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K S Malladi1 and S V Barai2
ABSTRACT: The rapid progress made by the country brings with it the consequences of industrialization and the accompanied environmental hazards with it. One such environmental problem is the disposal of waste generated by modern society and discarded tyres. Discarded tyres are a nondegradable waste product with a great capacity of polluting the environment. This paper investigates the feasibility of using these tyres as an inert material in concrete. Rubber fibers obtained by the shredding and grinding of tyres is incorporated in concrete. Various fresh concrete and hardened concrete properties are studied. The performance of the concrete after treatment with NaOH solution is also investigated. Finally, rubberized concrete based tiles study was carried out. KEYWORDS: Chemical composition, Compressive strength, Rubber fiber, Tensile strength, Tiles, Tyres 1. INTRODUCTION
Annually approximately 200 million tyres are generated as waste in the world and in India; about 42.5 million tyres are discarded. The method of disposing of tyres in India is mostly by using them as fuel in brick kilns or as land fills. However, the nature of combustion and the absolute lack of processing of gases released by the combustion and the releasing of these directly into the atmosphere are a serious cause for atmospheric pollution. With the increasing number of vehicles on Indian roads, the number of tyres discarded will increase adding to the problem. Discarded tyres are also non-biodegradable. Tyres use, as landfills are breeding grounds for mosquitoes and potential fire hazards. Also, it may cause ground water pollution in longer run due to leaching of chemicals. There are several recycling methods being developed to put the recycled rubber to good use, such as recovery of resources using various physical and chemical methods. These however involve the use of energy, which is costly and hence makes them less attractive. As a possible solution to the problem of disposal of used tyres an experiment is being conducted to examine the potential of using rubber fiber as an additive in concrete. Eldin and Senouci  carried out tests with rubber crumb and tire chips as additives in concrete in place of fine and coarse aggregate. Khatib and Bayomy  also carried out tests using rubber in concrete and found the compressive strength as well properties like slump, air content and unit weight. Segre and Joeckes  pretreated the rubber with 0.1N NaOH solution to increase the adhesive properties of rubber to the concrete matrix. Studies have also been carried out on the stability of rubber in a highly alkaline environment. The results on static and dynamic properties, and damping properties as well as acoustic properties of rubber filled concrete are reported in the literature.
Former post-graduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, India Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, India
Figure 1.1 N NaOH solutions for fine aggregate and (iii) behaviour of rubberized concrete tile.18mm 600 microns 300 microns 150 microns Less than 150 microns Wt retained in grams 0 33. Rubber fiber obtained by the shredding and grinding of tyres is incorporated in concrete.22 11 2. density.86 170.05 Length of fiber 10mm –40mm 6mm. Characteristics of rubber fiber Sieve size 10mm 4. coarse aggregate corresponding to Grade II of IS 383  and rubber fibers as per the details given in Table 1 are used. Also. Finally some tiles are cast to check practical utilization of rubber fiber incorporated concrete. The rubber fibers are obtained by shredding discarded tyres. It shows clearly the elongated nature of the fiber structure. The performance of the concrete after treatment with NaOH solution is also investigated.53 134. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The experimental program consisted study on (i) replacement of the fine aggregate with rubber fiber in various proportions for fine aggregate (2) replacement of rubber fiber treated with 0. The nomenclature of various specimens is given in Table 2. water absorption. Various properties like workability. tensile strength and flexural strength are studied. Figure 1 shows the results of Scanning Electron Microscope scan.36mm 1. Designated rubber in concrete mixes Designation Mix proportion M1 M20 Concrete MF1 M20 with 5% Fiber MF2 M20 with 10% Fiber MF3 M20 with 15% Fiber MF4 M20 with 20% Fiber MN1 M20 with 10 % Fiber washed with NaOH . Fine aggregate corresponding to Grade II of IS 383 . compressive strength. 2. Rubber fibers and scanning electronic microscope (magnification 1000) 3.75 27. Table 2. This clearly shows the microscopic structure of the rubber particle and the complex structure of rubber. MATERIALS AND CONCRETE MIX DESIGN Locally available slag cement was used for the study.75mm 2.36 mm 5mm-25mm Mostly crumb rubber Figure 1 shows the rubber fiber obtained by the shredding of tyres.27 41.This paper investigates the feasibility of using rubber of tyres as an inert material in concrete. Table 1.
but it can be summarized that generally workability is adversely affected by the incorporation of rubber fiber. The procedure was to take a 0. Water cement ratio was 0.) Potable water (Tap Water) was used in all cases. The idea of immersing and washing with NaOH and water was to remove all the dust and grime in addition to treat the surface so that there would be increased adhesion to the cement paste. However. From the mix design a compaction factor of 85 % was targeted.) The testing of specimens was carried after specimens were surface dry. (x. (iii. After removing the rubber by filtering it. (vi. (ix.2 HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIES The results related to hardened concrete properties are tabulated in Table 3. the rubber was washed with water and air-dried.414.1 FRESH CONCRETE PROPERTIES Some of the properties of fresh concrete like workability and segregation were studied. The rubber was uniformly mixed with the concrete as was seen in the specimens after compression and tensile tests were carried out. 5. coarse aggregate and water remained constant with various proportions of fine aggregate being replaced by rubber fiber. which will decrease the . (v. It was found that while generally the workability decreased with the increase in the rubber content the result of MF4 mix corresponding to 15 % fiber showed an increase in the workability.) Fresh and hardened concrete properties test were carried out. All specimens were compacted using vibrator and not by hand tamping. (iv. it can be seen that as the percentage of the rubber is increased the density of the concrete decreased.) All measurements were made by weight and mechanical mixing of the constituents was done.) All replacements were carried out by weight. STUDY ON RUBBER FIBRE BASED CONCRETE 5.) All specimens were removed from moulds after 24 hours and cured under water.) For all other mixes the proportions of cement. (viii. • 5. All the above tests were carried out on them and the results were compared. Segregation: There was no segregation observed during the compaction of concrete while casting the specimens. Then rubber fibers were taken in proportions of 10 % and replaced the sand as was done before. TEST PROCEDURE (i. (ii. This is due to the fact that fine aggregate has a density about 5 times that of rubber.) Dimensions of specimens were as per the standard specimens. (vii.1 NaOH TREATMENT In addition to the above.) The control mix was M20 (20 MPa). designed as per the design mix in the IS 10262 .1 N NaOH solution and immerse the rubber fiber in for 20 minutes. • Workability Test: The compaction factor was carried out to determine the workability of the mix. Rubber Fiber treated with NaOH solution were also tested to compare the results with those of the untreated rubber. and it is possible that with higher percentages of rubber. • Density: From Table 3.) For each test a minimum of at least three specimens were used and for each mix at least two specimens in addition were cast for any unforeseen eventuality. 4. the decrease in the density is small. one can obtain a relatively lightweight concrete.4. giving revolutions as per laid down Indian Standards.
9 1. for practical purposes the incorporation of rubber increased may influence this property favorably. With the 20 % rubber fiber. For each test and for each mix three specimens were tested.5 4.33 11.4 20. which is 3.122 MF2 2290.52 4.46 3.17 21.76 • • • • Water Absorption Tests: With regards to water absorption. From the design mix the target strength was 27.53 MF1 2294.97 16. Therefore.67 22.6N/mm2 and as per the IS 456 . The split tensile test gave some interesting facts. This is a clear indication that rubber makes the concrete more waterproof.7√fck. with the failure being more ductile in nature than that with no rubber fiber.17 1. In the table a comparison was carried out between the theoretical flexural strength and the experimental flexural strength and the result showed again that only 20% fiber specimens were unsatisfactory.7√fck • Test results M1 2354. There is an actual rise in the tensile strength with the incorporation of about 10 % rubber fiber over even that with no rubber.0 25. It can be seen from Table 3 that increase in the rubber component caused the flexural strength to decrease.13 N/mm2.09 4. it was found that there is a 37% percent decrease in the strength. The method of failure of the test sample also showed a change. They also agree with the suggestion of Khatib and Bayomy  that the maximum amount of rubber incorporated into the concrete mix be restricted to 20%. The specimens never separated into two halves. The minimum flexural strength for a M20 concrete is 0.weight of various structures or components of buildings as well as give ease in handling.8 24.31 3. Table 3 shows the results.4 28. .45 3.4 16.6 3. Compressive Strength Tests: The compressive tests were carried out after 7 days and 28 days for cubes and after 28 days for cylinders. This could be due to the cross linked polymers in rubber compared to the structure of sand. Table 3.3 16. These results are consistent with results obtained by Eldin and Senousi .00 1.5 3. Hardened concrete properties Property Density (Kg/m3) Water Absorption (percent) Compressive Strength (MPa) • 7 days cube strength • 28 days cube strength • 28 days cylinder strength Split Tensile Strength (MPa) • 28 days result Flexural Strength (MPa) • 0. It is seen from Table 3 that all the samples except that with 20% rubber fiber satisfy the criteria as laid down by the IS code.83 3. The failed specimens were capable of withstanding measurable post failure loads and of undergoing significant displacement. Flexural Strength Tests: Prisms of size 500x100x100mm were tested for the flexural strength of the specimens.14 1.3 2.29 18.57 34.30 5.87 5.11 24. It was found that the fibers tended to bind the concrete specimen.45 3. The concrete mass was able to withstand loads even when it was highly cracked. For the above results only the concrete with 20% fiber failed the above test.87 MF4 2243. the minimum strength of M20 concrete must at least be 24 N/mm2. The specimen was able to carry considerable amount of load even after failure. This was evident from all the samples even if the tensile strength was lower.69 3.55 4.56 24.36 1. Split Tensile Tests: As mentioned earlier the test was carried out after 28 days on surface dry cylinder specimens.45 MF3 2284.5 18. An added advantage is the saving in wear and tear of machinery. it is worthwhile to note that as the percentage of rubber increased the water absorption decreased.
Hardened concrete properties for NaOH treated and untreated rubber fibers M20 Concrete 2354.36 1. In a note published by Segre et al. • • Workability: Untreated fiber and treated fiber based concreted showed compaction factor as 0.53 10 % Treated Rubber Fiber (MN1) 2262. This makes the rubber fiber only about 8% less strong as the control mix.29 18.93 4.00 3.77 respectively. 6.87 2. Table 4. The 28 days cylinder test shows similar results.55 4. The first with no rubber and using M20 concrete. STUDY ON RUBBER FIBRE BASED CONCRETE TILES 7.2 HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIES The results related to hardened concrete properties are tabulated in Table 4.87 5.9 20.17 21.9 1.6.83 3.52 4.1 FRESH CONCRETE PROPERTIES Some of the properties of fresh concrete like workability and segregation were studied. it was suggested that NaOH treatment removed Zinc Strearate from the surface of the rubber particles thereby increasing the adhesion to the paste. In order to study the feasibility of incorporating rubber in some concrete applications. To understand this better the 28 days compressive strength was carried out on cylinders.44 Density Kg/m3 Water Absorption (percent) 28 days cube compressive strength (MPa) 28 days cylinder compressive strength (MPa) Split Tensile strength (MPa) Flexural strength (MPa) • • • Density and Water Absorption Tests: It is clear from Table 4 that there is not much difference in the water absorption and the density between the two. The other changes occurring could be the removal of dust. Compressive Strength Tests: The comparison of the strengths reveals some interesting facts. It is apparent that the treatment by a 0. 6. This can be explained that rubber remains largely inert in an alkaline environment. Table 4 shows that the treatment improves the strength rubber fiber filled concrete. The change in the workability of treated fiber is noticeable and is favorably improved.1 N NaOH solution for 20 minutes has helped to improve the overall quality of the cement mix and substantially reduced the loss of compressive strength hence making it more attractive to be used in various applications. The increase in the case of rubber fiber was nearly 20%.4 24. and . Segregation: There was no difference observed in the segregation between treated and untreated samples. grime settling on the surface of the particles hence giving a better chance for adhesion. which make the treatment of the rubber with NaOH interesting.4 28.4 34. STUDY ON NaOH TREATED RUBBER FIBRE Rubber pretreated with NaOH solution was taken and the properties are being compared to those specimens having with untreated rubber specimens.41 10 % Untreated Rubber Fiber (MF2) 2290. .71 and 0. Tensile Splitting and Flexural Strength Tests: It is seen from Table 4 that treatment of rubber fiber with NaOH solution improved split tensile and flexural strength. concrete tiles were cast of dimensions 250 x 250 x 100 mm.
Table 5. 11. N. (2000). pp. 1982. “Rubberized Portland cement concrete”. and Senouci.1 N NaOH solutions was investigated.. Vol. and Joekes.F. IS 10262. and Bayomy. For each test. While the compressive strength. and Sposito.. Bureau of Indian Standards. pp. India. as before three specimens were cast and tested. K. Bureau of Indian Standards. The tests revealed an increase in strength upto 18%. India. 1993.4 While additional tests like abrasion. N. flexural strength and split tensile strength showed a decrease in proportion to the amount of rubber incorporated into the mix. Journal of Colloid Interface Science. 2. Vol. 248.N. These tests were of a preliminary nature to check if the loss in strength was within acceptable limits. 1999. “Use of Tire Rubber Particles as Addition to Cement paste. The workability also showed a gradual deterioration with the increase in rubber.6N/mm2. New Delhi. . acoustic damping etc are required. The study on the effect of immersing the rubber for 20 minutes in 0. G. 30. Plain and reinforced concrete. B. pp. 6. pp. However abrasion and shrinkage tests needs to be carried out before any final recommendations. 2000. Monterio. Vol.206-213. Khatib. “Rubber–tire particles as concrete aggregate”. J. P.code of practice. New Delhi. Compressive strength and flexural strength of tiles Sample Type Control Mix . India. In the design of the tests the target mean strength at the end of 28 days was 27. “Surface characterization of recycled tire rubber to be used in cement paste matrix”. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering.the second with 10 % rubber fiber based concrete tiles. Bureau of Indian Standards. I.Z. 7. 5.. 3. Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design. IS 383. Vol. REFERENCES 1. shrinkage is required before the commercial applications can be started. 1970.. Segre. In brief. 9. IS 456. It can be seen that the specimen with fiber rubber gave near target strength.1421-1425. Eldin.M20 concrete 10 % Rubber Fiber Compressive Strength (MPa) 30. 8..5 27. SUMMARY The paper reported the effect of the incorporation of rubber fiber in various proportions in the place of fine aggregate into a M20 (20 MPa) concrete mix and studied the effect on various properties. M. Water absorption as well as density also decreased with the increase in rubber. N. 5. Specification for coarse and fine aggregate from natural sources for concrete. Cement and Concrete Research. New Delhi. The tiles were then checked for compressive strength (Table 5). it is concluded that rubber incorporated concrete has lower strength than normal concrete and it could be used in places where strength required is lower and other properties like impact resistance. Segre.521-523.A.478-496. Finally applications in the form of tiles were tested with 10% rubber fiber. The tests showed that while there was a loss of strength it was within acceptable limits. 2002. 2000. 4. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering.
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