6 views

Uploaded by Carlos Rene Mamani Trujillo

- shear strength in soils
- Experiment Unconfined Compression
- Deformation Properties of Fine-grained Soils
- Concrete Basements
- 2011. Barton-From Empiricism, Through Theory, To Problem Solving in Rock Engineering. 6th Muller Lecture
- 2008F ENGI 6723 Guest Lecture McAfee
- Non-Axis-symmetrical Punching Shear Around Internal Columns
- Ramberg Osgood
- tmp1A2F
- GCTS Soils Testing - Full Catalogue
- Predicting and Controlling Ground Movements Around Deep Excavations
- Lab 6 - Unconfined Compression Test
- ARMA-10-459_A Confinement and Deformation Dependent Dilation Angle Model for Rocks
- Astm d4767 Cu
- Vane Shear Test
- A Constitutive Model for Structured Soils Kavvadas GE500305
- Lab 7 - Triaxial (Uu)
- The causes of the high friction angle of Dutch organic soils.pdf
- Factors Influencing Shear Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils
- Advantages and Disadvantages Correlations of Soil and Rock Properties in Geotechnical Engineering

You are on page 1of 14

Oral Buyukozturk

1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures (3-0-9) Outline 3 Failure Theories and Concrete Plasticity

Failure of concrete

o Concrete is a brittle material which fails through brittle cleavage (splitting) at the interfaces and in mortar except for high triaxial compression where shear slippage occurs resulting in a ductile behavior. Failure occurs by tensile splitting with the fractured surface orthogonal to the direction of the maximum tensile stress or strain.

o In general the material properties are known from simple tests such as uniaxial loadings giving f c' and ft . Prediction involves strength calculation in multiaxial situations given the data from the uniaxial tests. o In the field of concrete research attempts have been made to apply some of the classical failure theories to concrete. These theories were altered to overcome some disadvantages or otherwise improve their agreement with the phenomenological behavior of concrete. New failure theories were therefore formed.

Principal stresses:

3

2 1

3 2 1 3

1/14

1

2

o Maximum principal stress theory o Maximum principal strain theory o Maximum shear stress theory o Internal friction theory o Maximum strain energy theory o Distortion energy theory o Fracture mechanics based theories stress intensity, toughness fracture energy release. These introduce either limitations or contradictions when applied to concrete. Modifications to concrete have resulted: o Internal friction-maximum stress theory o Octahedral shear-normal stress theory o Newmans two-part criterion o Local deformation theories, etc. Extensive research has been conducted to develop better theories: Elastic-plastic, plastic-fracturing, endochronic, bounding surface etc. approaches.

o 1 > 2 > 3 o Failure occurs when:

It does not reflect splitting nature of failure.

o Failure occurs when:

max = limit = t

2/14

o 1 > 2 > 3 o Failure occurs when:

1 3 + ( 1 + 3 ) = 2 s

where 1 3 = shear stress,

s = a critical shear stress value (e.g. under pure shear)

o For metals, 0 . For brittle materials, 0 . o For = 0 , the failure criterion becomes

1 3

2

=s

o The theory gives equal uniaxial tensile and compressive strengths. It is also independent of intermediate stress 2 . (pressure sensitivity)

S

o Consider the effect of normal stress on shear strength: S = K tan n where S = shear strength,

K = cohesive strength,

n = normal stress.

o Compression increases S and tension decreases S . 3/14

o

S = = f ( )

f ( ) is the envelop of all the circles corresponding to the various

3

2 1

oct n = m = oct

o 1 > 2 > 3 o Failure occurs when the octahedral stress exceeds a limiting value.

oct =

1 3

( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )

2 2

2 i , i = 1, 2, 3 3

This gives the same ultimate strength for uniaxial tension and compression. It is not valid for concrete. Inclusion of oct = m =

1 ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) improves the prediction. 3

4/14

where a =

1 15

( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )

2 2

and

a = oct =

1 ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) 3

Invariant formulation

o A failure criterion should be based upon an invariant function of the state of stress, i.e., independent of the choice of the coordinate systems. o Stress invariants I1 = 1 + 2 + 3 , (more suitable for applying to concrete) I 2 = 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 , I 3 = 1 2 3 where 1 , 2 , 3 are principal stresses.

o

x xy xz 11 12 13 yx y yz or 21 22 23 = ij , zx zy z 31 32 33

ij = ji i, j = 1, 2, 3

11 = 1 , 22 = 2 , 33 = 3 o m =

1 1 1 ( 11 + 22 + 33 ) = ii = I1 3 3 3

1 2 2 2 3 I I 1 2 15

5/14

Deviatoric stress

o

S11 = 11 m S12 = 12 S13 = 13 , S 22 = 22 m S 21 = 21 S 23 = 23 , S33 = 33 m S31 = 31 S32 = 32

where S11 , S 22 , S33 are principal stresses. o Discussion of physical meaning of deviatoric and hydrostatic stresses.

o

J1 = Sij = S11 + S 22 + S33

Biaxial loading ( 22 = 0 )

o

S11 =

1 ( 2 11 33 ) 3 1 ( 2 11 + 33 ) 3

33 11

S 22 = S33 =

1 ( 2 33 11 ) 3

I1 = 11 + 33

J2 =

1 1 2 2 2 ( 2 11 33 ) + ( 11 + 33 ) + ( 2 33 11 ) 2 9

In general, stress invariants I1 , J 2 are used to characterize the behavior of concrete structures.

6/14

F ( I1 , J 2 ) = 0

o Failure criteria

3 J 2 + 3 I1 + I1 c = 5 9

2 2

and

o Principal stresses based

F ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) = 0

o Stress invariants based

F ( I1 , J 2 , J 3 ) = 0

o One model considering the effect of all the three stress invariants and possessing the observed features of the failure surface such as smoothness, symmetry, convexity, and curved meridians is provided. f ( m , m , ) = r ( m , ) f c' 1

1 = 0

3 2 2 2 where m = oct = J2 , 5 5

m = I1 ,

r ( m , ) = 1 r ( m , ) 5 f c'

2rc ( rc2 rt 2 ) cos + rc ( 2rt rc 4 ( rc2 rt 2

1 3

r ( m , ) =

) 4 ( r r ) cos + 5r ) cos + ( r 2r )

2 c 2 2 t 2 2 c t

4rt rc

cos =

2 1 2 3

2 2 2 2 ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )

2

7/14

c

ic = f t ' i = 1, 2, 3

o In the compression-biaxial tension zone, the failure is defined as

1c = f c'

2 1 2c = ft ' 1 = 3c ' 3 fc

Damage model

o Incremental damage

dK = d 0p F ( I1 , )

F ( ij , K max ) = 0 bounding surface.

D=

r R

where r = current stress vector (distance), and R = distance to bounding surface. When D = 1, the material is assumed to have failed.

8/14

o Approaches for defining stress-strain behavior of concrete: Linear and nonlinear elasticity theories Elastic perfectly plastic models Elastic strain hardening plasticity models Plastic damage (fracturing)-type models Endochronic theory of inelasticity

where oct = octahedral normal stress,

K S = secant bulk modulus,

GS = secant shear modulus. The nondimensional secant bulk and shear moduli are approximated by

oct KS = ab c + d K0 oct GS = pq r s oct + t G0

( ln b ) oct oct c KT = a 1 +d b K0 c

9/14

( ln q ) oct oct r GT = p 1 +t q G0 c

K 2 3G K + 4 3G

(Youngs modulus: E =

3K 2G 9 KG , Poissons ratio: = ) 2 ( 3K + G ) 3K + G

o Isotropic strain model Nonlinear isotropic elastic model The nondimensional secant bulk and shear moduli:

KS 1 = ' 1.09 K 0 1 + 0.52 ( oct f c ) GS 2 = ' 1.7 G0 1 + 3.57 ( oct f c )

KT 1 = ' 1.09 K 0 1 + 1.08 ( oct f c ) GT 2 = ' 1.7 G0 1 + 9.63 ( oct f c )

o Orthotropic model The concept of equivalent uniaxial strains The constitutive law in terms of the material stiffness tensor Dijkl

d ij = Dijkl d kl

10 / 1 4

d ij = the tensor of incremental strains.

G12

= 1 3 2 2 3

G12 , G23 , G31 = incremental shear moduli for planes parallel to

coordinates 1-2, 2-3, and 3-1. G12 = E1 E2 , G23 = E2 E3 , G31 = E3 E1 . For uncracked concrete, = The equivalent uniaxial strain iu

1 (1 + ) . 2

iu =

i +k 1 j i

where i = principal strain in direction i. o Elastic-hardening plasticity model It is developed for short-term monotonic compressive loading of concrete. The constitutive relationships feature such characteristics of concrete deformational behavior as inelastic dilatancy and frictional effect and inelastic shear caused by hydrostatic pressure (hydrostatic pressure sensitivity). 11 / 1 4

Following the incremental theory of plasticity, the total strain increments are

{d } = {d e } + {d p }

e d kl where d ij = Cijkl

e Cijkl =

e + d ijp or d ij = d ij

e = d ij

strain)

d ijp =

F = yield function.

f = 3 3 J 2 + I1 +

d = H ' d

P

f f {d } + d = d

f 3I {d } + 1 d = d 2

P f 3I1 ' {d } = 1 H d 2

{d } = d

P

12 / 1 4

If the shape of the curve is assumed to expand uniformly in all directions, the flow rule is referred to as the isotropic hardening law. o Stress increment

e p

p

therefore,

f f C ] [C ] [ C {d } = [ ] {d } 3I1 ' f f 1 H + [C ] 2

Note that for perfect plasticity, H ' = 0 , this formulation, leading to a non-singular [C ] , does not cause any numerical difficulty.

o Early studies, by necessity, concentrated on the behavior of isolated elements such as beams, columns, joints, etc. As facilities developed and computing capability expanded the scope broadened to include entire systems such as slabs and beams, coupled shear walls, folded plates, and shells complete with supporting beams for example. This broadening stems both from the desire for better understanding of the behavior of the complete system with the possibility of therefore achieving better structural efficiency, and

13 / 1 4

the need because of increased complexity of the problems requiring solution coupled with more severe demands being placed on the structure.

o Analytical procedures which may accurately determine stress and deformation states in reinforced concrete members and structures are complicated due to many factors: 1. Non-linear stress-strain relation 2. Progressive cracking 3. Consideration of steel reinforcement 4. Creep and shrinkage (time-dependent behavior) 5. Special problems (shear transfer, cyclic loading) The development of finite element method permits realistic evaluation of internal stresses and displacements on which the limit requirements may be based for improved structural efficiency. Furthermore, such refined analytical solutions help in understanding and interpreting the observed behavior of structural elements from experiments.

14 / 1 4

- shear strength in soilsUploaded byUmange Ranasinghe
- Experiment Unconfined CompressionUploaded byLon Odi
- Deformation Properties of Fine-grained SoilsUploaded byhassen27H
- Concrete BasementsUploaded byMohan Bhalme
- 2011. Barton-From Empiricism, Through Theory, To Problem Solving in Rock Engineering. 6th Muller LectureUploaded byGabrenogue
- 2008F ENGI 6723 Guest Lecture McAfeeUploaded byRuHui
- Non-Axis-symmetrical Punching Shear Around Internal ColumnsUploaded byBogdan Constantin-Babii
- Ramberg OsgoodUploaded byim4uim4uim4uim4u
- tmp1A2FUploaded byFrontiers
- GCTS Soils Testing - Full CatalogueUploaded byvidyaranya_b
- Predicting and Controlling Ground Movements Around Deep ExcavationsUploaded byhugojameswood
- Lab 6 - Unconfined Compression TestUploaded bydixn__
- ARMA-10-459_A Confinement and Deformation Dependent Dilation Angle Model for RocksUploaded bycastille1956
- Astm d4767 CuUploaded byMahesh Jallu
- Vane Shear TestUploaded byB S Praveen Bsp
- A Constitutive Model for Structured Soils Kavvadas GE500305Uploaded bybkollarou9632
- Lab 7 - Triaxial (Uu)Uploaded byNurulAdilah
- The causes of the high friction angle of Dutch organic soils.pdfUploaded byEmrePınarcı
- Factors Influencing Shear Behaviour of Cohesionless SoilsUploaded bysagar_sr
- Advantages and Disadvantages Correlations of Soil and Rock Properties in Geotechnical EngineeringUploaded byTomasz Cz
- Direct ShearUploaded byVenura
- Lavinia TC3 PaperUploaded bymehdi
- Bali-2001Uploaded byHugo Ortega
- Clay FiberUploaded byVISHNU
- A-54Uploaded byEdgardo Davidi
- structure and properties of clay cement mixturesUploaded byslebon1
- Unit3Uploaded byNor Anis
- 2Uploaded byYarru Umamahesh Naidu
- v39-57Uploaded byfandhiejavanov2009
- literature-sample final.pdfUploaded byBekele Aman

- Design Example 5Uploaded byCarlos Rene Mamani Trujillo
- 4 Mat foundations.pdfUploaded byTilakasiriChandraratne
- Dyna SGL-Carbon Ceramic Brake Disc an-A4 E 2010.03.018 HighUploaded byCarlos Rene Mamani Trujillo
- ORGON_UGUploaded byKyaw Kyaw
- Creep and Shrinkage DeformationUploaded bySkerdi Muco
- Design Example 2Uploaded bysharec2
- Theory of Vesic 1977Uploaded byMarcos Ma
- Cam 034Uploaded byToan Pham
- Shear Failures, Shear Transfer, And Shear DesignUploaded byPraveenkumar Shanmugam
- 2- Agrietamiento y ComportamientoUploaded byIrving Uribe
- o_15_hg_rs_cn_blUploaded byRaul Amoroto Alvarado
- o_13_n_dstrc_evlUploaded byCarlos Rene Mamani Trujillo
- o_12_rc_th_sh_stUploaded byCarlos Rene Mamani Trujillo
- o_09_bm_clmn_jntUploaded byCarlos Rene Mamani Trujillo
- o 06 Dcty DflctnUploaded byRaul Amoroto Alvarado
- o 04 Frctr CncptUploaded byCarlos Rene Mamani Trujillo
- o_01_int_dsg_crtUploaded byRaul Amoroto Alvarado
- Design Example 4Uploaded bysom_bs79
- Chapter 1Uploaded byCarlos Rene Mamani Trujillo
- 17 - Yield Line Theory for SlabsUploaded byRavindra MR
- Outline 10Uploaded byCarlos Rene Mamani Trujillo
- Outline 08[1]Uploaded bypontiacce

- Mechanical Properties and Micro Structural Features of Aisi 4340Uploaded byFabio Okamoto
- Vernacular-Terms-in-Philippine-Construction 1.pdfUploaded byjanmichaelsoy
- Parker Grade Tube - TUBING MONTADORUploaded byCelestte 'Rdz
- Hydrodynamic Bearing TheoryUploaded byPRASAD326
- 10-10-2013-1345-Natural Refrigerant Geothermal Heating and Cooling Solutions-Lalit ChordiaUploaded byMeghan Woods
- 588-Water Cooler Cum HeaterUploaded bysanu222
- rvbd-10_520-p-030520-enUploaded byfeironmaiden
- Fire Protection Full Line BrochureUploaded byArseniko Ars
- ASTM E 165 - 02Uploaded byRaul Humberto Mora Villamizar
- Chapter 4 Energy Analysis of Closed SystemsUploaded byNik Hafiy Hafizi
- Copy of 03310Uploaded byJohn Hasson
- O Ring OptimizationUploaded bysenthilkumarksk
- Stress-Based Uniaxial Fatigue Analysis Using Methods Described in FKM-GuidelineUploaded byclevercog
- ---Effect of Pulse Current in GMAWUploaded byAniketh Shankar
- Neptune PZ ManualUploaded byCGFernandez2014
- ASTM B 150Uploaded byarifin rizal
- ActiveReport.ArCacheItemUploaded byAnilbisht
- ASTM B88-2003 Copper TubingUploaded bySagar Kadam
- Hattersley Tech Web 0614 v3aUploaded byBalanSelvam
- 1-s2.0-S1359645407008609-mainUploaded by142520
- ExtrusionUploaded byswahyudi9
- HW-01Uploaded byAndaradhi Nararya
- Lab Report 1.docxUploaded byMustafa Barwaniwala
- Tecumseh_scroll & Condensing Units_VS SeriesUploaded byHumaid Shaikh
- Dissimilar_Metals_Corrosion_Chromate-freeUploaded bycoater
- pipe stress.pdfUploaded byMichael Jones
- Floor Tiling GuideUploaded byChung Ruk
- Hansan Regulator 2015Uploaded byarmin
- BRTC Test Rate_2014-2015_16-2-15Uploaded byতাহমিদুর রহমান
- Assignment 1 BDA10902313133321233 Sem2 1718Uploaded bySaiful Azrie