You are on page 1of 11
Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 <a href=www.elsevier.com/locate/ces CFD modelling of slug flow inside square capillaries Taha Taha, Z.F. Cui Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK Received15 June 2004; receivedin revisedform 5 July 2005; accepted6 July 2005 Available online 12 September 2005 Abstract An attempt is made to model slug flow inside square capillaries containing Newtonian liquids. In square micro-channels, slug flows provedto promote high rates of heat andmass transfer between the solidboundaries andthe bulk flow. This is due to the combination of bubble inducedsecondary flows andthe creation of very thin liquidfilms. There are many industrial applications for which it is necessary to predict this rate of transfer. The volume of fluid(VOF) methodimplementedin the commercial CFD package, FLUENT is used for this numerical study. A comprehensive description of such flow is obtained and a comparative study is conducted on the hydrodynamics of slug flow inside circular capillaries and their square counterparts. Computed values of the bubble velocity and diameter were in excellent agreement with publishedexperimental measurements. The detailedvelocity fieldaroundthe bubble was also computed andcomparedfavourably with those experimental results reportedin literature. Basedon the hydrodynamic study explanation of mass and heat augmentation due to slug flow is drawn. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Multiphase flow; Numerical simulation; VOF; Square capillaries 1. Introduction Slug flow is the most important of the two-phase flow patterns observedinside capillaries which attractedconsid- erable research interest because of numerous industrial and practical applications. These include enhanced oil recov- ery ( Gauglitz et al., 1987 ; Hirasaki, 1989 ; Holm andGar- rison, 1988 ; Ransohoff et al., 1987 ; Ransohoff andRadke, 1987 ; Ransohoff andRadke, 1988 ; Ratulowski andChang, 1989 ), trickle- bedreactors ( Charpentie andFavier, 1975 ), coating technology andpolymer processing ( Huzyak and Koelling, 1997 ; Poslinski et al., 1995 ), in various micro- electromechanical systems ( Ghiaasiaan andAbdel-Khalik, 2001 ) andmonolith froth reactors ( Cybulski andMoulijn, 1994 ; Irandoust and Anderson, 1988 ). Slug flow inside circular capillaries is characterised by the motion of a train of long capsule-shapedbubbles, frequently referredto as Taylor bubbles or gas slugs. These almost fill the cross-sectional area of the capillary andare separated Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 1865 273118; fax: +44 1865 283273. E-mail address: zhanfeng.cui@eng.ox.ac.uk (Z.F. Cui). 0009-2509/$ - see front matter 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2005.07.023 from the wall by a liquidfilm andfrom each other by liquid plugs ( Fig. 1 ). In a frame of reference attachedto the bubble andat low capillary numbers (Ca = U / ) strong circu- lation of the toroidal vortex inside the liquid slug ahead of the bubble exists. The bubble-ends are spheroidal and the shape of streamlines at both ends of the bubble are nearly identical. Close to the bubble-ends streamlines bow sharply to complete the vortex path ( Fig. 1 a). As capillary number is increased( Fig. 1 b), the vortex in the liquidplug becomes smaller andthe radial position of the vortex centre shifts to- wards the capillary axis ( Thulasidas et al., 1997 ; Taha and Cui, 2004 ). Also, the bubble nose becomes more slender and liquidfilm flowing aroundthe bubble is thicker. Thulasdias et al. (1997) reportedthat the transition to complete bypass flow occurs around Ca = 0 . 5. Slug flow provides a useful andconvenient methodof augmenting radial heat and mass transfer. Slug flow has been demonstrated to augment significantly radial mass transfer in reactors with catalytically active walls ( Horvath et al., 1973 ). Radial mixing was found to increase with Reynolds number, andrapidly increasedwith decreasing slug length. Enhancement of radial increase in heat transfer by slug flow " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">

Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 <a href=www.elsevier.com/locate/ces CFD modelling of slug flow inside square capillaries Taha Taha, Z.F. Cui Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK Received15 June 2004; receivedin revisedform 5 July 2005; accepted6 July 2005 Available online 12 September 2005 Abstract An attempt is made to model slug flow inside square capillaries containing Newtonian liquids. In square micro-channels, slug flows provedto promote high rates of heat andmass transfer between the solidboundaries andthe bulk flow. This is due to the combination of bubble inducedsecondary flows andthe creation of very thin liquidfilms. There are many industrial applications for which it is necessary to predict this rate of transfer. The volume of fluid(VOF) methodimplementedin the commercial CFD package, FLUENT is used for this numerical study. A comprehensive description of such flow is obtained and a comparative study is conducted on the hydrodynamics of slug flow inside circular capillaries and their square counterparts. Computed values of the bubble velocity and diameter were in excellent agreement with publishedexperimental measurements. The detailedvelocity fieldaroundthe bubble was also computed andcomparedfavourably with those experimental results reportedin literature. Basedon the hydrodynamic study explanation of mass and heat augmentation due to slug flow is drawn. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Multiphase flow; Numerical simulation; VOF; Square capillaries 1. Introduction Slug flow is the most important of the two-phase flow patterns observedinside capillaries which attractedconsid- erable research interest because of numerous industrial and practical applications. These include enhanced oil recov- ery ( Gauglitz et al., 1987 ; Hirasaki, 1989 ; Holm andGar- rison, 1988 ; Ransohoff et al., 1987 ; Ransohoff andRadke, 1987 ; Ransohoff andRadke, 1988 ; Ratulowski andChang, 1989 ), trickle- bedreactors ( Charpentie andFavier, 1975 ), coating technology andpolymer processing ( Huzyak and Koelling, 1997 ; Poslinski et al., 1995 ), in various micro- electromechanical systems ( Ghiaasiaan andAbdel-Khalik, 2001 ) andmonolith froth reactors ( Cybulski andMoulijn, 1994 ; Irandoust and Anderson, 1988 ). Slug flow inside circular capillaries is characterised by the motion of a train of long capsule-shapedbubbles, frequently referredto as Taylor bubbles or gas slugs. These almost fill the cross-sectional area of the capillary andare separated Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 1865 273118; fax: +44 1865 283273. E-mail address: zhanfeng.cui@eng.ox.ac.uk (Z.F. Cui). 0009-2509/$ - see front matter 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2005.07.023 from the wall by a liquidfilm andfrom each other by liquid plugs ( Fig. 1 ). In a frame of reference attachedto the bubble andat low capillary numbers (Ca = U / ) strong circu- lation of the toroidal vortex inside the liquid slug ahead of the bubble exists. The bubble-ends are spheroidal and the shape of streamlines at both ends of the bubble are nearly identical. Close to the bubble-ends streamlines bow sharply to complete the vortex path ( Fig. 1 a). As capillary number is increased( Fig. 1 b), the vortex in the liquidplug becomes smaller andthe radial position of the vortex centre shifts to- wards the capillary axis ( Thulasidas et al., 1997 ; Taha and Cui, 2004 ). Also, the bubble nose becomes more slender and liquidfilm flowing aroundthe bubble is thicker. Thulasdias et al. (1997) reportedthat the transition to complete bypass flow occurs around Ca = 0 . 5. Slug flow provides a useful andconvenient methodof augmenting radial heat and mass transfer. Slug flow has been demonstrated to augment significantly radial mass transfer in reactors with catalytically active walls ( Horvath et al., 1973 ). Radial mixing was found to increase with Reynolds number, andrapidly increasedwith decreasing slug length. Enhancement of radial increase in heat transfer by slug flow " id="pdf-obj-0-6" src="pdf-obj-0-6.jpg">

CFD modelling of slug flow inside square capillaries

Taha Taha, Z.F. Cui

Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK

Received15 June 2004; receivedin revisedform 5 July 2005; accepted6 July 2005 Available online 12 September 2005

Abstract

An attempt is made to model slug flow inside square capillaries containing Newtonian liquids. In square micro-channels, slug flows provedto promote high rates of heat andmass transfer between the solidboundaries andthe bulk flow. This is due to the combination of bubble inducedsecondary flows andthe creation of very thin liquidfilms. There are many industrial applications for which it is necessary to predict this rate of transfer. The volume of fluid(VOF) methodimplementedin the commercial CFD package, FLUENT is used for this numerical study. A comprehensive description of such flow is obtained and a comparative study is conducted on the hydrodynamics of slug flow inside circular capillaries and their square counterparts. Computed values of the bubble velocity and diameter were in excellent agreement with publishedexperimental measurements. The detailedvelocity fieldaroundthe bubble was also computed andcomparedfavourably with those experimental results reportedin literature. Basedon the hydrodynamic study explanation of mass and heat augmentation due to slug flow is drawn. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Multiphase flow; Numerical simulation; VOF; Square capillaries

1. Introduction

Slug flow is the most important of the two-phase flow patterns observedinside capillaries which attractedconsid- erable research interest because of numerous industrial and practical applications. These include enhanced oil recov- ery (Gauglitz et al., 1987; Hirasaki, 1989; Holm andGar- rison, 1988; Ransohoff et al., 1987; Ransohoff andRadke, 1987; Ransohoff andRadke, 1988; Ratulowski andChang, 1989), trickle- bedreactors (Charpentie andFavier, 1975), coating technology andpolymer processing (Huzyak and Koelling, 1997; Poslinski et al., 1995), in various micro- electromechanical systems (Ghiaasiaan andAbdel-Khalik, 2001) andmonolith froth reactors (Cybulski andMoulijn, 1994; Irandoust and Anderson, 1988). Slug flow inside circular capillaries is characterised by the motion of a train of long capsule-shapedbubbles, frequently referredto as Taylor bubbles or gas slugs. These almost fill the cross-sectional area of the capillary andare separated

Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 1865 273118; fax: +44 1865 283273. E-mail address: zhanfeng.cui@eng.ox.ac.uk (Z.F. Cui).

0009-2509/$ - see front matter 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ces.2005.07.023

from the wall by a liquidfilm andfrom each other by liquid plugs (Fig. 1). In a frame of reference attachedto the bubble andat low capillary numbers (Ca = U T B / ) strong circu- lation of the toroidal vortex inside the liquid slug ahead of the bubble exists. The bubble-ends are spheroidal and the shape of streamlines at both ends of the bubble are nearly identical. Close to the bubble-ends streamlines bow sharply to complete the vortex path (Fig. 1a). As capillary number is increased(Fig. 1b), the vortex in the liquidplug becomes smaller andthe radial position of the vortex centre shifts to- wards the capillary axis (Thulasidas et al., 1997; Taha and Cui, 2004). Also, the bubble nose becomes more slender and liquidfilm flowing aroundthe bubble is thicker. Thulasdias et al. (1997) reportedthat the transition to complete bypass flow occurs around Ca = 0.5. Slug flow provides a useful andconvenient methodof augmenting radial heat and mass transfer. Slug flow has been demonstrated to augment significantly radial mass transfer in reactors with catalytically active walls (Horvath et al., 1973). Radial mixing was found to increase with Reynolds number, andrapidly increasedwith decreasing slug length. Enhancement of radial increase in heat transfer by slug flow

  • 666 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

666 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Velocity fieldin a bubble train inside circular capillaries with a frame of reference moving with the bubble: liquidusedis 50 centistokes silicone oil ( L = 0.048 Pa s, L = 957 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m); capillary diameter = 2 mm; (a) Ca = 0.032; (b) Ca = 0.924.

has been demonstrated by Oliver andWright (1964) and Oliver andYoung Hoon (1968). Bellara et al. (1997) demon- stratedthat injecting gas bubble is a cheap andeffective way of reducing concentration polarisation and thus enhanc- ing the permeate flux in hollow fibre membrane modules.

Prothero andBurton (1961) pointedout that strong circula- tion aheadof the redcells similar to those shown in Fig. 1b was very effective for nutrient distribution. Early experimental investigation on the motion of bub- ble trains in capillaries dates back to Fairbrother andStubbs (1935). Their experiments yielded an empirical correlation for the fraction of the cross section of the tube occupiedby a wetting liquid. This fraction, W , was foundto be propor- tional to the square root of a dimensionless capillary num- ber. This result was foundto be satisfactory for capillary numbers up to Ca = 10 2 . Taylor (1961) rediscovered the problem andconfirmedthe results of Fairbrother andStubbs (1935). He also extended its validity up to Ca = 10 1 and foundthat, for high capillary numbers, the fraction of the

depositedfilm no longer followedthe

1

2 -power law but in-

steadasymptotically approacheda constant value of 0.56. Later work due to Cox (1964) indicted that this asymptotic value was about 0.6. Most recent experimental work reportedby Thulasidas et al. (1995) covering upward, downward and horizontal flow indicted that in circular capillaries for Ca > 0.3, the differ- ences in film thickness for upwardanddownwardflow are negligible. At large Ca , viscous forces are dominant and the effect of gravity is minimised. In the lower Ca range, how- ever, the liquidfilm thickness foundto be almost twice that for horizontal flow whereas for downwardflow andhorizon- tal flow the bubble diameters are almost undistinguishable (Thulasidas et al., 1995). In a flow-up paper (Thulasidas et al., 1997) the authors conducted experimental work to in- vestigate the flow patterns in the liquidplug. Their findings were similar to those suggestedbyTaylor (1961). In the past, theoretical studies were limited to the use of lubrication approximation. Bretherton (1961) pioneered such a theory for vanishingly small capillary numbers by assuming that the bubble acts as a tight-fitting piston with a thin liquid film lubricating it. The domain is divided into two regions: the constant-film thickness region andthe bub- ble nose region. In the film region, the problem is solved by the methodof regular perturbation theory (Mazouchi and Homsy, 2000). In the bubble nose region, the interface is as- sumedto be almost hydrostatic andits shape nearly circular. Interfacial tension is important in this region. Since this re- gion cannot be smoothly matchedto the constant-thickness region, there exists a transition region in which the shape is deformedby viscous traction andthus viscous forces also become important. The technique of matchedasymptotic ex- pansions is usedbetween the two sub regions: the capillary- static region where the shape of the interface takes on a nearly spherical cap andthe transition region where the lu- brication approximation can be applied. Bretherton (1961) foundthat the fraction of the liquiddepositedon the walls by a wetting bubble follows the well-known 2 -power law:

3

W = 1.29(3Ca) 2/3 . Bretherton introduced a correction to this correlation using a factor of 1 ± 2 Bo for upwardanddown- wardflow, respectively. He also performedexperiments to verify his theory. However, the agreement between theory

3

T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

667

andexperiment was less than satisfactory. For Ca > 10 4 the predicted 2 -power law was approximately obeyed. How- ever at slower bubble speeds, the measured value of film thickness greatly exceeded the theoretical value. This inabil- ity of the Bretherton theory to correctly predict the fraction of the wetting layer is surprising since the theory is basedon

3

the assumption of vanishingly small capillary number. Chen (1986) performedexperiments to measure the film thickness of long andshort bubbles andreporteda significant devia- tion from the Bretherton theory. Chen attributedthis effect to surface roughness of the very small capillaries being used. Ratulowski andChang (1990) suggestedan explanation of the experimental discrepancies found by Bretherton (1961) basedon the effect of impurities on the surface tension of newly createdsurfaces. Recently, there have been several numerical studies on the motion of long bubbles through two-dimensional channels andcircular capillaries. Reinlet andSaffman (1985) useda finite difference method whilst most other researches have adopted either boundary integral methods (Martinez and Undell, 1989) or finite element methods (Shen andUndell, 1985; Giavedoni and Saita, 1997). Both methods by Reinlet andSaffman (1985) and Martinez andUndell (1989) showed goodagreement with experiments if 10 2 Ca 2 and 10 2 Ca 0.2, respectively. Neither numerical method is able, apparently, to treat the low capillary number re- gion because of the difficulty in adequately resolving the thin film region. At Ca = 10 2 , both solutions predict a thinner wetting film than that given by Bretherton (1961). For capillary numbers greater than 0.2, the finite element solutions due to Shen andUndell (1985) showedunrealistic oscillations in the profile of the bubble nose. Martinez and Undell (1989) usedthe boundary integral methodandtheir results are in goodagreement with experimental results in the range of 10 2 Ca 10. The solution obtainedby Giavedoni and Saita (1997) agreedwell with experimental results as well as with numerical solutions by other re- searchers. Their solutions match the theoretical expression due to Bretheton (1961) up to Ca = 10 1 . They computed asymptotic values of the film fraction, 0.559 at Ca = 0.2 and0.592 at Ca = 10, in agreement with the experimental values reportedby Taylor (1961) and Cox (1964). Martinez andUndell (1989) computeda value of 0.59 at Ca = 10. While the motion of a single Taylor bubble inside circular capillaries has been studied extensively, both experimentally andtheoretically their square counterpart has been overshad- owedexcept of a few studies. Only recently, researchers have started to conduct experimental studies in square capillar- ies (Kolb andCerro, 1991; Ratulowski andChang, 1990). Thulasidas et al. (1995, 1997) performedextensive experi- mental measurements in both circular andsquare capillar- ies. These included the measurement of the bubble velocity, film thickness andvelocity fieldaroundthe bubble. The motion of Taylor bubble inside circular capillaries differs from those inside square ones because circular cap- illaries lack the corner flow of the liquidfilm. In circular

capillaries, the bubble is axisymmetric acting like a tight-

fit piston with a liquidfilm lubricating the bubbles. The flow inside square capillaries, however, is essentially three- dimensional and the bubble acts like a leaky piston. At low Ca the bubble is not axisymmetric, it flattens out against the walls andthe liquidlenses at the leaky corners. At mod-

erate andhigh Ca the bubble body is cylindrical and the bubble is axisymmetric (Wong et al., 1995). This transition is reportedby Kolb andCerro (1991) to occur at Ca = 0.1. Thulasidas et al. (1995) reporteda higher value of Ca = 0.4 which is consistent with the numerical value calculatedby Ratulowski andChang (1989). The leaky corners—which are main features of square capillaries—are characteristics of porous media, monolith froth reactors andmicroelectromechanical systems. Thus, the intention of this work is twofold: firstly, to provide in- sight into the small-scale hydrodynamics of slug flow with net liquidflow inside square capillaries andcompare it to our previous study of their circular counterparts (Taha and Cui, 2004). Secondly, to quantify and understand the result- ing mass andheat transfer enhancement due to two-phase slug flow. A 2 mm capillary are usedfor all simulations. The liquidandgas feedsystem are identical to those used by Thulasidas et al. (1995). Silicone oil was usedas liquid and air as gas. Two different oils were used: 1000 centis- tokes silicone oil and50 centistokes silicone oil with vis- cosities 0.971 and0.048 Pa s, respectively. The densities of

these oils are 971 and957 kg/m 3 , respectively. Typical sur- face tension for silicone oil is 22.18 mN/m.

2. Dimensional analysis

Using Pi-theorem, the variables that can affect the motion of bubbles train in capillaries with net flow are:

L

,

G

L

,

G

L U SL D t

L

,

L T B

D

t

,

L

LP

D

t

,

U SL L

and

g( L G )D

2

t

U T B L

,

where D t is the diameter of the tube, U T B is Taylor bubble velocity, L and G are the density of the liquidandgas, respectively, L and G are the viscosity of the liquidand gas respectively, is the surface tension, L T B is the length of Taylor bubble, L LP is the length of liquidplug and U SL is the liquidsuperficial velocity. The relative bubble velocity andthe film thickness shouldbe a function of these parame- ters. Under the assumption that inertial forces in the gas are far smaller than the inertial forces in the liquid ( L / G 1), L / G can be eliminated. In their experiments, Suo and Griffith (1964) foundthat the effect of the length of gas slug andliquidplugs are unimportant. They also foundthat the motion of the bubble is independent of L / G as long as L / G > 25. Thus, in the absence of the effects due to gas viscosity andinertia, andfor bubbles which move

  • 668 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

independently, the factors affecting the bubble relative ve- locity andfilm thickness are:

Eo =

2

g( L G )D

t

,

U SL L

and

Ca =

Re =

L U SL D t

L

,

U T B L

.

The first group (Eo) is the ratio between buoyancy andsur- face tension forces. Bretherton (1961) usedBondnumber, B o = Eo/4. The secondgroup is the liquidReynolds num- ber; the thirdgroup represents the relative importance of viscous andsurface tension effects, andthe final group is the capillary number which is the ratio of viscous to sur- face tension forces. The first three groups describe the bal- ance between the retarding forces, namely inertia, viscosity, surface tension, andbuoyancy. The secondandthe thirddi- mensionless groups can be combinedto yielda dimension- less group which is independent of liquid velocity and is a constant for a particular fluidin a particular pipe; Suo and Griffith (1964) referredto it as = L 2 /D t L = Ca/Re . Other andthese widely useddimensionless groups can all be derived by manipulating and/or combining two or more of above three groups. In circular capillaries, the values of Eo are small (Eo < 1); in other words, the predominance of surface tension force leads to insensitivity to flow direc- tion andcapillary orientation. Suo andGriffith (1964) de- rivedthe following criterion for neglecting buoyancy effect in capillary slug flow: Eo< 0.22.

3. CFD model development

The CFD software FLUENT (Release 5.4.8, 1998) was usedto simulate the motion of a single Taylor bub- ble rising in a flowing liquidthrough a capillary with a square cross section. In FLUENT, the control vol- ume method—sometimes referred to as the finite volume method—is used to discretize the transport equations. The movement of the gas–liquidinterface is trackedbasedon the distribution of G , the volume fraction of gas in a com- putational cell, where G = 0 in the liquidphase and G = 1 in the gas phase (Hirt andNichols, 1981). Therefore, the gas–liquidinterface exists in the cell where G lies between 0 and1. The geometric reconstruction scheme that is based on the piece linear interface calculation (PLIC) methodof Youngs (1982) is appliedto reconstruct the bubble free sur- face. The surface tension is approximatedby the continuum surface force model of Brackbill et al. (1992). The numerical results through this work are basedon a three-dimensional grid. The length of the domain is 11L, where L is the square capillary side length. The grid is made up of quadrilateral control volumes. The control volume are smaller in the vicinity of the wall in order to improve res- olution of the liquidfilm in this crorical region. The main gridcontains 52 × 52 × 560 volumes. Near the walls, the last row of cells near the walls is sub-divided 3 times. The result

668 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 independently, the

Fig. 2. Initial and boundary conditions for a Taylor bubble rising inside a square capillary in a moving coordinate moving with the bubble.

is a 59 × 59 × 560 volumes in the domain. This refinement method, ensuring film region grid independence, does, how- ever, not always guarantee full grid independence in regions where the air–liquid interface is highly curved. Confidence of grid independence results is gained by selecting simula- tions that were run with the gridcells number doubled(i.e., choosing results from a 52 × 52 × 560 gridrather than a 26 × 26 × 280).

T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

669

The frame of reference, initial and the boundary condi- tions are similar to those adopted in axisymmetric simula- tions presentedin our previous study for circular capillaries

(Taha andCui, 2004). The top andthe bottom of the initial bubble are two hemispheres andare connectedto a cylin- der of the same radius (Fig. 2). If other shapes were used (e.g., only a cylinder), the final shape of the bubble is found to be similar except the convergence is slower in the latter case. Thus, for the simulations the former initial shape is adopted. The no-slip wall condition is applied to the walls. The fluidmass flux at the inlet is specifiedusing a profile for a fully developed flow through a pipe. The governing equa- tions are solved for a domain surrounding a Taylor bubble in a frame of reference attachedto the rising Taylor bubble. With these coordinates, the bubble becomes stationary and the pipe walls move with a velocity U wall , numerically equal to that of the Taylor bubble rise velocity, U T B . The liquid is fedat the inlet with an average velocity U inlet , which is equal to U T B U SL . A fully developed velocity profile is imposedat the inlet. The value of U T B is adjusted after the initial guess until the nose of the bubble ceasedto move in the axial direction. Trial simulations were conducted to ex- amine the effect of using a fixedframe of reference; they run longer with the same final result as with that of a moving frame of reference.

4. Results and discussion

4.1. Bubble shape

The propagation of long bubbles inside a square capillary is different from those observed in circular capillaries espe- cially at low capillary numbers. In circular capillaries, the flow assumes a cylindrical symmetry. However, for capillar- ies with square cross section the flow is symmetric (but not axisymmetric). This results from the corners being affected by viscous forces to a greater extent than regions near the walls. A three-dimensional view of three bubbles is depicted in Fig. 3 andthe evolution of the bubble shape with increas- ing Ca is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. At low Ca , the bubbles have spherical ends andtendto flatten out against the walls. With increasing Ca , the bubble ends loses its sphericity and a small indentation appears at the rear of the bubble before it start to penetrate the bubble along its axis (Figs. 3 and 5). Other researchers made similar observations (Goldsmith andMason, 1963; Martinez andUndell, 1989; Olbricht and Kung, 1992; Tsai andMiksis, 1994; Giavedoni and Saita, 1999). Fig. 5 shows that, with increasing Ca , the bubble become longer andcylindrical in shape; the liquidfilm is thicker andthe nose is sharper resembling those seen in- side circular capillaries. In Fig. 4, the bubble radius in the diagonal direction is found to increase with decreasing Ca , while the liquidfilm thickness along the walls decreases and eventually approaches an asymptotic value. At high Ca the bubble radius in the side plane gradually decreases until it

Fig. 3. 3-D view of the bubble shape for square capillary: liquid
Fig.
3.
3-D view
of
the
bubble
shape for square capillary: liquid

usedis 1000 centistokes silicone oil ( L = 0.971 Pa s, L = 971 kg m 3 ,

= 22.18 mN/m); side length = 2 mm; = 21.89; (a) Ca = 0.009; (b) Ca = 1.35; (c) Ca = 3.04.

is equal to that in the diagonal direction and the bubble con- forms to an axisymmetric shape. Thulasidas et al. (1995) foundthat this transition takes place at Ca = 0.4 confirm- ing the numerical computations of Ratulowski andChang (1989). Kolb andCerro, 1991 reporteda higher value of Ca = 0.1. Wong et al. (1995) studied the structure of the fluid films deposited by a bubble in the limit of vanishingly small Ca . They foundthe depositedfilm is non-uniform in the cross-stream direction and rearranges in downstream. For the Ca limit we studied here it was not feasible to capture this trendbecause of the extreme thinning of the film and the very long axial length-scale requiredfor significant rear- rangement. The results reportedhere however were similar to those reportedby Hazel andHeil (2002). At Ca = 0.009 the thickness of the liquidfilm depositedat the wall for up- wardflow is foundto be thicker than that for downwardflow due to gravity forces, in accordance with the experimental findings by Thulasidas et al. (1995). This is shown in Fig. 6.

4.2. Bubble velocity

The dimensionless bubble velocity for square capillaries defined as = U T B / U SL is plottedagainst capillary num- ber in Fig. 7. The overall behaviour of is essentially sim- ilar to the one foundfor circular capillaries, except at low

  • 670 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

Fig. 4. Cross-sectional view of the bubble profile: liquids used are 1000 centistokes silicone oil (
Fig.
4.
Cross-sectional
view
of
the
bubble
profile:
liquids used
are 1000 centistokes silicone oil ( L = 0.971 Pa s,
L = 971 kg m 3 ,
=22.18 mN/m, =21.89) and50 centistokes silicone oil ( L =0.048 Pa s,
= 957 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m, = 0.054); side length = 2 mm; ( )
L
Ca = 0.005, = 0.054;
( )
Ca = 0.009,
= 0.054;
(•) Ca = 0.026,

= 0.054; ( ) Ca = 0.054, = 21.89; ( ) Ca = 0.21, = 21.89; ()

Ca = 0.4, = 21.89; (×) Ca = 1.35, = 21.89; (+) Ca = 3.04,

= 21.89.

670 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 Fig. 4.

Fig. 5. Bubble shape profile in the side plane for square capillary: liquid usedis 1000 centistokes silicone oil ( L = 0.971 Pa s, L = 971 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m); side length = 2 mm; V b = 0.01 ml; = 21.89; ( ) Ca = 0.001; () Ca = 0.026; ( ) Ca = 0.067; ( ) Ca = 0.21; () Ca = 0.40; ( ) Ca = 1.35.

Ca : it increases with Ca . The transition to complete bypass, that is when the bubble velocity is equal to the maximum liquidvelocity ( = 2) occurs aroundthe value of 0.4 in agreement with Thulasidas et al. (1997).

4.3. Velocity field

Streamlines patterns aroundthe bubble rising inside a square capillary are presentedin Fig. 8. The frame of ref-

670 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 Fig. 4.

Fig. 6. Cross-sectional view of the bubble profile at Ca = 0.009: liq- uidusedis 50 centistokes silicone oil ( L = 0.048 Pa s, L = 957 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m); side length = 2 mm; = 0.054 ( ) Upward; () Down- ward.

670 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 Fig. 4.

Fig. 7. Dimensionless bubble diameter as a function of capillary num- ber for square capillaries: liquids used are 1000 centistokes silicone

oil ( L = 0.971 Pa s, L = 971 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m, = 21.89)

and50 centistokes

silicone

oil

( L

= 0.048 Pa s,

L

= 957 kg m 3 ,

= 22.18 mN/m, = 0.054); side length = 2 mm; () numerical results; ()

Thulasidas et al. (1995).

erence is attachedto the bubble andthe wall moves down

with a relative velocity equal to the bubble. Fig. 8 shows the streamlines patterns obtainedfor five different Ca values; these streamlines resemble the patterns observedin circular capillaries. Fig. 8a andb show clearly two vortexes aheadof the bubble. The vortices behindthe bubble are nearly iden- tical to those aheadof the bubble with the eye of the vor- tex easily identifiable. As the capillary number is increased the eye of the recirculating ring move away from walls andshift towards the symmetry line; this phenomenon is

T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

671

T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 671 Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Flow velocity fieldarounda gas slug rising inside square capillary with a frame of reference moving with the bubble : liquidusedis 1000 cen- tistokes silicone oil ( L = 0.971 Pa s, L = 971 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m); side length = 2 mm; = 21.89; (a) Ca = 0.04; (b) Ca = 0.067; (c) Ca = 0.4; (d) Ca = 1.35; (e) Ca = 0.06 (side direction); (f) Ca = 0.06 (diagonal direction).

observedin both circular andsquare capillaries. Augmenta- tion in Ca results in a detachment of the back flow from the interface producing a new recirculating flow pattern where the recirculating rigs shrink towardthe symmetry line. Fi- nally, the flow recirculation vanishes producing a complete

Fig. 9. Velocity profile inside a liquid plug in square capillary from
Fig.
9. Velocity
profile inside a
liquid plug
in square capillary from

side view: liquidusedis 1000 centistokes silicone oil ( L = 0.971 Pa s,

L

= 971 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m); side length = 2 mm; = 21.89; (1)

Ca = 0.005; (2) Ca = 0.21; (3) Ca = 0.40; (4) Ca = 1.35.

T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 671 Fig. 8.

Fig. 10. Velocity profile inside a liquid plug in square capillary along diag- onal direction: liquidusedis 1000 centistokes silicone oil ( L = 0.971 Pa s,

L

= 971 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m); side length = 2 mm; = 21.89; (1)

Ca = 0.005; (2) Ca = 0.21; (3) Ca = 0.40; (4) Ca = 1.35.

bypass when Ca is increasedfurther. Apart from the stag- nation point at the vertex of the meniscus andthe above two

stagnation rings, there are two additional stagnation points locatedin the film region before the streamlines bow back (e.g., Fig. 8a). In this figure, the effect on the curvature of the streamlines near the bubble nose can be clearly seen. Fig. 8 indicates that the stagnation points in the film region tend to recede toward the nose of the bubble as Ca increases. Side anddiagonal views of the streamlines at Ca = 0.036 are shown in Fig. 8e andf, respectively. The two views are es- sentially similar, except that the liquidfilm close to the wall surrounding the vortex andthe bubble is thicker andmore discernable from the diagonal view. The vortex in square capillaries is not toroidal as it lacks cylindrical symmetry and its diagonal view is wider than its side view. Dimension- less velocity profiles inside the liquid plugs for four values of capillary number in a frame of reference moving with the bubble are shown in Fig. 9 (side view) and Fig. 10 (diagonal view). Velocity profiles in the liquidplug inside square cap- illaries are qualitatively different from those inside circular

  • 672 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

672 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 Fig. 11.

Fig. 11. Bubble profile and wall shear stress distribution in square capillaries along the side plane at Ca = 0.009: liquidusedis 50 centistokes silicone

oil ( L = 0.048 Pa s, L = 957 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m); side length = 2 mm; = 0.054; () bubble shape, upwardflow; () bubble shape, downward

flow; (—) wall shear stress, upwardflow;

(. . .

.) wall shear stress, downward flow.

capillaries. For the lowest Ca scenario, the dimensionless liquidvelocity at the capillary centre moves down with a velocity about 50% faster than the bubble ( = 1.4) while the liquid in the wall vicinity moves downward; hence the vortex in the liquidplug. With increasing the Capillary num- ber, the bubble velocity increases but the relative velocity at the capillary centre decreases. The onset of a complete bypass scenario isreachedwhen the bubble moves at a ve- locity twice that of the average liquidvelocity. At Ca = 0.4 the bubble velocity is nearly twice that of the average liq- uidvelocity indicating that the bubble velocity is approach- ing the maximum liquidvelocity at the capillary axis. In this condition most of the liquidmoves towardthe bubble nose. Another important trendthat can be clearly observed is the position of the vortex eye where the liquidaheadof the bubble becomes motionless. It is clearly evident that the radial position of the vortex eye is displaced toward the capillary wall in accordance with experimental findings by Thulasidas et al. (1997). The deviation from perfect toroidal vortex can be seen by comparing the position of the vortex eye from the side and diagonal views. For the lowest Ca shown in Figs. 9 and 10, the axial distance from the capil- lary axis is 0.61 from the side view compared to 0.67 from the diagonal view hence the imperfect symmetric (not ax- isymmetric) toroidal vortex. The degree of deviation from perfect toroidal vortex diminishes with increasing capillary numbers. At low capillary numbers, the dimensionless bub- ble velocity in square capillaries is higher than those of their circular counterparts. This indicates that for square capillar- ies the liquidon the capillary axis moves up with a slower velocity. The speedat which liquidin the vortex inside the liquidplug is very important to mass transfer andmixing inside the plugs (Thulasidas et al., 1997).

4.4. Wall shear stress distribution

In the open literature, different mechanisms have been suggestedfor the back transport of particles from the mem-

brane wall to the bulk (Huisman et al., 1999). Shear- induced diffusion seems to be the main mechanism governing the permeate flux. The wall shear stress is relatedto the mass transfer coefficient and several ultrafiltration models provide a relationship between permeate flux andmass transfer co- efficient (Porter, 1972). It is imperative, therefore, to study the wall shear stress profile in capillaries in order to quantify the mass/heat transfer enhancement square capillaries. The wall shear stress distribution around an air slug rising inside a square capillary for various capillary numbers is shown in Figs. 11 and 12. These figures compare the wall shear stress distribution (taken along the centre of the side wall) around the bubble andthe bubble profile in the side plane for the upwardanddownwardflow at the same capillary number. The side wall shear stress distribution is nearly identical for both cases. As the liquidis draggedaroundthe bubble, it experiences the largest shear stress just before entering the film. The fluctuations in shear stress profile are only seen for cases where Ca is low correspondto the wake aheadof the bubble. Similar feature were observedfor circular cap- illaries at low Ca (Taha andCui, 2004). A similar mechanism at the back endof the film generates another peak in the shear stress. The central region for both cases is characterisedby a near-zero wall shear stress. Sim- ilar features were observedfor circular capillaries. In up- wardflow the corner wall shear stress changes its sign twice in the bubble region. The first takes place when the liquid film reaches its terminal thickness andthe secondat the end of the film. For the upwardflow, the negative shear stress,

T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

673

T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 673 Fig. 12.

Fig. 12. Bubble profile and wall shear stress distribution in square capillaries along the diagonal direction at Ca = 0.009: liquidusedis 50 centistokes

silicone oil ( L = 0.048 Pa s, L = 957 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m); side length = 2 mm; = 0.054; () bubble shape, upwardflow; () bubble shape,

downwardflow; (—) wall shear stress, upwardflow;

(. . .

.) wall shear stress, downward flow.

indicating upwardflow, aheadof the bubble persists beyond the tip of the bubble before becoming positive as the down- flow is establishedin the liquidfilm aroundthe bubble. The shear stress attains its maximum positive value at the onset of the wave before it decreases rapidly to zero near the bub- ble tail. For the downwardflow, the liquidfilm in the corner always flows downward with a peak in the wall shear stress

profile at the endof the bubble nose. Fig. 13 depicts the cor- ner wall shear stress together with the bubble shape profile for four values of Ca . The influence with increasing Ca on the profile of the bubble shape is similar to those discussed above. The wall shear stress decreases to zero coinciding with the liquidfilm reaching its terminal thickness. The wall shear stress then attains its maximum positive value just be- fore the wave at the bubble tail. Still in the bubble region, it decreases rapidly to zero before its full recovery in the liquid plug. With increasing Ca , the bubble nose region become longer andaccordingly transition from upwardto downward flow in the film shifts its position to the right andthe portion of the downward flow becomes shorter.

4.5. Enhancement in mass and heat transfer by slowflow

Kawakami et al. (1989) reportedthat radial mass transfer during bubble train flow through square capillaries is 4–5 times higher for upwardflow than for downwardflow. On the other hand, Bellara (1998), who foundthat upwardflow has no discernable difference to downflow operation when they introduced gas bubbles to enhance the ultrafiltration of large molecules in aqueous solutions using hollow fibre membranes. These apparently contradictory findings can be explainedby the substantial difference between the flows aroundthe bubble inside circular capillaries andtheir square counterparts. In circular capillaries motion of the bubble is

T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 673 Fig. 12.

Fig. 13. Corner wall shear stress distribution in square capillaries : liquid usedis 1000 centistokes silicone oil ( L = 0.971 Pa s, L = 971 kg m 3 , = 22.18 mN/m); side length = 2 mm; = 21.89; (1) Ca = 0.026; (2) Ca = 0.038; (3) Ca = 0.054; (4) Ca = 0.067.

axisymmetric andthe walls shear stress distribution around the bubble is identical for both upwardanddownwardflow. However, the flow in square capillaries is asymmetric. As a consequence of thicker film for upwardflow, the corner wall shear stress for upwardflow in the film region is generally higher than that of downwardflow andof the same mag-

nitude to the one near the bubble ends (Figs. 11 and 12). The change in sign of the corner wall shear stress, seen only for upwardflow, is another source of enhancement of radial mass transfer. Radial mixing in bubble train flow in capillaries is also strongly influencedby the bubble length andfrequency. Many researchers have reportedthat the length andfre- quency of the bubble plays a pivotal role in heat andmass

enhancement. Horvath et al. (1973) showedthat radial mass

  • 674 T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675

transfer in bubble train flow inside circular capillaries in-

creases when the bubble length decreases. Kawakami et al. (1989) however, reportedan increase in radial mass transfer with increasing gas flow rates. Explanations to what could be contradictory observations can be sought from the wall shear stress distributions. In circular capillaries, the radial mass transfer is mainly due to the vortices aheadandbehind the bubble. Thus, injecting smaller gas bubbles in circular capillaries wouldshorten the near-zero wall shear stress in the central region aroundthe bubble. The corner wall shear stress in square capillaries resemble those observedin large tubes; for fixedliquidflow rates the wall shear stress in- creases with increasing the bubble length (Li et al., 1997). Another effect of the corner flow is the augmentation of axial mixing—that is exchange of matter between liquid plugs. For circular capillaries, the liquidplugs, bridgedby extremely thin films, are nearly perfectly isolated(Skeggs, 1957; Thulasidas et al., 1999). Thanks to the corner flow in square capillaries, a better exchange between the liquid plugs is achievedandthis explains the perfect mixing in the liquidplugs observedby Kawakami et al. (1989) inside their monolith bioreactors.

5. Conclusion

The characteristics of slug flow inside circular capillar- ies andsquare micro-channels were revealedusing the VOF method, showing the fundamentally different hydrodynam- ics of such a flow from that in larger tubes andthe effect of corner flow in square capillaries. The velocity fieldaround the bubble were shown in details for a wide range of Ca showing different flow patterns inside liquid plugs in agree- ment with experimental findings. The shape and terminal velocity of the Taylor bubble were predicted by the VOF methodandagreedfavourably with the publishedexperi- mental findings. Based on hydrodynamics of slug flow, a light was shedto explain andunderstandthe augmentation of mass andheat transfer in capillaries.

Notation

Bo

Ca

D t

Eo

g

L

LP

L T B

r

R

R

t

Bondnumber Bo = 4g( L G )D capillary number =( U b / ) diameter of capillary, m Eötvös number, dimensionless acceleration due to gravity, m /s 2 length of liquidplug, m length of Taylor bubble, m radial distance from the axis, m bubble radius, m capillary radius, m

t

2

, dimensionless

Re Reynolds number, dimensionless U inlet inlet velocity, m/s U SL liquidsuperficial velocity, m/s

U T B Taylor bubble velocity, m/s U wall wall velocity, m/s

  • v Radial liquid velocity, m/s

W velocity ratio for fraction liquiddepositedon

walls, dimensionless

  • x axial coordinate, m

Greek letters

G

G

L

G

L

volume fraction of the gas phase in the compu- tational cell, dimensionless dimensionless number, dimensionless gas molecular viscosity, kg/m 3 liquidmolecular viscosity, kg/m 3 gas density, kg/m 3 liquiddensity, kg/m 3 surface tension, N/m bubble dimensionless velocity, dimensionless

Acknowledgements

T. Taha is grateful to Karim Rida Said Foundation for financial support andto Dr DavidKenning for helpful suggestions. This work is partially sponsoredby EPSRC

(GR/66438).

References

Bellara, S.R., 1998. Novel developments in the application of ultrafiltration for bioseparation. D.Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford. Bellara, S.R., Cui, Z.F., Pepper, D.S., 1997. Fractionation of BSA and lysozyme using gas spargedultrafiltration in hollow fibre membrane modules. Biotechnology Progress 13, 869–872. Brackbill, J.U., Kothe, D.B., Zemach, C., 1992. A continuum method for modeling surface tension. Journal of Computational Physics 100,

335–354.

Bretherton, F.P., 1961. The motion of long bubbles in tubes. Journal of FluidMechanics 10, 166–188. Charpentie, H.C., Favier, M., 1975. Some liquid holdup experimental data in trickle-bedreactors for foaming andnanofoaming hydrocarbons. A.I.Ch.E. Journal 21 (6), 1213–1218. Chen, J.D., 1986. Measuring the film thickness surrounding a bubble

inside a capillary. Journal of ColloidandInterface Science 109,

341–349.

Cox, B.G., 1964. An experimental investigation of the streamlines in viscous fluidexpelledfrom a tube. Journal of FluidMechanics 20,

193–200.

Cybulski, A., Moulijn, J.A., 1994. Monoliths in heterogeneous catalysis. Catalytic Review in Science andEngineering 36, 179–270. Fairbrother, F., Stubbs, A.E., 1935. Studies in electroendosmosis—VI. The “bubble tube” methodof measurement. Journal of Chemical Society 1, 527–529. Gauglitz, P.A., St. Slaurent, C.M., Radke, C.M., 1987. An experimental investigation of gas-bubble breakup in constrictedsquare capillaries. Journal of Petroleum Technology 39, 1137–1146.

T. Taha, Z.F. Cui / Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 665 – 675 675

Ghiaasiaan, S.M., Abdel-Khalik, S.I., 2001. Two-phase flow in microchannels. Advances in Heat Transfer 34, 145–254. Giavedoni, M.D., Saita, F.A., 1997. The axisymmetric and plane cases of a gas phase steadily displacing a Newtonian liquid—a simulation solution of the governing equations. Physics of Fluids 9, 2420–2428. Goldsmith, H.L., Mason, S.G., 1963. The flow of suspensions through tubes—II. Single large bubbles. Journal of ColloidandInterface Science 18, 237–529. Hazel, A.L., Heil, M., 2002. The steady propagation of semi-infinite bubble into a tube of elliptical or rectangular cross-section. Journal of FluidMechanics 470, 91–114. Hirasaki, G.J., 1989. The steam-foam process. Journal of Petroleum Technology 41, 449–456. Hirt, C.W., Nichols, B.D., 1981. Volume of fluid(VOF) methodfor the dynamics of free boundaries. Journal of Computational Physics 39,

201–225.

Holm, L.W., Garrison, W.H., 1988. CO 2 diversion with foam in an immiscible CO 2 fieldproject. SPE Reservoir Engineering 3, 112–118. Horvath, C., Solomon, B.A., Engasser, J.M., 1973. Measurement of radial transport in slug flow using enzyme tubes. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals 12, 431–439. Huisman, I.H., Tragardh, G., Tragardh, C., 1999. Particle transport in cross microfiltration—II. Effect of particle–particle interactions. Chemical Engineering Science 54, 281–289. Huzyak, P.C., Koelling, K.W., 1997. The penetration of a long bubble through a viscoelestic fluidin a tube. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 71, 73–88. Irandoust, S., Anderson, B., 1988. Monolithic catalysts for nanoautomobile applications. Catalytic Reviews in Science andEngineering 30,

341–392.

Kawakami, K., Kawasaki, K., Shiraishi, F., Kusunoki, K., 1989. Performance of a honeycomb monolith bioreactor in a gas–liquid–solid three-phase system. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 28, 394–400. Kolb, W.B., Cerro, R.L., 1991. Coating the inside of a capillary of square cross section. Chemical Engineering Science 46, 2181–2195. Li, Q.Y., Cui, Z.F., Pepper, D.S., 1997. Effect of bubble size and frequency on the permeate flux of gas spargedultrafiltration with tubular membranes. The Chemical Engineering Journal 67, 71–75. Martinez, M.J., Undell, K.S., 1989. Boundary integral analysis of the creeping flow of long bubbles in capillaries. Transactions of ASME Journal of AppliedMechanics 56, 211–217. Mazouchi, A., Homsy, G.M., 2000. Thermocapillary migration of long bubbles in cylindrical tubes. Physics of Fluids 12, 542–549. Olbricht, W.L., Kung, D.M., 1992. The deformation and breakup of liquid drops in low Reynolds number flow through a capillary. Physics of Fluids A 4, 1347–1354. Oliver, D.R., Wright, S.J., 1964. Pressure drop and heat transfer in gas–liquidslug flow in horizontal tubes. British Chemical Engineering 9, 590–596. Oliver, D.R., Young Hoon, A., 1968. Two-phase non-Newtonian flow—II. Heat transfer. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers 46, 116–122.

Porter, M.C., 1972. Concentration polarization with membrane ultrafiltration. Industrial and Engineering, Product Research and Development 11, 234–248. Poslinski, A.J., Oehler, P.R., Stokes, V.K., 1995. Isothermal gas-assisted displacement of viscoplastic liquids in tubes. Polymer Engineering Science 35, 877–892.

Prothero, J., Burton, A.C., 1961. The physics of bloodflow in capillaries—I. The nature of the motion. Biophysical Journal 1, 565–

575.

Ransohoff, T.C., Radke, C.M., 1987. Weeping flow around nonwetting bubbles in smoothly constrictednoncircular pores. Physics and Chemistry Hydrodynamics 8, 255–263. Ransohoff, T.C., Radke, C.M., 1988. Laminar flow of a wetting liquid along the corners of a predominantly gas-occupied noncircular pore. Journal of ColloidandInterface Science 121, 392–401. Ransohoff, T.C., Gauglitz, P.A., Radke, C.M., 1987. Snap-off of gas bubbles in smoothly constrictednoncircular capillaries. A.I.Ch.E. Journal 33, 753–765. Ratulowski, J., Chang, H.C., 1989. Transport of gas bubble in capillaries. Physics of Fluids A 1, 1642–1655. Ratulowski, J., Chang, H.C., 1990. Marangoni effects of trace impurities on the motion of long bubbles in capillaries. Journal of FluidMechanics 210, 303–328. Reinlet, D.A., Saffman, P.G., 1985. The penetration of a finger into a viscous fluidin a channel andtube. SIAM Journal of Science and Statistical Computation 6, 542–561. Shen, E.I., Undell, K.S., 1985. A finite element study of low Reynolds number two-phase flow in cylindrical tubes. Transanctions of ASME, Journal of AppliedMechanics 52, 253–256. Skeggs, L.J., 1957. An automatic methodfor colorimetric analysis. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 28, 311–322. Suo, M., Griffith, P., 1964. Two-phase flow in capillary tubes. Journal of Basic Engineering 86, 576–582. Taha, T., Cui, Z.F., 2004. Hydrodynamics of slug flow inside capillaries. Chemical Engineering Science 59, 1181–1190. Taylor, G.I., 1961. Deposition of a viscous fluidon the wall of a tube. Journal of FluidMechanics 10, 161–165. Thulasidas, T.C., Abraham, M.A., Cerro, R.L., 1995. Bubble-train flow in capillaries of circular andsquare cross section. Chemical Engineering Science 50 (2), 183–199. Thulasidas, T.C., Abraham, M.A., Cerro, R.L., 1997. Flow patterns in liquid slugs during bubble-train flow inside capillaries. Chemical Engineering Science 52, 2947–2962. Thulasidas, T.C., Abraham, M.A., Cerro, R.L., 1999. Dispersion during bubble-train in capillaries. Chemical Engineering Science 54, 61–76. Tsai, T.M., Miksis, M.J., 1994. Dynamics of a drop in a constricted capillary tube. Journal of FluidMechanics 274, 197–217. Wong, H., Radke, C.J., Morris, S., 1995. The motion of long bubbles in polygonal capillaries. Part 1. Thin films. Journal of FluidMechanics 292, 71–94. Youngs, D.L., 1982. Time-dependent multi-material flow with large fluid distortion. In: Morton, K.W., Baibnes, M.J. (Eds.), Numerical Methods for FluidDynamics. Academic Press, New York, p. 273.