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Power Quality

Training Courses


LPQIVES is co-financed by:

LPQIVES is a programme of:

LPQI is part of:
Module 6


The aim of this module is to provide the user a detailed overview of the earthing related problems,
by supplying a guidance for earthing system design.

1.1 General aims

This module’s general aim is to provide the attendants the basic knowledge about earthing, and
some tools for the design of earthing systems.
The aim is achieved through 6 didactic sections, as follows:
− Section 1: Basic definitions, standards;
− Section 2: Ground resistivity;
− Section 3: Electrical properties of the earth electrodes;
− Section 4: Typical constructions of the earth electrodes;
− Section 5: Durability of the earth electrodes;
− Section 6: Measurements.

1.2 Target groups
This module’s target group includes: designers, experts, installers, and all those who wish to
expand their knowledge in earthing systems.


The pathway of learning consists of a 2 days course, subdivided in sections (with different
duration), with these contents and related aims.

1st day
Contents Introduction: basic definitions, standards, ground resistivity, electrical properties
of the earth electrodes.
Aims The aim of the first day lessons is to introduce the basic knowledge related to
earthing (definitions, standards, related problems, ground resistivity,ecc…).
2nd day
Contents Typical constructions of the earth electrodes, durability of the earth electrodes,
Aims The second day lessons aim is to provide the attendants some informations on
constructive aspects of the electrodes. The last section of the course will be
dedicated to the key problem of measurements.

Below there’s a detailed overview of the course contents.
2.1 Pathway of learning flow chart


General notes:
− each day there will be one coffee break (30 mins) which will divide the lesson in two parts no
longer than 2,5 hours;
− at the beginning of the course the lecturer will explain course aims and at the end he will verify
their fulfilment through a knowledge test;
− the course will be divided in theoretical and practical sections;
− at the end of the lessons, a user satisfaction survey will help the lecturer in monitoring the course
First day:

30 mins Participants registration and course introduction

60 mins Section 1: Basic definitions, standards

− Definitions (Earthing or earthing system, Earth electrode, Earthing conductor,
Earth surface potential, etc…)
− Standards (National and International)
Modality: Lesson

90 mins Section 2: Ground resistivity

− resistivity of the various kinds of the soil and concrete
− influence of the soil temperature
− influence of the soil humidity
Modality: Lesson

30 mins Coffe break

90 mins Section 3: Electrical properties of the earth electrodes

− resistance
− impedance
− potential distribution
− properties at lightning currents
Modality: Lesson and discussion

Second day

90 mins Section 4: Typical constructions of the earth electrodes

− simple
− combined
− meshed
− foundation
− natural
Modality: Lesson and discussion

60 mins Section 5: Durability of the earth electrodes

− corrosion in the soil (chemical, from DC currents and galvanic)
− minimum cross section of the earth electrodes
− earth electrodes materials
Modality: Lesson and practical training

30 mins Coffe break

90 mins Section 6: Measurements

− measuring of the soil resistivity
− measuring of the earth resistance (impedance)
− measuring of the potential distribution
Modality: Lesson and practical training

60 mins Final discussion; end of the course; user’s satisfaction questionnaire;

Confirmations of attendance
Teaching methods are summarized in three main moments:
− knowledge transfer (Lesson)
topics exposure by the lecturer with the help of slides and eventually other electronic tools
(animations, data sheets, didactic movies…);
− deepening/learning verification (Discussion)
general discussion stimulated by the lecturer (also during the lesson) to verify knowledge
transfer and to eventually deepen particular topics;
− practical training (and eventually laboratory activities)
group work (~ 6 persons/group) for topics deepening, practical problems solution and case
studies overview under the supervision of the lecturer.

During all the sections, the lecturer will always attend, with teaching and/or activity coordination


The didactic tools which will be used by the lecturers will be:
− Blackboard
− Video-projector
− Notebook
− Microphone

The lecture room will be suitable to allow the use of all the above listed didactic tools and to enable
group work for the addendants.

Each user will receive, during the registration, a folder containing:

− course program;
− lecture notes containing all or part of the lecture slides.

Some additional electronic tools will be available also in electronic format at: http://www.leonardo- .

The folder will also include a user satisfaction questionnaire and a knowledge test (which will be
both filled and submitted at the end of the course).


The user’s existing knowledge should include:

Basic Medium High
Mathematical analysis •
Electrical engineering •
Electrical circuits •
Power systems •
Power quality •


At the end of this course the user will have learned the basic aspects related to earthing
(definitions, standards, related problems, ground resistivity, electrodes) along with some practical
informations and tools on earthing system design and on the measurements of the related