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CIGRE 2006

A Successful Retrofit of Old Turbo-generators having Various Technical Problems H. Katayama, S. Takahashi, H. Nakamura, H. Shimada, H. Ito (Toshiba, J apan) G. J. Coetzee, F. A. Claassens (ESKOM, South Africa)

The 350 MW turbo-generators of a thermal power station, which have been in operation on base-load for nearly 30 years were showing signs of ageing . Problems encountered included: shorted laminations in the stator core, signs of overheating and cracking in stator core press plates, loosening at the stator core end portion, excess vibration and cracking in the ground wall insulation at the stator coil end portion, blocking of the stator bar hollow strands and rotor vibration due to thermal sensitivity. Studies were made to determine the optimum solution to overcome these problems and to up-rate the units from 350MW to 400MW operation. The existing turbo-generators employed hydrogen gas to cool the rotor and stator core, and de-ionized water to cool the stator winding. In order to overcome transportation weight limitations the stators had been built in two parts comprising an inner cage and an outer frame. To overcome the existing problems and to increase the unit capacity, various solutions were carefully and thoroughly examined; these included partial repairs such as stator / rotor rewind and core restacking, component replacement such as inner cage and rotor replacement. Complete replacement of the existing unit by a hydrogen-cooled generator employing the existing foundations and auxiliary equipment was also studied. A generator which is cooled only by hydrogen gas has several advantages over a water-cooled generator to include: reduced maintenance through the simplification of the cooling system, elimination of inherent problems often found with water-cooled stator bars such as water leakage or plugging of hollow conductors or elimination of water cooling unit auxiliary power demand. The overall evaluation concluded that the most effective way to overcome the existing problems, simplify maintenance and limit the life cycle cost over the next 30 years etc. was to replace the existing unit with a generator cooled only with hydrogen gas. The study of countermeasures for the existing generators and the successful replacement with new hydrogen-cooled generators are described in this paper.

KEYWORDS Turbo-generator, retrofit, indirect hydrogen cooled, HTC stator insulation

1. Introduction The life of a generator is normally about 30 years. Thermal power plant generators built in the 60s and the early 70s have already reached the end of their useful life and nearly all show various technical problems caused by ageing. Many users consider upgrading and retrofitting existing generators to increase capacity and extend the life of the units from the viewpoint of asset management. This paper presents the case of a successful retrofit of old generators having various technical problems to not only increase capacity but also extend the life of the units. 2. Outline of Existing Generators and Retrofit Plan 2.1 Outline of Existing Generators The original rating of the existing generators was 2p-389MVA-15kV-50Hz. Unit 1 was commissioned in 1970 and six generators of the same rating were built. They have been in service on base-load operation. The features of the existing generators are described below. There is no bearing on the LP turbine at the generator side, so the turbine side bearing of the generator supports half the weight of the LP turbine. An AC exciter is directly coupled to the generator rotor at the non-turbine end. The generator stator comprises an outer frame and an inner stator. Hydrogen gas coolers are installed at the center of the generator. The stator coils are directly cooled by water, while the rotor coils and stator cores are directly cooled by hydrogen gas at 310kPa. The rotor coils are cooled by axial-radial ventilation. The rotor coils are installed tightly in the rotor slots. The cores are pressed in the axial direction by through-bolts from both sides and the press plates comprise clamp plates with integrated fingers. The stator cores are cooled by hydrogen gas through axial ventilation holes. Since commissioning, the existing generators suffered many defects including damage to the stator coil main insulation; plugging of stator coil hollow conductors caused by water chemistry problem; cracks in stator press plates due to inadequate material strength, overheating of the stator core end and core damage due to short-circuits across core laminations. 2.2 Retrofit Plan As a measure to meet the predicted increase in power demand in 2010, ESKOM plans to construct new thermal and hydroelectric power plants, restore temporarily suspended thermal power plants and to increase the output of existing thermal power plants. The power plant described in this paper was ESKOMs first retrofit project to increase the output of existing thermal power plants. The purpose of the proposed retrofit is to overcome existing power plant problems, extend its life by 30 years and increase output by 15% from 350MW to 400MW. 3. Alternative Retrofit Plans and Evaluation 3.1 Alternative Retrofit Plans Existing problems included cracking of stator press plates and damaged main coil insulation. We studied alternative retrofit plans to remove these defects, extend life and increase generator capacity by 15%. In broad terms, two retrofit solutions existed; partial replacement or total replacement. Table 3.1 below lists the retrofit options available. The combination of these alternatives provides a number of different retrofit plans.

Table 3.1 Generator Retrofit Plans

Partial Replacement Plans P S Plan 1 Renewal of insulation with reusing the existing stator coils P S Plan 2 New stator coils P S Plan 3 New end of core and structure with reusing the existing core lamination Stator P S Plan 4 New core laminations and new core end structure P S Plan 5 New inner stator P S Plan 6 New Stator P R Plan 1 Reuseing the existing rotor Rotor P R Plan 2 New Rotor Total Replacement Plan Stator T S Plan 1 New Generator

P S; Partial Stator Replace, P R; Partial Rotor Replace, T S; Total Stator Replace 3.2 Evaluation of Retrofit Plans To evaluate these alternatives rationally, both user and manufacturer perspectives should be considered. It is difficult to quantitatively evaluate each retrofit plan but it is possible to rationally evaluate them by inviting experts from various fields to evaluate the merits of each option and score them to derive total marks for each plan. Table 3.2 shows retrofit plans, evaluation items and scores marked. Each evaluation item is assigned with 9, 5 or 3 points whenan excellent, good or fair effect is expected, respectively. Only 1 point is given when no effect is expected. As a result, the total replacement plan scored the highest mark. When, for example, initial cost should be given priority over life cost according to the management policy of the customer, the initial cost may be weighted appropriately (multiplied by a coefficient) to select a different alternative. A rational weighting method (determination of the coefficients to be used) can be discussed and agreed between the user and the manufacturer. Table 3.2 Retrofit Plan Evaluation Matrix
Re-s tac king of Core End Cor e Re-use of Co il Pre ss-p late Cracki ng Effe ctiv e ness of Sol ution Core Me lt Coil End Damag e Rotor Shor ted Tur n Initial Cost Mainten anc e Li fe Cost Dur ation of Outag e Lo ng Ter m Reliabili ty Imp ro vement of Efficie ncy Up Rating TOTAL SCORE 9 1 9 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 35 Ne w Coil 9 1 9 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 33 All Cor e Re-u se of Coil 9 3 9 1 9 3 1 1 1 3 1 41 New Coil 9 3 9 1 3 3 3 3 3 5 1 43 New Inne r Re-us e o f Coil 9 3 9 1 3 3 1 1 3 3 1 37 New Coi l 9 3 9 1 1 3 5 9 5 5 1 51 Ne w Ge ne. 9 9 9 9 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 91

3.3 Adoption of Stator Coils Indirectly Cooled by Hydrogen Gas While planning the retrofit, we studied whether or not the existing generator which employed water-cooled stator coils could be replaced with a new generator employing stator coils cooled indirectly by hydrogen gas. At this point, a Water cooled generator is defined as a generator with stator coils directly cooled by water, and a Hydrogen gas cooled generator is defined as a generator employing stator coils indirectly cooled by hydrogen gas. Life cycle cost comparisons were made. The manufacturer presented initial cost data, generator efficiency details and details of auxiliary power

which would affect the running cost, while the user presented expected running cost data and labor costs for operation and maintenance of the plant. The initial cost of a compact water-cooled generator operating at an increased energy density is equal to that of a simplified structure hydrogen gas-cooled generator. With regard to running costs, the cost of fuel for both types of generator is the same as both have nearly the same efficiency. As for labor cost, the hydrogen gas-cooled unit requires less labor than the water-cooled generator. Technically, the hydrogen gas cooled unit is superior to the watercooled unit because it is free from stator water leaks and flow restrictions. Having considered all factors, we eventually adopted the hydrogen gas-cooled generator for the retrofit plan. 4. Design and Manufacture of the New Generator 4.1 Basic Design Concept Reuse and Flexibility were the two key factors in the design of the new generator. We were obliged to use the existing foundations without modification. We therefore designed the physical size of the generator to fit the openings of the existing foundation. We also reused the existing auxiliaries and piping to reduce costs and the construction period. To fit the generator on the existing foundations we installed the hydrogen gas coolers on top of the generator frame. To limit the foundation load, we reduced the size and the weight of the generator and increased the generator energy density by applying HTC technology and optimizing cooling ventilation performance. Through these efforts the capacity of the generator was increased, while the weight of the generator was less than that of the existing generator. With regard to the unit auxiliaries, the stator coil cooling water unit was no longer necessary, while it was necessary to change the pumps and the motors of the hydrogen gas seal oil unit to accommodate the increase in the hydrogen seal oil flow of the new unit. The existing hydrogen system was reused. Piping, to include lubrication oil piping, hydrogen gas seal oil piping and gas piping were almost completely reused right up to the generator area. The jacking oil pipe work between the jacking oil manifold and the generator was completely replaced. Flexibility was an important factor as follows. The generator rotor is subject to different bearing loads during shop test and at site, so we designed the turbine side bearing to be suitable for operation during both shop test and site conditions. Likewise, we designed the generator for operation with and without connection of the exciter. The generator was thus capable of operation under all of the above conditions. The successful design of the new machine focusing on the key issues of Reuse and Flexibility led to the success of the project with minimum cost and short lead time. The other important design consideration was vibration under the rotor train conditions at the site. Evaluation of vibration was important because the new generator was to be coupled to an old GEC turbine. The user cooperated closely with us at site in the evaluation of vibration under various rotor train conditions. We were able to determine the existing rotor train characteristics and were satisfied that no problems existed. We designed the generator rotor vibration characteristics to match those of the existing generator rotor based on dimensions taken from the sketches of the existing generator rotor. 4.2 Comparison of Main Generator Data Table 4.1 compares the main data of the existing generator with that of the new generator. The output of the new generator would increase by 15% and the stator coil cooling system changed from water-cooled to indirect hydrogen-cooling. In spite of these remarkable improvements the new stator is lighter than the original stator.



Table 4.1 Comparison between Old and New Generator Existing generator New generator Turbine output 350 MW 400MW Generator output 389MVA 445MVA Power factor 0.9 Frequency 50Hz Rotating speed 3000rpm Voltage 15kV Cooling system Rotor:H2-cooled/Stator:Water-cooled H2-cooled Hydrogen pressure 310kPa 410kPa Stator 333ton 287ton Rotor 52ton 54ton Total 385ton 341ton

4.3 Major Technologies Applied to the New Generator The major technologies applied to the new generator are described below. By applying these technologies it was possible to design a machine having the same size as the existing machine, with increased capacity and a simplified cooling system.
<HTC Technology> For stator coil cooling systems, hydrogen gas indirect cooling offers more advantages than direct water-cooling, because the cooling system is simplified, reliability improved and maintenance simplified. Normally, a high voltage electrical insulation system has a low thermal conductivity, so it is difficult to apply indirect hydrogen cooling to stator coils of large capacity generators. However, we have developed a high thermal conductivity (HTC) stator coil insulation system, having twice the thermal conductivity of normal insulation, for the first time in the world. By applying HTC insulation to the new generator, we could reduce the weight of indirect hydrogen-cooled generators below that of conventional generators. Radial flow cooling ventilation was applied to the rotor and multi-section radial flow cooling ventilation was applied to the stator core and coils. The above technologies provide a compact design for the new generator. Figure 4.1 compares generator capacity for normal insulation with HTC insulation. Figure 4.2 shows thermal distribution of the core, coil insulation and coil for both air-cooled and hydrogen-cooled generators employing normal insulation and those employing HTC insulation.
Old design

Appropriate combination

Generator Coolant

Conventional 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0





Temperature Rise (K)

Direct Water & H2 Cooled

Bottom Coil Top Coil

Air H2 z

HTC insulation system Improved cooling system Optimized frame structure Reliable coil end support

Air Cooled

H2 Cooled

Dir ect Water & H 2 Cooled

New design

Ripple Spring Conductor

HTC Insulation 200 400 600 800 1000 [ MVA ]

Core Teeth Insulator

Core Ins.

Conductor Heat transfer medium



Arnot Pr oject : 445MVA

Figure 4.1 HTC Insulation Drives Generator Capability Range

Figure 4.2 Temperature Decrease with HTC Insulation

<Core End Structure> We employ the following standard structures to prevent heating of the end plates: Copper flux shields were installed on carbon steel end plates to prevent heating of the end plates caused by leakage flux. Nonmagnetic SUS steel was used for the outside spacers to prevent heating by magnetic flux. Figure 4.3 shows the stator core end structure.

Figure 4.3 Stator Core End Structure <Cooler Top Position> An indirect hydrogen-cooled generator employs a large hydrogen cooler. If the cooler is installed on the side of the generator frame as is the case for the existing machine, then the new generator would not fit into the existing foundation openings. Therefore, we installed the hydrogen cooler on top of the generator as shown in figure 4.4 below.

Figure 4.4 Top Mounted Gas Cooler on the Generator Frame

<Brush Oil Deflector> The existing seal oil unit is different from our standard system. Reuse is impossible if we employ our standard units. To use the existing system, oil from outside of the hydrogen seal must be separated from the bearing oil. We adopted the contact type oil deflector which employs nylon brushes(1). This enabled us to reuse the existing seal oil unit. Figure 4.5 shows the contact type oil deflector which employs nylon brushes. (1; Nylon type brush seal is patented by Toshiba.)

Brush Seal

B earing o il flow

Nylon Brush Brush holder

Hydr ogen s ide o il flow

Air s ide oil flow

Figure 4.5 Contact Type Oil Deflector <Withstanding Two Shift Operation> At present, the plant is operated on base-load. However, to enable two shift operation in the future, we evaluated fatigue strength of the rotor structures and adopted a standard structure for the stator frame according to the result of the evaluation for two shift operation. 3. Stature Standard (OHASA) The generators have been designed and manufactured in accordance with OHASA standard which is a South African national regulation. This was the first time that the national OHASA standard had been applied to generators by a South African power company and us. According to OHASA, the stator frame, hydrogen coolers, hydrogen piping, seal oil piping, and JOP piping are to be designed and manufactured in accordance with OHASA. The design, welding and inspection of all items are certified by an organization having governor attestation. In particular, the stator frames and the hydrogen coolers must be subjected to hydraulic pressure testing observed by the organization. 4. Shop Test Generator Unit 1 was tested at our factory in June / July 2004. The shop tests included generator performance testing, measurement of generator losses, temperature rise and shaft vibration in the overspeed range. The test data fully satisfied the design requirements. In particular the Generator efficiency was found to be very high, over 99%. Major test results are stated below in table 4.2. Table 4.2 Shop Test Result Generator Capacity Frequency Voltage Rotating Speed Short Circuit Ratio Efficiency (at PF 0.9, specified by IEC60034) 445 50 15 3000 Not less than 0.5 99.06 MVA Hz kV min-1 %

5. Site Construction

The first unit was put into service on November 26th, 2004. Site test results were good and the first unit has been operating well. Within three years, all six existing generator units will be replaced one by one. Fig. 5.1 shows a new generator in place in the power station.

Fig.5.1 A New 455MVA Hydrogen Gas-Cooled Generator 6. Summary Mutual understanding attained between user and manufacturer was the most important factor leading to the success of the project. Despite the distance between South Africa and Japan, the user and the manufacturer met several times and exchanged comprehensive data and information. We were able to fully understand the performance and properties of both existing and new generators. The user and the manufacturer each had a clear understanding of each others intentions throughout the project, each aware of our respective business responsibilities. and proceeded with the project in close cooperation. This was the key to the success of the project.

[1] T. Kitajima, H. Ito, S. Nagano, Y. Kazao, The Worlds Largest Capacity Turbine Generators with Indirect Hydrogen-Cooling, CIGRE 40th Meeting in Paris, France July 2004 [2] M.Tari, K.Yoshida, S.Sekito, R.Brtsch, J.Allison, A.Lutz, HTC Insulation Technology Drives Rapid Progress of Indirect-Cooled Turbo Generator Unit Capacity, IEEE PES Summer Meeting, Vancouver, July 2001. [3] M.Tari, K.Yoshida, S.Sekito, R.Brtsch, J.Allison, A.Lutz, A High Voltage Insulating System with Increased Thermal Conductivity for Turbo Generators, CWIEME Conference, Berlin, June 2001. [4] M.Tari, K.Yoshida, S.Sekito, R.Brtsch, J.Allison, A.Lutz, Impacts on turbine generator design by the application of increased thermal conducting stator insulation, Paper 11-105, CIGRE 2002 session, Paris, August 2002. [5] H.Ikeda, S.Kurosawa, Y.Kabata, Y.Kazao, T.Kitajima, T.Honda, Investigation of Hydrogen Indirect Cooling System for Stator Windings of Large Capacity Turbine Generator, IJPGCInternational Conference on Power Engineering-99, 1999. [6] S.Nagano, T.Kitajima, K.Yoshida, Y.Kazao, D.Murata, K.Nagakura, Development of World's Largest Hydrogen-Cooled Turbine Generator, IEEE PES Summer Meeting, Chicago, July 2002.