You are on page 1of 31

HOW TO MEASURE ENERGY UTILIZATION?

Consumption Per Unit area of a country? Consumption Population Density? Consumption Per Capita? Consumption Per Tone of Material Produced? Gross Domestic Product?

HOW TO MEASURE ENERGY UTILIZATION?


Population Density, nos. /km2 140.4 368.1 337.8 225.5 256.3 32.6

Country China India Japan Pakistan United Kingdom United States

Area, km2 9,598,094 3,287,263 377,915 796,095 242,900 9,629,091

Population 1,347,350,000 1,210,193,000 127,650,000 179,522,000 62,262,000 313,478,000

MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY UTILIZATION


Consumption Per Person (Per Capita) = Annual Energy Consumption/Population Gross Domestic Product (GDP) = Consumption + Gross Investment + Government Spending + (Exports Imports) (Mostly expressed in US $)

ENERGY USE VS GDP (PER CAPITA)


Energy Use Vs GDP (per capita), 2010
$60,000

$50,000 Japan $40,000 Germany Italy $30,000 Spain UK France

Australia

USA Canada

GDP per capita (US$)

$20,000

0.75 kW, US$1375

South Korea Saudi Arabia

$10,000

Brazil

Argentina China

Russia South Africa

$0 0

India 2 4 6 8 10 12

kW per capita

Source: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD?display=default

ENERGY INTENSITY AND ECONOMIC ENERGY EFFICIENCY


Energy Intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nation's economy. It is calculated as units of energy per unit of GDP. High energy intensity indicates a high price or cost of converting energy into GDP and vice-versa. Economic Energy Efficiency is the economic units of GDP produced by the consumption of units of energy.

ENERGY INTENSITY
Energy Intensity, MJ consumption per GDP US$ (2005 purchasing power parity) (data: 2009)
14 13.6

12

11.5

11.4

10

MJ per GDP $

8.8 7.8 7.1 6.7 5.8 5.6 4.5

IR

CA

CN

NO

US

NL

IN

JP

GM

UK

Source: http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=44&pid=47&aid=2& cid=regions&syid=2005&eyid=2009&unit=BTUPUSDM

GDP Vs ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Source: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD?display=default

INDIAN ENERGY SCENARIO

FACTS ABOUT INDIAN ENERGY SCENARIO


Electricity Generation in 1947 1362 MW Electricity Generation in 2012 2,10,936.7 MW Peak Shortage 13 % Average Shortage 11 % Villages Electrified 84% Rural House holds Electrified 83.7 % Shortage of energy and electricity among the main causes of slower growth All Sources of Energy Need to be Tapped Hydropower and all renewable energy receiving special attention in India

INDIAS OIL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION PATTERN


India Crude Oil Scenario
180.0 160.0 140.0

Net Crude Oil Imports = 169.7 Mt Net Product Exports = 33.6 Mt

Million tonnes

120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

Year
Production Imports

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012

INDIAS COAL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION PATTERN


India Coal Scenario
350.0

Million tonnes oil equivalent

300.0 250.0 200.0 150.0 100.0 50.0 0.0 1981

Coal Imports = 73.2 Mtoe

1986

1991

1996

2001

2006

2011

Year
Production Imports

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012

INDIAS GAS PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION PATTERN


India Natural Gas Scenario
60.0

Million tonnes oil equivalent

50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 1970

NG Imports = 9.9 Mtoe

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Year
Production Imports

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012

RESERVES OF NON RENEWABLE ENERGY IN INDIA (31.03.2011)


1. Coal reserves 2. Crude Petroleum 3. Natural gas : 114.0 billion tonnes (proven) : 757.44 million tonnes : 1.24 trillion cubic meters

4. Nuclear (Wikipedia.org) Uranium : 80.2 kt (Worlds 1.5%, 2009) Thorium : 650 kt (Worlds highest, 2010)
Source: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India

Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC) found 15 trillion cubic feet (tcf) gas in KG basin on July 18, 2008

POTENTIAL OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN INDIA


1. Large Hydro 2. Small Hydro (up to 25 MW) * 3. Cogeneration-bagasse * 4. Waste to Energy * 5. Wind * 6. Geothermal 7. Solar (PV based) 8. Tidal : 148,700 MW : 15,385 MW : 17,538 NW : 5,000 MW : 49,130 MW : 10,600 MW : 20 MW/km2 : 2100 MW

* Source: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India

INDIAN ELECTRICITY SCENARIO (30.11.2012)


Fuel
Thermal Coal Gas Oil Hydro Nuclear Renewable Total

Installed Capacity (MW)


140,976.18 120,873.38 18,903.05 1,199.75 39,324.40 4,780.00 25,856.14 2,10,936.72
Source: Ministry of Power, Govt. of India

%
66.83 57.30 8.96 0.56 18.64 2.26 12.25 100.00

SECTOR-WISE TOTAL INSTALLED POWER CAPACITY IN INDIA (30.11.2012) CAPACITY MW 86,700.85 62,826.63 61,409.24 2,10,936.72 % 41.10 29.78 29.11 100.00

SECTOR State Sector Central Sector Private Sector Total

Source: Ministry of Power, Govt. of India

PLANT MIX OF INSTALLED CAPACITY-INDIA


Other Renewable , 12.26% Nuclear, 2.27%

Hydro, 18.64% Coal, 57.30% Gas, 8.96% Oil, 0.57%

Source: Ministry of Power, Govt. of India

Indian Electricity Generation: Fossil fuel : 66.83% Vs World 91% Renewable : 30.89% Vs World 9%

PLANT MIX OF INSTALLED CAPACITY-INDIA


Grid Interactive Renewable Energy (30.11.2012)
Total Capacity = 26368 MW

Wind Power 70%

Small Hydro Power 13%

Biomass Power 5% Bagasse Cogeneration Urban Waste to 8% Power 0%

Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India

Solar Power 4%

PLANT MIX OF INSTALLED CAPACITY-INDIA


Off-Grid Renewable Energy (30.11.2012)
Total Capacity = 796 MW
Biomass (nonbagasse) Cogeneration 53% Biomass Gasifiers Rural 2% Biomass Gasifiers Industrial 18%

Solar Photovoltaic (> 1 kW) 13%

Waste to Power Urban/industrial 14%

Aero-Generators/ Hybrid Systems 0%

Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India

NATIONAL ELECTRICITY POLICY


Total Village Electrification in 5 year plan (2007-12). Per capita availability of 1000 units. Installed capacity over 2,00,000 MW. Spinning reserves 5% . Minimum lifeline consumption of one unit per household per day. Inter-regional transmission capacity 37,000 MW. Quality and reliable power supply.

CAPACITY ADDITION PROGRAMME DURING XI PLAN (2007-2012)


Fuel- Mix Central Sector (MW) 25,860 11,289 3,160 40,309 State Sector (MW) 16,152 2,637 0 18,789 Private Sector (MW) 4,102 3,263 0 7,365 Total (MW)

Thermal Hydro Nuclear Total

46,114 17,189 3,160 66,463

In addition, 14000 MW through Non-Conventional Energy Sources. Captive capacity not included.

POWER REFORMS IN INDIA


Bifurcation/Trifurcation of Electricity Boards Acceleration Power Reform Development Programme (to minimize Transmission and Economic loses) Private Sector Participation in Power Generation and Distribution (1990) Hydro Power Policy 1998 Electricity Regulatory Commissions (CERC & SERCs) Electricity Act 2003 National Electricity Policy 2005 Tariff Policy 2006 Hydro Power Policy 2008

ENERGY EFFICIENCY-HIGH PRIORITY


Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). Standards and Labeling of appliances. Building-codes being developed. Energy conservation norms for industry and performance standards for equipment being developed. Public awareness campaign launched.

INDIAN ECONOMIC SECTOR-WISE ENERGY CONSUMPTION


Traction & Railways 2% Others 7% Industry 38%

Commercial 10%

Domestic 23%

Agriculture 20%

INDIAN ECONOMIC SECTOR-WISE GDP CONTRIBUTION (2010-11)


Public Services 14.3% Agriculture 15.3% Forestry 1.6% Fishing 0.9%

Financial Services 16.4%

Mining 2.7%

Manufacturing 14.5%

Communication 1.4% Storage 0.1% Other Transport 5.4%

Trade 15.4% Railways 0.8%

Construction 8.2% Utilities 1.7%

Hospitality 1.5%

Source: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India

AGRICULTURE SECTOR
Cropped area: 192.2 Mha (2009/10) Irrigated area: 86.42 Mha (2009/10) Export: 19% of total (2005/06) Employment to 65-70% population Food grain production: 212 MT (2006/07) Second largest producer of fruits (53 MT) and vegetables (108 MT) in world (2005/06) Largest producer of milk in world (89 MT) Sugarcane production highest in world Sugar production second highest in world

AGRICULTURE SECTOR
ENERGY SOURCE Diesel Electrical energy Total mechanical energy Animal energy Human energy Total energy Share of mechanical energy OPERATIONAL ENERGY (in MJ/Ha) 486 4128 486+4128=4614 338 940 6892 81.6 % (1970 figure was 10.3)

Agriculture sector: 13% of total energy and 20% of electricity

INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
Export Contribution: 29% Largest producer of sponge iron Seventh largest producer of steel Second largest producer of cement Third largest producer of Fertilizers, Engineering goods and Textiles

Fuel and feed stock: largest consumer accounting for 44.4% energy Coal consumed by this sector: 59.4% (2005/06) Cogeneration and export of electricity to grid

TRANSPORT SECTOR
Railways (2010-11)
64,460 kms of railway tracks 7.651 billion passengers 926.4 Mt goods 1.332 million employees Locomotive Type Steam: 43 Diesel: 5137 Electric: 4033 Source: Railway Board, Ministry of Railways

Roadways (2010-11)
141.8 million registered vehicles Source: Ministry of Surface Transport 3089966 (1972740) kms of National highways 411839 (291894) kms of Urban Roads 288539 (76845) kms of Project Roads Source: Ministry of Road Transport and Highways

Airways (2010-11)
60.8 million passengers (Domestic) + 14.4 million passengers (Intl.) 361 kt (Domestic) + 258 kt (Intl.) cargo transport

Source: Ministry of Civil Aviation

Waterways (2010-11)
Indian Merchant Shipping Fleet 974 vessels (2009) 570.9 Mt cargo (major ports) + 315 Mt (non-major ports)

Source: Ministry of Shipping

Source: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation

Second largest consumer of the energy Largest consumer of the petroleum products Petroleum products : 98.5% of total Energy Electricity for traction : 1.5%

DOMESTIC SECTOR
Biomass residues and animal dung cakes used in villages for cooking LPG is used for the domestic cooking in urban and rural areas as well Natural gas in few cities Kerosene for lighting and cooking in rural areas Soft coke for domestic cooking Biomass residues : Major source LPG : 10.86 MT

SERVICE SECTOR
Services Employment: 142 million Export Contribution: 40% Commercial sector comprises institutes/ hospitals / schools/ colleges/ universities/ trusts/ offices etc. Street lighting Public water works Electrical energy consumption in this sector Commercial : 8.73% Street lighting : 1.26% Public water works : 2.49%