QUALITY CONTROL FINAL EXAM PART 1 (OBJECTIVE) TERMS…  TITRIMETRIC METHODS – those analytical methods in which the volume

of a solution of known concentration consumed during an analysis is taken as a measure of the amount of active constituent in a sample being analyzed. TITRANT – solution of known concentration TITRATION – the act of adding and measuring the volume of titrant used in the assay INDICATOR – a chemical which changes color at or very near the point in the tritration where equivalent quantities of analyte and titrant have reached. STOICHEMETRIC POINT / EQUIVALENCE POINT – the theoretical point at which equivalent amounts of each have reacted END POINT – point at which there occurs a sudden change in some property of the reaction mixture GRAM EQUIVALENT WEIGHT – weight in grams which is chemically equivalent to 1 gram-atom of hydrogen NORMALITY – number of equivalents of solute per liter (equiv/L) or (meq/mL) MOLARITY – moles per liter of solution MOLALITY – moles per kg of solvent TITER – weight of a substance chemically equivalent to 1mL of a standard solution PRIMARY STANDARD – carefully weighed sample of a substance of known purity ACIDIMETRY – the direct or residual titrimetric analysis of bases using an accurately measured volume of acid KJELDAHL METHOD – determination of other organic compounds containing nitrogen OXIDATION-REDUCTION METHOD – involve a change in valence of the reacting substances. ACTIVITY OF AN ION – term used to designate effective concentration and is related to the actual equilibrium conc. Of each chemical species by the following AMPHOTERIC / AMPHIPROTIC – can act either as an acid or base GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS – the measurement of the weight of a substance in a sample or calculation of the weight of a substance in a sample from the weight of a chemically equivalent amount of some other substance LAW OF MASS ACTION – the rate of a reaction is proportional to the product of the molecular concentrations of the reacting substances. ELECTRONEUTRALITY RULE – determines the total hydronium-ion concentration in any solution pH – the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion conc. GRAVIMETRIC / CHEMICAL FACTOR – mol. Wt 1 / mol. Wt. 2 PROTOLYSIS – a process where a proton is transferred from one molecule to another CONJUGATE ACID CONJUGATE BASE

SIMPLE RECALL: 1. a. b. Differentiate between… volumetric method of analysis and gravimetric method of analysis acidimetry and alkalimetry i. acidimetry - the direct or residual titrimetric analysis of bases using an accurately measured volume of acid ii. alkalimetry – acid is estimated quantitatively by methods analogus to those employed in the quantitative estimation of bases by treating the acid to a standard alkali solution. Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid and a base Arrheneous theory of the definition of an acid and base gram-equivalent weight and gram-milliequivalent weight i. Gm-eq. wt. – weight in grams which is chemically equivalent to 1 gram-atom of hydrogen ii. Gm-meq. Wt. – GEW / 1000 direct titration and residual titration i. Direct titration – conducted by introducing a standard acid solution gradually from a buret into a solution of the bases being assayed until chemical equivalent amounts of each have reacted as shown by some change in properties of the mixture. ii. Residual titration – done in which the basic sample is treated with an amount of standard acid known to be in excess of a chemically equivalent amount, and the excess acid is subsequently titrated with a standard base. oxidizing agent and reducing agent i. oxidizing agent – the reactant containing a constituent atom/s which are converted to a lower state of oxidation ii. reducing agent – the reactant which loses electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction Method of analysis considered as oxidation-reduciton method Ex. Permanganate process and Dichromate process ? The general conditions that will prevent reversal and lead to completion reaction The formation of an insoluble gas The formation of a sparingly soluble solid The formation of very slightly ionized molecules A reaction that will illustrate (determination of the) equation of the chemical equilibrium constant in the system. Why is the mixture of silver chloride placed in a dark room instead of exposing it to sun light? To minimize the reducing effect of the light on silver chloride producing free silver. The purplish color w/c the ppt. acquires on exposure to light is due to the free metal being formed in the precipitate.

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6.) Molality.) Indicator. Methods of Analysis considered as REDOX *Permanganate Method *Ceric Sulfate Titration Methods *Iodometric Method *Iodimetric Method 7.) Titration. of equivalents of solutes per liter or meq.) Molarity.the direct or residual titrimetric analysis of bases using an accurately measured volume of acid (supplied in the analytical control of a considerednumber of official substances both organic & inorganic) 14.logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity 22. a proton in the backward chemical reaction. to determine pH & to indicate a desired change in pH has been affected. Gain & loss of electrons 16.a point where a sudden change in some property of the reaction mixt.) gravimetric factor. Residual titration is used whenever a reaction proceeds slowly or when the substance to be assayed does not give a distinct.involve a transfer of electrons & change in valence of the reacting substances.) pH. expression in terms of moles per liter.determination of Nitrogen in organic compounds 15. sharp end point with an indicator by direct titration. hence.it absorbs. Bases are substances which produce hydroxide ions in solution.Q.) conjugate base. The reactant which loses electron in an Oxidation-Reduction reaction is the reducing agent.to determine the total hydronium ion concentration in any solution.) Activity. Differentiate Oxidizing from Reducing agents Oxidizing agent gains the electrons lost by the reducing agent.) Stochoimetric Point (equivalence point)-the theoretical point where equivalent amounts of the titrant & analyte have reacted 6. Gravimetric Analysis is the measurement of the weight of a substance in a sample or calculation of the weight of a from the weight of a chemically equivalent amount of some other substance (precipitation from solution. of a chemical is defined as that weight in grams which is chemically equivalent to 1 gram atom of Hydrogen (1. Titrimetric Methods of Analysis (Volumetric) are those analytical methods in which the volume of a solution of known concentration consumed during an analysis is taken as a measure of the amount of active constituent in a sample being analyzed.used to designate effective concentration & is related to the actual equilibrium concentration of each chemical species by the ff.) Oxidation-Reduction.) Amphiprotic.measurement of the weight of a substance in a sample or calculation of the weight of a from the weight of a chemically equivalent amount of some other substance 19.a process whereby a proton is transferred from one molecule to another ( protolytic rxn) 23. Differentiate Direct from Residual Titration Direct Titration is conducted by introducing a standard acid solution gradually from a buret into a solution of the base being assayed until chemical equivalent amounts of each have reacted. That can act as either an acid or base 18.) Gravimetric Analysis. In neutralization rxns. & therefore to tal positive charges must equal to total negative charges. Bronsted-lowry’s definition of an acid & a baseAccording to this theory. 8.seen as the chemical substance that releases or donates a proton (hydrogen ion) in the forward chemical reaction.the rate of a reaction is proportional to the product of the molecular concentrations of the reacting substances.0079). 12. substance formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion 24.) 9.chemical factor. II) 1.) Kjehdahl Method.number of moles of solute per 1000g of solvent 11.. equivalent to 1 ml of a standard solution.water. a subs. is included in the official gravimetric assay procedures.weight of the substance chem.C 1. substance formed when an acid loses a hydrogen ion 25.a conc. free silver is produced. It is carried out by dissolving y the substance under examination in an accurately measured quantity od standard solution known to be in excess and titrating the excess of the latter with another standard solution.. Differentiate between Acidimetry from Alkalimetry Acidimetry is the direct or residual titrimetric analysis of bases using an accurately measured volume of acid (supplied in the analytical control of a considered number of official substances both organic & inorganic). 20.) Titrant-solution of known concentration added by means of a buret 4. decomposition product resulting from ignition of a compound & may be deposited on an electrode by electrolysis) 2.a carefully weighed sample of a substance of known purity 13.) End point.) Gram eq.as those analytical methods in which the volume of a solution of known concentration consumed during an analysis is taken as a measure of the amount of active constituent in a sample being analyzed. or gains.a conc. or replaces 1 gram-atom or ion of Hydrogen. The purplish color which the precipitate acquires on exposure to light is due to the free metal being formed in the precipitate.) Primary Standard. 21.) Titer. equation: ( ai= fi [Ai] ) 17. A reaction that will illustrate the determination of a chemical equilibrium constant(refer to your book: gravimetric Methods of Analysis. Alkalimetry on the other hand.) 4. 3. pr other acidic substance with standard alkali solution or by adding an excess of the latter and determining the amount in excess by residual titration with a standard acid solution.a chemical which changes color at or very near the point in the titration where equal amounts of analyte & titrant have reacted. A base is defined as an ionic or molecular substance capable of uniting with a proton (proton acceptor). Used to determine the end points in neutralization processes.) conjugate acid.the gram equiv. Differentiate Volumetric from gravimetric Methods of analysis. weight. Aurrhenius TheoryAcids are substances which produce hydrogen ions in solution.) Law of Mass Action.) Titrimetric Methods of Analysis.) protolysis.act of adding & measuring the volume of titrant used in the assay 3. 5. 2. is the direct or residual titrimetric analysis of acids (by directly titrating an exact quantity of the acid.& lecture ni Engr. it is defined as the weight of a substance in grmas which contains. 9. Why is the mixture of Silver Chloride placed in dark areas instead of exposing it to sunlight? The mixture is allowed to stand in the dark to minimize the reducing effect of the light on Silver chloride.) Electroneutrality. 10. it is most exact to employ this rule: a given solution is electrically neutral. Neutralisation happens because hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions react to produce water. Per ml of solution. acid salt. 5. the term acid. an acid is defined as an ionic or molecular substance capable of giving up a proton (proton donor).) Normality. expression & is defined as the no. complex organic compds.) Acidimetry. - . 10.furnishes & reacts with directly or indirectly. Occurs (titration the is terminated) 7. 3 general considerations that will tend to prevent reversal & lead to completion of a chemical reaction are: *The formation of an insoluble gas *The formation of a sparingly soluble solid *The formation of very slightly ionized molecules 8.

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