsL = 0.9 k s Po (= Fs ,Rd )

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Steel Connections with fub As n ks Ft,Sd Ms The design shear force VRd is : the tensile strength of the bolt the tensile stress area of the bolt the number of friction interfaces (=1) the value for slip resistance (=1.0 for holes with standard nominal clearances) the slip factor the applied tensile force (=NSd/ntot) the partial safety factor for slip resistance

VRd = Fs ,Rd n tot

The stiffness properties


The component stiffness
In EN 1993-1-8 and Eurocode 3 Revised Annex J, evaluation formulae are provided for each of the basic components.
The following stiffness coefficients are used : Coefficient k1 Basic component column web panel in shear Formula

0.38 A vc z
0.7 b eff t wc dc 0.85 l eff t 3 fc m3 0.7 b eff t wc dc

k2

column web in compression

k3

column flange, single bolt row in tension

k4

column web in tension, single bolt row in tension

k5

endplate, single bolt row in tension

0.85 l eff t 3 p m3

k7

bolts, single bolt row in tension

1.6

As Lb

with

Avc z beff dc leff m As

the shear area of the column the lever arm the transformation parameter the effective width of the column web the clear depth of the column web the smallest effective length for the bolt the distance bolt to beam/column web the tensile stress area of the bolt

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Lb

the elongation length of the bolt

For a column base, we also consider the stiffness coefficient kc for the compression zone on the concrete block.

kc =

A fl E c Eh eq

with

Afl Ec

the bearing area under the compression flange the E modulus of concrete

= 9.5(f ck + 8)

1/ 3

E heq

(Ec in Gpa, fck in Mpa) the Young modulus (of steel) the equivalent height

(a eff

+ b eff ) 2

where aeff and beff are based on the rectangle for determining Afl Afl=aeff x beff

The stiffness assembly


The initial stiffness Sj,ini is derived from the elastic stiffness of the components. The elastic behaviour of each component is represented by an extensional spring. The spring components are combined into a spring model.

Figure 11 : Spring model for beam-to-column bolted joint

The program calculates 3 stiff nesses : Sj,ini Sj Sj,MRd the initial rotational stiffness the rotational stiffness, related to the actual moment Mj,Sd the rotational stiffness, related to Mj,Rd (without the influence of the normal force)

The moment-rotation diagram is based on the values of Sj,ini and Sj,MRd.

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Steel Connections

MRd 0.66 MRd

Sj,MRd Sj,ini fi
Figure 20 :Simplified Moment-rotation characteristic

The classification on stiffness


The joint is classified as rigid, pinned or semi-rigid according to its stiffness by using the initial rotational stiffness Sj,ini and comparing this with classification boundaries given in EN 1993-1-8 or EC3 Revised Annex J. If Sj,ini >= Sj,rigid, the joint is rigid. If Sj,ini <= Sj,pinned, the joint is classified as pinned. If Sj,ini<Sj,rigid and Sj,ini>Sj,pinned, the joint is classified as semi-rigid. For braced frames :

Sj, rigid = 8

EI b Lb EI b Lb

Sj, pinned = 0.5


For unbraced frames :

Sj, rigid = 25

EI b Lb EI b Lb

Sj, pinned = 0.5

For column base joints, we use :

Sj, rigid = 15

EI c Lc EI c Lc

Sj, pinned = 0.5

with

Ib Lb Ic Lc

the second moment of area of the beam the span of the beam the second moment of area of the column the storey height of the column

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the Young modulus

Figure 21 : Stiffness classification boundaries

Figure 22 : Beam length for stiffness classification

The required stiffness


The actual stiffness of the joints is compared with the required stiffness, based on the approximate joint stiffness used in the analysis model. A lower boundary and an upper boundary define the required stiffness.

Figure 23 : Check of stiffness requirement

When a linear spring is used in the analysis model, we check the following :

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Steel Connections When Sj,ini >= Sj,low and Sj,ini<=Sj,upper, the actual joint stiffness is conform with the applied Sj,app in the analysis model. The value of Sj,app is taken as the linear spring value introduced for <fi y> (in the hinge dialog), multiplied by the stiffness modification coefficient . Type of joint bolted beam-to-column welded beam-to-column welded plate-to-plate column base 2 2 3 3

When a non-linear function is used during the analysis model, we check the following : When Sj >= Sj,low and Sj<=Sj,upper, the actual joint stiffness is conform with the applied Sj,app in the analysis model. The value of Sj,app is taken as the analysis stiffness defined by the non-linear function.

Transferring the joint stiffness to the analysis model


When requested, the actual stiffness of the joint can be transferred to the analysis model. The linear spring value for <fi y> (in the hinge dialog) is taken as Sj,ini divided by the stiffness modification coefficient .

Figure 24 : Linear stiffness

For asymmetric joint s which are loaded in both directions (i.e. tension on top and tension in bottom), the linear spring value for <fi y> (in the hinge dialog) is taken as the smallest Sj,ini (from both directions) divided by the stiffness modification coefficient . At the same time, a non-linear function is generated, representing the moment-rotation diagram.

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Figure 25 : Non-linear function

Ductility classes
The following classification is valid for joints : Class 1 joint : Mj,Rd is reached by full plastic redistribution of the internal forces within the joints and a sufficiently good rotation capacity is available to allow a plastic frame analysis and design. Class 2 joint : Mj,Rd is reached by full plastic redistribution of the internal forces within the joints but the rotational capacity is limited. An elastic frame analysis possibly combined with a plastic verification of the joints has to be performed. A plastic frame analysis is also allowed as long as it does not result in a too high required rotation capacity of the joints where the plastic hinges are likely to occur. Class 3 joint : brittle failure (or instability) limits the moment resistance and does not allow a full redistribution of the internal forces in the joints. It is compulsory to perform an elastic verification of the joints unless it is shown that no hinge occurs in the joint locations.

Ductility classification for bolted joints


If the failure mode of the joint is the situated in the shear zone of the column web, the joint is classified as a ductile, i.e. a class 1 joint . If the failure mode is not in the shear zone, the classification is based on the following : Classification by ductility Class 1

t 0.36

f ub d fy

Ductile

0.36

f ub f d < t 0.53 ub d fy fy f ub d fy

Intermediary

t > 0.53

Non-ductile

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Steel Connections

with

t d fub fy

the thickness of either the column flange or the endplate the nominal diameter of the bolts the ultimate tensile strength of the bolt the yield strength of the proper basic component

Figure 26 : Ductility classification for bolted joint

Ductility classification for welded joints


If the failure mode of the joint is the situated in the shear zone of the column web, the joint is classified as a ductile, i.e. a class 1 joint . If the failure mode is not in the shear zone, the joint is classified as intermediary for ductility, i.e. a class 2 joint .

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Examples
Calculation of bolted connection
Example CON_004.esa Node N1 See text Design example of a joint with extended end plate

Figure 27 : Example CON_004.ESA NodeN1

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Steel Connections

Calculation of welded connection


Example CON_005.esa Node N3 Calculation Vwp,Rd : Column web panel in shear

Vwp ,Rd =

0.9f y A vc ' 3 M 0

When a web doubler is used :

A vc ' = A vc + b s t s

A vc = A 2bt f + ( t w + 2r ) t f A vc = 13140 2 280 18 + (10.5 + 2 24)18 A vc = 4113mm A vc ' = 4113 + 172 10.5 = 5919mm Vwp, Rd = 0.9 235 5919 3 1 .1 = 657 kN

Calculation Fc,wc,Rd : Column web in compression

F c , wc ,Rd =

b eff t wc f y M0

t wc = 1.5t w = 1.5 10.5 = 15.75mm b eff = t fb + 2 2a + 5(t fc + r ) b eff = 17.2 + 2 2 9 + 5(18 + 24) = 252mm = 1 1 = 1
2

= 0.79

b eff t wc 1 + 1.3 A ' vc 0.79 252 15.75 235 F c , wc ,Rd = = 674kN 1.1

Calculation Fc,fb,Rd : Beam flange in compression

Fc ,fb,Rd = M c ,Rd = Fc ,fb,Rd =

M c , Rd h b t fb M pl,Rd M0 = 655 = 595kNm 1.1

595 = 1116kN 550 17.2


t wc f y M0 17.20 235 = 677 kN 1 .1

Calculation Ft,fc,Rd : Column flange in bending

F c ,fc ,Rd = ( t wc + 2rc + 7 kt fc )

F c ,fc ,Rd = (10.5 + 2 24 + 7 1 18)

Calculation Ft,wc,Rd : Column web in tension tensio

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F t , wc ,Rd =

b eff t wc f y M0

t wc = 1.4 t w = 1.4 10.5 = 14.7mm b eff = t fb + 2 2a + 5(t fc + r ) b eff = 17.2 + 2 2 9 + 5(18 + 24) = 252mm = 1 1 = 1
2

= 0.81

b eff t wc 1 + 1.3 A ' vc 0.81 252 14.7 235 F t , wc ,Rd = = 644kN 1.1

Calculation MRd : Design moment resistance 644 kN x 0.532 m = 343 kNm Calculation af The weld size af is designed according to the resistance of the joint. The design force in the beam flange can be estimated as:

FRd = FRd

M Rd h 343 = = 644kN 0.532

The design resistance of the weld Fw shall be greater than the flange force FRd, multiplied by a factor . The value of the factor is : = 1.7 for sway frames = 1.4 for non sway frames However, in no case shall the weld design resistance be required to exceed the design plastic resistance of the beam flange Nt.Rd :

N t , Rd = N t , Rd =

b f t fb f yb M0

210 17.2 235 = 771kN 1 .1

Fw = min ( Nt.Rd, FRd) = min (771, 1.4 x 645)= 771 kN The weld size design for af, using Annex M of EC3

af af

Fw Mw W fu bf 2

771000 1.25 0.8 360 210 2

= 7.23mm

We take af=9 mm. Calculation of aw

27

Steel Connections

Figure 12 : Weld size calculation

The section is sollicitated by the moment M, the normal force N and the shear force D. The moment M is defined by the critical design moment resistance of the connection. The normal force N is taken as the maximum internal normal force on the node, the shear force D is taken as the maximum internal shear force on the node. M = 343 kNm N = 148 kN D = 84 kN To determine the weld size a2 in a connection, we use a iterative process with a2 as parameter until the Von Mises rules is respected (Annex M/EC3).
Figure 13 : Weld size calculation

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Figure 14 : Example CON_005.ESA Node N3

29

Steel Connections

Calculation of connections in 3D Frame


Example
CON_008.esa (WSS_002d.esa copy of connections expert system wizard for monodrawings multiple check of connections CON_008.esa)

Figure 15 : Example CON_008.ESA - Multiple connection check

30

Special features
Use of haunches

tf h tw

hc

alfa lc bc

ab

tc

Figure 16 : Haunches

The compression force in the haunch should be transferred by the haunch into the beam. The formula used for the buckling of the column web can also be applied to the check failure of the beam web due to the vertical component of the force transferred by the haunch. This design moment resistance Mj,Rd is compared with the moment Mc at the position where haunch and beam are meeting. For more info about this topic, we refer to Ref.[30].

31

Steel Connections Example CON_006.esa Node N7

Figure 17 : Additional check at haunches

Figure 18 : Example CON_006.ESA Node N7

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Column in minor axis configuration


In beam-to-column minor-axis axis joints, joints, the beam is directly connected to the web of an I-section I column, causing bending about the minor-axis minor axis of the column section. In order to determine the strength of a column web in bending and punching, the following failure mechanisms are considered : Local cal mechanism : the yield pattern is localised in the compression zone or in the tension zone Global mechanism : the yield line pattern involves both compression and tension zone.

For more info about this topic, we refer to Ref.[30].

Figure 19 : Local and global mechanism

Example CON_007.esa Node N4

Figure 20 : Example CON_007.ESA

33

Steel Connections

Base plate connections : shear iron, flange wideners


In a column base, 2 connection deformabilities need to be distinguished disti : the deformability of the connection between the column and the concrete foundation the deformability of the connection between the concrete foundation and the soil.

In the Frame Connect base plate design, the column-to-concrete column concrete connection is considered.

Figure 21 : Base plate connection

For more info about base plate design (shear irons, etc), we refer to Ref.[30].

Example CON_005.esa Node N9

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Figure 22 : Example CON_005.ESA Node N9

The use of 4 bolts / row

Figure 23 : Four bolts/row

35

Steel Connections When 4 bolts/row are used, additional capacity Fadd is added to the bolt row/group capacity of the column flange and/or the endplate. Fadd is defined for the following conditions : - the capacity of the inner two bolts is equal to the bolt tension resistance (failure mode 3) or is defined by a circular pattern - the bolt row / group is stiffened - the bolt group contains only 1 bolt row For more info about this topic, we refer refe to Ref.[30]. Example CON_005.esa Node N8

Figure 24 : Additonal capacity for 4 bolts/row

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Figure 25 : Example CON_005.ESA - Node N8

37

Steel Connections

RHS beam
For more info about this topic, we refer to Ref.[30]. Ref.[30] Example CON_005.esa Node N7

Figure 26 : Example CON_005.ESA - Node N7

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Frame Connect : pinned joint


Four types of joints are supported : Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 welded plate in beam, welded to column bolted plate in beam, welded we to column bolted angle in beam and column short endplate welded to beam, bolted in column

For each type, the design shear resistance VRd (taking into account the present normal force N ) and the design compression/tension resistance NRd are calculated. The design shear resistance is calculated for the following failure modes : design shear resistance for the connection element design shear resistance of the beam design block shear resistance design shear resistance due to the bolt distribution in the beam web design shear resistance due to the bolt distribution in the column

The design compression/tension resistance is calculated for the following failure modes : design compression/tension resistance for the connection element design sign compression/tension resistance of the beam design tension resistance due to the bolt distribution in the column

In Ref.[30], more info on the used formulas is given.

Examples
Welded fin plate connection
Example CON_009.esa Node N7 Calculation ion Design Shear Resistance VRd for Connection Element Transversal section of the plate : A pl = 2 h pl t pl = 0.003912m 2 (2 plates) Normal stress : N =

N 262.4939 = = 67099.667 N 2 m A pl 0.003912 t pl h 2 pl

Flexion module : Wpl = 2

= 0.000106276m 3 6 Design Shear Resistance : a= 0.082 m is the centre

VRd

2 N a f y2 2 N a a2 2 4 + N2 N 2 W Wpl pl M0 = a2 3 2 2 + W pl A 2 pl

= 240087.66 N = 240kN

Calculation Design Shear Resistance VRd for Beam Shear Area : A v = A 2 b t f + (t w + 2 r ) t f = 0.00191276m 2

39

Steel Connections

Shear Resistance :

VRd =

Av fy 3 M0

= 235925.57 N = 236kN

Calculation Design Tension Resistance NRd for Connection Element Area of the element : A pl = 2 h pl t pl = 0.003912m 2 Tension Resistance :

N Rd =

A pl f y M0 A fy M0

= 835745.45 N = 835kN

Calculation Design Tension Resistance NRd for Beam Area of the Beam : A = 0.003910m 2 Tension Resistance :

N Rd =

= 835318.18N = 835kN

Weld size Calculation for Plate, Beam and Column To determine the weld size a for the plate on the beam and on the column, we must use a iterative process with a as parameter until the Von Mises rules is respected (Annex M/EC3) : fu f 2 + 3 2 + 2 and 1 u 1 1 2 w M w Mw

Well only check the weld size for the final value of a. For the weld between plate and beam we find a=4mm and for weld between plate and column, the weld size is a=10mm. Weld size Plate/Beam We define the play as the effective distance between the end of the beam and the flange of the column. In this case, the play is 10mm. By using EC3 and the Chapter 11 of the manual, we compute the following parameters : Weld size : a=0.004 Weld Length : l1 = h pl 2 t pl = 0.163 2 0.12 = 0.139m

l 2 = b pl Play 2 t pl = 0.13m l = l pl Play = 0.164 0.01 = 0.154m


By EC3 : fuw=360000000N/m and w=0.8 The parameters are : (0.707 a l1 + 0.577 a l1 ) l = 104.10 g= 0.577 a l1 + 1.414 a l 2
2

0.577 a l1 = 0.30377 0.577 a l1 + 1.414 a l 2


0.117 a l 2 1
2 0.117 a l1 + 0.577 a l 2 h pl

= 0.15603

0.707 a l1 = 0.3987 0.707 a l1 + 1.14 a l 2

L = 10 + g

VRd = 117962.789 N (for one plate) 2 N Normal force on one plate : N = = 131.24 N 2 Moment on the plate : M = D L = 13459.781Nm 6 M N 1 = 1 = + == 115363040.74 N 2 Weld Check 1: 2 m 2 a l1 2 a l1
Shear force on one plate : D =

40

2 =

D = 64449431.72 N 2 m a l1

Unity Check : Weld Check 2 :

2 + 3 2 + 2 1 1 2 fu w M w

) = 0.316 1

and

1 fu Mw

= 0.4 1

1 = 1 =

(1 ) D
2 2 a l2

= 55840293.8731 N

m2

(1 ) M (1 ) N N 2 = h a l + 2a l = 134095932.161 m 2 2 2

Unity Check :

2 + 3 2 + 2 1 1 2 fu w M w

) = 0.715 1

and

1 fu Mw

= 0.193 1

Weld size Plate/Column Weld size : a=0.01 m Normal Force : N=262.4939N Moment : M = D L = 235925.57 0.082 = 19345.89674Nm Stress Calculation : N M N DL 1 = 1 = + = + = 154518316.96 N 2 m W h2 2 2 a l 2 2 a l pl 2 2 a 6 D 2 = = 72369806.7485 N 2 m 2a l
2 1 + 3 2 + 2 1 2

Unity Check :

fu

= 0.92 1

w Mw

1 fu Mw

= 0.53 1

41

Steel Connections

Figure 27 : Example CON_009.ESA - Node N2

42

Bolted fin plate connection


Example CON_010.esa Node N7 Calculation Design Shear Resistance VRd for Connection Element Transversal section of the plate : A = 2 h t = 2 0.188 0.012 = 0.004512m 2 (2 plates) N 262.4939 Normal Stress : N = = = 58176.8395 N 2 m A 0.004512 Flexion Module : W = 2

t h2 = 0.000141376m 3 6

Bolt Centre : a=0.0995m Design Shear Resistance :


2 f y2 a2 2 N a 2 N a 2 + 4 N2 N 2 W W M0

VRd =

a2 3 2 W2 + A2

= 266422.015 N = 266kN

Calculation Design Shear Resistance VRd for Beam Shear Area : A v = A 2 b t f + (t w + 2 r ) t f = 0.00191276m 2 Net Area :

A net = A v 2 t w d 0 = 0.001689.56m
fy fu A v = 0.00124860m 2

For the calculation of VRd in the beam, we use Av because A net Shear Resistance:

VRd =

Av fy 3 M0

= 235925.57 N = 236kN

Calculation Design Tension Resistance NRd for Connection Element Area : A = 2 t h = 0.004512m 2 Net Area : A net = A 2 t 2 d 0 = 0.003648m 2 Tension Resistance : A f y 0 .9 A f u net = min (963927.27,1074501.81) = 963927.27 N N Rd = min , M M 0 1 Calculation Design Tension Resistance NRd for Beam

= 963kN

A = 0.003910m 2 2 Net Area : A net = A 2 t d 0 = 0.0036868m


Area :

A f y 0 .9 A f u net Tension Resistance : N Rd = min , M M 0 1

= min(835318.18,1085930.18) = 835318.18N = 836kN

Calculation Design Shear Resistance VRd for Bolt in Beam The calculation of the shear resistance for bolt in beam is based on the following equation to be solve

1 a 2 c2 a 2 d 2 2 a N d N2 + V Rd 2 + + Q2 = 0 + VRd 2 2 2 n Ip Ip Ip n n
2

Where :

a = 0.0995m
4 2 i
2

b = 0.094m
2

c = 0.0655m

d = 0.07m

Ip =

r = 95.66
i =1

= 0.036761m

Q = min 2 Fv,Rd , min Fb,Rd ,plate ; Fb,Rd ,beam =31740.8256N for two plates, where

))

43

Steel Connections

0.6 f ub A s = 30144 N = 30.1kN Mb 2 .5 p f u d t Fb ,Rd ,Beam = = 31740.8256 N = 31.7 kN Mb

FVR d =

e 1 p1 1 f ub with p = min 3d ; 3d 4 ; f ;1 = 0.444 0 u 0


Fb ,Rd ,plate =

2.5 p f u d t pl Mb

= 122867.712 N

e 1 p1 1 f ub with p = min 3d ; 3d 4 ; f ;1 = 0.444 0 u 0 By solving the second-degree equation, we find VRd = 67907.89 N = 67.9kN
Calculation Design Block Shear Resistance The design value of the effective resistance to block shear is determined by the following expression :

Veff ,Rd =

f y A v,eff 3 M0

with A v,eff = t L v,eff

We determined the effective shear area Av,eff as follows : a 1 = 0.049m a 2 = 0.155m a 3 = 0.051m

L v = h a 1 a 2 = 0.14m

f L 3 = min L v + a 1 + a 3 ; (L v + a 1 + a 3 n d 0 ) u fy = min (0.24;0.2849 ) = 0.24m


L1 = min (a 1 ;5 d 0 ) = 0.049m

L 2 = (a 2 k d 0 )

fu = 0.1685m fy

L v,eff = min (L v + L1 + L 2 ; L 3 ) = 0.24m A v,eff = 0.001488m 2

with k = 2.5 for 2 rows bolt

V eff

, Rd

fy A

v , eff

3 M0

= 183534 . 40 N = 185 kN

44

Figure 28 : Example CON_010.ESA - Node N2

Bolted cleat connection


Example CON_011.esa Node N2 To determine the design shear resistance for bolts in the flange of the column, we use a iterative process cess with hD as parameter until we reach a equilibrium :

f y ,beam f y ,cor D = min , M M0 0

Well only consider the check for the final value of hD. We have the following data : r = 0.008m a = 0.03m s = 0.006m

45

Steel Connections

b = 0.4227 r + 1.577 s = 0.0128436m

h D = 0.011m
We compute :

b s = b Play = 0.0028436m Vie 2 w AI pD = ri2 = 0 . 029194 m D

K=

I pD

a = 1.0951 n a2

We define xj=0.03m and zj=0.165m respectively as the maximum horizontal distance between bolts and d and the maximum vertical distance between the bolts and d. Its corresponds to the further bolts how is submitted to the higher force.

1 + K a x j = 0 .5 n N Q = min Fb,Rd , Fv,Rd 1 1.4 n F t , Rd A=

B = K z j = 0.18069
= 16224N where:

FVR d ,cor =
Fb,Rd ,cor =

0.6 f ub A s 0.9 f ub A s = 16224N and Ft ,Rd = = 24336 N Mb Mb


2.5 p f u d t cor Mb = 22187.2 N

e 1 p1 1 f ub with p = min 3d ; 3d 4 ; f ;1 = 0.428 0 u 0

Fb ,Rd ,flange =

2.5 p f u d t flange Mb

= 77.8kN

e1 p1 1 f ub with p = min 3d ; 3d 4 ; f 0 u 0
With this values, we have :

;1 = 1.0

VRd ,ColFlange =

2Q A 2 + B2

= 61032.94 N

Q
m2

= VRd K

= 5948.64 N

D =

h D bD

= 209194259.89 N

46

Figure 29 : Example CON_011.ESA -Node N2

47

Steel Connections

Flexible end plate connection


Example CON_012.esa Node N2

Figure 30 : Example CON_012.ESA - Node N2

48

References and literature

[1]

Eurocode 3 : Part 1.1. Revised annex J : Joints in building frames ENV 1993-1-1/pr A2

[2]

Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[3]

P. Zoetemeijer Bolted beam to column knee connections with haunched beams Tests and computations Report 6-81-23 Delft University of Technology, Stevin Laboratory, December 1981

[4]

P. Zoetemeijer Een rekenmethode voor het ontwerpen van geboute hoekverbindingen met een kolomschot in de trekzone van de verbinding en een niet boven de ligger uitstekende kopplaat. Rapport 6-81-4 Staalcentrum Nederland, Staalbouwkundig Genootschap, Juni 1982

[5]

Eurocode 3 : Part 1.1. Annex L: Design of column bases ENV 1993-1-1:1992

[6]

Eurocode 2 Design of concrete structures Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1992-1-1:1991

[7]

Y. Lescouarch Les pieds de poteaux articuls en acier CTICM, 1982

[8]

Manual of Steel Construction Load & Resistance Factor Design Volume II : Connections Part 8 : Bolts, Welds, and Connected Elements AISC 1995

[9]

U. Portmann Symbole und Sinnbilder in Bauzeichnungen nach Normen, Richtlinien und Regeln Wiesbaden, Berlin : Bauverlag, 1979

[10]

Sprint Contract RA351 Steel Moment Connections according to Eurocode 3 Simple Design aids for rigid and semi-rigid joints 1992-1996

[11]

DIN18800 Teil 1 Stahlbauten : Bemessung und Konstruktion November 1990

49

Steel Connections

[12]

J. Rudnitzky Typisierte Verbindungen im Stahlhochbau. 2. Auflage Stahlbau-Verlags-GmbH-Kln 1979

[13]

H. Buchenau A.Tiele Stahlhochbau 1 B.G. Teubner Stuttgart 1981

[14]

F. Mortelmans Berekening van konstructies Deel 2 Staal Acco Leuven, 1980

[15]

Frame Design Including Joint Behaviour Volume 1 ECSC Contracts n 7210-SA/212 and 7210-SA/320 January 1997

[16]

F. Wald, A.M. Gresnigt, K. Weynand, J.P. Jaspart Application of the component method to column bases Proceedings of the COST C1 Conference Lige, Sept.17-19, 1998

[17]

F.C.T. Gomes, U. Kuhlmann, G. De Matteis, A. Mandara Recent developments on classification of joints Proceedings of the COST C1 Conference Lige, Sept.17-19, 1998

[18]

M. Steenhuis, N. Gresnigt, K. Weynand Pre-design of semi-rigid joints in steel frames COST C1 Workshop Prague, October 1994

[19]

M. Steenhuis, N. Gresnigt, K. Weynand Flexibele verbindingen in raamwerken Bouwen met Staal 126 September/Oktober 1995

[20]

O. Oberegge, H.-P. Hockelmann, L. Dorsch Bemessungshilfen fr profilorientiertes Konstruieren 3. Auflage 1997 Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Kln

[21]

M. Steenhuis, JP Jaspart, F. Gomes, T. Leino Application of the component method to steel joints Proceedings of the COST C1 Conference Lige, Sept.17-19, 1998

[22]

J.A. Packer, J. Wardenier, Y. Kurobane, D. Dutta, N. Yeomans Design Guide for rectangular hollow sections (RHS) joints under predominantly static loading CIDECT Kln, 1992, Verlag TUV Rheinland

50

[23]

Eurocode 3 Part 1.1. Revised Annex J Joints in building frames, edited Approved draft : january 1997

[24]

Rekenregels voor het ontwerpen van kolomvoetplaten en experimentele verificatie TNO report N BI-81-51

[25]

Typisierte Anschlsse im Stahlhochbau Band 1 DSTV - 2000

[26]

Typisierte Anschlsse im Stahlhochbau Band 2 DSTV - 2000

[27]

Joints in Steel Construction Moment Connections BCSA - 1997

[28]

Joints in Simple Construction Volume 1 : Design methods BCSA - 1994

[29]

BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building Part 1 : Code of practice for design - Rolled and welded sections 2000

[30]

Scia Engineer Connect Frame & Grid Theoretical Background Release : 8.0 Revision : 05/2008

51