Structure
Introduction
Objectives
Capacity of Tile Drains Grades of Tile Drains Size of Tile Drains Load on Tile Drains Testing of Tiles Tile Joint Spacing Summary Key Words Answer to SAQs
8.1 INTRODUCTION
A tile drainage system consists of a drainage outlet, tile main, sub-main and laterals. The laterals remove free water from the soil; and the submains and mains carry drainage water to the drainage outlet. The movement of water into sub-surface drains is influenced by the following factors: a) b) c) Permeability of the soil horizon availability and location of free water, presence and magnitude of artesian pressure or back pressure in drain depth and spacing of drains
d) drain diameter e)
f)
tile joint spacing depth to impervious layer below the ground surface.
All these factors are important while taking up design of tile drainage system. Design of tile drainage system should be such that it meets the functional and locational requirements. The design of tile drains as stated in Unit 7 includes: 1) the layout and arrangement of drain line, 2) selection of suitable outlet, 3) 4) proper depth and spacing of laterals to collect excess water efficiently, determination of length and size of drains,
5) selection of good quality material for different segments of the system, and
6 ) design of inlet and outlet structures. The layout and arrangement of drains has been explained to you already. The performance of a drainage system and its longevity depends upon proper design, installation and maintenance of different parts of drainage system including layout and
D - 1 ~ e o f Agricultural Lands
accessories like inlet and outlet structures. In preceding unit selection of materiaal for tile drainage has also been discussed.
Objectives
After studying his unit, you should be able to select proper drainage outlet, determine depth and spacing of tile drains, derive and explain different mathematical formula in determining depth and spacing of tile drains, determine required discharge capacity and accordingly grades and size of drains, find out load on tiles, and exvlain testing procedures for tiles.
Clay 10% Average loam Fine sandy Sandy loam Peat & Muck
Irrigated
very slow Slow Moderately slow Moderate Moderately rapid Rapid Variable
Based upon the hydraulics of flow of water in soils several formulas for determination of depth and spacing of tiles are proposed.
3) The llydraulic gradient at any point is equal to the slope i = @ of the water table above that point, and
4)
irrigation R (cm/sec)
Impermeable Layer
Figure 8.1: Defmition Sketch for Hooghout's Equation
Considering a vertical plane through the centre line between the drains it can be seen that all the water entering the right side of plane will go the right drain and all the water entering left side will go to the left drain. Considering a unit thickness of the soil (perpendicular to the plane of the paper) the quantity of water passing through any olane at (n,v) Der unit time can be given by :
Using Darcy's law and the assumption (3) given above, we can also write
x=o,y=h+d
We get
This equation gives the spacing of either tile or open drains under the given set of In that conditions. For all practical purposes the drain is considered to be empty (h = 0). case the above equation reduces to
The origin of the coordinate system can be shifted to the midpoint between the drains. L For this condition, x in Equation (8.3) needs to be substituted by (- -x), in 2 Equation (8.3) reduces to
? .
The Equation (8.6) is the equation of an ellipse. Another method to derive this relationship in terms of total flow rate (q) into die urain per unit length and height of water table (b) from the impermeable layer, we can approach in similar fashion. Thus, assuming that flow is removed from the drains on both side equally, we can write
where,
qx = rate of flow towards drain across a vertical plane of unit width at any distance x from origin
The Equation (8.9) is identical to Equation (8.6) and substituting x = - and y = b for 2 the mid point, we obtain,
L=
4K (b2- d2) 4
...(8.10)
-[
where d , is the equivalent depth of water conducting layer below the drain. Example 8.1 Compute the drain spacing, for an irrigated area, assuming the depth to the centre of drain is 1.8 m and the minimum depth to the water table is 1.5 m. Given that hydraulic conductivity K = 0.5 miday above an impervious layer at a depth of 6.7 m. The excess irrigation rate is equivalent to drainage coefficient of 1.3 mmlday. Solution Refer Figure 8.1 for calculating different parameters. 1) Depth of impervious layer below the centre of tile (d) = 6.7-1.8 = 4.9 m 2) Compute equivalent depth for the water conducting layer below the drain for d = 4.9 m. Using Figure 8.4 we get equivalent depth (de) = 2.9 m
3) For tiles flowing half filled, H = 1.8 - 1.5 = 0.3 m 4) b = H+de=2.9+0.3=3.2m 51 Tofindout spacing,useEquation(8.11)
where.
K = 0.5 &day, and
i = drainage coefficient &day (Given) = l.Yl000
considering unidirectional flow qx in the x-direction per unit width in the z - direction, then the flow entering through the left face of the column is the product of the area ydz and the velocity V X , or
dv Impervious bose
Figure 8.2: Definition Sketcli for USBR Equation
a qx Moving from left to the right face of the column, the flow is changing at a rate 31
when leaving the right hand face of the column, qx dx has changed to ( q,
+ ?-@ dr) d
ax
~ .
The difference between the outflow and inflow per unit time in x - direction is
Substituting for q, = KL If in time At, there is a change in height, Ay and iff be the drainable porosity, we have
Putting the limits i.e. when Ay 0 andAt + o and col~sidering x direction only the above Equation (8.14) is written as
If y is large as compared with changes in y, we may consider y a constant with the me-an value D and neglecting second order terms, we have
where,
Now consider Figure 8.3 wherein,D = d + mo/2. Thus Equation (8.16)with partial derivative terms can be written as Equation (8.17).
Snilsurface
W ter
toke
'S
*c\\\ I
Origin
.I
\\\ \ \ \ \ \ \ A
.............................
Impervious Layer
For study of non-steady state conditions the Dupuit-For chheimer meory is applicable. Here it is assumed that flow is horizontal and the velocity is proportional to the slope of the free water surface. The equation may be written as
The equation is identical to heat flow equation. By assigning appropriate boundary conditions Equation (8.17)can be solved in terms of a sine series retaining only the first term. The spacing equation as derived by Glover using the symbols as described in Figure 8.3 is given by
l l ~ i equation s is also known as Glover's Equation for tile spacing. Because of the assumption made in its derivation, Equation (8.18)ignores the resistance resulting from the convergence of the flow lines near the.dain and is based ,on a thickness of the water - conducting zone equal to d + mo/2. The equation was further modified ,and takes these factors into consideration. Thus, the present equation is in the following form:
9Ktde
~~[~[ln[m~(2de+m))-ln{m(2de+mo))
where,
de = Equivalent depth from Figure 8.4,
m = Height of water table above the centre of the drain at mid plane after time r, mo = Initial height of water table, f = Drainable Porosity in fraction, and
The remaining symbols carry their usual meatiing. The Equation (8.19)is recommended for design purposes only as it does not yield a practical solulion where de = 0
Depth d (ft)
S.%$ I
Example 8.2
calculate the drain spacing for a falling water table assuming K = 0.35 rnldidy,
f = 0.02, drain depth to centre line = 0.9 m, mo = 0.9 m, m = 0.6 m, t = 1 day for
the water to drop from the soil surfiace to 0.3 m below, and depth of impervious layer below drains d = 0.6 m, (Refer Figure 8.3). Also calculate drain depth for a 100 rnm dia tile if initial water table is at soil surface.
Solution
First we have to evaluate equivalent depth for the water conducting layer. The be determined equivalent depth de = d + mo, (Refer to Fiure 8.3) and the same cSan from Figure 8.4. Assume a spacing L = 20 m and read corresponding value of de from Figure 8.19.
-,
Since 18 m is close to the estimated spacing of 20 m, de would not change and spacing of 19.5 m is acceptable. Since the water table, initially, was at soil surface, for a 100 mm drain pipe is = mo +1/2 (outside dia of drain) = 0.9 + drain depth (?I) 0.06 = 0.96 m for outside dia of drain = 120 m r n .Hence drain depth = 0.96 m.
I 1 1 Equations (8.20) and (8.21) q is the drain discharge per unit length of the drain in unit time and remaining symbols carry their usual meaning. The design flow of tile drains is estimated under humid and arid condition using different approaches. Under humid conditions, the main purpose of the tile drains is to remove the excess rainfall appearing as sub-surface flow. The concept of draimage coeificient is used for determining the capacity of the field drains. Table 8.2 gives the values ol' the drainage coefficient for field crops. These values vary depending upon the local soil, crop and surface drdnage conditions. Some experience is necessary for deciding the value of the drainage coefficient.
Table 83: Drainage Coefficient for Tie Drains in Humid Regions Surface Drainage Condition
I
a) Normal
h) With blind inlets
& -------i
Drainage Coefficient (cmlday) Mineral Soils
Organic SOL
1.9 - 2.5
1.9 3.7
In determining the capacity of the tile line, the area actually to be drained by that particular line is to be considered. Additional allowance is to be made where there are surface inlets into the tile line or side hill seepage.
Draiuage of Agric~dturalLands
7
I
Tile
Tubing
0.10 0.07
75
100
125
0.05 0.04
150
0.32
Example 8.3
In a sub-surface drainage system, 200 m long laterals were laid out 50 in apart. The laterals have a grade of 0.3 per cent,
i) If the drainage coefficient of the area is 2 cm per day, what size of tiles would you recommend?
ii) If the drainage coefficient is increased to 3 cm per day, what will be the spacing of Ule laterals?
Solution
i) Quantity of water to be drained by the laterals in 24 hrs
Rate of flow =
I
24
x 60 x 60 = 0.002315 rn3/s
Consider tl~e rate of flow through a 10 cm tile, we get Wetted perimeter (P)= n: x 0.1 = 0.3 142 m
x 0.1 x 0.1 4
1L
71 x 0.1
= 0.025
3 =Wx200x-m 100
: .
Spacing (W) =
= 48.14 rn r 50 rn (say)
where all symbols cany their usual meaning as in Manning's equation of flow. By equating the design flow to the hydraulic capacity at full flow, the diameter would be
d = 5 1.7 (Dc x A x n)0.375 s -
...(8.23)
where,
For practical purposes the nearest available commercial size is selected. In ordzr to take care of sedimentation and also of any misalignment during installation, a size slightly larger than the calculated size is selected. In case of concrete or clay tiles size of 10 cm, 12.5 cm and 15 cm are used. Nomograph based on above equations have been developed for clay and concrete pipe drains and corrugated plastic tubing. These nomographs are presented in Figure 8.5 and 8.6. Table 8.4: Recommended Values of n foF Various Conduit Materials Conduit Material Clay tile Concrete pipe Vitrified clay pipe Perforated plastic pipe corrugated plastic tubing Manning's n
0.01 1
0.017
Example 8.4
Determine the diameter of cormgated plastic tubing and the flow rate where the slope is 0.4 per cent, drainage area is 12 ha and drainage coefficient is 15 &day.
Solution
Using the formula
Figure 8.5: Nomograph for Selection of Concrete and Clay Pipe Drains
Hectaes drained
'Space betveen lines s the range for tubing G e ! shown between the lines.
n = 0.015 for 76-203mmdia.
m]
Drainage coefficient
d=51.7 ( D c x Ax n )
0.375
s- 0.1875
We would select next higher size. Using Figure 8.6 next available pipe size is of 254 mrn is diameter. From Figure 8.6, we also get Flow rate = 18.0 Ips discharge capacity of the corrugated pipe with the expbsted We can check th~s flow rate, i.e.
Since both the flow rates are very near to each other, our selection of pipe is correct.
1)
b)
C)
How (10 you find tile strength? Which of the methods is inore close to actual I'ield condition for laying tile drains'!
Wntc down the criteria for tile joint spacing.
In calculating load on tile drains the Ditch Conduit Formula are in use. Ditch conduit condition apply to narrow trenches while projecting conduit conditions occur in wider trenchers of about two to three times the outside diameter of the conduit pipe (Figure 8.7). Projecting conduit conditions generally exist when the settlement of soil prism A and C is greater than that of soil prism B. Projecting conduit conditions are found in places where conduit is placed on undisturbed soils. The Ditch Conduit Formula is used for calculating the load on pipes in narrow trenches and is given by:
where,
Wc = load'on the pipe
C d = load coefficient
where.
Cc = Load coefficient for project conduits, and
(a 1
fbl
Figure 8.7: Frictioi~ol Forces on (a) Ditch Type and @) Projecting Type Rigid Conduit Loading
The load coefficient Cd and Cc in the above formula are functions of the frictional coefficients of the soil, the height of the fill H; and the width of the atch or the width of the conduit as the case may be. In case of ditch conduits, it is assumed that the density of the soil filled is less than that of original soil. Sides of the ditch offer an upward frictional resistant to the fill material and as such the load on the conduit is less than the weight of the soil directly above it. But in case of projecting conditions, the load on the conduit is greater than the weight of the soil directly above it, for the reason that the shearing forces due to greater settlement of soil on both sides are downward rather than upward.
In a tile drainage system, water must enter the drain through the space between successive tiles. Doubling the crack width increases the flow into the drains by about 10 per cent under ponded conations but increased crack width gives rise to risk of sedimentation. Crack space should be minimum in case of unstable soil. Even itregularities at the ends of the tiles are sufficient to provide the necessary space in such situations. The maximum permissible crack in silt loan soil and silty clay loam varies
(b)Sund b r a r i n g *test
from I to 3 mm but, it is negligible in case of sandy and sandy loam soils. Preliminary laboratory study are useful to obtain the desired tile joint spacing. For this purpose, a tile inflow meter can be used. In this, different spacing lor the joint could be tested with a cover of soil from the experimental plot filled around the tile line in the flour meter. Water is pounded above the soil surface and the inflow rate is measured. The same may be collated with desired drainage rate and necessary adjustments in tile joint spacing can be incorporated. -
8.9 SUMMARY
A tile drainage system consists of a drainage outlet, tile main, submains and laterals. 'lbe lateral remove free watcr from the soil; and the main and sub-mains carry drained water to the drainage outlet. The design of tile drains includes layout and arrangement of drain lines, selechon of suitable outlet, designing proper depth and spacing of laterals to collect excess water efficiently, detemnation of length and size of drains, selection of g o d quality material for dfferent segments of the system and finally, design of inlet and outlet structures. Out of these, depth and spacing of laterals are the most critical. Hooghouclt's eqtution is used for determination of depth and spacing in steady state conditions where the rainfall rate or irrigation rate is coilstant with t i ~ ~ l e . US Bureau 01' Reclamation Formula gives depth and spacing for unsteady state condition where position of water hble with respect to time varies. After the spacing of tile drams rs determined, the discharge through the tile drains can be calculated either by using the Hooghoudt's approach for steady state condition or USRR's approach for unsteady state condition. The grade of tile drains should be such that no sedimentation occurs in the tiles. A mimmum velocity of 45 cm/s is generally recornmended and a desirable working grade is 0.2 per cent, however, higher grades can also he adopted depending upon the ground conditions. The size of tile drains is determined using indxilnum expected flow and the grades. 'Ihe Manning's formula is used to calculait: velocity of flow. Nomograplis are also available depicting relations between discharge rate. grade, drain diameter, drainage coefficient, velocity of flow and area to be drained using concrete tiles, clap tiles or corrugated plastic tubings. Tllese nomograplls can be sultably used in des~gn. The load on tile drains can be calculated with the help of the ditch-conduit formula or projecting conduit fornlula whicl! takes into consideralion unit weight of fill material #andconduit diameter, size of conduit and state of sub-grzde on which conduit is to rest. Tile strength is another important factor -and the same may be testcd using three-edge bearing test or sand hearing test. 'l'he latter represents the conditions found under normal instsllations procedure mofe closely than the tkree edge-bearing test. Finally, in a tile drain system, water must enter the drain througb the space hetween successive tiles and the crack space should he minimum in unstable soils. The maxlmum permissible crack in silt loam and silty clay loam varies from 1 tc~ 3 mm but, lt is negligible ip case of sandy and smdy loam soils.
This equation is used to find out the depth and spacing in steady state condition for sub-surface and surface drains. For conditions where the rainfall rate or irrigation , rate is constant, the drain discharge will also be constant if the water table does not change with time. The Equation is used to find out tbe drain spacing in unsteady state conditions for sub-surface. The discharge through the tile drains can t~ calculated either by using the Hooghoudt's approach for steady state conditions nr the USBR's approach for the unsteady state condition. Tile drains grades should be such that no sedimentation occurs in the tiles. The size of the tile drains is determined using the maximum expected flow and the grade. Manning's formula is used for the design. It is the dead load of the soil on the pipe. Maximum bearing capacity of the load on concrete or clay tiles. It is determined by three-edge beating test and sand bearing test. Ditch conduit conditions occur in narrow ditches when conduits are laid underground. No differential settlement of soil is noted in this case.
Steady State
: :
These conditions occur in underground conduits laid in wider trenches which leads to differential settlement of soil prisms when the conduit rests on undisturbed soil.
a) The main steps in design of a tile drain system are; i ) Making layout and arrangement of drain lines,
ii)
iii) Design of proper depth and spacing of laterals to collect excess water efficiently, iv) Determination of length and size of drajns, v) Selection of good quaWty material, and vi) Design of inlet and outlet structure. b) In steady state condition, tile spacing is determined with the help of Hooghoudt's equation whereas, in case of unsteady state condition tile spacing is determined with the help of USBR or Glover's equation. c) Please derive the Hooghoudt's equation, yourself (Refer section 8.2).
SAQ 2
a) Load on a tile drain is calculated by Ditch conduit or projecting conduit formula which is given as
We = Cd
1
where,
Bd
t1
c)