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Vegetable Gardening

the Midwest
IS. Vandemark

CE. Voigt

Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Circular 1331

Agricultural photos. 49. Credits: designer.S. 1976. Donald Uchtmann. 33. Mary H. in cooperation with the L.S. other. Office of Communications and Education. Additional Hollinger. May 8 and June 30. other. 131. Courter. maps. and editor. and Stephen Cover photo by David Riecks. Survey. Linda Brown. Cooperative Extension Service.W. Nomenclature is based on Hortiis Third: A Concise Dictio- nary of Plants Cultivated in the United States. CI 150 Krista Molter. References to commercial products or trade names do not constitute an endorse- ment by the University of Illinois and do not imply discrimination against other similar products. State Water drawings for the 1995 edition: pages 22 and 124. Tim Stiles. pages 15. and Linda Brown. Acts of U. Steven E. ing New York: Macmillan Publish- Company. Overmier. revised and expanded by the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Horto- rium. David Riecks. Printed by Printing Services. Director. The information provided in this publication is for educational purposes only. The Cooperative Exten- sion Service provides equal opportunities in programs and employment. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. by J. 1 147.J. pages file 43. Vandemark and B. Cornell University. page 26. 23. Department of Agriculture. with contributing authors Jacobsen and Roscoe Randell.This publication updates and expands CI 150 Vegetable Gardening for Illinois. J. 1914. Hunts. UIUC Office of Copyright © 1995 by University of Illinois Board of Trustees ISBN 1-883097-05-3 (casebound) ISBN 1-883097-06-1 (softcover) 500-87239-mo-3/95 10M-8723-mo-3/95 . Information Services. 1978. art by Paula Wheeler and OBB Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work.

Sweet Equipment. Plants. Winter Sweet Potato Growing Time Tomato Turnip-Rutabaga 120 127 Major Vegetables Asparagus 49 51 Watermelon 129 Bean Beet Broccoli Minor Vegetables 53 737 133 56 57 Amaranth Greens Arugula 133 133 Bean . 45 46 46 47 Summer 112 116 118 Squash. 9 11 Corn.Lumenis Preface V 1 f* r\ t\ ¥& r\ ¥o Brussels Sprouts 59 Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower 60 63 64 66 67 Planning the Garden Choosing the Best Location Raised Beds Celery 4 5 Chard Chinese Cabbage Collard 68 69 70 75 Container Gardens Selecting Vegetables Seeds. and Supplies 12 Cucumber Eggplant 77 79 Preparing the Garden Improving Soil Tilth 15 17 19 Endive-Escarole Jerusalem Artichoke Kale 80 81 Fertilizing the Soil Plowing and Preparing the Seedbed 21 Kohlrabi 82 83 Leek Planting the Garden 23 25 Lettuce 84 86 88 88 89 93 When to Plant Muskmelon Mustard How to Plant 27 Floating Row Covers 32 Okra Onion Caring for the Garden Cultivation 33 35 35 Parsley Parsnip 94 95 Mulching Watering Controlling Garden Pests Pea 37 38 Pepper Potato 97 101 Pumpkin 103 Starting Plants at Growing Media Pasteurizing the Soil Home 43 45 45 45 Radish 107 Rhubarb Salsify 108 110 110 Sowing Seeds Temperature Watering and Light Fertilizing Spinach Squash.

140 140 142 French Popcorn Radicchio Shallot Sweet Cicely Sweet Marjoram Sweet Woodruff Tarragon 142 143 143 162 162 163 163 Southern Pea Spaghetti Squash Thyme Drying Herbs Sunflower 144 144 Vine Crops Additional Information 165 167 169 169 Herbs Angelica 147 150 Appendix Appendix A: Storing Vegetables B: Sprouting Seeds Anise Anise Hyssop Basil 150 150 151 151 Appendix C: Days from Flowering to Harvest for Selected Vegetables List of Publications 170 1 Bay Laurel Index of Common Names 73 Bergamot Borage 152 152 Caraway Catnip 152 152 153 153 Chamomile Chervil Chives Cilantro Dill 153 and Coriander 154 154 155 155 Fennel Garlic Geranium.Burdock Celeriac 135 Lovage 157 136 136 137 137 Mint Oregano Rosemary Rue Sage Salad Burnet Savory. 158 158 159 159 159 Chicory Dandelion Garden Cress Garden Huckleberry 137 Gourd Horseradish 138 139 139 160 160 160 161 161 161 Summer Husk Tomato Peanut Savory. Winter Sorrel. Scented 156 156 156 157 157 Horehound Hyssop Lavender Lemon Balm Lemon Verbena 157 .

who co-authored the 1978 C.E. bushels. J. to plant. The authors appreciate the suggestions and contributions of Courter. students. harvesting. is pounds. care. Because chemical measures for controlling pests in the home garden are continually being developed and are subject to change. professor emeritus of the University of Illinois Department of Horticulture. and caring for the garden and with starting plants at home. market gardeners. The remainder contains detailed information about major vegetables (recommended varieties. and Fahrenheit temperatures) used throughout the book because most home gardeners Dr. no specific recommendations are included in this book.W. Vandemark . Voigt J. The English system of weights and measures (such as inches. preparing. commonly asked questions). residents of areas outside the Midwest. The first section of the book deals with various aspects of planning.Preface This gardening book was prepared in response to the need for a complete and accurate guide to growing vegetables and herbs successfully under midwestern conditions. edition with Dr. Regularly updated publications that offer this information are listed on page 170. quarts. have not yet adopted the metric system. minor and herbs. disease and and answers to the most vegetables. when and how insect problems.S. this home book may be equally and useful to teachers. Although written primarily for the gardener. Vandemark. planting.




arrive in the cold. and is an excellent teaching size cient use of space. beets. to mini- and far enough apart so that you can your garden gardens (20 to 200 square feet). or lettuce be effective. (750 square feet or more). by beans. magazines. Chinese cabbage. rhubarb. Group early or quickly which the entire family can become fresher. You may find it necessary to make several successive plantings of certain vegetables to assure a Do not grow the continuous supply. Correct spacing between rows for is Gardening also provides healthful outdoor important to allow effi- offers productive activity for retired or partially disabled proper growth of plants. such as asparagus. for summer If another in the summer. sweet corn. yields of tomatoes. For example. late leaf lettuce. or frozen weed growth. To avoid shading. allow. Rotate crops . and make your plan. and berries. for fall creative urge. Planning your garden can be an enjoyable task by the used all sets. full summer. Rotating crops from year to year helps to control diseases that overwinter in the soil. radishes. peppers. Perennial crops. warmth of a fire on cold winter evenings. may be planted between rows where The table on page 4 shows the approximate 30 feet of row. or peas) can be followed about your ability to care for a garden. fresh vegetables per fresh vegetables this table. north of shorter crops. A well-planned garden is easier to plant use and storage. It pays to plan ahead. Squash and pumpkins have traditionally been inter- needed for canning or From planted with corn. as well as suppressing satisfying canned. advantage of garden references —seed cata- Certain later-season crops can be planted in the same location in the garden from books. wider variety of vegetables. cabbage. and the amounts of freezing. Mainte- between the widely spaced rows of crops) is later. with fall. plant taller crops to the types than is commonly available on the market. green onions. Make your garden is large enough so that additional plantings in the it Onion green produces what needed. or corn are to be grown. Color dead days of winter. and the three small plantings of leaf lettuce Two or and radishes may be sets for amount garden. carrots. late plant a large garden in the enthusiasm of springtime and spinach. same vegetable or related vegetables in or near the same location more often than once in 3 years. vegetables. Any early harvested crops (such as leaf lettuce. When space permits. of time you want to spend working in the made a week to 10 days apart in the early spring. radishes. and If people. tool. to plant for moisture and temperature. make several plantings of and that care for is and probably more productive than one sweet corn and beans from late spring through early not well planned. space allows. then leave on an extended summer vacation with expectations of a bountiful harvest Intercropping (planting early maturing crops when you return. Be spinach. Take logs. to large family gardens mechanically. demonstration gardens. or turnips. ease of cultivation. spinach. and extension publications vegetables realistic —as you select your Do not harvested. that are to be in the same location for more than one season should be that. exercise. at least two plantings of beans. spurring is catalogs this and carrots —one as early in the spring as conditions use. maturing vegetables together so the space Produce grown in the home and garden offers a is may have may be used effectively for plantings of better nutrient content. after harvesting. green onions.or long-season nance of a fairly large space need not become drudgery a good way to intensify production in a small but must be performed with timeliness and regularity to garden. The type of garden that you Successive plantings are desirable if you wish to have grow depends upon the space available. involved. the kind and a continuous fresh supply of certain vegetables. broccoli. to to use and space is ample. covering the ground and thus modifying soil you can determine how much your family's needs for fresh. quantity of vegetables you need or desire. make your rows long enough till small plantings around the doorway or patio. garden which earlier ones have been columns.PLANNING THE GARDEN Growing seasons and growth characteristics are Planning the Garden Home gardening is an hobby in important aspects to consider in grouping the various vegetables in your garden. beans. cabbage. you have farm equipment available Gardens range in from a single potted plant. but not so large that onions it may be your planted every 2 weeks until you have demands an overwhelming amount of work. later interesting and rewarding planted at the side of your garden. there should be beets. cabbage.

on a slope. 32 of of your garden area showing th e location of each between rows. vou should keep the following book. Given a choice. snap per 30 feet of row 20 10 30 30 25 Frozen 2-3 4-5 1 4-5 1 V2-2 V2-2 Beet Broccoli 2V2-3 2V2-3 Cabbage Carrot 60 30 — — 2V2-3 — — 2V2-3 Chard Corn. r The . A loost . 50 40 25 15 35 pod — — — — — — — — 4-5 — — — — — — — — 4-5 VI Pea. lima (pod) Bean.] 2 PLANNING THE GARDEN Approximate pounds of yield Pounds of fresh vegetable needed for 1 quart Canned 4 Vegetable Asparagus Bean. adequate organic material added. vlodern suburban developare mate dates for each planting. If poor cannot be . the spacing desirable for a garden. Eggplant 50 80 Lettuce. This upon the this Even though you are probably limited in erosion of gulleys during rainstorms. and the approxi(See Good most soil. ' If your garden Choosing the Best Location The success of your site. winter 125 Tomato Turnip 200 50 125 Watermelon — — is — — — from one side of the garden to the other. Potato. leaf 40 75 Muskmelon Onion Parsnip Peas. native topsoil place. ments 5 infamous for the poor quality of the "soil" that page 31.) Make notations of the amount of seed and the remains after mass construction. 2-3 2V2-3 2 3 2-3 2-3 3 summer 75 Squash. well-drained soil is the vegetable. shelled Pepper Pepper. sweet 50 30 30 (ears) — 4-5 — 4-5 Cucumber. sweet 50 125 30 (bunches) 25 25 Pumpkin Radish — — 1 — — IV2 Rhubarb Spinach Squash. plant the rows across the slooe rather than a i practice decrease: ud and down. pickling slicing Cucumber.ample plan r r for a small. choose still 1 number page 7 of plants needed. * a house with good. irish (early) irish (late) — 4-5 25 30 45 — — 2V2-3 — — — 2-3 Potato. pimento Potato. draw a sketch points in mind. may help you plan your own avoid heavy clays and extremely sandy is soils soil unless garden. After reading pages 3 to your choice of location. It possi- intensive garden (30 feet long by 25 feet wide) shown on ble.

with a grow best and give the best — white. shrubs and the garden temporarily alleviates this prob- Okra pods. minigardens. saving on the quantity applied. Organic mate- Suitability to the landscape design. birdhouse. portion of the plant. disaster at can be avoided by noticing a develstage. garden soil by adding good field topsoil. grown more than for their food value. possible. or other organic materi- and can add ornamental value well as to the vegetable garden and by installing proper drainage you are to have Try to break the any hope of successful vegetable production. Mulching to improve water retention also can add to the benefits of raised beds. Chard red. Trees and Midget or dwarf toes. vegetables usually produce acceptable yields with less Gourds Herbs —brightly colored ornamental." produce vigorously growing vegetables. planting crops and during the development of the edible Tomato and cherry —several training systems varieties for for dwarf. and 100 feet or more from an existing water hydrant. for example) that offer different colors bed area. Clearance from trees and shrubs. magazines have been singing the easier to see what needs doing when plants do the same job are near double-dug raised beds for many years. Kale— regular or "flowering" types. Proximity to a water supply. potting soil. dipper. varieties. red. is —curled or Pepper—yellow. A few minutes it spent at the proper time saves to later. Trenching between small Walnut trees or carrots. shrubs. Proximity to your house. needed particularly when you are starting seeds or trans- winter: Turk's Turban. warted. — attractive hibiscuslike flowers. cabbage. plant food. fit be dug into the bed in modify drainage and and flowers around your home. basil. Cinderella (bush type). spoon.) Beans —purple-pod or wax Do it is not. to amend and if enrich the soil by Many vegetables and herbs are colorful and attractive to garden plantings. aeration. Even raising the planting surface 6 inches makes harvest much . By locating your garden near your house. A good garden hose delivers water hanging baskets. minimum of 8 to 10 hours of direct sun each day. Yellow Prolific types. soil. or fruit. or organic als compost and incorporating these materi- There may be several varieties of one into the soil. and black popcorn. cucumbers. and large-fruited types. brightly colored varieties. varieties.PLANNING THE GARDEN avoided. add lime unless a soil test tells pods of Horticultural Scarlet Runner. insects. as itself. sponge. or ornamental Parsley flat-leaf varieties. and colorful flowers. Double digging helps thoroughly and shapes of fruit. containers. give tlingly star- oping problem high yields from very small spaces. or compost soil to further may your garden. away from trees and shrubs. green or red lem by severing invasive roots. The following vegetables have attractive forms leaves. page 22. When planning rials such as peat. —chives. calico. consider its relation to the trees. You can elevate and improve your combinations of the two can be devised. however. It is and diseases. sunlight than plants that must produce fruit or enlarged storage tissues. The garden should well with the overall design of your landscape. dill. Soil amendments are added to only the vegetable (peppers. red. compact. Leafy strawberry. peat. Sunlight to absolutely necessary "flowering cabbage. flowers in another. (See double digging. It is not a cure-all for the ills garden Cabbage is — red or savoy varieties. you can have the daily pleasure of Raised Beds Home garden praises of watching the vegetables grow. Water Squash —summer: Patty Pan. als compost. green. nutrient-holding capacity. this techsoil. orange. well-rotted manure. Vegetables yields in full sunlight. along with intensive planting. at hand. adding lime. dual-purpose climbers like needed in your soil. purple. You will also be able to take timely action to control weeds. pod corn. Raised beds may be the best solution for a garden Some very pleasing and effective with poor drainage. trees especially should be avoided because they produce a toxin that harms vegetables. Adequate sunlight. Whenever locate your garden close to a water source. sweet corn. By alleaeration. and and moisture. you may need fertilizer. ears of indian corn. mix in soil additives and gives maximal you of Asparagus —fernlike foliage after spring harvest. and pink varieties. melons. mind-set that says vegetables should be in one place. —varieties of plants such as tomafor novelty shrubs compete with garden crops for sunlight. viating compaction and guaranteeing hours that would take you an early In nique increases the productive potential of the some cases. or yellow leafstalk Corn —purple husk. plant your garden If at all possible. purple and most others. Raised beds.

The leaves of trees and shrubs block and the roots rob the soil of moisture and plant nutrients that are needed for proper growth of vegetables.PLANNING THE GARDEN If possible. Eggplants Tomatoes Cabbage Peppers Swiss Broccoli chard Green beans Green beans Lettuce tiMl±JUUkXJt^±± in a Onions The above drawing shows the vegetables that can be grown arrangements around the patio or in the home landscape. limited area. These vegetables also can be fitted into informal . your garden a distance from trees and shrubs at least equal to their height. plant sunlight.

Once digging and construction all traffic of beds and aeration advantages of results are impressive. intensive garden (30 feet long by 25 feet wide). too. cucumbers. Turnips Late lettuce. weathered railroad or raised beds. radishes Early beets. annual soil While spacing between beds may be greater than normal The tops of the raised beds dry and warm faster in the row spacings. Uniform spacing on the beds. late leaf lettuce Radishes. therefore. but the beds may be soil double or even triple rows on the beds themselves. so compaction confined to the area may result in per unit of between them. greatly raises the surface level. This stabilize the soil surface in the beds. and whether or not the bed sides. kohlrabi. rather than conventional rows. or bush forms of squash and pumpkins 12 13 24 48 Plan for a small. drastically reduces the effect of increased soil The combination of better soil drainage and raised beds reduces improved aeration associated with the incidence of diseases that proliferate when free water . except for incorporating may also raise plant populations and total produc- fertilizer and organic amendments. interaction of earlier-warming beds plastic clearly offers yields. quality. and trickle irrigation sary to use landscape timbers. surface area. more or less undisturbed. No is traffic occurs tion. preparation should be necessary. cauliflower. or swiss Early chard 24 snap beans cabbage Row number 10 11 Inches between rows 18 30 Third planting Successive plantings New Zealand spinach or peppers None None None None Tomatoes or peppers Lima beans Choice of eggplant. activities are left Some "housecleaning" performed annually. carrots. that. allowing earlier starts. Depending an opportunity to increase early improves water relations to It is That trickle irrigation is on the 6 size of the gardener. easier on the backs of pickers. and heat-collecting Beds should be laid out so that the centers can be reached without stepping on the bed surface. Illinois. may be is 3 to surprising. and black complete. when combined with raised beds the heat plastic. Use increased early yield of bell peppers by 31 percent and total yield of plastic or organic mulches may help considerably to by 57 percent over control plantings. black plastic some other retaining walls to keep the bed in place. this distance near-optimal conditions well-documented. In some soil types. not can be reached from both feet. Studies have shown that these high populations even more marketable fruit on the beds. It requires much extra Plastic mulches of the appropriate width and trickle effort initially. cauliflower Snap beans. brussels sprouts 4 5 12 12 12 Leaf lettuce and radishes Beets. 2 3 Second Spinach snap beans Late broccoli.PLANNING THE GARDEN Row number 1 Inches between rows 18 18 18 First Early planting peas early peas (later varities) Successive plantings Snap beans Lettuce. it Experiments at Dixon Springs Agricultural Center in may be fairly stable. much irrigation systems may also is be applied on the beds. but in others may be Simpson. this usually more than offset by using spring. late spinach 6 Onions (direct-seeded) Row number Inches between rows Second planting Early Successive plantings 24 24 cabbage or broccoli. with no significant change in fruit size or The addition beds of amendments and air to these beds these necesties. should be avoided on the beds. as compaction aeration. have shown that a combination of mulch. less but once the beds are established. summer sguash. carrots Onion sets or plants Radishes.

10 can 6" 7" 3 quarts Planter 8" 8" 1 V2 gallons Planter 10" 9" 2^2 gallons '/z-bushel basket 13" 9V2 4 gallons 5-gallon can IV 12V2 5 gallons 1 -bushel basket 17'/ 2 IIV2 8 gallons .8 PLANNING THE GARDEN Types and Sizes of Growing Containers DIAMETER HEIGHT APPROXIMATE VOLUME Pot 3V2 1 pint Pot 5V2 3 pints No.

balcony. Vegetables that grow in a limited space yield (such as containers. tubs. However. and wooden containers also per surface area can be cut by applying Fertilizer boxes. containers too large and hard to and produce continuous growth and toes. Lettuce. and rates suggested under "Starting Plants at Home. easier and placed in a location determined by "eye weeding and harvest.to and chives. Containers of all light infiltration into the plant canopy. the light weight of container growing mixes may be an advantage. onions. evaporating moisture and thus discouraging disease. closer spacings opment of the plant. rooftop. or shown even varieties of the in the chart on page 8 and give are minimums. the earlier yields. least soil for the the same vegetable and plant at intervals. Volume depends upon the and is Popular choices for container gardens include attractive pots of kitchen herbs. Often the vegetables grown in containers serve a dual purpose —they may be both decorative and harvestable. You may also use more than one container for vegetables for extended periods with a limited volume of roots to explore. (see the larger containers provide improved growing conditions. Fertilizer rates fertilizer to including pots. baskets. While this system has some appeal" rather than one best suited for growth and devel- higher time and labor requirements associated with installation. (2) colorful foliage or . growing in containers require less watering. more quickly kinds. receive proper care. fertilizer. the plant on the unduly exposed to wind and weather. problem in wet. cool soils) should be reduced earlier soil with increased aeration and beds. applied under plastic have bottom holes for drainage. patio. and beets require containers with ters. planters. Because vidual gardeners need to evaluate this system in terms of their needs and. some clear advantages over flat-row soil Restricting the soil volume and the root system of a fertility These include improved aeration and vegetable plant limits the plant's supply of and drainage. selecting varieties for container gardens are (1) compact. and most herb plants. water. or dwarf growing habits. and sizes are used. shapes. cucumbers. and less soil preparation in subsequent years can overcome the initial expenses in many a try. earlier warming of soils. amount less filled to of taper of the container. cucumbers. warming in raised prevent plugging of the holes. volumes of tomato at least 1 to 2 gallons per plant. parsley. fruits. crushed rock. Slow-release fertilizers should also be incorporated into Container Gardens Growing vegetables deners in containers is the mix. better results than smaller are not equally suitable for table. Use the fertilizers radishes that tend to mature their harvest at one time. The rooting volume is than the actual volume because the container the top with the growing not and window boxes of bright medium. good drainage. leaf lettuce or fresh need containers with 6-inch diameters. Denitrifi- and those originally meant for some other purpose amounts broadcast over the whole garden cation (a should be provided with drainage holes. In general. diameter. around the yard —but they must have and fresh air to volumes of 4 to 5 gallons each. Often the container is better light infiltration. hanging baskets of ripe red tomatoes. and ensure free drainage of excess water. bush. All vegetables. or chard) are good Because the plants remain in the containers for choices. fewer disease problems. height. including parsley 4. water to that furnished within the container." Some other characteristics that are important in pages 45 to 48. This technique establishes different you should add fertilizer regularly (at growth stages such as once a week) with irrigation water. as well as with those who also have conventional gardens. situations. Indi- Use a fertile soil or growing mix. or strategic locations properly. Full-sized plants. Commercial growing containers almost always only the beds.PLANNING THE GARDEN lingers at the soil surface or when air drainage stagnates. 6. perhaps. chard.to 10-inch diame- light. toma- move around may become impossible to use effectively. may be and it may not most soils beds. give it are usually too heavy to use alone in containers. and (3) varieties that supplement your other Getting beds raised by as little as 6 inches also improves garden harvests or the local supply. better air drainage. As a result. Containers may be located almost anywhere—the kitchen. grow and produce normally. Make popular with garlarge sure that the volume of the rooting medium and dwarf tomatoes need is enough that the vegetables can grow and develop soil who have little or no ground space. terrace. Raised beds have culture. Peppers. Place stones. The volumes radishes. Homemade in raised beds gives the same or better response as larger area. or broken pot chips over the holes to retain the potting soil. page 11). peppers. same vegetable. and eggplants should have radishes.

10 PLANNING THE GARDEN Sample Seed Packet Front Weight given in of contents. Date of germination test. Name of hybrid. The guaran- tees the seeds in this packet to be exactly as described. tance to verticillium and fusarium nematodes. resiswilts. Season that seeds were packaged for sale. The number of seeds may be may be indicated. Name and address of seller. Percent of seeds germinated under specific laboratory conditions. The weight also grams. . Description of seed treatment. and tobacco mosaic virus. Seed catalog number. and free from insects and diseases. Warranty. Fungicide. or hot-water treatments for protection from certain insects and diseases. Limits the liability of the seller to the seller purchase price of the seeds. Back General planting and growing instructions. For identification by seller. Trade or brand name. insecticide. true to name. Lot number.

The plant or vines may be Croup 2 Beet Broccoli tied to stakes or to a trellis. which ones you must start yourself. Croup 4 Cauliflower spinach. sunlight garden garden garden intensity. sweet X X X X X X from the garden. Rhubarb muskmelons. Overwatering can be permait is Bean. summer squash. quality is it is often grown X X X X X X its much higher when harvested fresh taste from the garden. nutritious produce. and they bring special enjoy- ment when grown The table at home. minigardens. irish shows the suitability of growing various vegetables in containers. Remember —plants still need X X X X X X X X direct sunlight for best growth. uniform maturity. These and many other fresh vegetables may Chard Eggplant Leek not be available locally. snap X X X (green) X X X nently damaging to plants as underwatering. lettuce. cucumber. If to obtain seeds or to vari- tal lines that differ in at least one important characteristic. Other highly perishable crops that X X best immediately after harvest are peas. By careful selection. You should decide varieties to seed catalogs and at garden centers are hybrids. fresh herbs. sweet X* X vegetables are grouped in descending order of popularity. the greater their water needs. The larger the plants become. Pumpkin Squash. Onion Radish Many vegetables for X X X X X (tomato. Sweet corn an outstanding example. Cabbage Selecting Vegetables Choose vegetables that you and your family enjoy and that can be grown vegetables successfully in your area. definition. the five vegetables in group popular. grouped according to popularity SUITABLE FOR Container MiniFull-sized Changes in wind speed and direction. Tomato X example) also require support. and vine-ripened X X X X X X X X X X tomatoes. X X X X X make better use of space than others and can summer 3 X be produced more efficiently in a small garden. you can are resistant to diseases as well as grow vegetables that An by increasing number of vegetables offered today in yield high-quality. (see X X X on this page note on sweet potatoes) Muskmelon Potato. and full-sized gardens. and temperature can vary water use just as greatly Croup Lettuce 1 from day to day. Another consideration in selecting vegetables is Croup whether or not they are fresh taste noticeably better is when they Asparagus Corn. results A hybrid. depending upon the variety and kind of container. but X usually harder to overwater outdoors than indoors. green beans. and eggplant. Carrot Cucumber Pea X X X X X Some Pepper Squash.PLANNING THE GARDEN 11 Most vegetables in containers need daily watering to Vegetables prevent wilting and injury. 1 are the X(bush type)' X X X X Watermelon Hybrids garden is and Varieties *Requires frequent watering and treated as an ornamental The job of choosing the proper varieties for your very important. and fruit type. The most Potato. you can determine what your area. Hybrids are often superior to older varieties because like eties are usually available in you will know they combine desirable characteristics plant uniformity of resistance. green onions. asparagus. winter Turnip X(bush type) X For example. pea pods. Judge water needs by water use. disease . Although corn requires more space than almost Greens Herbs Kohlrabi Parsley X any other because common garden vegetable. well in advance of the garden season which from crossing (breeding) two paren- grow so that you have ample time grow your own plants.

mulch. and fertilizer treatment). Equipment. soil (type. and light intensity). lack of competition. factors like trampling the plants. (5) mation about the kind of treatment that the seeds have varieties in case the received appears moved. along with other elements influencing yield. A vegetable that wins an All-America Award silver. viable. you have ample time to do University Many test states and field stations Seeds are alive. or and Most seeds from damage from mowing (3) seed companies meet these or dogs. America Selections. though and seeds of cultural treatments. (gold. Plants. If you use older check germination before the growing season or thickly than usual to ensure a if demonstration gardens that may be close to your home. It is number of other organizations that sponsor gardens. All-America vegetables are those that have been tested and have been scored expensive than other seed and does not reproduce true to type in succeeding generations. on the seed package. the seeds that you buy are already treated. may be equally suitable for a The following suggestions can help you to compare garden in your area. and not entered in the program many varieties that are processing. and Supplies and that you any year. 12 PLANNING THE GARDEN improved quality. Be (4) organisms and to prevent decay and damping-off careful not to Label each row and variety carefully. or destroyed. varieties are well suited for training methods. Then. the Seed Savers Ex- usually preferable to use change. Many of these most of the country. you make Many new varieties and from hybrids may not be it is available variety decisions for future gardens. when selecting a new variety or hybrid to plant in your The title is given by All-America Selections. (4) culture (planting distances. ability to soil and climatic conditions. a particular seed house. Avoid the edges or outside rows some plants can be used successfully for 2 years stored properly. and The best storage conditions disease resistance. and (6) intended use (fresh. Selection (AAS) or All-America Award in seed catalogs. These records can help you must specify "untreated seed" on your order. studying adaptability. local sources. rainfall. however. of a garden. performance. and fruit characteristics. where all the plants can receive the same spray advisable to buy fresh seeds each year. but Record observations of plant growth. fertility. or marketing). and for vigorous seedling growth. specifications. Plant all the varieties on the same day and mix seeds or plants.. a nonprofit garden. good stand of then you can thin necessary. (2) or bronze medal) has demonstrated wide adapt- and drainage). Not all summer. Vegetable Trials trials. storage. (5) new vegetable varieties are submitted for testing by All- method of harvest. (3) season (spring. sow more plants. Carefully consider resistance to disease United States. The winners by All-America insects. wise to purchase your seeds well in advance. and proper storage conditions are throughout the country vegetable varieties at various important for their survival. disease. or fall cropping). Seeds should be treated to control seedborne disease in the same way. location with uniform soil quality Seeds It is (2) Select a test drainage. such as botanic gardens. commercial seed suppliers often have excellent test areas and no more than 1 year old. if you must order from so. locations. High temperatures and moisture (including high humidity) are very bad for stored seeds. Infor- showing where you planted the new stakes are lost. climate new varieties of both flowers and vegetables. organization of seed dealers a particular variety who develop and promote The performance of may be (1) influ- enced by any one or more of the following: (temperature. where the results may be influenced by or longer when The seeds should be reliable clean. Hybrid seed is usually more itself All-America Selections. In addition. There are trial package seeds that are in peak storage condition. Some companies growers who wish to avoid pesticides. (1) Limit the try in number of new varieties and hybrids Seeds. You cannot save and uniformly superior in performance under a variety of conditions in selected trial seeds of hybrids but must buy them from the hybridizer gardens throughout the are designated each year. Some seed recommended commercial a as the result of these trials and those companies use special moistureproof foil envelopes to test plots throughout the country. Draw a map Usually. For this reason. for good germination. offer seed for yield. and other heirloom gardens. Most of the varieties in this book are are cool temperatures at and a dry atmosphere. seeds that are seeds. humidity. and vigor. disease free. new varieties and hybrids with favorites in your own garden. .

. and rodents. Store in a cool place —an unheated for planting the garage or outbuilding —or in your may be refrigerator. you must buy parsley. The results are poor germination. stretch Do not buy on the plants with spots on the leaves. Usually. potbound.PLANNING THE GARDEN 13 You may store most leftover vegetable seeds except for planting the following year. insects. and weak. light. You can use have plants varieties that are not ordinarily obtainfor spring into the garden. insects. Using plants started before outdoor conditions allow planting. damping-off. or too large. parsley. place them in jars or tin cans that are tightly sealed against moisture. and and gets your crop off healthy. home. These seeds usually produce plants that are of lesser quality than the original hybrid. The vegetable seeds that may be kept next year and seeds that 1 o J\-i stored for more than fresh onion. The may be grown home. and garden stores. Again. when you want them from and may be purchased from greenhouses. size. sweet Chard Herbs (most) Kohlrabi Cucumber Eggplant Leek Lettuce Endive Kale New Okra Pea Zealand spinach Muskmelon Pumpkin Radish Pepper Salsify Squash Tomato Turnip-Rutabaga Southern pea Spinach Watermelon Do not save seeds from the hybrid vegetables that you harvest. spindly plants that (For specific instructions toward the light. or knots on the roots. have greater control over disease infecstarting the plants. brown lesions stems. or able. of start. southern summer tion. plant growers. year are listed below. decreases the time before harvest to the best possible stocky. Plants Growing your own plants vegetables at home has certain advan- Some they do best when they plants are transplanted at tages. and parsnip seeds each year for good Seeds may be kept for Seeds may be planting the next year Asparagus stored for 2 years Beet Bean Broccoli Cabbage Cauliflower Celeriac Spade Rake Carrot Corn. tion to details of media. on starting your own plants. watering. results. onion. planting. rather than and derive satisfaction Growing vegetable transplants requires special atten- waiting until conditions allow seeds to be direct-seeded. yellow. seeding depth and spacing. spindly. temperatures too The plants should be free of disease low for proper germination and light insufficient for medium and and healthy growth are the chief problems in growing plants at Avoid plants that are tender. see pages 45 to 48). temperature. If and parsnip Equipment you decide to store your own seeds. It also usually does not pay to save seeds from varieties unless you have a variety that is Wheelbarrow not available from any other source.

to 5 gallons. and planting or Hoe Rake Dry garden fertilizer A wheel hoe hand cultivator is a practical Marking labels stick or necessity for larger gardens. pots. spade. Wheelbarrow sprayers.14 PLANNING THE GARDEN Equipment Have all EQUIPMENT soil. either effective used Compost. line are essential for all Small garden (necessary) measuring gardens. compressed-air are which usually in made of plastic or galvanized steel 1 and range or fencing capacity from larger gardens. hose-end sprayers. smaller models are practical for gardens of almost any size. SUPPLIES your equipment and tools ready before you begin to work the A hoe. manure Plant protectors properly. Rubber gloves Seed protectants Trellis Hand-pump. . String Whether you use is a sprayer or a if Small garden (helpful) Garden hose with sprinkler duster is a matter of choice. stick. expensive. and hang for Compost shredder Garden tractor Herbicides for chemical up to drain and dry. and hand-held plastic spray Respirator Plant-growing mixes bottles are the most practical applicators for small Seeder and containers cultivator Plastic gardens. Do not use the same sprayer killers. garden rake. trowel. The following checklist can help you in selecting your equipment and supplies. insecticides. weeding Plant-growing lights applying both pesticides and weed Home Power greenhouse Power sprayer tiller Seed-germinating cables or mats Supplies Obtain fertilizers. and fungicides in the spring so that you have them when they are needed. Inexpensive pressure sprayers. clean them thor- oughly and rub them with an oily rag before putting Trowel them away. stakes. Other supplies you may need and include mulching material. Each time you use your tools. for larger gardens. plunger-type Hotbed. are the less most satisfactory for Wire cages New. cold frame dusters. Crank-type dusters can be used satisfactorily in Wheel mulch film both small and large gardens. Empty and rinse it Large garden or specialized gardening the sprayer with clean water after each use. A seed drill is also desirable Spading fork or shovel Sprayer or duster Sprinkler can Measuring tape Keep all tools clean and well sharp- Seeds and plants Sprays or dusts Stakes Starter fertilizer ened. Every gardener needs a good sprayer or duster to control garden pests. plant protectors.



0 6.5 1. and the This fertilizer treatment hastens decay and improves It straw vary considerably in nitrogen content.5 1. The mix and 2 by turning under a green manure crop.0 3. you should Soil Tilth air. A soil that is in good "tilth" (physical condition) is sticky Compost can be made from pings.000 sq 50 30 ft Pounds of nutrients per 1. Add adding organic matter. Previous fertilizer Pounds to apply Fertilizer treatment Little per 1. manure. grass clip- manure.000 square feet. wood chips. You can improve by accumulate during the season. Do not use lawn decomposition process. soil is in these constituents are not available. and you fertility of the compost.5 1. soil.5 1.5 1.000 pounds of horse or provides plant nutrients. or herbicides. or similar material to the soil about 1 pound of a mixture of lime (or wood ashes) and and working it in before planting or fertilizer to each 10 pounds of green material. or should be used at one-half this rate. pile these materials drainage. Note: Corncobs.0 6. leaves.5 12 produced well) 10 . and aeration. Sheep and goat manures support. added per 100 pounds of mate- the 10-10-10 with your compost ingredients.5 3. and if manure the per 1. The table shows the to be pH (is alkaline). Good soil is essential for a successful garden. Manure gardens. vegetables do not grow and develop properly. leaves. If your soil already has a high the table below.5-0-0). insecticides.PREPARING THE GARDEN 17 clippings from grass that has been treated with sprays Preparing the Garden Improving The soil If containing fungicides. Organic materials to be spread per 100 square garden are listed in can be made from 5 pounds of 10-10-10 feet of fertilizer pounds of fine limestone. and any other disease-free waste loose ity. compost.0 Some Heavy (established gardens that have 5-10-10 30 1.5 1. straw. sawdust. (See the table fertilizer on poor condition (hard and crusty when dry or page 19 for the materials.5 1. leave out the lime or fertilizer wood ashes and use pounds of nitrogen rial.5 1. to iy2 pounds of superphosphate to each bushel of cattle manure.000 sqft N p2 o 5 K2 1. Spread soil over the material to Material per Organic material Corncobs Sawdust 1 00 square feet (2 bushels) (2 bushels) (2 bushels) Nitrogen to be added per 100 pounds of material* 1 50 pounds 50 pounds 50 pounds -1 y2 pounds pounds pounds 1 V4-1 V2 V4-I V2 Wooden ips Leaves 1 75 pounds (3-4 bushels) V2-I V2-I pound pound Straw 60 pounds (1 (1 bale) bale) Hay Peat 60 pounds moss 6-1 None None None cubic feet feet Compost Lawn *1 10-20 cubic 4 bushels clippings of nitrogen = 10 None of pound pounds of 10-10-10 fertilizer or 3 pounds ammonium nitrate (33.5 or none 3-12-12 or 5-20-20 6. To in layers as they make compost. Use 500 to 1.0 6. should also moderate any may need to apply supplemental fertilizer containing nutrient deficiencies within the pile and help speed the nitrogen during the growing season. and easy to work.0 10-10-10 13-13-13 15-15-15 15 1. It is a common is form of organic matter used fertilizer in also fulfills some low requirements of the Because manure 1 in phosphorus. and it has water-holding capacsoil tilth vegetable matter.) composition of other organic when wet). add water.5 1.

. soil sample for testing. (left) can be used for both for making compost and for storing (right). and fertilizer with a spading fork or other suitable tool Keep the compost pile moist.18 PREPARING THE GARDEN Loam soil Fertilizer Organic materials A simple wooden frame soil. sticks. Mix the soil thoroughly in the pail. Thoroughly mix the organic materials. and leave a depression at the top to catch rainwater. it. or large stones) in your sample. and place in a container. Taking a Use a spade or trowel to remove a slice of soil 6 inches deep (left). Do not include debris (such as leaves. Remove about V2 pint of the well-mixed soil. dry at room temperature. Do not take samples where fertilizer has been spilled or manure has been piled. Place a 1-inch section of this Obtain similar sections from other random locations in your garden. slice in a pail (right).

horse Tankage (animal) Tankage (processed) 9.3 .0 — — — — 16. plant September 1 to 15.9 . The telephone The amounts of rye.C 30. To find out the amounts and your garden. plant late August to soil phoric acid (P 2 5 ). hand cultivator. local cooperative extension office.0 1. phos- plow under Oats: 1 in early spring.5 .0 2.7 Organic fertilizers Bonemeal (steamed) Cottonseed meal 2. plow root establishment and fruit formation. container.0 7.2 1. Write "For Vegetable Green manure or cover crops. In a few weeks.5 Garbage tankage Manure.C Urea Ureaform — — 22. phosphorus for Rye: 3 pounds of seed. 10 percent phosphoric acid. 1 l to h pounds of seed. Manure. ryegrass.0-62. A fertilizer marked 10-10-10 contains 10 percent nitrogen. soil tilth when they are plowed under late vegetables. or scattered locations in your garden. hen (dried with Manure. room temperature.0 .8 .0 — — 48. for root development and disease These Ryegrass: l /2 pound of seed. and 10 percent potash.0-46. and potassium resistance. call rate the seed into the soil with a rake.5 .0-20. such improve the spring or soil areas Garden" on the address. and the times when Cooperative Extension Service. under in early spring. early September. plow under or incorporate into the Do not use fertilizers in early spring.0 with higher pH soils.8 1. as well as fertilizer fall.5 Manure.5 20.5 Muriate of potash Nitrate of soda — 16. The seed can be broadcast over prepared Incorpo- you and between rows of and lime recommendations If for your garden. substances usually are referred to as nitrogen (N).6 2. The principal elements applied plowed under are as follow: via fertilizers are nitrogen for top growth.0 1.000 square planting dates.8 . as rye or oats.0-40.5 . have the soil Properly constructed and balanced piles heat up to fairly ability of nutrients in soil tested.1 . and occamaterial. and wrap in a sturdy y2 -pint container. PERCENT OF Material Nitrogen fertilizers ( ^) Phosphoric acid (P 2 O s ) Potash (K z O) Chemical Ammonium Ammonium nitrate sulfate 33. cattle (dried) cattle (fresh) litter) 2. hen (fresh) (fresh) 2.8 — .0 Superphosphate Triple — superphosphate — 42. much mix the soil together.5 Manure.PREPARING THE GARDEN 19 hold it in place. due to alka inity) . Fertilizing Testing the the Soil avail- sionally turn and mix the and decaying soil.0 — — — — — — 1. will receive the results of the test.0 .9 . Water the pile to soil keep it damp.3 1.0 3. The pile Gather small amounts of from seven or eight well- ready to spread over garden soil in 6 to 12 months.1 Wood ashes (may be a problem gardens — 5.0 in 6.0 46. or you have any questions about your harrow. the cover should be Fertilizer elements.0 . along with your in the it name and and send to the nearest soil-testing laboratory. and oat seed that feet of garden. plant September 1 to 30. and potash (K z O). sooner if all the materials are shredded finely to dry at speed the composting process. is high temperatures soon after they are made. the best number should be listed in the directory under the should be sown per 1. a soil test.

garden vegetables often larger need your garden. These nutrients are required for root growth and development. especially nitrogen. Hoe or cultivate the Vegetable Garden Fertilizer 10% 10% 10% Nitrogen Leaf development Phosphorus Potassium Root development and disease resistance Vegetable garden (P). use starter fertilizer in addition about equal to 1V2 pounds of 10-10-10 spread along a 25to 30-foot row. or raked into the top 4 to 6 inches of soil before planting. the fertilizer analysis should be equal parts of N. For most vegThe numbers on the bag indicate the percent (by weight) of each of these nutrients. use follow. etable gardens. phosphorus P. Side-dress side of the (apply in a When and how to fertilize.20 PREPARING THE GARDEN that contain either herbicides or insecticides. to other soil-fertilizer treatments to give your plants a faster start. and potassium (K). For example. soil pour 1 cup of the dilute solution around the the general fertilizer recommendations that roots of each plant. and when tomatoes. fall. Starter fertilizer is Ammonium It nitrate or urea fertilizer rate. If Organic materials. may a water-soluble fertilizer be used at about one-third of this Keep dry fertilizer that is high in phosphorus —for example. and K. can be applied band along one plants) row 6 to 12 inches from the to the soil just before spading or plowing in the spring or when the plants of leafy vegetables. Dilute the fertilizer with water (about 1 table- lawns and are not approved for use in If spoon per gallon of water) before applying. 5 pounds of phosphate. cucumbers. 10-52-17 or off plant leaves: may injure them. fertilizer is a "complete" fertilizer containing nitrogen (N). Some of the materials used for fertilizers 19. These izers are for fertil- 10-50-10. . and 5 pounds of potassium oxide. to set fruit. This rate is When transplanting. beans. materials can supply part or in all of the nutrients Later in the season. your soil has not been tested. Use stirring is other fertilizers. fertilizer the chemical fertilizers. transplant. peppers. than the Fertilizer can supply. you can in 1 many ways. When you vegetable gardens. Organic materials benefit the in a regular starter solution 1 is not available. sweet corn. and other vine crops have Nitrogen fertilizer is best it applied as close to planting time lost as possible because can be from the soil fairly Use 15 pounds of 10-10-10 or 12 pounds of 13-13-13 fertilizer quickly under certain conditions. leaf growth. but it is usually easier and cheaper amounts of soil fertilizer elements. a 50-pound bag of 10-10-10 garden fertilizer contains 5 pounds of nitrogen. fruiting. per 1. cup of the mixture each plant (frequent are listed in the table on page One or more of these needed to use necessary). but they should be supplemented with mix 1 cup of steamed bonemeal for gallon of water.000 square feet of garden area. and disease resistance. are half or it can be spread over the garden area and disked and root vegetables begun grown.

PER 1. ized surface ensures easier planting. sticky and should form crumbles and a more uniform stand.8 to 5. To maintain fertility in an established garden that has pro- Plowing and Preparing the Seedbed The garden can be plowed. the soil can be worked and the spring planted earlier in the spring. A is soil that is slightly acidic to neutral (pH of If 6. A For small-seeded crops.000 square feet of garden area.0) test best for growing soil is most vegetables. water the soil to available to the plant make roots. Turn the ground over to a depth of about 6 to 8 inches. they can be corrected by adding into the soil at the Work the lime or sulfur fertilizer.4 to 5.3 240 POUNDS OF SULFER TO LOWER pH TO DESIRABLE Soil LEVEL.1 to 7. a smooth and finely pulver- good test to squeeze a handful of a ball that soil. it the soil shows your 6. When too alkaline (pH above sulfur. or fall. Overworking any garden except sands and sandy loams damages the soils till the plowed area to work the fertilizer soil structure.000 Clayey 120 SQ soil FT pH Sandy soil 5. PER 1. A freshly prepared seedbed prevents weeds from necessary over the winter to control severe coming up before the vegetables.5). the soil should be retested before making additional applications.000 square feet of garden area to adjust soil pH to desirable levels. preventing added to the soil after plowinto emergence of seedlings. It should not be easily. delay in the reaction time of the of lime or sulfur A single application usually adequate for 4 to 5 years.PREPARING THE GARDEN 21 POUNDS OF LIMESTONE TO Soil RAISE pH TO DESIRABLE Loamy 120 soil LEVEL. With fall preparation. same time that you apply Changes in pH do is not occur immediately because of soil. 7. problems. Just before planting. duced well. rake or If fertilizer is because they tend to become hard and crusty. The table above shows the number of pounds of lime- stone or sulfur to be added per 1. apply 1 5 Spread the fertilizer uniformly over an area 1 feet by 1 feet tilled. the fertilizer more quickly Soil pH. After that period. more acidic than should be (pH below stone. An easy method for measuring the correct amount of fertilizer is to fill a 1 -pound coffee can (holds 1 '/a pounds of fertilizer) with 1 0-1 0-1 fertilizer. soil prepare the seedbed by working the with a rake or .1 5. In dry weather. or spaded in spring (100 square feet).8 to 6.1). apply the recommended amount of limeif it is Add lime only soils are needed. pounds of 1 0-1 0-1 fertilizer per 1 . better germination.000 SQ FT soil pH Sandy soil Loamy soil Clayey fertilizer into the soil. Do is not work the soil when it is too wet. ing. Heavy soils low in organic You may apply fertilizer before plowing or preparing matter should not be worked to a fine consistency the seedbed.7 80 120 160 160 200 280 4. Preparing is soil in desirable when cover crops or plant residues soil may be erosion harrow. Avoid overliming. the soil to a depth of 2 to 4 inches.

This soil is set aside in a wheelbarrow or other cart. any amendments may be incorporated during this operation.22 PREPARING THE GARDEN Double-digging refers to the process of aerating both the topand some of the subsoil by digging out the topsoil to the depth of a shovel. across one end of the bed (see illustration). the that soil in the wheelbarrow or cart can be moved to end and deposited over the section of subsoil worked. Again. STEP1 STEP 2 STEP 4 . The topsoil in the next shovelwide band is turned. broken up. and pulverized soil onto the surface of the completed subsoil band. in a trench one-shovel wide. broken. The next shovel depth (usually subsoil) is then turned. thus completing the double-digging for that bed. alternating so that the topsoil can be turned over onto the recently most is worked subsoil section. When last the far end of the bed reached. Any soil amendments to be added may also be incorporated at this time. and aerated. These steps are repeated down the length of the bed.



Their seeds tures. Chinese cabbage germinate in cool soil temperaChard Mustard Parsnip but not as readily as seeds of the very hardy group.PLANTING THE GARDEN 25 Planting the Garden When to Plant How early you can of the vegetables Cool-Season Vegetables for Early Spring Planting VERY HARDY (Plant 4-6 weeks before average frost-free date." Seed listed in Transplants Eggplant Cool-season and warm-season vegetables are the next started Bean.) Seed Beet Transplants Cauliflower Frost-tolerant (semi-hardy) vegetables can withstand Carrot light frosts. thrive when there is ample soil The tender and warm-loving WARM-LOVING (Plant 1-2 weeks after average frost-free date. frost-tolerant vegetables are Radish The very hardy and known as "cool-season vegetables. and they require warm soil and New air Zealand spinach Squash. best in the cooler weather of early Tender (not cold-hardy) vegetables killed are injured or by frost.) cold soil. worked weeks before average frost-free date. nate in cool the plants withstand frost. summer temperatures for germination and good growth. snap Transplants frost-free date in the spring. In central frost-tolerant vegeta- and southern where the growing . Tomato Warm-loving (heat-hardy) of frost Corn. Onion Pea Cabbage Horseradish (root) and warm-loving. frost-tolerant. Most are tolerant of high summer temperatures and moisture. cold temperatures. In more northern and regions. They can be planted or broadcast Spinach Turnip Potato. late plant- ings are limited to very hardy bles.) Seed Transplants Asparagus (crown) Broccoli Brussels sprouts plant depends in upon the hardiness Kale and the climate frost. dates of the last 32°F freeze in the spring fall The first and the Okra 32°F freeze in the can help you to determine safe Pumpkin Squash. sweet from seeds or transplants.) The frost-free growing season varies greatly even within Watermelon fairly localized areas." Their seeds germisoil. tender. winter planting times in your area.) vegetables are called "warm-season vegetables. irish (tuber) soon ground can be prepared. They are usually planted around the average Seed Bean. sweet vegetables are intolerant and cold. (See the maps on page 26. Vegetables are classified as very hardy. areas. your area. as early as They can be planted average date of the 2 or 3 weeks before the last 32°F freeze in the spring. These plant- FROST-TOLERANT (Plant 2-3 ings begin to develop well before the soil can be in the spring. or heat. lima column according to whether they are best Cucumber Muskmelon Pepper Potato. Spinach and Rhubarb (root) lettuce seeds even may be soil planted in the fall on late snows over prepared in the fall. and their seeds do not germinate well in on average frost-free date. Rutabaga Salsify Onion Parsley (set or plant) Very hardy vegetables withstand freezing temperatures as and hard as the frosts without injury. and they Warm-Season Vegetables for Late-Spring Planting TENDER (Plant grow and develop spring or fall. according to their ability to withstand freezes. Certain Kohlrabi Leaf lettuce vegetables can withstand while others cannot.

About half the time. The actual date for a given year may vary from the average by as much 2 weeks or more either direction. the last spring as frost has occurred by in date for a given location. the first fall frost has occurred by date for a given location. The actual date for any given year may vary from the average by as much as 2 weeks or more either direction.1 25). over the last 30 years. if the first fall frost is day 275 (Oct.26 PLANTING THE GARDEN Frost-Free The legend Crowing Season maps gives the frost dates in at the side of the 1). For example. both calendar dates (such as (counting from January The average length 1 of the frost-free growing season first fall day number of the and the last spring last spring frost from the day is number of the frost day 25 (May 5). then the average frost-free April 5). 2) growing season is 1 50 days (275 . AVERAGE DATE OF THE -A FIRST FALL FROST Sept 7 250 Sept 1 7 260 Sept 27 i 2 70 Oct 7 I 280 Oct 1 7 I I 290 This map shows this in the average date of the first killing frost in the fall. for AVERAGE DATE OF THE LAST SPRING FROST May 25 145 May 15 « 1 35 May 5 125 April 25 115 April 15 105 April 5 This map shows the average date of the this last killing frost in the spring. and chronological day numbers your area can be determined by subtracting the frost. About half the time. . over the last 30 years.

draw edge of a hoe blade (right). when to plant your vegetables. small. In extremely wet conditions. to 2 inches deep. and the garden must be kept cultivation. either by hand or with a mechanical planter. Many plac- gardeners tend to sow small-seeded vegetables too Hill or drill the seed. plant slightly deeper. and. such as carrots and lettuce. under very dry How to Plant Storting Seeds In starting seeds in the garden. (See the table on page 30 for the number of seeds to diseases also thrive during warm. a hoe or rake handle along a taut planting line (left). Planting in "hills" means ing several seeds in one spot at intervals in the row. and sow per foot or hill. or a rake. insect a row. humid weather. Irrigation during the late usually necessary Space the seeds uniformly in the row. and peas. able for small seed.PLANTING THE GARDEN 27 season is longei. and cucumbers are often To make a shallow furrow for planting seeds. Plants in hills also tend A fall garden not only extends your supply of fresh to offer support to each other. "Drilling. Sweet corn. is spacing the seeds more or way most seeds are less evenly down the work and planning at a when you is are busiest row. with your summer garden. squash. such as corn. a successful tional fall garden demands additime sown. pulverized soil and weeds through shallow and then sown. The plants must be thinned to allow space for proper growth and development. many tender vegetables fall. Straight rows add to the attrac- tiveness of your garden. an upright hoe. drive and harvesting ground To mark two stakes into the at either edge of the garden. Weeds they are thoroughly grow quickly free of at this time. straight rows. Shallow furrows. cover more shallowly. which is the Unfortunately. also can be planted this way. the seed at a depth about four times the diameter of the seed. Firming prevents rain- Mark control. Use correct spacing between rows and between the plants in a row (see the table on page 30). use the . Insects mixed with a small amount of dry. and firm the soil. Small seeds can sometimes be handled better if summer and early fall months. follow these directions: conditions. melons. involved in planning and planting dates Cover small l seeds. use a wheel string. But the pleasure Plant at proper depth. hands. Thin plants carefully while they are thickly. For deeper furrows. and make easier. Cover the seeds. Vegetables planted in hills allow easier planted for harvesting in the control of weeds between plants. cultivation. handle along the line indicated by the furrows. A good general rule is to place you can derive from effort a fall garden far outweighs the extra it. standing better than drilled plants. '/2 inch of 1 soil.) the vegetables need almost daily care. For hoe or the corner of the hoe specifically for There is a pointed hoe designed making furrows. with The planting decide shown on page 28 can help you about U to beans. Place large seeds. and suit- draw a string taut between them. Lightly pack soil soil around the seeds by gently tamping the with your Use disease-free seed. can be made by drawing a hoe deeper blade." vegetables but also provides vegetables for winter storage.

seed Lettuce. plants Turnip Parsley Early Fall Parsnip Lettuce. irish Mustard greens Radish Squash. May 1 0-June 1 5a: May 25-June1 Summer Bean.28 PLANTING THE GARDEN (See zone Planting Dates for Midwest Gardens map inside back cover. plants Okra Cabbage. winter Onion. leaf Pepper Potato. plants Lettuce. plants Carrot Cauliflower. leaf Radish . Chinese cabbage. 5a: April 25-May 1 Muskmelon Broccoli. 5a: May 10-25 SUMMER GARDENS Zone 6: March 10-25 Zone 5b: March 25-April 10 Zone 4. plants Bean. perennial Onion. sweet Cabbage. head. sweet. 5a: June 1-July 15 1 -June 15 June 1 -June 5 Tender Vegetables Bean. seed Onion. snap Cucumber Turnip Eggplant. summer Tomato sets Zone Zone Zone 6: April 25-|une 1 Successive Plantings Early 5b: 4. slips Cauliflower. spring Spinach Successive Plantings Kohlrabi Lettuce.) Zone 6: April 1 0-25 Zone 5b: April 25-May 10 Zone 4. lima (~\ in imhpr Spinach Midsummer Bean. plants Watermelon Rutabaga Cabbage. plants Leek. 5a: April 10-25 Very Hardy Vegetables Asparagus. plants Carrot Potato. irish Mustard greens Onion. sweet Mustard greens Radish. snap Radish Corn. leaf Corn. seed Collard New Zealand spinach Tomato. Cos Chinese cabbage. crowns FALL GARDENS Zone Zone Zone 6: 5b: June 4. swiss Beet Lettuce. plants Carrot Lettuce. plants Kohlrabi Leek. plants Late Successive Plantings Bean. sweet Warm-Loving Vegetables Rhubarb. plants Endive summer Okra Squash. plants Pepper. leaf Kohlrabi Successive Plantings Lettuce. plants Pumpkin Squash. plants Frost -Tolerant Vegetables Beet Broccoli. leaf Radish Salsify Mustard greens Radish. snap Kohlrabi Summer Chinese cabbage Chard. direct-seeded Collard Kale Cabbage. winter Brussels sprouts. Pea Potato. snap Brussels sprouts Corn. plants Beet Zone 6: March 25-April 10 Zone 5b: April 1 0-April 25 Zone 4.

plas- you wait too long before be carefully removed tic pots. Metal or card- ball of soil grown in cell packs board cans with both ends removed work well.PLANTING THE GARDEN 29 water from washing away the seeds and the drying rapidly. thoroughly water the soil in the contain- over early tomatoes (see page 125) provide a framework that can be covered with plastic or heavy paper to bands. if Some vegetables. and the containers should be buried. Careroots. plastic when may be injured or stunted from packs and trays. and the roots should be able to Thin the plants while they are young. or cold necessary. (See the table on page 30 for the proper distances between plants after transplanted. Follow these directions setting plants into the garden: Homemade devices can be constructed when from baskets. and firm the soil around Some plant-growing containers are carefully Plant tomato plants about in V2 inch deeper than they were grown previously them a shallow furrow rather than a deep hole (right). and the top is open. The following containers should transplanting: clay pots. fast start. Dig a hole slightly deeper If enough it so that the plant may be set may be carefully than tall. and soil blocks. and crowding. Once the removed. Carefully remove the weakest plants. are Plant protectors (sometimes called "hot caps") made of usually started in the garden by means of transplants. the plants If penetrate the container. sweet potato. . fiber pots and trays. soil. and flats) holding the plants. Jiffy-9 (pellets). Cover the roots with the plant. plant warmer. wind. remove plants without disturbing the around the roots. cauli- Protect plants from heat. allowing the it pop out with their entire root system. grew in the container or seedbed. thinning. boxes. About an hour before that the plants receive ventilation. and it soil from removed before transplanting.) homemade containers (such as egg or milk cartons). flower. below the fertile soil peat pots. Other containers planted "roots and all. eggplant. in a cold frame. or jars. warm during the day. cabbage. Setting Plants cubes. from the soil-warming Floating qualities of black plastic mulch. the weather gets it Transplant on a cloudy day or in the evening. and the roots will reestablish themselves along the stem. knife to get as fully much soil as possible with each root. or in a greenhouse. frost can buy plants or grow them yourself indoors. roots and line: Jiffy. pepper. You paper or plastic are available to lessen trouble from in the spring. plant angle. them deeply. The surface soil is (left). and tomato. Wire cages placed transplanting. Do not leave the protector If over the plants longer than necessary. but offering some insect and cold protection. remove the protector or open so Handle plants with ers (such as pots. all. Early season plantings of many crops can benefit you must use Use spindly plants. Plants Keep a may be placed around each plant. To protect newly collars set plants from pests like cutworms. If only tall tomato plants are available." are also assures good seed-soil contact. setting them on an row covers have been developed that are put starter-fertilizer solution to get plants off to a over plants in the garden. large plant to breathe. allowing the plants to grow. plant outgrows the collar. The roots of plants in flats should be blocked out with a protect against late frosts.7 (pellets). they have been thinned or Roots penetrate the following containers. such as broccoli. care. The already have individual soil compartments and usually worms are thwarted.

120 12.-36. single 12.-36 18.-18 12.-30 12.-60 12.-36. hills 24.-72 12. 36. 24. 4-5 per Muskmelon Mustard 18. (3 plants per hill) 48.-18 12.120 . 72.-24 Chard.-48 (3 plants per hill) Potato.-72 30. 36. thin 24--36 36.-18 20 spinach 2-4 12 New Zealand Okra 4-6 3 24. snap Beet Broccoli 10 2-3 Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower — — 15-20 18-24 12-18 1-2 Celery — — 8-10 4-6 1 18-24 6-8 24. sweet 24 (3 plants Der hill) -2 in row plants.-48 48. single plants. lima Seeds to sow per foot or hill when thinned Do Do Inches between plants or transplanted 10 not thin not thin Inches between rows 36.-36.-60 18.-24 Pepper Potato. edible Spinach Squash.-24 18.-36.-24 Onion (from seed) Onion (from plant or Parsley set) 10-15 — 10-15 2-5 6 Parsnip 15-20 10-12 2-A Pea Do not thin 18. sweet — 1-2 in 12-18 hill Pumpkin Radish. single plants.-36 18.-30 12-24 1-2 36 12. single plants.-36 18.-18 2-4 hill hill summer 2-3 1-2 in in row.-18 Rhubarb Rutabaga Salsify — 4-6 10-12 36-48 6 36-48 18--24 18. hills Watermelon 1 -2 in (3 plants per hill) 84.-24 2-4 Soybean. 8-10 12-15 Do not thin.-18 10-15 10-15 1/2-1 2-4 12.-30 12. single plants.-18 18. 4-5 per hill 18-36 2-4 24. 48. single plants.30 PLANTING THE GARDEN Vegetable Asparagus Bean. swiss 4-6 12-15 9.-18 30.-18 12. winter row. hills hills (3 plants per (3 plants per hill) hill) 36--48 Squash. irish — 1 18-24 Do not 24. bush. 4-5 per hills 84.-36 24. 4-5 per row.-24 12. 72.-24 Kohlrabi 18-24 12. spring Radish.-24.-24 12.120 36. 36. hills (3 plants per hill) — 4-6 18-24 9-12 3-5 Horseradish (from sets) Kale — — 4-6 6-8 24 8-12 2-5 4 4 hill 18. 4-5 per 24. 72.-18 30. bush.-36 Cucumber Eggplant Endive Garlic (from cloves) 3 in row ngle plants. leaf 10-15 10 3 in row.-30 18. winter 84.-18 hills Leek Lettuce.-18 Tomato Turnip 1 6-8 5-1 8 (greens) row.12. 24.-18 — 3-4 6 Bean. s Chinese cabbage Corn.

j%1 yK. JKi" tfj^ /8-Z9 "a^atX c^ .PLANTING THE GARDEN 31 Sample Sketch of a Vegetable Garden (10' x 20') ©&>©Q@@^(g)©©&©@@®@ % fY cVA^ruio Z-V"afkiAX f fi%\f ypw^y ^ fffffityf^ Sotx) /ao-150 /uz£c6as 7TKT '3 K . «fe ^ M&vZV ^uccA^tlC (Z-3J — ?°&%^ /O \f%vn£ "apart .>-' r rScrOJ 80-/0® 4Z£c£g.

southern 65-85T70-85T50°-70°F plants begin to flower and require pollination. Spun-bonded row covers can be a real asset in speed- ing early season fresh produce to harvest. and squash. It also protects against most airborne insects. These covers are A fairly recent made SOIL TEMPERATURES FOR GERMINATION OF VEGETABLE SEEDS temperature range for seedling development Best soil of white. Floating young crop plants beneath Cucumber Lettuce 60°-85°F 4-8 3-8 45°-70°F 65°-85°F 75°-85°F row covers promote better growing condifrost-sensitive Muskmelon Okra 4-8 7-12 tions in early spring for warm-loving and crops like tomatoes. Carrot sort of windy locations. additional heat is on the soil trapped and stored in the beneath the plants. when sunlight covers. Watermelon 5-8 covers can also be used to extend the season in the The protection provided may amount in temperature to a 4°F difference on frosty nights. self-ventilating. peppers. ultraviolet-light-stable. especially in short-season areas or those with undependable spring warmth. melons. snap Beets polypropylene They are extremely light in Days to germination 7-8 weight. merely "floating" In very on the crops Cabbage as 6-12 they grow. astounding. increasing both top and root growth of the crop. Onion Parsley 45°-75°F 5-15 10-15 When used with black plastic mulches. which in cool springs Squash 4-5 much earlier crops and in short-season areas Sweet corn Turnip 5-10 2-3 may make the difference between harvesting a mature failure. their light 65-80T- 7-10 7-14 weight allows them to be used without hoops 50-80T 50°-80°F or supports. This increased growth contributes to earlier harvest and higher early yields. crop of a long-season vegetable and crop These fall. covers are applied immediately after 60-75°F english 10-15 6-8 6-8 4-5 seeding or transplanting and can remain in place pod or 50°-80°F until crops outgrow the space under the cover or when Pea. spun-bonded Vegetable Bean. neces- 4-7 7-15 Spinach 45-65T 70-85T 55-80T 70-85T 65-85T Spun-bonded row covers increase the temperature and provide some can mean frost protection. lima Bean. they may 50-85T 50°-80°F 6-10 7-14 require some Chard hoop or other support to keep the whipping action of the wind from damaging the the cover. They can if Pumpkin Radish be relatively easily removed and even reapplied sary. and they allow greater than 80 75°-80°F percent light transmission. In spring. the 60-85T- differences in energy capture and crop earliness can be Parsnip Pea. falls During daylight hours. . Most covers can be reused and tively expensive in the are not prohibi- home garden. plastic.32 PLANTING THE GARDEN Floating production is Row Covers innovation in early season vegetable the floating row cover. Under normal conditions. cucumbers.

I .


soil Organic mulches should be spread evenly over the between the rows and around the plants. and keep vegetables clean. improve plant growth and yield. espesoil crust temperature and moisture remain more uniform. As the season progresses (and especially for late-summer plantings). improve soil structure. and peat. and animal manures. Herbicides must be applied accurately and (straw. damage to the roots of vegeare close to weeds by hand when they the plants (right). Either do not apply herbicides in the yard. Farm and market gardens can benefit They keep moisture and temperature soil. hulls. Remember tool if —the garden hoe can be your it soil to warm thoroughly in the early season. some soils may need cultivation. crushed corncobs. most important you use is properly. Pull back mulches. to break the and for water. they should be placed on the plants have begun to grow and are well established. The mulch prevents is insects large. cially early in is Mulching Mulching is covering the soil around vegetable plants with natural or synthetic materials to control weeds. and irrigation. or exercise extreme caution near decompose. especially as the soil soil if it is water or irrigation. returning organic matter and plant soil. You still may be may need to remove a few weeds by hand. Mulches should be used in combination with other cultural practices such as stakes. and they may harbor are allowed to under the protective root pruning soil covering. Do not work the too wet. your garden because weed-spray drift can damage the which improves available. organic mulches benefit most garden vegetables. (saw- uniformly at the proper stage of development of both the peanut dust. Because organic mulches slow the soil from warming in the the soil after spring. Vegetable plants usually grow better the season. moderate soil moisture and temperature. weeds become and injury when cultivation or hoeing they shade the vegetables and result in a poor crop. Weeds compete with vegetables and If because an extensive root system develops undisturbed fertilizer nutrients. Because your garden has wood chips. the cooling effect of organic mulches can be quite beneficial Cultivate shallowly to prevent table plants (left). and diseases. light. a mulch may and soil have a cooling or warming on the soil. weeds remain a problem. leaves. nutrients to the They encourage earthworm activity. . Properly applied. Vegetables have varying tolerances Organic Mulches Commonly used organic mulches dues include plant resi- for herbicides. moisture in the soil.CARING FOR THE GARDEN 35 Caring for the Garden Cultivation Although the main purpose of cultivation control weeds. too close or too deep. to Depending on the effect type. grass clippings. dries after irrigation or rain. trellises. kinds of vegetables in different stages of herbicide application is Many as they gardeners prefer to use organic mulches when tilth safe. Chemical weed control for the not usually recommended home garden. Organic mulches improve garden impossible in a vegetable garden. from herbicides when the operator has the equipment uniform. Pull for many vegetables. and carefully later by keeping allowing temperatures cool. and compost). Although mulches help conserve Begin cultivation as soon as weeds begin to sprout. hay. they do not eliminate the need for and repeat whenever they reappear. when mulched aerate the soil. Light-colored organic mulches and are damaged by a hoe or may retard early season soil growth of heat-loving vegetables Cultivate or hoe shallowly near plants in the season. shavings). If Apply to a depth of 3 or 4 inches to keep down weeds. wood byproducts vegetable plant and the weed. and usually have a cooling effect on the and experience to apply these chemicals correctly. effective nearly they are available. soil structure soil and makes nutrients more vegetable plants. many different growth. The roots of surface many vegetables easily are near the soil cultivator. a thicker application of mulch needed. cages.

in plastic New colors peas. foil. watermelons. properly fertilized. radishes. lima Critical period of water needs and pod development Pollination Bean. the film may be kept in from the soil. at the film. Potato Radish and tuber enlargement and (if low in nitrogen) fertilizer. snap Broccoli Pod enlargement Head development Head development Root enlargement Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Head development Silking. An old-fashslits may be used for cucumbers. peppers. sweet and ear development development Cucumber Black plastic film keeps serves moisture Flowering and fruit down weeds. Bulb enlargement Flowering and seed enlargement Unfortunately. the and color combinations tested mulches are being The main problem with grow under the plastic plastic. tomatoes. dry Pea and early development when the plastic is applied. Eggplant Uniform supply from flowering through harvest Fruit set Melon Onion. Rolls of black plastic film 3 to 4 feet wide mils thick and in the film with a sharp knife. paper-plastic combinations. pumpkins. under black plastic from cooking in midsummer l'/ 2 Seeds can be planted through plastic mulches by cutting slits sunshine. Cut in the film so that the plantings and. are may Uniform supply from flowering through harvest Tuber set difficult to handle. benefiting early spring growing underneath. 3 feet wide may be used to cover rows of early planted and foil-paper combinations. This keeps plant roots high-temperature buildup — it can burn off the plants. Other synthetic in cold soil. eggplant. Corn. tasseling. in the usual way. sweet corn. ioned corn jabber (hand planter) can be used to cut muskmelons. The and cabbage. bulb planters with the bottom edge sharpened can be used to cut a hole in film mulch and remove a plug of soil in Clear plastic film least 10° to raises the soil temperature by is preparation for transplanting through the mulch. summer squash. summer Bud development and flowering Uniform supply from flowering through harvest Root enlargement cate that the vegetable plant needs nitrogen. As the area is potato plants can penetrate. Anchor the film by covering the edge as well as the ends with 4 to 6 inches of soil. and plant seeds through in one operation. If clear plastic is and may soon be available for home vegetable weeds become production. Synthetic Mulches Black plastic (polyethylene) film blocks sunlight have emerged. It and covered with organic mulch slits to smother weeds warms the mulched soil 5° to 10°F. Simply push the jabber and operate it and winter squash. For potato place plants. warms the and fertility. Sweet corn plants that shaded by foliage. The soil should be well prepared. broccoli. the soil temperature areas germinate under plastic plastic for may be left folded under the becomes about the same that are also shaded as that in the unmulched up to 3 weeks in early spring. and weeds do not grow beneath by it. warm-loving vegetables.) products like sawdust are the worst in this use organic mulches Wood regard. organic mulches also have certain Pepper disadvantages —they are bulky. beans. sweet potatoes. Do or soils Tomato not Turnip on poorly drained soils where water is standing. hardware stores. Clear plastic film iy 2 mils thick mulching materials include paper. but watch for by foliage. and potatoes. and mail-order extra warming speeds up seed germination and growth and V/2 to houses or through seed catalogs. require side-dressings of Root enlargement nitrogen (Light green or yellowish leaves indi- Squash. 20°F at the surface. that weeds a problem. and moist and conagainst the wind soil. Clear plastic preferable Black and clear plastic film can readily be obtained to black plastic for unusually cool seasons because the from garden centers. lettuce. should be removed after the vegetable seedlings . especially. Flower- film also can be used advantageously in northern areas for early planted sweet corn.36 CARING FOR THE GARDEN Vegetable Bean.

including desirable for most vegetables during the growing season. place four or being irrigated.) Not waterminimize ing during the intense heat of midday helps to water lost to evaporation. is plant. . dry periods (usually when less than 1 inch of rain falls during a week). When to water. The system is supplied by a clean water source from a main line (such as a garden hose or plastic pipe) to a header. water your garden to start seeds. five straight-sided cans in the area These cans collect about the same soil. A trickle line (tube) is placed beside each row of vegetable plants (or between pairs of rows). and the installation instructions vary according to the manufacturer. irrigation Some of the new trickle systems require low water pressure. better to soak the soil thoroughly to a depth of at least 6 inches once a week than to To be sprin- garden lightly at frequent intervals. To measure the amount applied by overhead sprinkling methods. to keep vegetables growing vigorously. is Trickle essential for Tubes producing high-quality There are usually dry periods during the growing season when you must fruiting. Watering early enough in the day so that moisture on the plants dries before sunset helps to keep down many diseases.CARING FOR THE GARDEN 37 Watering Adequate water crops. About 1 inch of water a week. kle the tive. Ooze amount of water as the and the depth easily can be measured. effec- Canvas the water should get down into the root zone of the rainfall. It is How to water. to encourage continuous and to keep the quality of harvested Water vegetables once a week during Twin-wall produce high. Trickle tubes Trickle irrigation. (The critical periods of water needs Single-wall for various vegetables are shown on page 36.

more quickly during the summer months. Some new systems fall diseases (fungal. apply about Water is applied directly on the row by a special tube or inch of water every other day until the seed germinates. (cold.38 CARING FOR THE GARDEN To encourage deep rooting. but are relatively it A plant's symptoms can have many different causes: can be costly to install. gardens soil ing or soilborne). This operation often requires as little as one day. there are now many and lima beans. herbicides. between the rows. apply '/ 2 to 1 inch of from each of these causes require different it water uniformly to the area to be planted. more uniform supply of water than other watering systems. Problems solu- dry when you are ready to plant. wind. is hose. If the soil and weather resulting tions. planting causes kinds of plastic tubes that pass water through their walls at a resulting in "bald heads" (seedlings yields. but do not apply additional water for V2 1 vegetable plants analogous to side-dressing or 2 days. or viral). If it does not rain for 2 days. todes. just after the traditional porous canvas tube. complete crop A trickle the may be placed at the side of a row Some sort of shade or other protection from the of vegetable plants or soil directly between companion rows to water baking sun of midsummer also may help seedlings beneath the plants rather than the space 1 emerge and become established in moist conditions. lightly work the surface following these general control practices: by raking or cultivating very shallowly. or lightning). fungicides. Heavy watering these seeds to split. or slow rate or use emitters to deliver water. Shallow watering (right) promotes shallow development of roots. bacterial. thoroughly water the upper 6 to 8 inches of soil (left). usually at low pressure and volume. resulting in poor growth and increased risk of injury under severe weather conditions. and provides a you have identified your problem correctly. . wax. heat. you can prevent many garden problems by surface has again to dry. insects (foliage feed- uncomplicated and inexpensive. or fertilizers). reduced failure. Seed the vegetables. After the water has Although may be necessary to use chemicals for moved uniformly through begun the topsoil and the certain pests. it is Controlling Garden Pests Make sure that exactly where needed. Some tubes may be buried inches deep in the delivers it to 2 soil. chemical injury (from insecticides. air pollutants. Summer and nema- often require water to establish the crop because the dries is mechanical damage (from hoeing and cultivating). line (tube) without cotyledons). In addition to This treatment particularly important for green. Trickle irrigation uses less water. Trickle or drip irrigation is a method of watering fertilizer. Watering the seedbed.

The plants Aphid lion should stand erect and have healthy green leaves. cabbage. upon aphids.CARING FOR THE GARDEN 39 Grow disease-resistant varieties and Use treated seed. Remember —nitrogen (N) promotes leaf growth. Each year. pepper. Mulching helps to keep down stress. kohlrabi. as phosphorus (P) is responsible for fruit (K) is well as stem and root growth. and many are actually beneficial because they feed on or disrupt destructive insects. all soil necessary for root resistance. Mulch free plants. pumpkin. If possible. and other animals. with late beans. snails. hybrids. spotty leaves. populations of these beneficial insects should be encouraged. avoid planting any of Lady beetle the vegetables within each of the following groups in the OA-Vsinch) same location more than once every 3 ple. rutabaga. Always use diseaseParasitic wasp (Vs-2 inches) Do not work in the garden while the plants are wet. and turnip. years. others do not cause any damage. or corn. For example. construct a fence to keep out dogs. irish potato. cauliflower. V4 inches) Mow or weed all areas soil- surrounding the garden. Cole crops (cabbage family): broccoli. radish. Inspect purchased plants carefully. and potassium development and general disease balance of plants. Proper nutrients increases the odds of healthy Golden-eyed lacewing fly (adult of aphid lion) (1 Keep weeds out of the garden. and watermelon. and para- Use attractant baits to get rid of slugs and If sitic wasps feed on caterpillars and other insects. brussels sprouts. lady beetles and aphid lions feed and tomato. Cabbage could be followed. rotate the vegetables in your garden to different locations. Weeds can harbor both insects and diseases. Insects Cucurbits (cucumber family): cucumber. Check for cankers. questionable if it is worthwhile to purchase them for release in your garden. Plant materials that are not infected or soil. gourd. set. Beneficial Insects and root swellings. same location more than once for and then not larva two succeeding years. Cultivating or harvesting under wet conditions causes plant diseases to be spread from infected to healthy plants. pupa however. musk- You may find many kinds of insects in your garden. squash (summer and winter). Certain related crops are susceptible to the same diseases. Natural necessary. Destroy plant materials that are infected with diseases or infested insects. Fertilize your garden properly for vigorous plant (V2 inch) growth. melon. borne diseases and moisture mulches. . mustard. Praying mantis infested may be composted or worked into the (2V2 inches) Composting does not always generate enough heat to destroy diseases or insects. cucumbers. For exam- cabbage and turnips should not be planted in the in a season. Some of these insects are destructive. but it is rabbits. Remove plant with residues after each crop. Solanaceous (tomato and potato family): eggplant.

Slugs (snails without shells) Range in size up to 2 inches in Most vegetables. winged adults by late summer. cab- Cut-off or wilted plants. or Feed on foliage. round holes. radish. onion. gray. "hopper burn" (cause by leafhoppers' feeding. turnip. squash. eggplant. Some feeding foliage animal. . Green Wedge-shaped. tomato. by brown edges on leaves). carrot. If unchecked. develop into large- Most vegetables. long. cabbage. usually black beetles. eggplant. Cucumber beetles V4 inch long. Flea beetles scratch holes or often not observed. watermelon. Leafhoppers may have migrated from damaged plants.40 CARING FOR THE GARDEN Destructive Insects Insect Aphids or plant lice Description Tiny (less Crops attacked Bean. Numerous brown nels or gray tun- throughout underground parts of vegetables. radish. Maggots. usually wingless insects. Chinese cabbage. muskmelon. slimy. Beetles may carry bacterial wilt disease that causes plants to wilt and die. up to 1 V2 inches long. just plant soil beneath found curled up beneath surface at base of plant. many bodied insects. Flea beetles Shiny. tomato. potato. Usually a single Broccoli. Fly from one plant to another. legless mucous on Paths of slugs marked by shiny trails. broccoli. Shiny. leaving small. cucumber. chewed flow- scarred stems and fruit stems. Black-and-yellow spotted or striped beetles. soft-bodied. or mottled caterpillars. "honeydew" (clear. soft. •^j^ KfSh^^ light. soft- Blister beetles V2-V8 inch long. pepper. irish Curled or crinkled foliage. muskmelon. Symptoms of damage than Vs inch long). damaged They also may feed on ripening tomato fruits. Holes ers. Cutworms Up to 1 V2 inches long. worms chew through stems at or surface. Cut- cutworm soil bage. Cucumber. Intense plants when feeding results in wilting and dying of leaves and decreased yield. spinach. sticky substance on leaves and fruit given off by aphids. gray. Young present in early summer. Blister beetles damage foliage Fast-moving. turns black from mold are many upon a plant. flowers. Often not noticed until there Curled leaves. Slow-moving. sweet corn. Color ranges from green to brown. growth). sweet corn. cauliflower. Cabbage. watermelon. Seldom seen day- and scarring of fruit. white. Color ranges from pale green to black. in irish potato. tomato. Black. by chewing and by secreting a toxin that causes wilting and leafburn. fruit. brussels sprouts. or striped beetles. Wilting or stunting of plants. May migrate from one area of garden to another. Hop away in large numbers when foliage is Up to color. Usually appear groups. Bean. root Tiny (up to Vs inch long). Leafhoppers 3 /s inch long. Grasshoppers Vary widely in size. pumpkin. Found in tunnels in underground parts of vegetables. rutabaga. indicated disturbed. irish potato. foliage in late spring. sweet corn. legless worms. cucumber. Hop or fly. Soft-winged black. Holes chewed in foliage. tiny. in foliage. beetles can strip foliage from plants in a short time. muskmelon. ability due to leave white streaks in green their small size (Vie inch) and to jump quickly from disturbed. turnip. Cabbage. squash (summer and winter). Bean. surfaces. kohlrabi.

knotlike to and are subject to change. Most commercially purchased seed has been peppers. When weeds and is perennial plants are hosts essential." pages 51 to 130. appear unthrifty. Damping-off can be prevented in sterilized soil. pages 51 to 130. cabbage. Blossom drop. Vegetables. Follow the direclabel of the container. infecting both foliage fruit. and by good culture (for example. using correct planting depth. . infected plants should be as possible. pruning. harvesting. Diseases Vegetables are subject to hot weather. Insects. or in special diseases primarily are transmitted insects carrying the plant-growing structures (such as cold frames. viruses. mechanically. by rain or and hotbeds). you must the correct fungicide. and Early blight of tomatoes is an example of a common fungus-caused disease in gardens. ask office for bles are discussed in the following paragraphs. bacteria. and todes). squash. for example) varieties. drying winds involved in blossom drop. peppers. Regularly this and diseases are included offer swellings within the root. insect control proper moisture content and temperature. Some fungal diseases (fusarium and verticillium wilts. They are most effective when used as a preventive Destructive insects that attack illustrated in the table many garden crops are measure tions —before the disease appears. Many fungal diseases attack vegetables. and eggplants can be prevented by applying a fungicide. cucumbers. never reach expected production. recommended To obtain effective control of fungal diseases (1) select on these crops. for nematode Damping-off of seedlings. cultivating. Plants with severe galling of the grow slowly." Galls are tions for the control of insects in this book. removed and destroyed as soon and watering). These tender seedlings in the garden. greenhouses. You also should pasteurize any soil (see below 55°F in the when night temperatures fall spring or when hot. Blossom drop and the days. spacing." you suspect that nematodes your local extension are damaging your information on analysis. Extreme weather conditions may cause blossoms and small fruits to Unless the fungi are controlled. For this reason. above-ground plant Fungicides and muskmelons) are discussed under "Major may be applied as a dust or as a spray. By comparing the in the on the insects with the table. The only control available to may home plant pathogens (fungi. All vegetables are attacked on page 40. drop. to a large extent by planting seeds with for infection. it When a seedling is attacked at irrigation splashing. diseases. Damping-off several soil fungi that affect Bacterial and Many garden by plants can both germinating seed and become infected with bacterial and viral diseases. wormlike animals called nematodes. and herbicides page 45) that transplants. and many diseases caused by nema- die prematurely. specific recommenda- rounded swellings or "galls. irish can be controlled best by planting resistant Common blight diseases of carrots. melons. eggplants. entire seedling crop can be destroyed in a few treated results in the failure of fruits to develop on beans. they spread rapidly. by you can identify many common no garden problems. disease-causing organisms or. and ground collapses. pumpkins.CARING FOR THE GARDEN 41 Destructive insects that each year attack certain (2) all apply it at the proper time. in the home. level. is brought into the house for growing sometimes also may be Fungal diseases of mature plants. occur in the summer. symptoms of damage shown Root-knot nematodes. and surfaces. Root-knot (Because control measures are being developed continually nematodes burrow into the roots of plants and cause small. (3) thoroughly cover vegetables (such as beans. If particular vegetables are discussed bles. and tomatoes with a fungicide by the seed processor to protect against damping-off. updated publications that which are attached loosely on the information are listed on page 170. broccoli. as contrasted with beneficial bacterial nodules.) roots of peas roots and beans. gardeners is to change the location of the garden or to Those diseases that are frequently found on under "Major Vegetato fumigate the entire area with a nematicide. Diseases common many vegetais crops. cucumbers. how to caused by collect and mail specimens viral diseases. tend to wilt in dry. potatoes. small. hoeing.




pots. mixes. Pasteurizing the Soil Pasteurization (heating at 180°F) usually kills Temperature most You can sure common diseases. and heat until the is at Home Growing Media It is temperature indicated by the thermometer) 180°F. 1 peat moss or well-decomposed compost. Lower the oven temperature and maintain the temperature at soil soil 180°F for 30 minutes. and tools with a disinfectant. in shallow boxes lightly in rows about 2 inches after you are going to use outdoor you should apart fertil- and cover with vermiculite. and 1 part vermiculite. cover foil. perlite. If sow them soil. it Remove the from the oven and allow to cool before planting. and insects in the soil. Starting Plants with aluminum Set the and put the pan in the oven.STARTING PLANTS AT HONE 45 Place a thermometer in the center of the mixture. and many gardeners and commeris completely before use. Several kinds of soilless germinating mixes. Sowing Seeds The traditional Unfortunately. and weeds and have enough first fertilizer hypochlorite) mixed in 9 parts water. peat cubes. After making and successful seed germination. Often the that the soil mixture has adequate moisture for seed medium air. has a lower temperature than the surrounding for seed germination. potting pellets soils. The temperature rapid of the medium is important for pasteurize soil at home in the oven. put the mixture in a pan or glass dish (the To ensure the proper temperature germina- mixture should be no more than 3 to 4 inches deep). You can and garden catalogs. however. It is or seeds. It requires additional space. Soon the ize it and mix in rotted compost or manure the summer it. equally important to clean old or used plant may be obtained from garden centers. saves a step in handling the tender seedlings and avoids Mix thoroughly and transplant shock. the container and tools outdoors. diseases. The tempera- PLANTING DATES Vegetable Broccoli Zone 6 February 5 to Zone 5b March 5 to Zone 4 & 5a 1 Cabbage Cauliflower 1 March 1 March March 25 to April 5 Lettuce Eggplant Herbs March 5 to March 15 March 25 to April 5 April 1 to April 15 Pepper Tomato Cucumber Muskmelon Watermelon April 1 to April 1 April 15 to April 25 April 25 to May 5 . soil oven (as at 250° to 275°F. aeration. tion. Be desirable to use a sterile plant-growing medium. use a thermometer with a soil probe. and drainage. Outdoor soils also may be used for growing plants. This method soil. The dates for planting various vegetable seeds indoors follow. growers believe that their extra cost justified. or sand. or other containers. and they may harbor method of starting seeds has been to (flats) insects or disease organisms. careful not to contaminate the mixture with unclean soil. pasteurize before using. they can be transplanted to trays. growing hands. tools. weeds. because a larger number of containers are needed. ing plants may be made by combining 1 A simpler method of starting seeds is to sow the seeds ingredients: part fertile garden directly into the final growing container. seed containers.45 percent sodium insects. before you intend to use A good soil mixture for growthe following part shredded pots. Thoroughly wash to dry incorporated for the 3 to 4 weeks of plant growth. these soils often need improvement in fertility. These normally should be free from use 1 part household bleach (5. seedlings come up. and allow them They cial are easy to use. and compressed peat stores.

moisture. 48- inch fixture is the most popular. Light fixtures may be purchased Large lighting setups as containers. Seedlings and plants should be lighted for 12 to 16 growing transplants may be homemade or purchased. or 96 inches long) produce light more than shorter ones (18. dry out quickly and may complete units or assembled at home. Many gardenVegetable plants need direct light. as they grow in is fully competent in these installations. Once ment may be the duction. and growing. Add with each bank of one or two incandescent light bulbs four-tube fluorescent lamps. Frost-tolerant plants doors for 1 to 2 weeks before they are transplanted into the garden. Water the plants size. as dangerous as underwatering Your soil at the seedling stage. (a total of Two side double-tube fixtures side are preferable to four tubes) placed by one fixture with two fluores- cent tubes. or 36 inches) combined to produce the same length. family room. garage. usually has a pinkish glow). the color (it may be objectionable in a room environment hours per day. Cool-white tubes are the most commonly used. you may or growing medium fertilizer Make sure that the temperature in this area supplement the fertility of the soil fertilizer. The standard 40-watt. established. If you are not need frequent watering. as needed for plant growth. However. suitable for the plants you want to grow. The structures should be sturdy. and when no natural light or as a supplement to the a natural light coming through window. Overwatering at least for help. kitchen. ers use plant-growing lamps as a primary source of light there is by temperature. Their light does not appear as strong to the eye as light from cool-white tubes. . Long fluo- rescent tubes (48. and the lights or the plant shelf should be adjustable for height. total source of light for seedling prois seedlings are up. you may need (such as 10-50-10. Apply once a week.46 STARTING PLANTS AT HOME ture can be increased by covering the seed containers by adding heat with special less often. The paired double-tube fixtures can provide light for a growing area 16 to 18 inches wide. uniform moisture the most important requirement for seed germination. The table on page 48 shows the optimal temperature can be hardened out-of- Light A window that receives sunlight only part of the day may not furnish enough light to grow high-quality plants. Watering and Fertilizing is Next to proper temperature. or 18-12-6) at the rate of 1 to provide supplemental heat in addition to light. or to use plain water between feedings because water fertilizer salts heating cables or mats. Properly designed and utilized in a artificial light systems or growing medium should first be fertile enough workroom. Some may require special electrical circuits. 72. It is good practice with glass or clear plastic. Structures for Do not light onion plants for more than A timer that automatically turns the lights on and off is helpful. and replacement parts for these units are readily available. ranges for germinating seeds and for growing vegetable plants. as well as for germination. or accurate thermometer is essential. For the best by adding water-soluble Use a soluble plant growth. ask an electrician but do not water too much. grown. Growing times for plants significantly may be changed light. is superior to There are several kinds of "plant-growth" lamps designed for indoor-light gardening. 24. 20-20-20. and the wiring and ballasts may be separate from the fixtures themselves. 12 hours. or base- to sustain the plants for the 3 to 4 weeks. such as peat pellets. This simple addition provides light quality for plant growth that fluorescent light alone. Heating cables or mats are especially helpful prevents the accumulation of eventually injure the that can when large numbers of plants are to be young plants. An tablespoon per 1 gallon of water.

starting in a very sheltered location. smaller. and then place them outdoors in a protected location during the day. ventieasily. and the combination of lights moveable to permit adjustment and intensities that are used. The seedlings may seed leaves be left in the original containers or transplanted into pots. and grow- Growing Time The time required to ing media can be substantial. younger plants in the as large as they you approach planting time. as grow your plants time (3 to 6 weeks. The total weight of lights. Water thoroughly. the fluorescent tube as 18 inches away. they should be hardened gradually by which the vegetable best conditions. in a home greenhouse temperature. and gradually extend the exposure period Frost-tolerant vegetables and then transplant the might have been under able to tall. be sure that the lighting fixture supports and plant tables are sturdy. hotbed (with supplemental nighttime heat) can provide outdoor growing space for large numbers of plants and for hardening plants in can be a rewarding hobby. in greenhouses because light. The best plants are usually preperation for planting. peat pellets. If you cannot provide the for less exposing them to outside conditions. The degree of success achieved in grow- twice as much light (intensity) 6 inches away from ing plants under lights varies with the kind of plants. grown lation. Place the lamps close to the leaves of the plants. spindly plants for starting outdoors. if A hotbed or cold frame A cold frame (which depends helpful upon solar energy for heat) or Growing plants out of season many plants are grown. Hold the seedling to avoid damage to the tender stem (right). Place the plants outdoors a few hours each day. garden. fixtures or the plant shelf Make either the light length of time that they are grown. Bring the plants inside at night to protect them is against cold temperatures. they are prefer- weaker. Before plants grow plants to a stage suitable for transplanting to the garden varies with the kind of grown inside under lights are trans- vegetable and the environmental conditions under planted outdoors. and moisture are controlled more . carefully tly Make by the tip of the seed leaf growing medium with a dibble (a pencil-like pointed stick). of the distance between plant and lights as the plants grow in size. Even though they may not be ideal conditions. or other growing containers soon after the (cotyledons) are fully developed. is grown. plants.STARTING PLANTS AT HOME 47 Seeds can be sown uniformly in germinating flats or containers flats. (left) and covered lightly with soil or vermiculite. for example) than shown in the table on page 48. A a can be left outdoors in cold frames for their final growth distance of 6 to 12 inches is recommended. also germinate the seed indoors until the You can seedlings are started. Insert the roots of the seedling in the hole and gena hole in the firm the medium. For this reason. There is and hardening.

seedless 75-80 75-95 4-7 4-6 4-6 Susceptible Susceptible Susceptible 4-5 5-6 85-95 . Seeds may be planted or seedlings may be transplanted into the expanded pellets (right). Gently firm the peat mixture over the seeds or around the roots of the seedlings. degrees F transplants. The pellets. can be purchased in a special plastic tray for easy handling (left).46 STARTING PLANTS AT HOME Peat pellets for growing plants at home readily can be obtained through catalogs or from garden centers. Use a dibble (pencil-like stick) to make a hole in the top of each pellet. degrees F 70-80 70-80 70-80 70-80 70-95 75-85 GROWING PLANTS Weeks before transplanting 5-7 5-7 5-7 Frost susceptibilty Tolerant Tolerant Tolerant Tolerant Vegetable Broccoli Brussels sprouts Spacing Days for Optimal air for best seedlings temperature. inches to emerge 5 5 60-70 60-70 60-70 60-70 70-80 70-80 70-75 Cabbage Cauliflower 4-5 5-6 2-5 Cucumber Eggplant 6-8 Herbs Lettuce 70-80 60-75 75-95 6-15 2-3 55-75 70-80 3X3 3X3 3X3 3X3 3X3 4X4 2X2 2X2 3X3 5-7 3-4 6-8 Very susceptible Very susceptible Varies 4-8 5-7 3-4 Moderately tolerant Muskmelon Onion Pepper 3^ 4-5 7-8 6 Very susceptible Very tolerant Susceptible 65-80 75-85 60-70 65-80 60-75 70-80 70-80 — 3X3 3X3 3X3 3X3 8-10 6-8 Tomato Watermelon. When you are ready to plant. expand the pellets by submerging them in water. Use warm water for best results. regular Watermelon. SEED GERMINATION Optimal soil temperature. which are dry and compressed.




Asparagus, Asparagus
It is



times called "grass"),


a hardy perennial.

the only

common vegetable that grows wild along roadsides and
railroad tracks over a large part of the country.


establishing a

good asparagus bed

requires considerable

work, your efforts will be rewarded.

A well-planned bed
Set asparagus plants 9 to



from 20 to 30

years. For this reason, asparagus

should be planted

at the side or

end of the garden, where

2 inches apart

in a

trench 6 inches
the trench

deep and


2 to


8 inches wide. Cover them with 2 inches of
drawing), and gradually


not be disturbed by normal garden cultivation.


line in


the spring.

one of the


vegetables ready to harvest in


during the


They may be purchased from
a seed catalog.


garden store or nursery or
plants have

The young





available varieties has signifi-

buds in the center (crown), with numerous dangling,
pencil-sized roots. Adventurous gardeners can start their

cantly changed in recent years. Standard varieties like

Mary Washington, Martha Washington, and Waltham


plants from seed. Although this adds a year to the

being offered; but a number of


process of establishing the bed,

does ensure fresh

varieties that are either

predominantly or



and the widest possible

variety selection.

recently have been introduced into


Asparagus plants are naturally either male or female. The
females bear seeds, which take considerable energy from
the plant, and sprout

Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting
Place the plants in a trench 12 to 18 inches wide
a full




which cause overthicker, larger

6 inches deep. The crowns should be spaced 9 to 12

crowding in the bed. Male plants produce
spears because they put

inches apart. Spread the roots out uniformly, with the

no energy

into seeds

and have

crown bud

side up, in

an upright, centered position,

no weedy

seedling problem.


line that

produces only

slightly higher

than the

male plants was discovered and has been incorporated

Cover the crown with 2 inches of






varieties. Jersey Giant, Jersey

the remaining portion of the trench during the

Knight, Jersey Prince, Syn 53, Syn 4-362,





as the plants



Asparagus has a





hybrids with larger yields.

It is

tendency to "rise" as the plants mature, the crowns grad-

able to plant the best variety available, as an asparagus

growing closer to the

soil surface.

Many gardeners
from between

bed should remain productive

for at least 15 to



apply an additional

to 2 inches of soil


are starting a



you may

never get to

the rows in later years.

choose a variety again

your bed produces that long.

the newer varieties are cold tolerant and are resistant to

As asparagus plants grow, they produce a mat of roots
that spreads horizontally rather than vertically. In the

and fusarium.


to Piant

first year,

the top growth


spindly. As the plants


Asparagus should be planted as soon as the ground

older, the

stems become larger in diameter.

can be worked in the spring. One-year-old crowns or
plants are preferred. Seeds are

As noted, asparagus plants are dioecious (either solely


in a production


male or

solely female).

The female plants develop more
plants, but the stems are

and allowed
dug, the



for a year.

These plants are then
for sale.

spears or stems than the

removed, and the plants offered

smaller in diameter.

With normal open-pollinated



Asparagus can be harvested the third year after planting crowns, but for

no more than





The plant

is still


root storage


and excessive removal of
harvested from their


weakens the

During the fourth year and

thereafter, the spears

may be

appearance in the

spring through

May or June


long as 8 to 10 weeks).

Harvest spears 5 to 8 inches in length by cutting or

snapping. To cut a spear, run a knife into the
base of the spear and carefully sever

soil at


Because the spear

cut below the point where fiber develops,


necessary to remove the fibrous base from the tender


may damage some

spear tips that have not

yet emerged from the ground. To snap a spear, grasp

near the base and bend

toward the ground. The spear
it is

breaks at the lowest point where
Cutting asparagus spears. Place the knife under the
soil line

free of fiber.




acceptable. Cutting


next to the spear to be cut. Do not cut beyond the spear. You may damage other spears that have not yet emerged from the soil.

preferred by commercial growers,

and snapping by
should be


gardeners. Asparagus deteriorates rapidly after
If it is


not eaten immediately,


gardeners plant both male and female plants in an
ratio of 1:1. After the first year, small red

processed or refrigerated.


form on the female plants in

summer. These



to the ground, sprouting plants that essentially in the asparagus bed.

become perennial weeds

Following freezing weather in the

the asparagus

tops should be removed to decrease the chances of rust
disease overwintering

on the



commonly found in home numerous, they may be controlled by a

Because asparagus remains in place for years, advance

Asparagus beetles

preparation helps future production greatly. Working

green manure crops, compost, manure, or other organic
materials into the proposed bed well in advance of plant-

suggested insecticide or by handpicking.




good approach. Asparagus should be

fertilized in


and Answers
my asparagus
spears to have loose
the weather turns hot, the growing point

the same


as the rest of the

garden the


3 years. In



the spring, apply 10-10-10, 12-12-12, or 15-15-15
izer at





the rate of 20 to 25 pounds per 1,000 square feet

and the

bracts (modified green leaves) are

spread by the early development of the stems and


of area,

and incorporate with

soil tillage. Starting in




safe to eat because only the appearance

fourth year, apply the

same amount of


delay application until June or July (immediately after the final harvest). This approach encourages vigorous

growth of the


which produces and

stores nutri-

ents in the roots for next year's production season.

£*Seed (4X)*

Weeds and

grasses are the worst

problems with

They compete with the developing

make an

tip size (length

unsightly area in the garden, and significantly
quality. Start frequent, light,

decrease yield


*X = times actual
the actual

and width). For example, 4X
four times

cultivation early in the spring in both

young plantings

indicates that the seed

shown approximately

and mature patches that

are being harvested.

Goldkist (56 days. Provider (50 days. Jade (53 days. Bush Kentucky Wonder (57 bean mosaic) and Fordhook 242 (75 days. round. are off-flavor. held high off the Q. (65 days. oval. resistant to mosaic). broad. bean mosaic). varieties. and transplant them to the per- medium green pods). oval. mosaic). excellent pods). Yes. slow-developing seeds. giant italian- romano. stand erect Bush beans. days. or lima beans). small. held well off the ground). round. juicy. shellouts. rich (italian): taste). Purple Pole (snap bean): Purple Pod (65 days. flat. They are the most popular type because they yield well and require the least Wax Pole (snap bean): Kentucky Wonder Wax (68 amount of work. extra-long. tender growth begins. oval. extra-straight. flavor). type (green. (3) and tender pods. (75 days. slender. plants run up to 3 feet but need no support. Early spring freezes caused the asparagus spears in my garden to turn brown and wither. romano. and lima Pole beans. flat. Romano Varieties broad pods). yellow. seed germinates Bean is a tender. straight golden yellow pods). AAS winner. and White Half-Runner (60 manent bed as soon your year. medium Pole (italian): purple. 7. wide. large flat-oval beans. extra-long. resistant to bean long. straight golden yellow pods). Frozen tips should be picked and thrown away. vigorous plant. Beans may be and classified by (1) growth Green Pole (snap bean): Blue Lake straight. straight. vulgaris var. heat-resistant plants. humilis. . broad stringless pod). 6-inch. warm-season well in cooler soils) and Royalty (55 days. tender pods. resistant to bean (54 days. resistant to bean mosaic). yellow. stringless. green bean. oval-round pods with solid texture. as the garden can be worked. Contender (50 days. round green pods." Bush beans are available in green. long. habit (bush or pole beans). Goldcrop Wax AAS winner. or dry beans). (2) use (as immature pods. Derby (57 days. 9-inch pods in clusters). Roma II (53 days. crop (55 days. Eastland (70 days. Can start asparagus from seed? A. tender pods. slim own but plants delays establishment of your it ensures that you are starting lost vigor bed an additional with freshly dug stored. fleshy. super-smooth pods. Tendergreen Improved (54 days. flat pods). varieties. shiny yellow pods. rust resistant).to 8-inch yellow-gold pods). 5-inch. to Romano (60 days. snap. dependable. long. long. resistant to resistant to bean mosaic). slender pods). clear light yellow pods. smooth. resistant to apart in the row. round. green pods). Henderson (65 days. medium-sized. tender. familiar long. round. mosaic). slim. easy to shell. although not poisonous. attractive. curved. straight. 7-inch pods). Green Bush (snap bean): Blue Lake 274 (58 days harvest. Phaseolus Wonder (65 days.MAJOR VEGETABLES 53 Q. days. Also. They are also available in green. broad pods with distinctive and Wax Romano (59 days. dark green pods with rich vulgaris. flat. These smooth. runner. Pencilpod Wax (58 days. Purple Bush (snap bean): Royal Burgundy (51 days. round. climb supports and are flavor. heavy producer) and Trionfo Purple Pod (62 days. cious. and green beans are now referred to as "snap Romano Bush style Bush Romano (56 days. flavorful. AAS winner. Jumbo (55 days. oval. purple. Phaseolus easily harvested. Tender- spears. than crowns. Kentucky Blue (65 days. flat. flattened pods). straight. long. bean heavy yielder. and Slender Wax (55 days. variety selection for seeds rather is and much greater when Wax Bush (yellow): Cherokee Wax (50 days. tender. yellow. 1990 prolific. resistant to bean mosaic). Plant breeders have reduced these fibers through selection. stringless pods. Are they safe to eat? A. resistant to home gardens. and lima yellow pods. fine flavor. Start the seeds in the spring when the soil temperatures have reached 60°F. heavy yielder). early coloring. romano. You can grow your own plants by planting seeds V2 inch deep and 2 inches I ground. Green bush beans were formerly called "string beans" because fiber developed along the seams of the pods. deli- beans. original purple- vegetable that ranks second to tomato in popularity in pod bush bean. straight. smooth. high yield). meaty. before bean mosaic). Strike (55 days. Lima Bush (baby): Baby Fordhook (70 days. Golden Wax (50 days. attractive. Dig the plants the following spring. and Kentucky purple. Crowing days. runner. fine flavor. crowns that have not shopping by being dug. AAS winner. yields well in adverse weather. attractive green pods. Lima Bush (large-seeded): Burpee Improved Bush plump. upright. highly flavored). straight. medium green pods. Topcrop (50 days. dark green beans on 14-inch plant). without support. tender. flat. round. usually shipped. 7-inch. bright purple pods).

pale green beans). kidney-shaped white bean). frost date The beans do to break the stems or branches. delays harvest. Phaseolus limensis: King of the Garden (88 days. Be careful the spring. which are brittle on most not germinate until after the has passed. White Kidney reason. Beans have shallow roots. bush. Pick beans after the off the plants dew is danger of If frost is past in soil and they are thoroughly dry. flat seeds). Lima Pole. crisp. inch deep. Speckled Dixie Butterpea (76 round in cross-section. Because bean plants have fairly weak root borne above the foliage). days. When to Plant frost. or plant right before a (90 days. smooth. pole-type baby lima. Plant seeds of pole beans 4 to 6 inches apart in rows on yellow pods. bush. large. small. and and fully elongated. bright red splashed inches apart. oval seeds. and Thorogreen (66 days. but before the seed within the pod Beans are sensitive to cold temperatures and they should be planted after all has developed significantly. never soak bean seed before planting. large. The bean plant continues if to form new can assure yourself a continuous supply of snap beans by planting every 2 to 4 weeks until early August.) the has warmed from wet plants can spread bean disease that seriously before the average last-frost date. Harvest when the pods are firm. systems. Care Seeds of most varieties tend to crack and germinate half-runner. close cultivation injures the plant roots. dwarf runner bean. deep. 30 to 36 inches 30 inches apart. half-runner. stringless pods). pale green when immature). light green when immature. soup and Great Northern (90 days. and reduces yields. pole. . resistant to bean mosaic). large scarlet flower clusters and grasses. Picking beans bacterial blight. seeds). pole. Jackson Wonder (65 days. tasty. Dry (bush): Dark Red Kidney (95 days. a plants. water just after planting. or in hills (four to six seeds half-runner plant. days. per hill) apart. bush. 20-inch plants. white bean. flowers and produce more beans pods are continually removed before the seeds mature. Pinto (90 days. with 30 inches between rows. Phaseolus coccineus: Dwarf Bees vation and hoeing are necessary to control small weeds (65 days. Plant seeds of at least Horticultural: Dwarf Horticultural (62 days. page 26. purple and pinkish splashed when ripe- heavy. Prizetaker (90 days. and White heavy rain. Red Knight (70 days. bush. dependable yield). For this Mexican cuisine. beans tasty when Harvesting Snap beans. handsome beans). and frequent shallow Scarlet Runner. excellent for soup. 6-inch pods with 3 to 5 giant and Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant seeds of all varieties 1 Sieva (72 days. 10. an early planting may damages the not be made a week to 10 days before this date. You bean varieties. egg-shaped white bean). scarlet flowers.54 MAJOR VEGETABLES Horticultural (6 inches) Dry beans A Romano (7 inches) *0 Snap or wax § Lima (4 inches) Asparagus (12 inches) (6 inches) pale green beans). standard for poorly if the soil's moisture content is too high. largest beans. choice. resistant to bean mosaic). large cream-colored shell beans). 15-inch. large. standard chili bean). and Scarlet Runner (70 young). culti- Marrowfat (100 days.to 12-inch. (See the maps. bush beans 2 to 4 inches apart in rows 18 to 24 used mostly as green shellout bean) and French Horticultural (75 days.

The and on infected plants are a mottled yellow are usually My beans appear healthy. removed beans mature. jUP Common Problems yellowish green and produce few or (V4 inch) Bean leaf beetles feed on bean plants. At that time. Shellouts are usually served as a buttered vegetable or with pork. The wires are fastened to 7. and removing bean debris from the garden. When seed jars is the plants are dry. Bright yellow or brown spots on the leaves or water- Q. Pull snap beans and produce good leaves of the plants naturally. the vines when the fall have turned yellow and begin to in the Dry the plants garden or on a clean start to split floor. ^^v^ Bean leaf beetle Pole beans (as well as asparagus beans. Stakes or poles between the posts prevent sagging or breaking caused by wind or the weight of the bean plants.to 8-foot posts located at the ends of each row. Use a suggested insecti- cide for control. No. Why not? A. cucumbers. gourds. They become mealy and tough-skinned areas allowed to remain on the plant beyond peak maturity. may carry over in the soil to reinfect . They may be grown much yields. in a different area of the garden each year? Beans are subject to diseases that the following bean crop.to 1 2-gauge wires. Beans may be harvested easily from both sides of the row. Horticultural beans. ripe lima seeds may be eties harvested as dry beans. They can be stored for a few days under refrigeration. Dry beans moderate are planted less often in home as gardens because they are generally available in food markets at prices. and Answers no pods. dry winds. especially when the plants are young. irregularly shaped. The blossoms drop and fail to form pods during periods of hot. When the bean plants begin to elongate. Northern short-season two hold plants from each of two adjoining rows. The bean mosaic diseases cause plants to turn a leaves Questions Q. avoiding working all among wet bean Q. Yes. them in place. The pods of different varieties vary greatly in external appearance as the beans are developing. Bacterial blight disease-free seed is and cornstalks offer maximal potential. Is it a good practice to plant pole beans at the base of corn plants for double cropping? A. but green and tender. The pole vari- continue to yield until as the frost if the old pods are Pole beans may be supported by placing poles at the bases of poles. In where the season is long enough.MAJOR VEGETABLES 55 Lima beans. dry areas of the western states. they should be started up the supports. Store thoroughly dry bean seeds or cans in a cool. but not very many beans have formed. Weed control becomes difficult. Neither crop can reach its soaked spots on the pods are signs of bacterial bean blight. dry location (see pages 167 and 168). and other vining vegetables) also may be supported by twine laced between two 9. Harvest horticultural beans the pods start changing from green to yellow. Test pick a few pods to be sure that the beans are at a desirable stage of maturity Lima beans are of best quality if when young. the beans (often referred to as "shellouts") are formed. The only satisfactory control for these diseases is to use mosaic-resistant bean varieties. Harvest lima beans when plump and still the pods are firm and the seeds are fully developed. which mature which form a "teepee. Is it necessary to plant beans A. plants. Dry beans. causing holes in the leaves. grown in the irrigated. the pods easily and the in removed. These beetles can cause serious damage. Bush-type lima beans are usually harvested in two or three pickings. weak support when the beans are best controlled by planting maturing. The four tied firmly with areas should rely on the "baby" limas." are heavy twine to much when fully earlier than larger "potato" limas.

uniform. di Chioggia (50 days. bright green tops. These are larvae of the Mexican bean beetle. Use a suggested insecticide for control. deep red. round. Red Ace (53 age. Start successive plantings at for a able open-pollinated varieties include Crosby's Egyptian 4-week intervals until midsummer continuous (56 days to harvest. canned whole. tasty roots. cooking water slightly off-color. but they occasionally reach days. extra- may be harvested for shellouts and for dry beans. smooth. tender). Italian known as garden beet. Yes. Some now singulating the seed for preci- . tops. sugar beet. Will bean varieties cross in flowers are largely self-pollinated. excellent-quality roots). does not get woody with age).) Although beets grow well during Varieties warm weather. size. Q. highly son. sweet. (also mangel. red roots. large. Gladiator (48 days. cross. globe shape. excellent for greens). a basic ingredient of Russian borscht. even in crowded rows. purplish red exteinterior. uniform shape. dark red roots. ideal These crosses show up only when seed is saved from cross-pollinated flowers. Mini: Little Ball (50 days. deep red throughout. mellow flavor.56 MAJOR VEGETABLES Q. rior. juicy. glossy for greens). round. vigorous grower). glossy. rounded. short tops. sweet. semi- supply of fresh. tender.to cool. for salads or juice is is roots may be pickled buttery color. excellent quality. bright green and the are germinates strongly and matures good source of vitamin and the cooked whole. young beets. candy-red exterior. Detroit germination and establishment of the later plantings. short tops good for greens). bright yellow insects on my bean The color without fading when plants? A. sweet mild flavor). tender. What are the fuzzy. Big Red (55 days. White seed is preferred because it does not discolor the cooking water. sweet. early. edible stage? A. Beta vulgaris. roots stay tender even when large. Mangels ered too coarse for for stock feed. dark red color inside and out. long. good greens when young). raw interior popular garden vegetable throughout the United Beet tops are an excellent source of vitamin A. Snap beans (pole or bush) lima beans globe shape. Garden good (hybrid): Avenger (57 days. tops fringed with red). all Specialty: Cylindra (60 days. glossy Several seedlings deep red green tops. Because the for greens. attractive. excellent seed companies are may grow from each fruit. uniform. stores bean varieties usually do not extremely well). sweet. avail- the seedlings are established more easily Garden (open-pollinated): Some commonly under 3. my garden? A. fine-grained flesh. small to size- good shape. Early Wonder and (52 days. and flavor. round. The garden and beet closely related to swiss chard. Table beet. holds quality as roots grow large. page 26. and Warrior (57 days. particularly early in the sea- weather. uniform roots). banded red and white. Can use beans from my garden that have matured past the green. tops. snap bean varieties have white seeds? Most bean varieties are developed for the canning and freez- Why do some ous. or served fresh as greens. adult resembles a large ladybug. Dark Red (58 days. Q. Golden (55 days. good internal color in cool weather. mild and tasty. very uniform. In seeds each year to I any event. resists zoning in hot damaging numbers. medium. Beet ing (65 days. uniform. The tops cooked quickly. then C. early. Irrigation assures globe to heart shaped. best late-season ing industry. tops good for greens). excellent flavor and yield). cylindrical. moist conditions. and may be harvested for butter beans. tops superior for greens). you should obtain new avoid seedbome diseases. (also slices of equal diameter). excellent for canning). very tender. dark red roots). vigor- Q. Pacemaker (50 days. roots the size of a silver dollar at maturity. sweet. garden 30 days before the (See the frost-free date for maps. sweet. days. tender. A. Ruby Queen (60 days. Lutz Green Leaf (70 actually a cluster of seeds in a dried an heirloom winter-keeper type. holds cooked. and Green Top Bunch- sliced or diced. AAS winner. the producer. round. develops quickly. roots are a States. grows quickly roots) form smooth and Little Mini Ball (54 days. is shape. blood turnip. They are generally not a serious problem. globe-shaped red roots. or red beet) is a heirloom. and Sweetheart (58 days. finegrained. flattened globe Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting The beet "seed" fruit. When is varieties with colored seeds are used. Sangria (56 days. known as stock beets) are considhuman consumption but are grown When to Plant Beets are fairly frost hardy and can be planted your in the area. dark red. The larvae do the most dam- early. bright red roots. round.

much more frequently than in past years. abundance of greens. is cial vigorously growing variety. plants of most varieties are properly than 3 inches may become tough may be stored harvested. sion planting. have also become more adept healthful vegetable. and. hand weeding and early. may be cooked heavy producer of greens very as greens. beets need a (especially during cool seasons of the year. sprouting brocis most effective methods of controlling weeds weeds are large in the rows. The 1 for If producing greens. Though seldom done. a those removed spinach. pickling. botrytis (also coli. and whenever they grow to the are required for beets to reach handling methods have greatly improved the quality of the fresh product available on the market. by dividing the V2 inch deep fruit.MAJOR VEGETABLES 57 in outdoor pits if the beets are dug before the ground freezes in the fall. Do time. Crosby Egyptian and Early Wonder also for greens. Because beets have extremely shallow roots. Like most root crops. Applying in 1 table- crusting after a heavy rain. Keep popular for both small and large gardens. soil test. is a hardy vegetable of the cabbage It Deep cultivation after the damages the fertile soil family that high in vitamins A and D. excellent Hand thinning thinning almost always necessary. beets larger and space. If the soil is acidic. roots. as the difference between a shortage of this Some gardeners find that placing a board over the element and a toxic amount it is relatively small. Broccoli has become high in potassium) for vigorous growth. What varieties should I grow for beet greens? A.it eaten now is your beet plants uniformly supplied with moisture for best performance. central head is a refrigerator for several weeks. lings. or canning as whole beets. Cut off the tops of the beets 1 inch above the humidity. The board must be Q. spoon of household borax (dissolved along 1 a 1 2-quart pail of water) The seedlings may emerge over a relatively long period of 00 feet of row may help to alleviate this condition. Green Top Bunching. Side heads develop after the large. develops best beet roots. nates crusting from hard rains. and shallow cultivation are the known as italian broccoli. Broccoli. The most frequent cause for beet plants' failing to develop roots is overcrowding from improper thinning. Beets store best at 32°F and 95 percent Do not allow them to freeze. Swiss chard similar to beet greens. Poor stands ing too deeply or the soil's heavy feeder of the element boron. similar to Some cooks it is leave the small root (usually about the size of a marble) attached to the greens. frequent. Brassica oleracea var. Allow 12 to 18 inches are often the result of plant- Q. they can yield over an extended and fibrous. Plant seeds about and 1 inch apart. Beets are a relatively between rows. Talented cooks desired 1 '/ size. Care Frequent shallow cultivation beets is important because especially compete poorly with weeds. at preparing this tasty. should be limed according to a soil test to verify Never apply row after planting preserves the soil moisture and elimi- lime without a a low soil pfi (acidity). Beets enlarge rapidly to 3 inches with adequate moisture varieties. this vegetable. can be used inch apart without is delayed until the plants are 3 inches thinning produces an tall. Beets may be stored in a polyethylene bag in period. is A spe- removed as soon as the first seedling starts to emerge. making a stand of different sizes and ages of seed- not apply excess boron. when small. packing. Some must be taken to get the roots oriented vertically so that the beets can develop properly. and Answers What causes the beets in my garden to develop tops but no roots? A. Recent discoveries of health benefits associated with eating broccoli have helped to popularize in varieties. With most When broccoli grown and removed. beets actually care may be transplanted. What causes my beet roots to have internal black spots and many of the bottom leaves to die? A. About 60 days 2 inches in diameter. Planting the seeds '/> seedlings should be thinned to is to 3 inches apart. and calabrese). the size often used for cooking. Beets also Two crops per year (spring and fall) may be . Questions Q. Improve- Harvesting Beets can be harvested ments growing techniques.

often reaching a height of 2V2 apart in all started in flats to replace early crops as their harvest ends. huge. pale grow from the axils of the lower leaves. Common When to Plant Problems page 40). and Southern Star (50 days. unopened flower buds and the attached portion of stem. or even larger. purple heads. Harvest the central head when the individual florets begin to enlarge midsummer for transplanting into and develop. very reliable producer). poor heading. summer or fall). head with 5 to 6 inches of stem. These side shoots extremely tender texture). nitrogen when ample the plants are half grown (see soil downy mildew. growing conditions. Romanesco (75 days. downy mildew). spring. vigorously growing plants in early spring.58 MAJOR VEGETABLES grown in most parts of the country. Emerald City (58 days. To determine the best time for setting of growth. extremely uniform). New heat-tolerant all to harvest from transplants. (60 days. "button" heads soon after transfall Questions and Answers planting. 10. var. How large should the central head of broccoli grow before cutting? A. You usually can green heads. or fall. late variety for production). Premium Crop (65 days. Aphids (see cabbage worms (page 62). and Transplant young. and side-dress deep blue. start seedlings in plant- Q. extremely early planting. remain too long in seed flats fall may produce crops. for summer or fall.to 12-inch heads). for early. peaked. page 26. spiraling. Plant or they can bear their crop with minimal interference from the extreme heat of early summer. especially as the (55 days. and fall Waltham 29 continue to harvest broccoli for several weeks. unique). specialty type begins to loosen and separate start to with tender greens. in one large central head later in several smaller side shoots. holding plants a garden center until they are too old or too dry. DeCicco (60 days. Legend (60 Harvesting The edible parts of broccoli are days. uniform. count backward from the to the days diameter. tolerant of Care Use starter fertilizer for transplants. fall). tolerant to rot). feet. Premature flower development also may be caused by interrupted growth chilling of resulting from extended in young plants. Green Valiant (60 days. Fall crops direct-seeded in the garden if than they were grown space allows may be or may be thin seedlings 18 to 24 inches apart in the row. Packman (55 days. For buy or grow your own plants or plant seeds directly in the garden. (See the maps. (75 days. and allow 36 inches between rows. high yield. Purple Sprouting (85 days. Remember that time from figure. Pinnacle compact clusters of (62 days. and head Green Comet page 20). good for Everest (55 days. Size varies with variety. and severe drought conditions. What causes small plants. open (show bright side small heads). or set transplants originally. Late side shoots may reach to first fall frost in your area and add about 10 2 inches in diameter. Varieties Hybrid: Cruiser (58 days to harvest. Space plants 2 feet directions in beds.) Plants that diseases (page 61). Yellow flowers may appear before the heads are ready to harvest during periods of high temperatures. early. and to before flowering begins. but central heads should grow be 4 to 6 inches only 1 in your fall transplants. summer. but before it after the fully Open-Pollinated: Broccoli Raab. heat tolerant). Planting too late in the spring or failing to give the plants a good start contributes to this condition. Green Goliath (55 days. varieties allow broccoli to be produced in but the seed to transplant is not included in this hottest parts of the season. so that U to y2 inch deep. developed. nonuniform maturity). Removing the central head stimulates the shoots to develop for later pickings. tolerant of extremes). fertilizer dry conditions). Provide moisture. Small heads that form soon after plants are . Transplants are recommended to give the best start for spring planting because trans- Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant seeds slightly deeper l planting gets the plants established more quickly. Broccoli plants grow upright. brown head. and early flowering? A. Cut the central head is heat tolerant). small head. heads develop. The green buds develop and first highly tolerant to uniform. For ing. and season the garden in late summer. Q. Brassica rapa nivo. many and the individual flowers yellow).

sprouts larger. Applying a starter fertilizer at transplanting gets the plants off to a ties good start but cannot correct all the difficul- mentioned. and Valiant (90 days. it the For first-frost date for your area. Brussels sprouts require a long growing period. attractive important at this stage to keep the plants growing vigor- sprouts). In mild areas. Oliver (85 days. Prince Marvel (90 days. uniform sprouts). easy-to-pick. Fall production is The "sprouts" the most practical and rewarding in most parts of the country. deep snow cover. red plants harvest. recommended hybrid green types). but very late maturing. page 26. from the Two or three additional leaves can be removed each week. uniform crop with days. dependable. (the space The sprouts form burn. resistant to rust). or 24 inches in deep. resistant to yellows). the crop fails. Without ample soil remove from stalk than with original moisture. better if Some gardeners believe that the sprouts develop novel. Open-Pollinated: Long Island Improved (90 days. slow-growing. Brassica oleracea var. tolerant to bottom rot and root damage. Transplant gemmifera (named after Brussels. tight sprouts. tolerates Care Brussels sprouts are crops. the sprouts may over- maturing in hot weather or under dry conditions are more (small heads that resemble miniature axils. summer grow satisfactorily and mature high-quality sprouts when the fall weather begins to cool. or early. all weather. very productive). harder to Commercial gardeners remove the this leaves to accelerate produce heavy. Sprouts improve in quality and grow best during cool or even lightly frosty Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Space plants 24 to 36 inches apart in the row. heat-resistant variety in very early spring. but at least 90 to 100 days before long-season vegetable belonging to the cabbage family. garden. fertilizer (see when the plants warm weather. cabbages) are produced in the leaf the base of the stem and working upward. though newer hybrids have greatly reduced ment. between the base of the and the stem above it). late. in a protected location in seed 4 to 5 weeks before transplanting. Cultivate shallowly around the plants to prevent in the axils of the leaves leaf Royal Marvel (85 days.) can be grown with fair summer harvest. Jade Cross E (90 days. cabbage grown much like the related cole and broccoli. summers are and transplant the seedlings when they tall. Cover seeds 'A to V2 inch are but the most northern states. sweet sprouts).MAJOR VEGETABLES 59 set in the garden are called "buttons " and usually ' result from mistreated seedlings being held too long or improperly before sale or planting. where the first the seedlings to the permanent garden location when vegetable was popular). tip- ously. space and time allow. Belgium. you must plant transplants of an success in most is areas of the country. about usually too warm for completely satisfactory production set 3 inches Do not allow transplants to become stunted from spring plantings. variable. but this practice is not essential in the home variety) and Rubine (105 and sprouts. Plants out in late spring to early in the flats before transplanting. Sprouts where there winter. In all this require- directions in beds. (See the maps. russels When to Plant prouts Brussels sprouts. but . In the proper season of the year. not nearly as productive as the lowermost six to eight leaves are removed sides of the stalk as the sprouts develop. tight. is a hardy. Apply one side-dress applipage 20) cation of nitrogen are 12 inches tall. starting at likely to develop bitterness. Insect control is also very strain). long-season cab- The seed should be sown flats. easier to vigorously during the heat of summer. early. Jade Cross (90 and water to keep the crop growing days. smooth. Varieties Hybrid: Bubbles (82 days to harvest. Transplant in early summer to midsummer about the same time that you would plant bage.

4 to 6 pounds. and tolerant to black rot and thrips). There are various shades of green available. early. About 3 weeks before harvest.to 8rot. (88 days. Cabbage used in dishes. good heat Red: Lasso (OP-70 days. Red Meteor (75 days. 3 to 4 pounds. Always regarded as a good source of vitamins. if stem when mature able for later usually grow larger heads and are more suit- they are firm and about inch in The lower sprouts the sprouts making sauerkraut than the early varieties. good for all seasons). solid round heads. check the variety you have planted. tight heads). warm fall). All mature first. cold resistant. for open-pollinated variety. 1 popular for color in salads and cooked dishes. Cabbage ble varieties easy to grow if you and select suita- and practice proper culture insect man- agement.60 MA30R VEGETABLES several of the largest. Questions and Answers Q. 3 pounds. for kraut or storage). resis- Fortuna (82 days. slow to burst. Savoy King (85 days. Grand Slam (82 days. 3 to 4 pounds. Use trans- extremely uniform heads). sauerkraut. feeding the plant. 3 to 6 pounds. The savoy to 2 inches in varieties are grown for slaw and salads. a hardy vegetable that grows especially well in fertile soils. uniform. var. compact plants. This practice pounds. 3 to 4 pounds. firm. healthiest. but red cabbage has become increasingly Harvesting The small sprouts or buds form heads diameter. 3 to 4 pounds. dependable yields. very uniform). widely adapted. King Cole (74 days. Most varieties have smooth leaves. faster-maturing varieties are generally more suitable for getting and Savoy Queen tolerance). Rookie (68 days. deep green color. solid heads. . slow to burst. as well as red or purple types. resists both cold and heat). top growing point when the plant in height. Varieties that They may be picked 1 (or cut) off the size. directs the plant's energy to the developing sprouts. dark green color. (see cabbage worms (page 62). tant to tipburn. firm. is Perfection (85 days. 4 pounds. Common Aphids Problems page 40). the plants and other cooked may be topped (the growing point removed) to speed the completion of sprout development on the lower-stem area. Harvest sprouts before the leaves yellow. resists splitting). stands well. they often do not form compact heads. cabbage recently has been shown to have disease-preventive properties as well. stores well). When the sprouts develop in hot weather (after spring seeding or during a Why do my sprouts inch heads. Cheers (75 days. very dense. fully expanded upper to continue Cabbage thrives during both spring and fall seasons. solid. is leaves should always be left intact on top tolerating frost but not extreme heat. black rot). holds well. Savoy: Savoy Ace (80 days. slow to burst). You also can cut off the reaches 24 to 36 inches and maintain ample soil moisture. (OP-63 days. resists splitting). The newer. Quisto (89 days. remain loose tufts of leaves instead of developing into firm heads? A. Ruby Ball (71 days. salads. All are hybrid varieties unless removed already. Brassica oleracea capitata. but the savoy types have crinkly texis tured leaves. Head shape varies from the standard round to flattened or pointed. good fresh. soups. Early Jersey Wakefield diseases (page 61). growth and In addition. 7. and Stonehead stops leaf (70 days. The lowermost leaves. they have not been the varieties listed here are resistant to fusarium wilt ("yellows") unless otherwise indicated. slaw. should be removed when are harvested. marked OP. and Ruby Cabbage Cabbage. 5 pounds. tolerant to black rot and tipburn). 4 to 6 plants for early plantings. Varieties Green cabbage is grown more often than the red or savoy types. dark green). tolerant to black leaf speck. Green: Charmant (64 days to harvest. black temperatures). large. Green cold Cup (73 days. pointed heads. not resistant to yellows).

The Common Problems is closer the spacing. Early varieties later varieties '/ the lower leaves. or have black or leaves. mature. If this control remove and destroy or compost the stumps because they Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Space plants 12 to 24 inches apart in the row. resistance bred into them. upon the variety and the size of head desired. The veins turn black. spots on the stems . varieties. Use starter fertilizer stem. wilted. and thin or transplant the seedlings to the desired spacing. from injury by insects or diseases. Cultivate shallowly to keep down weeds. Sow cabbage seed y4 to 2 inch deep. you can harvest a planted from either bare-root or cell-pack-grown plants. usually store better than the early ones. overcast. In beds. The plants are stunted before wilting occurs. are usually planted 12 inches apart. Ample soil moisture is necessary throughout the growing is Control rot. a sudden heavy rain split may cause heads to crack or internal tissue soon wide open. but weather of develops main head during the cooling possible. In summer. Continue control of cabbage worms cannot be maintained. are Do not buy transplants that are to supply the developing heads with sufficient water to an unhealthy shade of green. avail- the stem above it) later form sprouts. when hand pressure) but before they crack or When heads are mature. develop quickly. Soft rot usually follows black-rot infection.to 1- to 3-pound heads. produce 4. and produce Grow yellows-resistant (YR) or yellows-tolerant this tolerance or 8-pound heads. Cut as close to the lower surface of the head as possible. Most modern hybrids have Keep the seeds moist. minimizing shock from the direct sun of summer. yellow-to-brown areas in the leaves. either natural or artificial. and die. leaving the loose outer leaves intact. cut the cabbage heads are solid (firm to split. and sidedress nitrogen fertilizer when the plants are half grown (see page 20). The sprouts Try especially hard at this develop to 2 to 4 inches in diameter and should be picked season to transplant on cloudy. The exposed becomes unusable. The taproot often rots away. turn yellow.MAJOR VEGETABLES 61 Harvesting Cabbage can be harvested anytime after the heads they form. Irrigation especially Both diseases are spread by seed. transplants. depending serve as a breeding ground for diseases and insect pests. Blackleg and black rot are two diseases that cause severe losses. Black rot can be recog- nized by large. Early varieties Yellows or fusarium wilt a relatively common and die. place seed flats or is fall. transplanted to another row or The plants may be stunted. For highest yield. V-shaped. moist conditions (see pages 167 provide harvest over a long period. Blackleg is named for the black cankers on the Care when transplanting. The plants removed may be flat. The late varieties Many varieties are available. is essentially the same for blackleg and black and kill season to produce good cabbage. Cabbage should and two or three varieties of different maturities can be stored under cold. and later varieties are disease that causes the leaves of plants to wilt planted 18 to 24 inches apart. These sprouts must it be started during the heat of midits develop on the stumps of the cut stems. and free Transplant early cabbage soon enough that before the heat of summer. When to Plant it Cabbage matures for storage must be firm. Hardened plants are tolerant of frosts and 168). or rainy days for when firm. and other pests. the smaller the heads. and can be planted among the is earliest In addition to harvesting the mature heads of the later of cool-season garden vegetables. starting at the leaf edge. Buds that summer. Buy seed that has been hot-water treated to withstand the intense sunlight and heat of summer and the disease organisms. important in fall plantings to help the young plants insects. Harvest and salvage split heads as soon as possible after they are discovered. Late cabbage crop of small heads (cabbage sprouts). It may be transplanted or seeded directly if grow in the axils of in the garden. these leaves (the angle between the base of the leaf and seedbeds where some protection from the sun able. plant cabbage The first sign of the disease is yellowing and browning of 12 to 18 inches apart in all directions. Cabbage easily trans- cabbage planted in the spring.

irresistible morsel to these furry fiends. lay eggs on the The eggs hatch damage by eating holes in the leaves and cabbage head. number-one protected garden Imported cabbage (1 worm Questions Q. but also damages the plant and that the heads be harvested relatively soon. The worms not easy to see because they are fairly small and blend Q. Swellings and distorted roots with the cabbage leaves. If not entire plants. Such related cole crops. They clubroot disease. The cabbage and then is Q. is seen during the day hovering over plants in the garden. some protection from rabbits as well as Aphids page Apply a suggested insecticide cutworms. or red rosettes moving the and is front of its body forward. They into the trolled. Usually. heads from splitting? A. heading varieties of cabbage. Metal cans with both ends removed often offer possible. caterpillars. Cabbage worms.V 62 MAJOR VEGETABLES When you Do find diseased plants in the garden. Apply a suggested insecticide. In many settings. wilted plants may be symptoms of is caused by a fungus that the garden soil for many years once it becomes It is established. the lush green plants present a delectable. this "cold conditioning. turnips. the pests eat only individual leaves. stems. A. looper crawls by doubling up (to form a loop) They have colorful white. Q. and inadequate insect control) that they increase in size. they Most col- most active at night. The moth brown of leaves surrounded by green or purple outer leaves. Especially in early spring. kale) are edible as well as ornamental. Splitting caused by the pressure of excessive Cutting the roots (lifting water taken up after the heads are (spading on two sides of the plant) or breaking the roots Cabbage looper (1 2 and twisting the head to one it side) can often reduce excessive requires inches) splitting or bursting. cabbage-family transplants. overwatering. Avoid cultural practices (crowding. Three species of cabbage worms than solid heads? seedstalks) Cabbage plants "bolt" (form premature (imported cabbage worms. If. before cabbage heads begin to form. pale green caterpillars that are pointed on both ings of regular. Nonheading varieties of cabbage (similar to flowering kale) have been developed for ornamental uses. but otherwise do not damage the plants. What causes cabbage to develop seedstalks rather A. fected plant parts (including the roots) and 4 years avoid planting any member of the cabbage and ornamental family there. This disease even worse in plantings than in spring gardens remains in on stunted. and burn or dispose of them. pink. cabbage loopers. ask your local extension office for help. support the disease organisms of black rot and blackleg. you have clubroot in a location. Diamondback worms should be started with fall in early are summer to midsummer and set out and winter plant- small. and Answers I V4 inches) What can do to prevent is my cabbage solid. After is cabbage worms are velvety green The moth they are subject to flowering response. planting in plants are protected until poorly drained soil. If you suspect that you have clubroot disease in your garden. About the time of the first frost in the fall. orful during cool fall weather. A. Wire mesh bent in an arch and placed over the entire row also should deter suburbia's pest. The moth is gray. The damage caused by Why do Those butterflies fly around my cabbage plants. collect Rabbits. includ- ing radishes. if mondback moth worms) commonly and heads of cabbage and white and attack the leaves 45 °F) for extended periods. relatives of cabbage. and caterpillar numbers finally begin to decline drasti- cally. lumpy swellings of my cabbage roots? The plants also are stunted. Hotcaps or row covers also may deter them. Cabbage destructive are worms if are quite and can ruin the crop fall not controlled. Cabbage loopers ("measuring worms") are light green caterpillars. and dia- when they are exposed to low temperatures (35 ° to chilling may happen if plants an unseasonal blast of cold assaults the plants have stems as large as a pencil. butterflies (white or brown) are probably the moths of The larval or worm stages of these insects cause cabbage worms. grow (see black-rot-resistant varieties. Flea beetles (see page 40). Other related cole crops (like broccoli and cauliflower) also may become infected. destroy infor at least chemical insecticides from the time that they are transplanted until harvest. 40). Imported are set out too early or the garden. plants? diamondback larvae looks like shot holes in the leaf. rabbits can quickly devour the leaves. . and tops. moth ed transplants. Flowering cab- ends. if not put diseased plants into the compost pile. What causes large. with diamond-shaped markings bage (and flowering Q. " which initiates the commonly smooth. worms that cause considerable damage unless conMost control strategies are aimed at the developing lar- The adult moths or butterflies lay their eggs on the leaves are vae rather than the mature moths themselves. spread by movement of infested soil and infect- because the population has had several months to increase. Protect your plants with suggested biological or in fact. What is flowering cabbage? A. when the wings are closed.

days. is a hardy. tenyield than should be plowed and prepared to a depth of 8 to 9 full der) vers. smooth roots. 8-inch Carrot. bright orange. long. tiny tender roots. extra-fancy. sweet flavor.to Baby: Baby Spike (52 days. long. 7. cylindrical. fine-grained. roots. as coreless as any. many areas. causing forked and twisted (70 days. Daucus is roots. Scarlet Nantes root penetration. very sweet and 1 crunchy. pro- duce tender. smooth. The and 8-inch roots tapered to very blunt end. and they can be are rich in carotene (the source roots. high yield. slightly blunt. 30 percent which mature quickly in cool fall weather. standard long. 7-inch arrot > roots. uniform. 4-inch roots.MAJOR VEGETABLES 63 carrots). color. tapered to a point. exterior bright orange. V/2 inches thick. tender. blunt tip. 8- Tendersweet) usually are recommended only soil. 6-inch roots. and Danvers 126 (75 days. l /z inch (2-4 inches) thick. shallow. thin type). Although carrots can endure summer heat in they grow best plantings. days. Nantes Coreless (68 worked into the soil just before planting also may affect roots. holds small size well). gardens with deep. Varieties Small. sweet. strong tops. sandy Excess organic debris extremely sweet). Sweetness (hybrid-63 days. inch thick). good color. rich orange color. when planted in early spring. roots. for home inch roots. good flavor. colors early. slender fingerling uniform. nearly coreless). '/2 inch thick. uniform. Imperator: Avenger (hybrid-70 days. of vitamin A) and high in fiber and sugar content. sweet. cool-season biennial that it grown for the smooth. tapered roots. crisp. bright orange. clumps and clods that prevent penetration of the 8-inch roots. long. V/2 inches at shoulder. standard for high-quality . broad-shouldered. and in V Nantes (6-7 inches) Half-long round good for planting in containers soil). Imperator 58 (68 days. or rocky Round 3. coreless). cylindrical. best harvested at the size of a 50-cent piece) and Thumbelina (60 roots. der.to 11-inch roots.to may be soil planted earlier in gardens with sandy soil. excellent flavor. sweet. tapered. Chantenay: Red-Cored Chantenay (70 days.to the seedbed should be worked uniformly to break up roots. tapered thickened root produces in its first growing season. 1992 AAS winner. orange-red. 9. Orlando Gold (hybrid-78 days. tapered slightly to blunt with extremely long roots (Imperator and superior resistance to foliage disease). uniformly thick. (5-6 inches) heavy. good for Carrots are usually planted with other frost-tolerant vegetables as soon as the soil mellows in the spring. Midsummer prized. heavy yield. small core. l'/2 inches thick. Danvers: Danvers Half-Long (75 days. sweet. deep orange color. tip). sweet "baby" carrots that are Carrots are eaten both raw stored for winter use. and Tendersweet (75 days. indistinct core. Varieties tip. sativas. tender. good for juice). few off-types. Gold Pak (76 days. tender. rich. very uniform. Little Finger (65 days. golden orange. carrots. excellent internal color. heavy or shallow They soils). They Novelty: Belgium White (75 days. tops withstand heat). carota var. tapered and cooked. very mild flavor. 5-inch crisp). 9 to 10 inches long). good and Short 'n Sweet (68 days. broad at the shoul- tapered to blunt and Royal Chantenay (70 When to Plant days. Ingot (hybrid-70 days. and Touchon (70 days. toler- ant to cracking). productive. Nantes: Bolero (hybrid-70 days. and Minicor (55 days. tapered roots. medium top). thick roots. long. white roots. 6-inch roots. slightly tapered. heavier Dan- inches to allow development of the canot roots. broad at Imperator (9-10 inches) Finger shoulder. much more carotene). interior. flavor). and flavorful. Round: Orbit (58 days to harvest. 7. good for heavy or poor (3-4 inches) soil). Legend (hybrid-65 days. short. vigorous). 4-inch roots. tapered shape.

Other varieties "broccoflower. or used as a salad delicacy. and Answers my carrots to turn green is warmer. diameter of planting). seed planted every 6 to 12 inches can A single radish What causes on the crown It mark the row. cut off the tops 1 inch above the root. keep the tiny seedlings from burning off Young carrot seedlings are weak and grow slowly first It is Cauliflower Cauliflower. heavy and dark green pieces in the cooked prodCut away the green portion. sunburning can be avoided by pulling a small amount of loose soil up to the row when the emerge. " See "Bacterial and page 4 7. is a essential to keep weeds under control for the few weeks. or (more frequently) from planting a soil that was be allowed to develop to and be harvested poorly prepared. In many areas. sand in an underground or stored in the garden in Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant seeds V4 to V2 a pit insulated with straw (see pages 167 and 168). A. buried in lightly moist cellar. some shade may be necessary to at the soil line. Cauliflower does not tolerate may not be strong enough to withstand actu- as much heat or cold as cabbage or grow as well as broc- being pulled from the ground. when they are about roots are swelling (about 40 to 50 days after planting). mature for canning or freezing. and use the rest of the root. Finger carrots are coli in dry weather. may be necessary to supply water by sprinkling. Twisting too thickly and intertwining result from seeding and inadequate thinning of seedlings. no seedlings 1 may inch When the tops are healthy. Summer-planted carrots may be left in the ground until a killing frost. To assure germination of successive plantings during the late spring and summer months. its rela- when the roots It is more demanding to grow well than most of /2 inch in diameter. Space rows 12 to 18 inches apart. Forking may result from attacks of root-knot be harvested young. moist soil. packing the soil surface. . Later sowings may and be planted l /2 to 'A inch deep when the soil is dryer Questions Q. " known as "aster yellows. Under usual conditions. Deep cultivation may injure the roots. eaten raw with dips. tall. and the seedIf may not emerge uniformly. Remove the film diately when it seedlings appear. What causes my carrots to have fine hairy roots. with forked and twisted roots? A. Harvesting Carrots can be harvested or "pulled" are at least carrot tops ally l pickled. In the heat of summer. This condition called "sunburning. rains occur (top) of the root? causes an uct. off-flavor after sowing. poor color. remove the Recently. viral disease Covering diseases. tives in the cabbage family. Cultivate shallowly with a knife-blade cultivator or hoe. one or two seedlings per inch Q. Why are my carrots misshapen. three seeds per inch) in early spring. For carrots to be stored. Flavor and texture are also rated excellent. carrots keep 4 to 6 months. the specialty market has seen a boom in usually ready to harvest within 50 to 60 days. A inch (about 60 to 70 days after a 3." which is really a form of cauliflower with should be allowed to grow until they have reached a at least 3 green-pigmented heads. and one seedling per for larger varieties like to 2 inches will nematodes (see page 4 1). Q.64 MAJOR VEGETABLES week period. the row with clear polyethylene film (see page 36) the soil warms imme- and conserves moisture. botrytis. " Germination requires lings as long as 2 weeks. These types are easier to grow because they do not require blanching. Under inch deep (no more than two or proper storage conditions. These conditions are caused by a viral Care Carrots germinate best in warm. a heavy mulch allows harvest of carrot roots throughout the winter. Brasska oleracea var. and a bitter taste? A. Thin the seedlings. Some gardeners place a straw mulch over the row so that carrots can be harvested until the ground freezes solid.to 4- They then may be harvested over . and digging helps to roots without damage. from stones. from deep and close in Danvers and Chantenay that full size cultivation. Carrots may be placed in a refrigerator. cool-season vegetable that can be cooked. to no more than three seedlings per inch for finger for carrots that will 1 carrots. for control recommendations. and place in storage at 32°F with high humidity.

MA30R VEGETABLES 65 Varieties Open-Pollinated: Self-Blanche (71 days to harvest. Serrano (70 days. Any interrup- "Broccoflower": Chartreuse Hybrid tying. Snow Crown (60 days. start seeds indoors or in a pro- Because cauliflower does not ordinarily develop side shoots. large head. Leave a few green outer leaves attached to protect wider spacing for If fall plantings. exceptionally early. 8-inch head. most adaptable self-blanching type). plants. no tion (extreme cold. heat. Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Space plants 18 to 24 inches apart in the row. cold). 8. row for later transplanting. plants tected location 4 to 5 weeks before (see "Planting you need the plants may be disposed of or composted after Dates for Midwest Gardens. Purple: Violet Cauliflower plants should be kept growing vigorously needs no blanching. or 1 or 2 seeds per cell in head quality). and keep them watered during germination and resistant to yellows. 6. it is ready to blanch." pages 45 ual florets can be seen. Harvest the heads by cutting the main stem. The variety Self-Blanche leaves over trait. Plant seeds l U . is the heat of the summer but not some so early that injured named for its natural tendency to curl its by the cold. these varieties blanch very well. Always use young. For harvest. lime green. Transplant the seedlings to the (65 days.) Cauliflower is more sensitive to Tie the outer leaves together over the center of the plant to protect the the cold than cabbage-family relatives. 6-inch heads protected by heavy leaf cover). excellent leaf cover. the head begins to form (shows 2 to 3 inches and fall crops. Several other varieties possess this almost impossible to achieve. 7- inch heads with excellent leaf protection. improved Snow Crown permanent location cell in the garden. drought. Transplant autumn cauliflower about the fertilizer (see especially when maturing in the fall. greenish yellow curd) (62 days. Candid Charm (65 days. purple head." page 28). to y2 inch deep (10 seeds per inch) in a seed heads are harvested. tight curd. (See the of white curd at the growing point). good for small gardens and short seasons). results with inferior plants are almost always disappointing. Snow Grace growth of seedlings. no tying. In seasons. Care Queen Hybrid (70 days. quality deteriorates rapidly. Side-dress nitrogen fertilizer (see page 20) Cauliflower best started from transplants for both when the plants are half grown. that compromise may be Use its head. Hybrid: Andes (68 days. transplants so that they grow and never cease growth. or plant damage) can and Green Goddess Hybrid abort development of the edible portion. active trans- Harvesting The cauliflower head's curd develops rapidly under It Never buy stunted plants started in flats and held too long before transplanting. to 48. Under cool and tying is same time as fall cabbage. good taste. Start the actively until transplanting unnecessary. see "Starting Plants at fall Home. Cut the heads before they become overmature plants are not available. especially in fall crops) and Snowball Y Improved (68 days. page its 26. does not need tying. page 20) when transplanting. Do not transplant sooner than 2 to When 3 weeks before the average frost-free date in the spring. type). Transplants less grown in Snow King (50 days. "ricey" appearance. turns green when cooked).to 7-inch heads. (65 days. maps. and White Corona (30 days. The mature heads should be compact.to 4-inch heads. flats. starter conditions. usually yield superior results. II from the seedling stage through harvest. grows 6 to 8 inches in diameter and is ready to harvest within 7 to 12 days after blanching begins. Cauliflower must have a consistent and ample supply of When spring to Plant is soil moisture. Large plants that never develop a head are extremely disappointing. packs suffer much shock when planted and heat tolerant). or you wish to grow your and develop a coarse. proper growing conditions. and white. Use the firm.to 9-inch heads. very early. easy to grow). 3. if the heads. tolerant of heat. It is important head from sunburn and to keep it from to start cauliflower early enough that it matures before it is turning green and developing an off-flavor. excellent protection). Once individ- own transplants.

or (100 days. smaller curds? A. Originally. Hercules (100 days. juicy. Late plantings are sometimes difficult to grow. Leaf: Dinant (150 days. flavorful petioles that are usually formed into tight upright rosettes. uniform. develop poorly. duke. celery was available only a short temperature. medium green. sturdy plant). (See the maps. For It by wet conditions. dry summer conditions. but now. and Ventura (100 days. tender. by drought. and fertility. Celery prefers maturing season. dark green. Various organic soil was mentioned food crop in 1623 for mulching materials may help maintain even ture. bushy. Self-Blanching: Golden Plume (90 days. yellows tolerant). top Matador (105 days. grown in the same is way as regu- When and flats to Plant size. Growth can be interrupted by plants' heavy plant. dark green. Why does my late cauliflower fail to make satisfactory flavor) and Leaf Celery. black rot (page 61). elery Celery. Starlet (110 days. 1 good taste. but since seed germination and seedling difficult. blanching. retain color when cooked). is a supplies of moisture and nutrients. parsley. tall. Give the plants ample water. being held too long. full Q. or 15 inches apart in all directions in beds. fall. solid. by too much chilling before or after transplanting. compact). resistant to fusarium races and 2). and Answers in 70 (98 days. early weed control is extremely Care Celery requires rich soil and abundant and regular Apium graveolens var. What causes browning of the curd? A. weeks for germination. with specialized growing areas around the country and improved storage. and do not plant late cauliflower plants too close together. interrupted. it is available throughout the year. tolerant to fusarium). as a and good at searching for nutrients or water. It resembles cauliflower appearance a long season of growth. dark green.) Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Space plants 12 to 18 inches apart in rows 3 feet apart. and keep moist. sow seeds for your area. This condition is caused by downy mildew. Celery plants are not member parsnips.66 MAJOR VEGETABLES Common growth is Problems Cabbage worms (see Varieties page 62). page 26. of extreme heat as the heads form. Allow 2 early crops. medium green. can be produced in much preferably in a cool. Raised-bed culture and any other cultural sow seed in February or March. Q. mois- France. The purple head turns green and transplanted into the garden when they tall. water-. . If Green: Florida 683 (100 days to harvest. tall. Purple cauliflower that is actually a type of brocin overall Because celery has a small seed slow germination. takes 10 to 12 weeks to get plants ready for the so count back- measures that encourage good minimize the risk soil and air drainage also help ward from the average latest frost to determine when to from this disease. can be controlled through the use of a suggested fungicide. Downy mildew. crop. growth before transplanting. extra semi-smooth. yellows tolerant). Celery is grown for the crisp. of the It same family first as carrots. it A labor-. plants should be started in and does not require when cooked. numerous thin stalks. compact. heads? A. moist season. Utah 52- Questions Q. cauliflower? A. growth are slow. These conditions are caused when cauliflower matures during hot weather. Novelty: Pink and Red (both color up best in hardier than green types. yellow) and Golden Self-Blanching (115 days. extrayields). which is brought on Cover seeds with to 4 y8 to y4 inch of soil. The young plants often do not become well established under hot. shorter plant. Picador tall. Celery may be direct-seeded. field. the head and separation of the head into loose. are about 3 inches Q. and nutrient-intensive of the United States. causing hardening and cessation of petioles. the heads may not develop or may medium smooth green). Try to causes leaves time maturity dates of cauliflower to minimize the risk What long petioles. lar coli Is purple cauliflower purple.

unstalks are is family that can be grown successfully as a vegetable blanched flavor. if An alternative method then. a multiple fruit with inside. fleshy leafstalks can be used for this purpose. chard "seed" actually a dried berry. Perpetual. Like beets. Chard does well on any spinach can grow. so late-spring plantings that mature in autumn where usually give best results except in mild areas cool. but and late blight are three most gardeners plant seeds early spring to midspring. Cardboard. crisp. it is not available in food markets. leaving a Delay setting plants bolting has been the garden until the season has settled a inches problem in . tight A: Plants wrong? up seedstalks rather than probunches of leafstalks. Chard. Harvesting To produce celery resembling that found in food stores. they are large enough for greens (6 to 8 harvest the excess plants whole. large. or Yellow Midrib (mixed): Rainbow. should not be used to blanch in rots. and Ruby. may be planted which wonderful for cooking but virtually inedis early because the seedlings are tolerant to moderate host. Many gardeners above the root at the base of the plant. and the as and check at intervals to see how blanching is light greenish midribs or stalks asparagus. warm seasons as Varieties encourages Red Midrib: Burgundy. is a member It of the beet the leaf stalks must be "blanched. with broad. Tie the paper in place with twine. Because chard because well. My celery ducing nice. flat-leaf parsley much like When to Plant soil but with the distinctive celery flavor. fresh greens Chard produces throughout the summer. very strong in Leaf types are used green as seasonings. The plant. Lucullus. green leaf the topmost foliage exposed. boards. in rows A inch deep enough apart is can be minimized in infested tolerant varieties. for leaf ible fresh out of hand. and has few production problems. or red. 2 to far 3 Fusarium or yellows is a fairly soils common by using disease that resistant or (8 to 10 seeds per foot of row). moist winters produce the best is celery.MAJOR VEGETABLES 67 in a cool season. Weed control throughout the season is very important as celery a poor competitor and is quickly affected by compet- ing weed growth. Beta vulgaris (also var. This more than one seed difficult makes precision seeding and makes Questions Q. or may be started inside and is trans- Common Pink rot. Thin the seedlings to 4 to 6 inches apart." Green. leaving In the garden. yielding a pale central bunch without any is tying and blanching. wrap paper around the may be blades. planted to the garden after the danger of frost past. in is to thin the seedlings to 2 to 3 inches apart. When stalks reach a uniform Chard an attractive ornamental that adds to like to yellow color. Check Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting For seeding outdoors. problems occur. Plants where beets. Blanching accomplished by Chard is essentially a beet that has at the been selected excluding light over a period while the plants continue growing. when tall). fully green foliage normally White. Good air circulaIf and drainage can help avoid infection. directly into the garden in fungal diseases that tion may attack celery. for proper cultivation. Rhubarb. whole plants just may be harvested by cutting the beauty of a garden. may be cooked is in the same manner grow progressing. white. lettuce. paper. fungicide treatments may be necessary. Problems early blight. and Winter King. Red. even in southern locations. Self-blanching types are naturally pale in color tight-growing. dark green and have a very strong green in most parts of the country. yields plants blanched too long try to harvest as Soil it become very is susceptible to rots. What went set out too early and exposed to too-cold to seed. soon as blanching complete. The leaf blades are prepared like spinach. Geneva. White and Midrib: Fordhook Giant. yellow. cicla known as swiss chard). or even hilled-up soil production expense of storage root formation. plant seeds '/ labels for available effective products. Any flavor. Large White BroadRibbed. conditions may bolt prematurely past years. and Answers plants sent thinning more often necessary for a proper stand.

sowing seeds of heading types directly in the garden Varieties There are two more or less distinct for the seedlings to may not allow enough time grow before warm summer days stim- forms: pe tsai. wong bok). a heading type that resembles Cos lettuce but grows larger and denser. to Michihli Pe Tsai: Green Rocket (hybrid-65 days. in an extremely early spring. upright michihli type and the shorter. heat resistant. good for spring summer good planting). slow to Choi (hybrid-45 days. Orange Queen (hybrid-75 days. deep plants should be set in the garden 9 to 12 inches apart. Be careful not to damage the terminal bud. chinensis): Joi petioles. fuzzier. upright. tall. cool-season salad vegetable closely related to mustard. good for spring or crop).) Except to form desirable heads. cold tolerant. The name "Chinese cabbage" misleading is When to Plant it is because this hardy. 16-inch heads. multiple-disease resistance. in loose. white petioles. best in cool seasons). transplant 2 to 3 weeks before the frost-free date still cabbage. solid early. long. cold tolerant. Mei Quing Choi (hybrid-45 days. green heads with orange interior. large. multiple-disease resistance. long). very disease tolerant). Its more For best development. com- pact plant). or winter crop). very small. Jade Pagoda while they are young and tender (about 8 to 12 inches (hybrid-70 days. fall. good for fall crops). and its leaves the plants are best started in individual containers are thinner. there are types: a tall. green foliage. and more delicate than those of peat pellets or pots). white bolt. not cabbage. sweet flavor. medium green petioles and leaf blades. dark green leaves. page 26. dark center of the bottom of the growing rosette of foliage. dark green leaves. standard open-pollinated upright variety. Harvesting The most oblong heads). For spring planting. Lei Choi (47 days. known as celery cabbage and is good for warm-season production). resistant to soft rot). (like Chinese cabbage not related to celery). good for spring. early. important that growth not mild flavor be interrupted. early. at the slow to bolt. cut off the outer leaves 1V2 inches above the ground solid heads). Because Chinese cabbage seedlings are may be somewhat similar to that of celery (although is more sensitive to transplanting than cabbage seedlings. best for fall final spacing of 9 to 12 inches between plants. Brassica rapa var.66 MAJOR VEGETABLES Napa Pe to early Tsai: Blues (hybrid-65 days to harvest. bright green heads. broad heads. Brassica rapa var. broader napa type. is an ancient oriental crop that is gaining popularity. Trans- or winter crop). upright a like nonheading type that grows form swiss chard. holds well after picking. Orient Express (hybrid-43 days. and Mi Choi (hybrid-45 Chinese cabbage. China Express (hybrid-64 days. two head cylindrical. slow to bolt. rounded. large. slow-bolting. and Two Seasons (hybrid-62 common method of harvesting chard days. disease resistance. The pak choi varieties are usually more susceptible to early seedstalk formation. Pak Choi (Bok Choy. good for warm-season production). very slow to bolt. many gardeners do not consider and while the plants are growing Chinese cabbage spring sowings fail as a salad vegetable because young (4 to 5 weeks). China Flash (hybrid-55 days. fall China Pride (hybrid-68 days. pekinensis (also days. Unfortunately. smooth. uni- form. tall. dark green leaves. and Monument (hybrid-80 days. extra early. oval heads. (See the maps. very cold tolerant). and pak choi (white mustard cabbage). resistant to bolting is and soft rot). heat. strong. . Within the pe tsai group. white petioles. Michihli (75 days.

which allows enough space for plants to least bage seeded in late spring also goes to seed. choose early varieties. so it cabbage grown as a crop. grows better in warm weather fall heading types. A. Brassica oieracea var. bringing hybrid uniformity and vigor Care Maintain sufficient soil to collards. 15 to acephala (also cabbage). sow seeds directly in any other member of the cabbage collard is it family. then harvest whole plants to give 18 inches between plants. wavy tall. They are Hybrid: Blue Max (68 days. low-growing plant with smooth pound The blanched inner somewhere between mustard and cabbage crisp. long-standing. leaves. mature. and transplant after the last hard frosts in the spring. Top Bunch (67 plant). HiCrop as soon as the first heads begin to become firm. in appearance. /2 inch deep. texture even in hot weather). compact plant. (75 days. savoyed-leaf type). (75 days. start plants in individual containers. Collard. and thin or transplant with tolerant of frost. Chinese cab- touch. delicate in flavor. Especially in spring. compact Common Aphids Problems page 40). heavy and an excellent salad substitute yields).to 5leaves are and Vates leaves). They do good taste. and When to Plant flea beetles (page 40). slow to long. Flash (73 days. care. Allow at 3 feet between rows because plants become large. For l l fall planting. tsai type forms moderately firm. dark green. dark green bolt). For best results. (see cabbage worms (page 62). slow for lettuce or cabbage.MAJOR VEGETABLES 69 ulate seedstalk formation and the plant becomes useless. and again in midsummer for fall and early winter harvest. is known as tree-cabbage or nonheading is a cool-season vegetable green that It rich in 24 inches apart for the larger. and not hold very long in the warm days of early summer. hybrid Vates type). moisture to keep the plants fertilizer (see growing vigorously. can also be grown in northern areas because moist. Georgia LS (75 days. and Answers to form a Why does my Chinese cabbage fail in good Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Sow the seeds U to l l head days. heavy yield potential. which will Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Space plants 12 inches apart for upright varieties such as Michihli. slightly savoyed. for the variety chosen. a popular substitute for cabbage in the Deep it is Thin to the proper spacing the soil Keep South. 2. Plant in early spring for summer harvest. Care If you maintain ample soil moisture during hot peri- ods in the collards summer and control insect and disease pests. and 8 to 12 inches apart for loose-leaf or and can tolerate more cold weather in the late than bok choy types. Thin the seedlings to to Chinese cabbage quickly goes to seed during warm summer 6 inches apart. the spring? Instead it sends up an early seedstalk. produce an abundant harvest. Morris Heading (80 days. Although the garden U to /2 inch deep and 3 to 4 inches apart. good cold Harvesting The pak choi type develops leaves. Varieties fall have been developed specifically for spring or choose one that matches the season in be grown. Start seeds fall midsummer crops. Hybrid varieties only very recently have been introduced. days. begin harvest to bolt). tolerance). early. The pe heads. loose. . broader vitamins and minerals. Side-dress nitrogen page 20) Varieties Open-Pollinated: when the plants are half grown. allow them grow until they begin to Dry weather accelerates the process. Questions Q. Champion (60 days to harvest. Thinned plants may be eaten. Chinese cabbage develops best during cool weather and in is an excellent vegetable for Chinese for fall gardens. long dark green leaves. Heavi-Crop (65 days.

As with other cole crops. Even then. run back to the pot. does the toughness of the seed coat. Supersweet hybrids contain the shrunken-2 gene and have a higher sugar content than the standard SU Common Aphids varieties. home all gardeners because Some gardeners prefer the young. Sweet Sweet corn. and more tender than less initial field corn. In the garden. cook patch. and eat or process immediately. cabbage sugar to starch. is soluble polysaccharides that impart the creamy texture and "corny" flavor to other sweet corn varieties. run to the and husk the corn.70 MAJOR VEGETABLES types sweeter varieties eties. It is especially popular with home it is The supersweet hybrids generally for gardeners because it tastes appreciably better when optimal germination. is home sometimes possible but not always practi- The old adage was "start the water boiling. This gene makes these or more. This harvesting tenderness. sugary enhancer Their pollen types. husked. Zea mays rugosa. have eating quality that tying the outer leaves together to isolation frost is superior to is other types.to diseases (page 61). shipped. warm they may not require soil harvested and eaten fresh from the garden. fertility. Plants grown 6 inches apart can be cut at ground content above standard SUs while retaining the tenderness level and creamy texture of standard sugar allows varieties. No keep out the sun. not especially affects the quality on the as cob. or a warm-season vegetable that can be grown grow- mechanically harvested. weak and supplanted by other to revert to a and supersweet (Sfv?). Fresh from the garden. ing season. improves from standard SUs necessary. SEs are superior in eating quality to SI12S. this cal. For this reason. this isolation distance can be 500 feet texture of the kernels. which causes the kernel Standard sweet corn varieties contain gene" that is a "sugary (SU) the toughness and starchiness of field corn. Successive plantings can yield continual harvest from early until frost if emerge uniformly. is it Although the lack of creamy texture noticeable in fresh corn of frozen var. when better suited for short-term refrigerated storage. and eaten within a very short time. should be isolated from any other type of corn tasseling at the Sweet corn may be (SE). The the plants are 10 to 12 inches tall. SEs are the for gourmet corns of choice for later use. causing that later a stand of mixed-age seedlings summer do not pollinate together. form with according to genetic background: normal sugary (SU). Because corn is responsible for the sweetness and creamy original wind-pollinated. Sugary have kernel sugar than SE or Sh2 varitheir sugars to starch and they rapidly convert once ears are picked. easily in any garden with sufficient light. which significantly raises the sugar harvested at any time during the growing season. Supersweets (SI12) the weather cooperates. method allows the younger leaves to continually develop and texture are outstanding. 3-day distance shipping. This "loose head" may be blanched by the flavor in the fall. Plants left at initial spacing should be harvested by picking the larger leaves them to hold sweetness longer and be taste. tender leaves and they contain the best qualities of both SU and SI12 types. tough- skinned texture and contain low amounts of the water- Com. where long-distance shipping is routine. and space. and canned corn. these varieties have taken over the winter production areas of the South. Unless corn must be stored. These hybrids hold their sweetness much (see worms (page 62). The kernels of the extra-sweet varieties have a crispy. . The Sh£ gene greatly slows the conversion of Problems page 40). and longer than SU or SE types and are ideally suited for 2. divided into three distinct types same time is to ensure sweetness easily and tenderness. Higher they reach 6 to 10 inches in height. SUs are best suited to being picked." green parts of the plant are edible and may be when wider Sugary enhancer hybrids contain the sugary enhancer (SE) gene. especially downwind. pick Harvesting All the corn. virtually current SE releases all cut the inner rosette of young growth.

tender kernels. excellent 9"— 8 rows appearance. resistant to bacterial ears. large ears. easy snapping Platinum Lady Silver 86 days 92 days 8V2" — 1 4 rows to 16 rows delicate flavor. good cold-soil tolerance vigorous. relatively small ears. excellent quality. Stewart's wilt Pristine 8 to 9"— 1 6 rows terrific eating quality. tender. tenderness.MAJOR VEGETABLES 71 STANDARD Yellow Earlivee (SU) Harvest 58 days 7" Ear size Comments extra early 1 Golden Cross Bantam 85 days lochief Jubilee 86 days 82 days — 8" — 8" — 8" — 8"— 7" 1 4 rows 2 to 4 rows 6 rows 1 old home-garden variety 1 4 to 1 popular midseason variety high yield. attractive ears. compact ears Snow Snow 1 2 rows excellent husk cover. Seneca Starshine 7 to 8" — — — 1 6 rows blocky ears. excellent tip cover. tasty ears very early. holding ability. cool-soil tolerance. flavorful ears. excellent for canning 1 6 rows 8 to 20 rows NK-199 Seneca Horizon 84 days 65 days 1 extremely thick. texture. superior disease resistance Sugar Buns Terminator — — 1 4 rows rows 6 to 20 rows deep kernels 83 days 75 days 9"— 20 7V2 " 1 Tuxedo excellent early vigor. excellent tenderness. prefers 50°F or higher germination soil temperature for Seneca White Knight Snowbelle Spring 74 days 8 to 9"— 1 6 rows high quality. handsome ears White Pearl White 75 days 8"— 1 2 to 1 6 rows good cool-soil and drought tolerance. excellent eating. disease tolerance. easy snapping 84 days 84 days 66 days 9"— 20 9V2 7" " 1 to 22 rows 1 superior flavor. long shelf excellent flavor. great taste 79 days 65 days 71 days 7 to 8" 7 to 8" 1 4 to 1 6 rows creamy kernels. attractive ears. good tipfill 67 days 72 days 7"— 7y2 " 4 rows 1 easy snapping. 1 good ear appearance stalks Cotton Candy Divinity 7 to 8"— 1 6 to 8 rows extended harvest. tolerant to Stewart's wilt. pretty. excellent quality. elegant ears Queen 8 to 9"— 14 dark green flag leaves. high-quality wilt and Helminthosporium Bicolor Bi Queen 92 days 75 days 8 to 9" 7" — 1 1 6 rows like a bicolor Silver Queen & Sugar Honey & Cream Butter — 1 4 rows 2 to 1 popular for home garden 80 days 64 days 7"— Tlz 1 4 rows sweet. yield life Kandy Korn Maple Sweet Merlin Miracle 89 days 70 days — 14 to 16 rows 7y — 4 to 6 rows " 2 1 1 purplish red-streaked ear flags. long. ears snap easily. attractive white corn. very tender compact plant Sugar Telstar 8 to 8" 9"— 1 1 6 rows extremely sweet. easy snapping Precocious Spring Treat — 6 to 8 row — 2 to 4 rows 1 1 1 good holding quality. tolerant to Stewart's wilt flavor. like a white Incredible — — 6 rows 1 excellent eating. prefers cooler-season areas SUGARY EXTENDER Yellow Bodacious (SE) 72 days Champ Incredible 68 days 83 days 8"— 8"— 8 to 8" 1 6 to 6 to 1 1 8 rows 8 rows superior flavor. attractive ears. large. 78 days 76 days 71 days 8" 6 rows snow white color. attractive ear 79 days — 6 rows . and smut White Alpine 79 days 8"— 8 to 8" 6 rows 1 widely adapted. with pure white kernels. slender. tip cover big. rust. straight rows of kernels excellent flavor. very early. with reddish tinge. reddish green excellent flavor. tight husks earliest Quickie — 2 rows to 1 SU bicolor Sugar & Gold 67 days 6V2"— 1 2 rows husk green. early season vigor. standard. narrow kernels. tolerant to drought. snow white kernels. tender. dark green flag leaves. ear size. deep. appearance. good tipfill. excellent eating quality. tolerant to Stewart's wilt. prefers warm soil 1 1 excellent eating quality. attractive. tasty. excellent yield. husk cover. attractive. silks easily removed — 1 6 to 1 8 rows excellent quality Sundance 69 days 7Vz"— 14 rows 7 to best cold-soil tolerance. attractive ear Argent Avalanche 86 days 78 days 72 days 9"— 1 6 rows good cold-soil vigor.

attractive. superior eating quality. good tipfill Lancelot 80 days 73 days 8"— 8"— 8"— 1 6 to 8 rows vigorous. you use special soil-warming protection film. Early Xtra Sweet 1 6 rows 1 like the original. easy to harvest Gold Xtra Sweet 8V2"— 1 6 rows midseason supersweet the original excellent large ear lllini 85 days 83 days 83 days Jubilee Supersweet 8"— 9"— 8" 4 to 1 6 rows SH2 supersweet hybrid 1 8 rows home-garden supersweet on short plant. 1 8 rows 6 rows 1 sweet. strong plants excellent early bicolor. good disease resistance. seedling vigor good germination. excellent disease resistance.) maps. adapts to variety of growing conditions 9"— 8"— 8V " 2 1 8 rows high yield. outstanding eating quality Showcase White Aspen 83 days Camelot 86 days It Is 9"— 8"— 8 to 8 to 1 1 6 rows large. The maturity dates are rela- supersweet varieties). plant vigor Varieties When varieties listed here (like nearly all sweet to Plant Most of the Sweet corn requires warm soil for germination (above corn sold today) are hybrids. high eating quality 20 rows clean. (See the such as clear polyethylene mulch page 26. tenderness excellent eating quality.72 MAJOR VEGETABLES SUGARY EXTENDER Ambrosia Calico Belle (SE) continued Ear size Comments good spring vigor. beautiful ears excellent seedling emergence. tasty ears. They are arranged by genetic type tive 55°F for standard sweet corn varieties and about 65°F for and kernel color. sturdy plants. excellent quality Phenomenal Radiance — 18 rows 8V2" — 6 rows 8" — 6 to 8 rows 1 1 1 smooth. flags. . creamy texture Honey 'N Hudson 78 days 83 days 85 days 73 days 8V2"— 1 6 rows 988 AAS winner. but earlier Excel lllini 82 days 79 days — 1 6 rows exceptionally high yield. holds quality well Pegasus Treasure 8Y2"— 1 8 rows cold-soil germination. well-filled ears. fairly large. tolerant to Stewart's wilt & Cream 83 days 73 days 1 8 rows popular home-garden variety. vigor 83 days 8V2"— 1 8 rows 9" vigor. good tip cover. good good sensitive to cold soil. vigorous plant. excellent quality. a bicolor Incredible Gem Tell 8 to 9"— 6 to 8 rows excellent eating quality. stress-tolerant plant. excellent-quality ears. high-quality ears under adverse conditions Medley Peaches 1 6 rows 6 to 1 dark green tasty. the mean frost- from year to year and location to location. or just before. attractive ears. tender. delicious superior quality in taste. usually double ears stalks on Kiss 68 days 7 to 8" — 1 4 to 1 1 6 rows two ears per stalk. seedling emergence Bicolor Aloha Dazzle 82 days — 1 6 rows 6 to 1 excellent appearance 82 days Pearl 8"— 8" 1 8 rows good-looking 1 ear. tasty ears. good ear protection Seneca Brave Seneca Dawn 69 days 8"— 8 to 20 rows 7 to 8"— 4 to 6 rows 1 1 1 husky. holding traits How Sweet 85 days 85 days 8" — 1 6 rows AAS winner. 1 dark green husk. good yields. blocky ears. good attractive dark like green ears Double Delight Double 'N — 1 large. 75 days 79 days 71 days 8" — 1 6 rows 6 to 1 tolerant to Stewart's wilt D'Artagnan Diamonds & Cold 79 days 85 days 74 days 8"— 8"— 8"— 9" 1 8 rows high yield. good vigor. eating quality SUPERSWEET (SH 2 ) Yellow Challenger Crisp 'N Sweet 76 days 85 days 70 days Vli"- excellent early SH2. Early plantings of standard sweet because the actual number of days to harvest varies corn should be free date unless made at. stands well. good disease tolerance 1 6 rows an early SE bicolor tipfill.

silking. drought resistant Stowell's Evergreen 1 9" ears. should be protected from possible (field. Plantings can be made week of July. a second early variety. traditional corn taste 75 days 7" ears. ous planting. small ears. high yields Bicolor Double Standard 73 days 7" ears. moist soils recommended for home gardens. Removing these time consuming and does not improve yields. 8 to 1 rows vigorous. free- dom ear. and Incredible (83 days) a second planting for the main-crop and are starchy. or sugar content field Tuxedo (75 days) second early vari- variety. Side-dress nitrogen page 20) cross-pollination flint). kernels not in rows very tender. flavor. Chemical herbicides are not Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant the kernels (seeds) y2 inch deep in cool. tips of the ears. and 1 to V/2 inches deep in warm. tender to 1 4 rows White Country Gentleman 96 days 00 days 7" ears. is many varieties produce This second ear first ear. droughty conditions during pollination result in between rows. sweet white kernels stage. lack of water yield. 1 2 to 1 4 rows first bicolor open-pollinated type. For exam- and with any other corn. shoe-peg type. Cross-pollination between Make and successive plantings of yellow and white sweet corn varieties of the same type affects your favorite main-crop or four leaves have appeared late variety when three to only the appearance of the white corn. All sweet corns missing kernels. good cold-soil germination. ety. 1 Comments 2 rows good rich cold-soil germination. If by other types of corn pop. insects. not the on the seedlings in the previas late as the first eating quality. Although at critical periIf corn is a warm-weather crop. drought tolerant.MAJOR VEGETABLES 73 OPEN-POLLINATED (SU) Yellow Ashworth Harvest 69 days 82 days Ear size 6 to 7" ears. to select Sundance (69 days) for the for the sweet corns. good Black Black Aztec tenderness. plan your garden arrangement and planting summer. juicy. including nonSh2 corn do not develop a high you may wish early variety. Supersweet varieties pollinated by standard sweet corn. Care Cultivate shallowly to control weeds. Allow 30 to 36 inches Hot. dark blue-black at maturity. from weeds. Under good growing conditions (correct spacing. plant an early variety. 1 corn sweet. in roasting-ear good for blue corn meal For a continuous supply of sweet com throughout the varieties. dry soils. Plant two or thoroughly during emergence of the ears. first a main-crop variety in the planting. or you plant supersweet or synergistic sweet corn when the plants are Some sweet corn 12 to 18 inches varieties produce more side shoots side shoots is or "suckers" than others. popcorn. and adequate a second later moisture and fertility). and poor development of the fertilizer (see tall. Space ods can seriously reduce quality and deficient. rainfall is the kernels 9 to 12 inches apart in the row. flavor. 1 8 to 20 rows big. more rows pollination of each variety side by side to ensure good and maturation of the and ear development. usually smaller and develops than the . ripens over long period Trucker's Favorite 95 days 8 to 9" ears. Harvesting Each cornstalk should produce at least one large ear. irrigate tassels. good flavor for an early type Golden Bantam 6 to 7" ears. 14 rows delicious white kernels. first schedule so as to prevent cross-pollination between these varieties and ple. white kernels. and diseases.

The and more frequently in the southern Corn earworms problem in sweet corn every states not severe after cold winters or If when resis- year. At European corn borers damage ears. especially field where corn is grown. and they must be applied may carry European corn borer (1 Stewart's bacterial wilt disease (see next paraearly to graph). and summer temperatures. susceptible vari- stunting. Beetles multiply in early plantings of check frequently to make sure that the kernels do not field corn. Corn earworms deposit eggs silks develops as a swollen black pustule infects the tassel. but usually have severe trol good resistance. Cut or harvest. processed. cobs develop firmness of the unhusked ears. Flea beetles (see page 40) often attack early in the Corn earworm (1 spring as the corn plants emerge through the beetles can be quite soil. inch) Stewart's wilt is a bacterial disease spread by the flea beetle. and the juice in the kernel appears milky when interferes with pollination. twist. become too mature and doughy. or refrigerated as soon as possible. and cient to remove silk before pollination. infestation is suffi- browning of the silks. The before the trol in worms enter the channel. This stage occurs about 20 days after the appear- —helps to decrease the damage. taken as the silk emerges and one or more times every is downward push. This disease causes yellow streaks in the leaves. Flea V2 inches) damaging when numerous. As harvest time approaches. Control measures must be To harvest. snap firm. down into the ear. galls worm is inside the protective husk covering. ings usually suffer the greatest damage. Once the during tasseling. is earworm damage unless timely conIt Smut caused by a fungus that invades the kernels. The kernels are smooth and Corn rootworm damage.74 MAJOR VEGETABLES Sweet corn ears should be picked during the "milk stage" husk with a rubber band or clothespin appears. Later plant- punctured with a thumbnail. mature. The remainder is 3 days apart until the silks are brown. 5-day intervals. Place in the garbage or burn them. Other cate signs that indi- tender sweet corn. For good conseveral applications 2 to smut is not poisonous. but it is unpleasant to handle. plant. ear. and pull. The sometimes Some sweet corn and is tiny caterpillars follow the silks tip. or inserting mineral oil in the silk tube ('/2 after the silk when the kernels are fully formed but not fully medicine dropperful) mature. and migrate to plantings of young. Corn borers also may bore into the cob and be found and put them compost Cut the stalks after cooking. off the ears by hand with a quick. Silk and the young. Remove and destroy smut they are moist and firm. Sweet corn remains in the milk stage less than a week. heavy infestations. A suggested insecticide must be applied silk near the garden. Earlier plantings are not badly infested in areas later harvests tant varieties are planted. green leaves are preferred feeding sites. tassels. possible. without a full set of kernels. there is no Do not discard these galls in or effective control. where are more tolerant to smut than others. corn borers bore into the decreases and the starch increases. the sugar in sweet corn quickly As their name indicates. A suggested insecticide can be applied at in 1-foot lengths or shred them to hasten decay. Suggested insecticides control flea beetles. If when the corn is ready for harvest are drying and fullness of the tip kernels. beetles ance of the first silk strands. The ears should be 3 days until pollination complete. which may cause extensive silk plump. restricts Anything that the worm — such as tightening the tip of the . eaten. and death of young plants of disease occurs is Common Problems are a eties. stalks. beginning when eggs hatch in June. extremely dry or hot weather occurs with the largest devouring any others present. after and the stalks break over when damage is severe. Spray applications for earworms usually give adequate control of corn borers. make Break off the infected part of the suitable for eating. Smut occurs most Only one corn earworm will be frequently on white varieties often severe just before when and while found per ear because the caterpillars are cannibalistic. tender. pull out the cornstalks in a immediately pile. plant varieties with where the pest does not overwinter. (gall) in measures are followed. the ear and varieties on the developing they feed on the or on the leaves near the ear.

plastic for fully pull 2 to 4 weeks. stress). under the care- uniform. Salad fruit Bush (hybrid-57 days. Sow the seed more and thin if Fungicide seed treatments may also be helpful. bushy great taste. satinis. Do allow cucumbers to be grown for slicing. delicious. Q. wet soil. not for the Deep South). on dwarf. Unseasonable heat can quickly cook and young uniform. How can I keep raccoons out of my sweet corn? A. for container growing. days. dark green disease resistant. gynoecious. About 5 days are first silks warm-season vegetable that produces well when required for complete pollination after the vest begins appear. dark fruit. straight multiple-disease resistance). These conditions may be overcome by Q. more 86 the best the (56 days. Questions Q. Slice fruit deep). What vine. Green. ready to harvest. scab). AAS many methods are employed. The fence must be operating well in advance of the time that the corn approaches maturity Raccoons prefer to eat sweet corn stage. Straight 8 (58 days. proper and planting rows in blocks of two or more for more complete in dry weather. is a How long first does it take sweet corn to develop from the appearance of silks to harvest? A. The most successful seems to be an electric fence made with two wires. 6. and Space Master (56 plants. long. very productive. one about 4 inches above ground level and the other at 12 inches. varieties Q. Calypso (hybrid-52 days. . although mosaic. the original sweet.to 8-inch fruit plants). dark green fruits with white spines. Use 1 . evenly hot. Slicing (compact plant): Bush Crop (55 days. This time generally is about 2 to 3 days before the sweet corn reaches peak eating quality. and cover 2-mil film 3 feet wide. uniform 8-inch on compact plants. planting at tance). dark green. european-style slicing cucumber. left Master (hybrid-58 days. The germination of my lllini Xtra Sweet is low. and Turbo (hybrid-67 days. neces- even in small garden plots. top quality. around the seeds. first. 8-inch fruit on space-saving good Pickling: Bush Pickle (48 days. Choose an shallowly (about '/? early maturing variety. green. and Answers Cucumber. earlier is way to grow than Marketmore 76). the spring. favorite. high yield. ears fill Varieties Long. Tanfare (hybrid-63 days. The vines of standard varieties about 20 days after first silking. AAS winner. sweet. sweet. straight. Orient Express early corn? A.or and cover the edges and ends to warm The small plants can be film. It is wise to experiment with this technique on a small scale kill Supersett (hybrid-52 days. crisp. Green. Remove the or cut slits and the plants through before the weather becomes too AAS winner. Marketmore 76 (68 days. but before it becomes black and dried out. excellent disease resis- short recommended spacing 12 inches in the row). AAS winner. good tolerance to disease and Slice Sweet seedlings under clear plastic. It is inches long. out to the tips? A. Harvest is when the fungus is expanded. compact plant. very uniform. high yields. plant early and inch (hybrid-64 days. Market- pollination. fruit. blocky. poor fertility. just before it is winner. soil is warm. The seeds of supersweet varieties I Vertical training methods and new dwarf now are shrunken and do not germinate in readily in cold. disease resistant). gynoecious. extended harvest. dependable). and tender). Cucumis tender. gynoe- cious. resistant to downy and powdery virtually impossible to keep raccoons out of a garden. Har- given proper care and protection. good disease resistance). 65 °F.MADOR VEGETABLES 75 The immature smut fungus or "maize mushroom" highly prized in Mexican cooking. chinese-type hybrid. long. and pickling. Sweet Success (hybrid-54 days. fertilization. and poor natural pollination. (hybrid-62 days. planting too close. Slicing: Burpless (hybrid-62 days to harvest. long-time dark green fruit). slender fruit. holds up well under poor growing conditions. watering (9 to Why don't my sweet corn does well on a trellis). Wait until the thickly. excellent flavor. delicious. especially lack of potassium. high yield. Several conditions can cause poor kernel development at the tip of the ear: dry weather during silking and pollination. grow rapidly and require substantial space. How can get a better stand? A. in the early milk Long. crunchy "burpless" type). good disease resistance). bitter-free 10 to 12 mildews. shorter Q. the soil row with clear polyethylene film. adaptable). fruit. tolerant to wide variety of diseases). high yields. Dasher II (hybrid-58 days. salads. not plant too early preferably sary.

to 3-inch. dills. firm. the plants (see "Tomato. burpless varieties are supported. blocky fruits with white spines. adequate moisture becomes especially critical. When fruit National Pickling (54 days. A second planting for fall harvest may be made in midsummer to late summer. fruits Remove from fruits the vine any missed fruits nearing ripeness so that the young continue to develop. is one plant per container. Do not allow cucum- bers to turn yellow. fruit medium green. Cucumbers passed and the by planting seed danger of frost the cucumbers hang free and develop straight directly in the garden. Cucumbers usually containers 3 to 4 weeks before the frost-free date. In small gardens. (See the impractical. easy to digest). disease resistance). and White Wonder plants begin to vine. system. Maine heirloom. compost or straight." page 125).76 MAJOR VEGETABLES in containers or they Pickling do not transplant well. when the sweet. mulching with soil-warming plastic (see early spring or organic materials in plastic summer. small. page of seeds 26. size The cucumber grow rapidly to harvest and should be picked at least every other day. incorporate tapered with black spines). and to V/2 vari- The large. especially combined Lemon (65 with floating row covers. Plant transplants apart in rows 5 to 6 feet apart 1 to 2 feet to and of when they have two A cucumber 1 four true leaves. fruits. . Strike (hybrid-52 days. Use of black Gherkin (60 days. page 77). and thin the seedlings in the Burpless (Salad) to one plant every 12 inches hill row or to three plants (10-14 inches) every 36 inches in the plant row. pickling-shaped fruit with black spines). and proper growth of With ample soil work on the plants when they moisture. peat pellets. light yellow. lemon-sized. begins setting and maturing. 4 to 6 inches long for 6 to 8 inches long for slicing varieties. Slicing (6-8 inches) Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant seeds '/ 2 to 1 inch deep. Do not allow transplants to get too large when it is uniformly green. Sow two or three seeds in peat pots. trolled Cucumber beetles should be con- (60 days. blocky. Like other vine crops. and SMR-58 (58 days. When the long. tender. are wet." page 77).) Warm necessary for germination plants. well-rotted to manure before planting. harvest. nearly round. burpless cucumbers should be inches in diameter and up to 10 inches long. highest quality crisp. crisp. Plant after the soil has Winds whipping the plants can make vertical training has warmed soil is in the spring. spiny is fruit. the vines may be trained on a trellis When to Plant are usually started or fence. straight. Wire cages also can be used for supporting maps. from the "Common Problems. firm. see Q-and-A. Cucumbers respond page 36) in Novelty: Boothby's Blond (63 days. Care Cucumber ample soil Lucky fruit. 2. The best size depends upon the use and variety. or Do not handle. or other Harvesting Pick cucumbers at any stage of development before are eaten the seeds become hard. ivory white. plants have shallow roots all and require medium soil). Thin to when immature. blocky fruit to 8 inches long. straight. eties Some can grow considerably larger. soil If you use transplants. a different give significantly earlier yields. Cucumbers may be transplanted for extra-early yields. straight. For best yields. medium-sized plant with good vigor. them carefully in warm 12 inches apart in the Carolina (hybrid-49 days. from the time that the young seedlings emerge soil (see mild flesh). medium green fruit). white-fleshed fruits. cucumbers do not transplant successfully (2-6 inches) when pulled as bare-root plants. Side-dress nitrogen fertilizer (see page 20) days. dark green seed emerges well in cooler moisture at stages of growth. pale yellow. They may be picked when they are no more than 2 inches long for pickles. which species altogether. cucumbers thrive in warm summer weather. mulch warms the soil in the early season and can if not the true West Indian gherkin.

The small cucumber is evident at the base of the female flower (even before into feres yield. however. prickly sometimes sold as "gherkins. exoticvarieties cucumbers. from poor pollination or low Side-dressing a plete fertilizer may help later cucumbers to develop normally. the seed company Bacterial wilt. Why do some of my plants suddenly wilt and die? Dead or dying plants are scattered all over my cucumber may be healthy. Yes. using conventional varieties for most pickling uses. What are gynoecious hybrids? Cynoecious ("female- flowering") hybrids are special hybrids of slicing and pickling on the undersides of the leaves. Eggplant requires careful attention for a colored. Plants usually are infected with the disease- to popular opinion. unless grown on a trellis. called "burr for pickling. flowers. especially near if cucumbers that are advertised Because they have mixes all vine tips. emerging in time to feed on tender cucumber seedlings. Small-fruited. suggested insecticide. Watch for buildup of colonies Q. with transplants being set in the garden after all danger of frost is past. (see page 40). The yellow flowers appearing on the plants are beetles attack seedlings as they emerge from male flowers that provide pollen. while another symptoms of the bacterial wilt disease. Problems Cucumber beetles (see The beetles Q. small. same time that the cucumbers it is Q. it off. plant the rows far When enough apart the vines wilt and collapse (usually about the first for proper vine growth without overlapping. and Answers small cucumbers are badly misshapen. Crow resistant varieties. they may be earlier and in appear. Questions Q. tasteless. 1 to 3 Eggplants are slightly larger plants than peppers and are and more spiny than cucumbers. It is a close relative of the garden I eggplant similar to that of bell pepper. This disease is spread by cucumber beetles early in the season. although many esculentum (also is known as guinea squash and people peel Most varieties are long (10 to 12 inches) and curved. A. The fruits are generally oval. a fungal disease that late is most severe during should be removed from the vines. and taste bitter. The beetles hibernate among the trash and weeds around the garden. Because cucumbers and melons require causing bacteria long before they show any symptoms. Buy the West Indian gherkin. The beetles also an edible fruit if properly pollinated. What causes the white mold growth on the upper surfaces of my cucumber leaves? A. This condition is caused Will they develop into normal cucumbers? fertility. " then these named cucumber varieties serve the purpose well. by the attack of cucumber beetles. aubergine). Solatium melongena var. These are typical plants are small. Contrary I I disease organism overwinters inside the beetles' bodies. . A. They are also spaced slightly farther apart. cucumbers do not cross-pollinate with muskmelons or watermelons and cause them to become bitter. and crisp when Eggplant. Small-fruited. cucumber are tender cucumbers are mis- and ornamental can be grown in containers and used for decoration. Q. what you want to pickle and call "gherkins. Is there really a "burpless" cucumber? A. Why do my cucumbers fail first to set fruit and yield prop- page 40). They by powdery mildew. Use a suggested insecticide these colonies female many garden catalogs. cucumber used inches long. higher yielding than other in varieties. Burpless cucumbers are no longer considered novelties and are offered in most garden fresh. A. Plants are infected with the bacterial wilt disease a small proportion of seed of a standard cucumber as a pollinator. The beetles must be controlled immediately when the patch. is They are mild. What cucumber variety should buy for gherkins? A.MAJOR VEGETABLES 77 Common cucumber the soil. and the is blotchy too late to prevent the disease. Some of my Q. One plant in a hill dies. A. are half grown). caused by the cucumber mosaic Crow mosaic-resistant varieties. bees. catalogs. What causes my cucumber plants to be stunted? fruits are The leaves are a mottled yellow. The Q. How far away from melons should plant my cucumbers? am concerned about cross-pollination. a long a very cold-sensitive vegetable that requires warm is season for best yields. No. Spotted and striped erly? A. with pollination of the female flowers reduces including cold temperatures activity. These varieties are better eaten fresh. The culture of Q. and rainy weather that kill beetles can be controlled by applying a and ham- per bee or improper use of insecticides that A. it may appear kill in large numbers and opens) and should develop can quickly stunt or the small plants. cucumbers" but are usually listed in catalogs as West Indian gherkin. They are grown in the same way as varieties of " If good harvest. or off-flavor. sweet. considerable space in the garden. This condition virus. Anything that interfruit set may carry bacterial Cucumber Aphids of aphids wilt disease (see upcoming section). Usually. These flowers normally drop off after blooming. The skin tender and free of bitterness. Misshapen cucumbers result may com- summer and fall plantings. Q.

78 MAJOR VEGETABLES Spacing of Plants Space plants 18 to 24 inches apart in the row. Many eggplant varieties harvesting. small white. so exercise days. vigorous plants can yield as fruits at many Eggplant best started from transplants.) Eggplants are susceptible than more tomato plants to injury from low Flea beetles (see page 40) cause tiny holes in the leaves. teardrop-shaped). ate dry weather after they are well established but should Large Oval Fruit: Dusky (60 days to harvest. Even properly harvested after do not store and should be eaten soon the peak of the season. slim fruit in clusters).to 7-inch oval). Varieties All varieties are hybrids unless the first fruits. white. when peanut-sized. Leave the Elongated Fruit: Ichiban (70 days). edible discarded. They probably were planted while the soil was too cold. 6. -shaped. important to early. lavender. It is better to hold the plants (but keep them growing) until the soil warms. When Egg (52 days. These beetles can be controlled by apply- ing an insecticide. the fruits become dull or brown. high Harvesting Harvest the fruits quality). and death of the plants. Side-dress nitrogen fertilizer (page 20) are half when and the plants grown and again immediately Given after harvest of fertility. early seasons as well as bar harmful insects from succulent young plants. wilting. Burpee Hybrid (80 days. Damage can be severe. page 26. good caution or wear gloves when and Little Fingers (OP-68 days. Fruit: Easter mature for culinary use and should be cut and egg-sized. unchecked. breaking or twisting the stems. they are too off Ornamental ornamental). turning purple in pots). Black Magic (72 days). Mulching with black soil. eaten often. be irrigated during extended dry periods for continued early production). especially on young plants. peak production. (See the maps. or even closer for small-fruited types. but they did not grow very well. Allow 30 to 36 inches all between rows. turning yellow at maturity. Epic (64 days. Overmature fruits are spongy and seedy and fruits may be well bitter. If necessary. and Ghostbuster (80 and still glossy. planted my eggplants early. repot into larger containers to plastic film maintain help vigor. good size. Select plants It is in cell packs or individual containers. has passed. get the plants off to a proper start. slightly sweeter when they are 6 to 8 inches long days). or space plants 24 inches apart in tions in raised beds. elongated oval. long. Large oval Small elongated direc- (7-9 inches) (3-9 inches) Care Use starter fertilizer (see page 20) for transplanting. Do not plant too Common Problems Transplant after the frost soil has warmed and the danger of Verticillium wilt causes yellowing. The plants toler- open-pollinated). Use a knife or pruning shears rather than than purple types. Questions I and Answers Q. Black Bell (68 days. Three to six plants are usually sufficient for most families unless eggplant is a favorite vegetable. round to oval. Floating row covers can help with cool. (page 36) can warm the especially in northern areas. Slim Jim (OP-70 have small prickly thorns on the stem and calyx. 6. . large (usually green) calyx attached to the fruit.to 8-inch. as four to six When to Plant is Large. if temperatures and do not grow until temperatures warm. productive). sufficient moisture designated OP (for eggplant thrives in the heat of summer. they are harvested. Classic (76 days. Black Beauty (OP-80 days). A.

for spring or summer). as long. taste. inch deep in rows 1 which is an acquired 18 to 24 inches apart. Water frequently during the hot leaves. in the fall. deeply size. is Summer late fall).MAJOR VEGETABLES 79 Endivecarole Endive and escarole. planting for a 3 crop often quite reward- Endive: Frisan (good for Green Curled ing. Seeds in late during the months over much is of the rest of the in Florida. is and Sinco (big head. the spreading plants are likely to be Grosse Bouclee (deep green outer leaves). summer months. Plant seeds /s to '/ 2 inch deep in July. and Traviata (upright. thin or transplant 9 to 12 inches apart. and cool weather). especially artificial grown tie For varieties that need blanching. role are delicacies as a garnish. may begin to deteriorate tied up too . Nina rounding crops. Salad King before the endive or escarole matures. it is may be planted directly into the garden country. Lorca (extremely curled. when blanched and used for salads or Even when grown under perfect conditions. slightly They grow much the same manner as lettuce and that cupped leaves. large to 2 feet). for fall). and thin the Ruffec (very uniform.) Endive and esca- enough worked your area. the plants are not dry. smooth leaves). self-blanching). curled. Some varieties self-blanch. The is Endive and escarole do not thrive under hot condi- primary difference between them that endive has flat. the tops of the outermost leaves together as the heads develop. plants Varieties All varieties of may be endive and escarole can be harvested spaced 9 to 12 inches apart in all directions. may help germinat- (slow to bolt. Salanca (self-blanching. for fall). with a uniform supply of moisture. which will mature and be removed (small. smooth. vian (large. compact. southern type). for their green color is reduced. Endive is very blanching). Heads are usually touch the if blanched after the leaves spread sufficiently to next plant. bitterness decreased. finely cut leaves. and the blanched after their color if left heads should be used soon they has faded. leaves curled around heart. both Cichorium endivia. depending on the planting season. When seedlings are inch tall. Full Heart (coarsely leaves). In beds. cut. Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting For spring plantings. When sunlight is kept from the center leaves. texture and flavor are improved. seedlings to 9 to 12 inches apart. while escarole has broad. Adequate moisture and space are necessary to assure rapid development within 80 to 100 days. Escarole: Bossa hardy and withstands frost to give harvest throughout the (summer or fall). and minimal fall bitterness of the heads. Tosca (shoestring self- ing seedlings get established in the heat of summer. Nuvol (self-blanching. for early harvest). Care Unless blanched. or as safely in soon as the soil mellows produced there as a winter vegetable. very bitter. Some shade from sur- Neos (extra frilly. least bitter). They are cool-season plants that respond well to fertile soil and growing temperatures grow best in the spring in northern locations fall and better average between 60° and 70°F. are closely related hardy annual vegetables that have the When tions to Plant same growing requirements. place seeds 'A these vegetables have a hint of bitterness in the flavor. rot. the inner leaves may Blanching requires 2 to 3 weeks. Broad-Leaved Bata- fall months and into winter in mild areas. and must be grown in as early spring or fall crops. Make If sure that the plants are dry before tying the leaves. Florida Deep Heart (broadcrumpled leaved. (Although endive grown March or to be early April. attractive).

or may be sliced raw and choked with growth. Helianthus tiiberosus (also eties is usually worth the effort. Any small piece of a tuber missed at harvest may sprout to form a to the sunflower. matures tubers a blanched at one time. to North America. For peak production. Jerusalem is North America. grown high potassium. who have Varieties The best Jerusalem artichoke tubers for garden use are selections. Smooth Garnet. Then wash. cut heads. plants at ground level. You may obtain tubers from houses. rows (more if possible. They have also been used as animal food. It improved seed-stock variety is The most common new Stampede. too. If you buy seed stock. It produces many large. drip dry. related soil It thrives best in a well-drained garden an entirely different plant (a thistle) from the in with high fertility. Jerusalem artichoke selection breeding have produced plant and tuber types that are them 24 to 30 inches apart.SO MAJOR VEGETABLES especially in hot or wet weather. flowers earlier in the season. cut the include Fuseau. as these plants seem to Jerusalem artichoke has also attracted some attention the growth of close neighbors). but about two-thirds the size. was one of the few vegetables grown at by the native Americans arrival. clean tubers. When to Plant Jerusalem artichoke grows in most parts of temperate new clump. have developed. Fructose reputed to be of value in the diets of people diabetes. the time of the European A perennial. Plant the entire tubers in early spring. a long and smooth yam Long Red. around rior to The improved varieties are so supe- the common sort that the search for named variis erusalem lifliW Jerusalem artichoke. made yearly. especially for hogs. which are sometimes allowed to root the tubers out of the soil for themselves. a large but more knobby type. Golden Nugget. a very small amount another multiplies into year. nurseries. with . and store in a polyethylrefrigerator for later use. Discard the bitter. seed exchanges. knobby ones. smoother tu- feet tall or taller. or from another gardener. Because the plants grow 6 impede more bers attractive in the garden. responding particularly well to globe artichoke. artichoke. it may persist in the garden as a weed. oblong tubers boiled. seed supply outer leaves. the gourmet sections of food name "sun chokes" or "sunroots"). If the weather turns very hot in the same shape with red skin. or fried like white potatoes may be baked. you can dig your out a own tubers and set new row when you bring in the known It as sun choke or sunroof). Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting and Plant individual tubers 2 to 3 inches deep. Named varieties are still hard to stores (under the find —with the exception of Stampede. the the summer or hard freezing is expected in the fall. with red skin and a more rounded shape. Mammoth White. attractive flower heads. with additional plants tied month and grows tops much shorter than the every week or so for a continual harvest. Beds not dug and reset each year quickly become thick The fleshy. you should allow 3 to 4 feet between much than the older. California. Harvesting After the blanched heads Other selections available for the sun choke enthusiast type. Cynura scolymus. similar to Fuseau. making plants less likely to fall over as they mature. old standard type. and French ene bag in the tough. For enough to eat and plant for subsequent plantings. which has been for a while. because the tubers contain inulin. easier to prepare with larger. new plantings must be into salads. which breaks into the sugar fructose down is when they are eaten. Several plants may be up larger and more sooner. is native spring harvest. spacing In recent years. Sunroots almost always possible produce so abundantly that variety sharing after the first year.

ornamental kale has become a staple of the fall flower border. or pink). Nagoya. A supply can before the soil and kale may be cooked in become a popular place of cabbage. separate-color varieties possible. enough sunroots for spring harvest. varieties include Blue Surf and Winterbor Ornamental kale is sold in open-pollinated. Q. or for orna- Kale. Because the leaves develop fall best production. potato and tend to lose moisture The tubers also If may Japanese seed companies. freezes and in the spring before Usually. harvest may continue through the winter by pulling the mulch aside on mild days and digging tubers. After frost blackens the foliage. Peacock Hybrid (all in white or red). such as Frizzy Hybrid. The seedlings may be started in late winter and transplanted into the garden for early spring production. Any tubers that are not harvested regrow and may become troublesome weeds in the garden. in flats in late acephala (also known as borecole). kale plants are used for greens. In most growing areas. When to Plant Plant kale in the garden anytime from early spring through early summer. decoration on salad bars as well. ground starts. the tubers are dug as new growth needed. In more southern ing in late latitudes. grows best in the spring and The highly curled. Flowering kale has be harvested and stored as potatoes freezes. Harvesting Dig the tubers anytime from September until the to serving as ornamentals. and Dwarf Siberian (65 days). What are the best storage conditions for Jerusalem artichokes? A. Varieties Dwarf Blue Curled Scotch (70 days to harvest). The best possible storage is in the soil where they grew. there are ornamental kales recently. Most of the standard cabbage pests can also damage kale and must be controlled for masses for a striking effect. plantfall summer provides harvest from into winter until or unless the ground freezes hard. Harvest small quantities as needed Newer hybrid (65 days). have been very active in developing the be placed in polyethylene bags in the refrigerator. as a garnish. is a hardy. Jerusalem artichokes do not form a thick skin like the rapidly. requiring only normal "Flowering" varieties of kale are quite colorful. Then. and a larger if amount just before the ground freezes in the winter. If the bed is mulched heavily in late fall. are. plants should be sown or started late spring. They cultivation are planted as accent or pot plants but can be planted in and watering. Brassica oleracea var. however. the large. In mild winters. their highest color in cool weather. In addition . relatively easy to grow. Thin the seed- lings to 8 to 12 inches apart. For a fall crop. kale may overwinter and produce a in the few new leaves before it blooms second year. summer atures sweeten and color the leaves. or no required. Although kale tolerates fall. woody tops resembling sunflowers may be cut off above the ground and shredded for composting. or with protection. bluish green leaves (plain leaves on some varieties) do Care Kale is not form a solid head. and Osaka (in red. Dwarf Questions and Answers Curled (Vates) (60 days). store at a temperature of 32 °F with high (95 percent) humidity. it then transplanted to the garden in June season green of the cabbage family that is to early July for lush growth by the time cool fall temper- mins A and C. white.MAJOR VEGETABLES 81 Care Early cultivation and hoeing are necessary. Begin to harvest as soon as the frost goes out of the soil in spring. leave them in place. in particular. coolrich in vitaheat. and it actually keeps them crisp and juicy. mixed-color packets and in hybrid. little As the further plants care is become established. Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Sow seeds '/4 to y2 inch deep in rows. winter does not harm the tubers. or in salads. mental types.

Discard excess plants or use fry greens. Purple kohlrabi varieties include Blaro (43 days). which is mild white turnips) when small. and Answers if Do new is leaves develop the tip of the plant tip is If removed? A. The entire kale plant frost.82 MAJOR VEGETABLES Harvesting The lower leaves may be individually picked when they are small and tender (8 to 10 inches or shorter). Early White Vienna (55 days to harvest). like The young leaves may be other greens. kohlrabi plants can stand frost. many a rounded. harvest No. with leaves standing out spokes from the edible portion. One or two late plantings can also be made in midsummer at the same time as late cabbage. these seedlings may benefit from some shade when they are small. workable. Early grown kohlrabi emerge cooked may have some tender and tasty tissue at the top. gardeners allow kohlrabi to grow too large before harvesting it. harvest from the upper part of the plant where leaves are nearly expanded to full size but are point. Unfortunately. than 3 inches. stir- Care Plant in fertile soil. them for tender. gongylodes (also known as stem turnip). Thin the seedlings to 2 to 5 inches surplus seedlings to fill apart. still tender. Late- summer kill plantings usually give best results. summer plants may be Problems Cabbage worms (see page 62) and diseases (page 61). has a turniplike appearance. the old standard. . Kohlrabi. Make small plantings every Common 2 to 3 weeks for continuous spring and early harvest. may also be cut. when severe freezes injure or started indoors or in the greenhouse in flats to be trans- Common Aphids Problems page 40) and cabbage planted into the garden as soon as the ground becomes (see worms (page 62). espe- Forcer (42 days). where the youngest leaves continue to Purple Vienna (62 days). enlarged stem section growing just above the Kohlrabi is Large. Kale can be harvested until early winter. the plants. Like cabbage. is tough and woody. soil line. sometimes misclassified as a root vegetable. Even overstill (hybrid-38 days). they begin to develop cially in much bigger woody fibers. In very hot weather. as the plant grows. Quality is improved by and the plant withstands night freezes. Continue harvest until the stems are 2 to 3 White (really light green) varieties include the old inches in diameter. It Harvesting Kohlrabi has the mildest and best flavor (resembling like cool-season vegetable belonging to the cabbage family. Transplant the in blanks in other parts of the if row or into additional row space more harvest is desired. older kohlrabi off-flavor. Grand Duke (hybrid-50 Kolpak the lower part of the expanded stem. Take care not to remove the central Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Sow seeds in rows growing and cover them y4 to y2 inch deep. Proper care allows kohlrabi to achieve the rapid growth that results in the best quality. maintain adequate soil moisture. some Questions Q. delayed and lower leaves become tough. When the stems get favorite. and keep down weeds. Removing the prevents further growth. Brassica oleracea var. For an especially early harvest. and Rapid (45 days). and it may have an Begin harvesting (pull or first cut at ground level) when the stems are about 1 inch Varieties in diameter. When Sow to Plant seeds in early spring. is a hardy. Express days). and Triumph (55 days).

The leek plant resembles a large onion plant with is attachments to the stem. Thin the seedlings to 4 inches apart. Leeks of large. combines under the base of the the roots. with a spading fork or shovel. (see page 153). rounded bulb. Pancho (80 days. and matures seed.y MAJOR VEGETABLES 83 When to Plant Seed 10 to 15 seeds per foot of row directly in the garden in early spring. Leaf trimmings table may be used manner Longina (102 days. requiring at least 120 fully appreciated. size. many people Varieties find offensive in onions. Leek seedlings should be set lower in the garden than they grow in the seed Leek. porrum. cultivate and draw toward the plants to blanch or any- the edible portion. days. In the second season. severing an extra-long. Titan (70 days. out the plant. ing until they are at least the size of a pencil. taking care to dig shaft. available from Europe. a bunching type designed to be sown thickly early as with scallions. in country. thinner varieties Flag. as the leek plant flowers. Leeks may be dug before hard freezes and stored well). early earliness. Electra. then pull first and cold tolerance). blue-green upright leaves that trap soil soup stocks or. stores tops. sweet. in salads or stir-fries. mild-flavored vegetable of the onion more bleached white Take care not to bury leaf family that has been cultivated for centuries. thick shafts. where long been popular. Plants of heavily with is winter hardy). . thick varieties started in the greenhouse ters may reach diame- approaching 3 inches in good seasons. good Unique (100 Cut off the roots and all but 2 inches in vege- good length and thickness. Do not bank around the plants for blanch- Giant Musselburgh are dependable. variety). may mer. var. Early banking while the leaves are small causes the plants to rot and die some A whole range Some of leek varieties has recently this vegetable has become by altering soil aeration around the young root system. Conqueror. as this it may encourage rots. of these selections include Varna (50 days Harvesting Leeks to harvest). leeks be eaten raw or cooked. which resemble elephant Allium ampeloprasum tive of leek. best cold tolerance. the underground portion forms garlic. King Richard (75 days. digging long. may produce soil shafts of 15 inches or more American Broad London. full-season varieties that have been available in the United States for time. than an expanded. Never try to pull leeks without to loosen the roots. Traditionally. cold-tolerant varieties also fresh straw for harvest may be mulched Many more varieties are becoming whenever the ground not frozen. and harvested early sort an mer and the soil depending on the To harvest. normal garden where leek is treated is treated as an annual crop. leeks primarily have been used in place of When the plants begin strong growth in the sumsoil onions for flavoring soups and stews. and rich flavor can be whiter at harvest. April before the leeks begin the second year's growth and send up a seedstalk. Blanching makes the leeks longer and where their delicate. Leeks do not have the hot pungency days to reach 1 to 1 2 inches in diameter. Splendid (95 days. for may be fall. tolerates cold. mild. if tender. flat leaves. Alaska (105 days. so read catalog descriptions carefully. stores of the green leaves. and in length. in the of scallion do not where the base meets the shaft. Leeks also may be started indoors or in the greenas house during February in the same manner onion transplants (see page 91). is a hardy. Allium ampeloprasum van flat so that the long shafts grow longer underground and form tissue. while longer. slim shafts. well). harvested for use throughout the sumvariety. for dehydration). under refrigeration (see pages 167 and 168). but composed of a cylindrical sheaf of basal leaves rather this Care Leeks can grow in any garden that produces good onions. Spring harvest is usually completed in late March or and match leek varieties to your needs. a very close rela- These bulb structures are very seldom seen in practice. early available each year. a small number of cloves. Actually. Leeks grow slowly. also overwinters well). pollinates. loosen good summer crops). and Blue Solaise (large and hardy.

soft leaves with a delicate sweet flavor. cool seasons. (large. Summer Bibb (resistant to heat. (taller than Paris Island. Salad Bowl (finely cut. Nearly every Tango (darker green. they almost certainly Lettuce. Dark Green Boston more-solid heads). There are five distinct types of lettuce: leaf (also called Matchless or Deer Tongue (heirloom loose-leaf lettuce). holds 2 to 3 weeks in the garden). slow to Red Sails (slowest-bolting red leaf lettuce). cool-weather vegetable that thrives is when the weather of fall have a much average daily temperature between 60° and late 70°F. slow to bolt. resistant to bolt). Buttercrunch (resistant to heat). If an unseason- ably early heat wave fail. large leaves). delicate flavor. Red Salad Bowl (darkest red of (wine red version of salad bowl). tipburn). Nancy (excellent quality. are adapted to north- ern conditions and require the most care. (earliest to Grand Rapids good for cold frames. Prizehead (upright. They are extremely first tive to heat and must mature before the hot spell of summer to achieve high-quality heads. Cos or romaine. In areas with- out long. less bitter). greenhouse. and Chinese dishes. fairly hardy. produces crisp leaves loosely arranged on the stalk. tolerant to downy Butterhead: Bibb or Limestone (crisp texture. frilly. growth is summer. Slobolt (resistant to heat. to better crisphead lettuce a plants started in late summer mature in the cooler chance of success.84 MAJOR VEGETABLES Question and Answer Q. weather). and Tom Thumb (delicate miniature butterheads). large-leaf rosettes. Leaf: Black-Seeded (frilly Simpson edges. rapidly. Green Ice (resistant to heat. Choosing a well-drained high in organic lettuce forms an enlarged seedstalk that in stewed. crisphead. The butterhead varieties are generally small. . tant to tipburn). and all. pointed leaves). the leaves and the and seedstalk forms and elongates may be bitter. Red Boston (rose-red-tinged outer leaves. the most widely planted salad vegetable. they generally are grown from transplants. started early. is used mainly matter also helps to minimize rots in leeks. extra bolt resistant). Cos or Romaine: Cimmaron (unique dark red Cos type). garden). leeks rot where the addition to salads and sandwiches. medium green center). leaf. forms an upright. elongated head and fine roots are is an excellent Why do my soil. all the iceberg types common at over the country. Some types Green harvest). and Valmaine mildew). Crisphead supermarkets varieties. At high Varieties stunted. Lactiica sativa. attached? A. resistant to tipburn). Oak Leaf (resistant to tipburn. butter- variety). the most widely adapted type. tipburn). deeply cut. Green Towers (early. texture). no bitterness). and stem (also called asparagus lettuce). tinted with rosy color). Sangria (thick leaves. upright habit). Cos or romaine Red Leaf: Lollo Rosso (mild flavor. and moved to the garden as sensi- soon as the soil can be worked. This condition may be the result of maggot infessoil insecticide loose-heading types that have tation in the Treat the soil with a suggested soil tender. making it Waldmann's Green (dark green. varieties of lettuce withstand heat better than others. and garden has at least a short row of leaf lettuce. Paris Island (long-standing). dark green. hits before they have matured. is In many locations. Summerlong (resistant to heat). creamed. Stem in early spring. good for hot resis- head. Leaf lettuce. Tania (resistant to four strains of downy mil- dew). Rosalita (attractive red leaves. Red Fire (ruffles with red edge. frilly red edge. Ruby resistant to tipburn). It should be planted in early spring or temperatures.

or triple Foliage rots can be a problem. habit. holds size. and scalding or burning of the soil Leaf. In rows 12 to 18 inches apart. Heat-tolerant varieties (mainly loose- leaf types) may be grown and in the shade of taller crops if which tend to blanch themselves. and Sumbolt). asparagina. and Harvesting Leaf lettuce spring planting should be completed at least a month fall may be cut whenever it is large enough to before the really hot days of early ings started in late begin. tipburn resistant. refrigerator. Store seed for fall gardens in a sealed container in the refrigerator. and Answers lettuce seeds germinate? A. hearts. Organic mulches can help moderate perature tem- time in the spring the surface. can lead to leaf When to Plant disease. 14-day intervals provide a continuous supply of lettuce. Lettuce does not withstand hot summer days summer well. from a change in the moisture relationship between the soil lettuce seedlings started in a protected location in the and the plant. Frequent light watering causes the leaves to develop rapidly. Thin bed can help minimize damage in most seedlings to 4 inches apart for leaf lettuce and 6 to 8 severe outbreaks. Questions Q. Overwatering. Lettuce seed does not keep well. drip dry. Watering essential for seed germination and also benefit maximum size (6 to 12 ounces) in 50 to 60 days. Some varieties are resistant to this Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant seeds y4 to V2 inch deep (10 seeds per foot) in single. heavy soils. any brown leaf tissue. Cutting every other plant at ground level gives the summer mature during is cool remaining plants more space reaches for growth. double. resists bitterness. Harden transplants outdoors to the conditions Common Aphids Tipburn Problems page 40). Cos. results be transplanted for earlier harvest. should be hoed mertime (adapts well to high temperature. especially in hot or wet seasons. is become acclimated will under (see which they be grown.to lettuce in less-than-ideal weather conditions. root-rot resistant). Iceburg (medium tender head seedlings 10 to 12 inches apart in the row. resulting in high-quality tuce. proper fungicidal materials are required. transplants for a spring crop indoors or in a cold frame (see high (95 percent) humidity (see page 47). and use shade can be transplanted later into moderate sites for the remainder of the Frequent light waterings help some limited success with summer lettuce. and leaf varieties also can lettuce to "die back" at the edges of the leaves. slow to or cultivated carefully. wash. establishment of seedlings. it tolerant. especially in let- Stem or Asparagus: Celtuce. L. but do not allow growth to a physiological condition that causes It stop entirely. sativa var. prevent tipburn. Cos. or the entire crop inches apart for Cos or butterhead. extra care is taken about Cos varieties have an upright growth and form a long. The innermost leaves. cially Some lettuce varieties (espe- the white-seeded types) have seed that reguires light for soil germination. Leaf lettuce weather. leaf edges tinged light brown). Ithaca (tolerates heat. Lettuce Head and lettuce must be transplanted most locations To and place in a plastic requires more care than other types of lettuce. in medium-dense head. Providing good lettuce soil and air drainage for the years. Transplant crisp- warm weather). Some shade may Butterhead varieties form small. Montello (very heat Care Because lettuce has shallow roots. summer sowings. In the heat of summer. These types should not be covered with but . soft growth. are a delicacy. Start bag in the keeps best at 32°F and pages 167 and 168). when more the soil is dry enough to rake and the microenvironment to produce quality Two or successive plantings at 10. removed may be transplanted or eaten. store lettuce. Failure of is Why didn't my seeds to germinate caused by insufficient moisture or old it is seed. condition. and set them in the garden as early in the spring as the weather so that they settles. slow to bolt).MAJOR VEGETABLES 85 Heading or Crisphead: Great Lakes well in (standard. and butterhead lettuce can be planted any- margins. The seedlings may be destroyed quickly. Plant- use. loose heads that weigh 4 to 8 ounces at harvest (60 to 70 days). Clip off leaf. butterhead. and advisable to obtain new seed each spring. through most of the summer irrigation soil selection.

and in the refrigerator. however. Passport (73 days. Because well if hybrids unless designated OP (for muskmelons do not transplant disturbed. Hybrid Honeydew-Type: Early Dew (85 yellow rind.) Gardeners in northern climates or other short-season areas fully in the tier of states. and deep sutures. reticularis (also flavorful). Burpee Hybrid (85 days. resistant to 2). to small. salmon green flesh and not widely grown or known in the pink flesh. warm 2 to 3 pounds. I Q.) Muskmelons may be transplants. delicious. The formation of seedstalks is I caused by a combination of long days. soil If Their cultural requirements are similar to those of the weather and not warm and danger of the muskmelons. has a hard. firm flesh). They are generally later in ripening (require moisture level moderate. good flavor). and (96 days.to orange-colored flesh). strong. green. Bush Star (88 days. who want early production may need to use transplants. varieties Honey Brew sweet (90 days. large. Q. Lettuce may become bitter during hot weather and when seedstalks begin to form. the roots are open-pollinated). start seed Varieties All varieties are for transplants 3 to 4 weeks before planting time. largest honeydew-type. but not soggy. (all type. When seedstalks begin to form. have salmon. Honeyshaw (85 days. medium green flesh)." (The true winter melon a Chinese vegetable. 2 pounds. known as cantaloupe). Seedstalks have appeared in the center of my lettuce plants. resistant to fusarium wilt). Honeydew. spicy-sweet Early flesh). immediately. Green-Fleshed: Jenny Lind (OP-75 days.86 MAJOR VEGETABLES merely pressed into good contact with until the seedlings finely prepared soil. harvest your lettuce store it (87 days. resistant to fusar- ium race 2). The true cantaloupe. Pulsar (80 days. aroma (musky perfume) of the is mildew. thick. Cucumis melo var. Plant frost not separate from the vine tive when and lack as distinc- has passed and the soil has warmed and dried. powdery mildew). do and the plants do not grow. firm-fleshed. sweet flesh). disease-resistant vines). standard eastern emerge. thick. powdery mildew). Supermarket (88 fusarium wilt. aromatic flesh). Rising Star (84 days. heavily netted. sweet Rocky Sweet (80 days. page 26. resistant to fusarium wilt. mosaic). and Marygold (92 days. tolerant to powdery Much of the bitterness will disappear. (See an odor. Morning Dew powdery light net- have green netted rinds. Even the northern earliest varieties may not ripen the maps. days. What can do? A. blossom end. fusarium wilt. creamy heat-loving vegetable that requires culture similar to that of cucumber. fine flavor). few 7 to 8 pounds. flesh). fusarium race and Venus (88 days. with protruding section at flesh). casaba United States. thick. Harper Hybrid (86 days. mildew. South- Other Specialty Melons: Casaba Golden Beauty (OP-110 days. sweet flesh). resistant to alternaria blight. Morning Ice (84 days." The describes the name ripe fruit. Wash and store the leaves in the refrigerator for a day or two. bush-type plant for limited space). white. west and shipped to grocery stores around the country. "Cantaloupe" the name associated popularly with ting over smooth. To increase earliness. good sweet flavor. very early. 10 to 12 pounds. but with a longer season. Earlisweet (68 days. very tasty). Gold Star and age. Crenshaw. then must be taken to keep the seedbed moist. sutured melon). and Superstar (86 resistant to fusarium race 2. temperatures. juicy. the seeds do not germinate after the a longer season). flat melons. and Sweet Dream (79 days. My lettuce tastes bitter. fusarium). golden rind. Limelight (96 days. luscious thick. nonsutured. you should start seeds in individual contain- Proper temperatures for germinating and growing . sweet. and Casaba var. days. Iroquois (OP-85 days. juicy. Harvest Queen (OP-90 days. is a tender.S. ers. very sweet flesh). warty rind is and Crenshaw (90 days). high Most popular flesh (a yield. Saticoy (86 days. 7 to 8 pounds. heirloom. yellow. surface. inodorus) are Cucumis melo sometimes referred to is as "winter When to Plant directly seeded or started as soil are melons. delicious). muskmelons of the round-to-oval. resistant to fusarium wilt). Muskmelon. heavily netted type grown in the U. resistant to fusarium. resistant to days. wrinkled skin with white flesh). What should do? A. usually have a smooth rind ripe. they are properly called "muskmelons. Care Orange-Fleshed: Ambrosia (86 days to harvest.

easily They should be picked when the stem separates ("half- from the vine near the point of attachment slip" or "full-slip" stages of development). especially when the result from lack of proper pollination by bees. A. is When they are completely the blos- the plants begin to vine. Harvest early in the day after the plants are dry. heavy growth of leaves (which also can activity). they should be supported with weight time of maturity. Soon I period.MAJOR VEGETABLES 67 Harvesting Good eating ripening quality depends upon the texture of the melons and the development of sugars from proper on the vines. wildlife system). used with black plastic mulch work suppress effective bee extremely well. When muskmelons are ripe. ripening. Covers need not be and they drop naturally. Floating row covers also can be used to advantage over early season melon transplants. All melons Common Problems bacterial wilt respond favorably to mulching with black cially early in plastic. when temperatures are warm but not excessively and when the weather is comparatively dry at the after the fruits begin to enlarge. muskmelons soften but do not sweeten further. Sterilized or stunting and crop delays may melons. activity). Honeydew and crenshaw melons are cut off the vine Care Fertile soils usually after they turn completely yellow. develops. and softening fruit. How can grow muskmelons in a small garden? Muskmelon plants can be trained to a fence or trellis. Why do the first blossoms drop off my muskmelon plants? A. structures. and thin the seedlings 18 to beginning of the season. the rind changes from a green to tan or yellow between the netting. Muskmelons benefit especially som end slightly soft to pressure. Muskmelons (too suffer from extremes in soil moisture is Q. These melons continue to improve if with normal maintenance-fertilizer application plus one side-dress application of high-nitrogen fertilizer (become for a soft and mellow) kept at room temperature ripe. Their stems do not grow a fine crop of muskmelons "slip" at maturity. and seedlings. when high. The female flowers. Do not allow transnot pick too early because the quality will become too not be as high large before planting in the garden. also early season insect invaders. Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant seeds 1 be careful not to damage the vines. The the soil is in mulch can be damage muskmelons and spread on the plants. Trickle (which also slows bee resulting in and planting too close together. Questions and Answers These covers exclude the worst of the cold and Q. the vines remain healthy throughout the harvest A. sweet. Pick every other day at the inch deep. resistant to fusarium wilt and leaf diseases such as Make holes every 2 or 3 feet to plant seed or transplants plastic. What The causes poor (sparse) fruit set and low yields? cool. They the season (see page 36). the fruit fruit. wet weather vines are growing irrigation systems and the fruits are developing. much rain or an extended drought). After bees polli- weather threatens. plants to Do there will be a crack near the point of attachment. juicy. from the incorporation of well-rotted manure before planting and also appreciate high potassium. powdery mildew and alternaria blight. by feeding installed when good planting condition When possible. as that of vine-ripened result. Irrigation failure of female flowers to set and develop melons can recommended in case of drought. The first flowers to appear on the vines are male. through the Use starter fertilizer (see page 20) to help transplants get established. Once picked. plant varieties that are anytime from a few days to 2 or 3 weeks before planting. Muskmelons ripen to the highest quality Q. sugars continue to be media stored in the developing melons up to the moment the should be used for starting seed to prevent damping-off and other diseases of seeds and stem separates. and insects such as picnic beetles quickly attack the Space rows at least 5 feet apart. the transplants are very important. or their . which open later. At these stages. when few days. a dense. espe- Control cucumber beetles (see page 40). mesh bags tied to the supporting may damage the vines. removed until plants start to flower unless extremely hot have a swelling at the base that forms the nate these female flowers. Especially in dry seasons. and go over the patch 24 inches apart or the equivalent (two plants every 36 inches or three plants every 48 inches in the hill every day at peak season.

Different varieties of musk- melons cross-pollinate Cross-pollination readily. The leaf texture becomes tough and the flavor strong in summer. It Green Wave (45 days. Do muskmelons cross-pollinate with other vine crops? No. frilled. slow to bolt). following year. Southern Giant Curled (50 days. preferably. mild. The immature pods are used for soups. large leaves. and Answers also suitable for gardens in the central and northern United States in the cool parts of the growing season. Do tire not use wilted or yellowed leaves. cool temperatures. is leaf mustard.68 MAJOR VEGETABLES Q. A. best in Savannah (35 days. Spinach (45 days. dark green. choosing a poorly adapted variety. Mustard greens are high in vitamins A and C. as hollyhock. easy-to-grow. The hibiscuslike flowers in height) and upright plants (3 to 6 to l /2 inch deep. temperatures. wet or cloudy weather. What causes poor flavor and lack of sweetness or fruits with smooth rinds? A. or pumpkins. . heavily curled can be controlled by applying a suggested fungicide. most locations. Abelmoschus esculentus (also Plant early in the spring (3 weeks before the frost-free and again 3 weeks later. tard? Varieties Florida Broadleaf (45 days to harvest. slow to bolt. moister conditions in mature under annual vegetable from the same family of sharon. not evident unless seeds are saved and planted the does not make melons bitter. (See the maps. and Tendergreen or Mustard leaves). bolt). thick leaves. loss of leaves by disease. season vegetable for greens or salads. before flower stalks What A. very vigorous. green What causes mustard leaves to have yellow blotches and be misshapen? A. warm days of summer. is a tall-growing. leaves. mildew. deep purple-red. it is Questions Q. white-ribbed. Fall plantings known as gumbo). squash. good in warm fall). (see a quick-to-mature. slow to leaves).) Plant from midsummer on for fall harvest. spinach. Give ample periods. bright green. causes flowers to develop in my spring musMustard is a cool-season vegetable that naturally flowers during the long. Muskmelons do not cross-pollinate with cucumbers. yard gardens. develop. and stews. smooth. Thinnings can be eaten. Poor soil fertility (especially low potassium). weeding. rose are usually of higher quality because they cooler. page 26. You can cut the enplant or pick individual leaves as they grow. Fordhook Fancy (40 days. Pull and compost (or chop and work the spring planting back into the soil) when hot weather arrives and. tender. and hibiscus. Care Mustard should grow rapidly and without stopping. Q. curly. savoyed leaf. Although mustard is often associated primarily with the Deep South. rounded When date) to Plant Okra. Mustard. darker green. and water during dry Harvesting Harvest the leaves when they are young and tender. fertility. warm-season. and Common Aphids Problems page 40) and cabbage white mustard). Red Giant (45 days. cool- worms (page 62). but this cross-pollination is watermelons. This condition is caused by downy Q. mild flavor). or picking the all melons before they are ripe can contribute to poor quality. or as a fried or boiled vege- Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Sow seeds "A table. Brassica juncea (also known as mustard greens. very slow to bolt). and thin seedlings to 3 feet or more have ornamental value for back- to 5 inches apart. canning. crumpled leaves.

Choose one of the new dwarf or basal-branching varieties. Late plantings of the suggested varieties also result in small bulbs or lack of or five plants produce enough okra for most bulbing alto- unless you wish to can or freeze some for winter use. every irritate Onions start bulb formation when the day length is other day. try AAS winner). Q. Why doesn't my seed germinate even after soaking? Okra seed does not keep well. to Plant What causes yellowing. long-day northern latitudes) and short-day pod is probably too old to use. require different day lengths to initiate bulbing. Maturing. Four families North. and for something novel. When the stem is difficult to cut. extra-tender pods). wrapped in moist paper toweling or in water overnight. When soils. classes. a new okra variety that ley. harvest the pods turn brown and them and shell the seeds for several days.Lucky a trial. When Annie Oakley (hybrid-52 days to harvest. the spring. 1988 AAS winis deep red pods). such as Annie OakI pods). tough pods sap strength that could go to keeping the I plant producing new pods daily. Rotate crops to prevent buildup of crop-specific strains of these diseases has warmed in the spring. (See Spacing of Piants and Depth of Planting Sow seeds 1 inch deep in hills 12 to 24 inches apart. and the pods were difficult to pick. compact plant. Emerald (55 days. then store Dwarf Green Long Pod (52 from the pods. unlike certain tomato variare not resistant to verticillium Because okra seeds do not germinate well in cool plant seeds after the as soil eties. In general. Yes. and cool temperatures aid development. Clemson Spineless (56 days. Onion. ner. page 26. or seeds. days. Okra varieties. may of the proper duration. to accelerate germination.MAJOR VEGETABLES 69 Questions and Answers €fe Seed (2X) Seedling Q. but the one strongest plant per The seeds may be soaked. For this reason. thin all When the seedlings are 3 inches hill. grown from sets. and different varieties of onions sleeves to harvest okra. smooth Q. onion varieties become tough and woody. and fusarium wilt. grow and bear kills that are grown in the South are not adaptable to the which quickly blackens and them. and death of plants in midsummer? A. The until frost. Unless you desire ripe pods for dried arrangements or seed saving. that grow only 2 /2 ] to 5 feet tall. probably a week to last frost for 10 days after the date of the the maps. is a cool- Care Okra usually grows well in season vegetable that can be grown successfully through- any good garden soil. transplants. My okra plants grew over 6 feet tall. adequate and immature (2 to 3 inches long for most at least They must be picked often Wear gloves and long — moisture. gether in any location. . Should remove the old okra pods? A. Burgandy (60 days. wilting. Ever. tilled in low cultivation near the plants keeps down weeds. and vice versa. overmature pods should be removed and composted. Buy fresh seed each season. soil Good fertility. What should do? A. may deserve Q. tall. (for Use pruning shears rest of for clean cuts that do not harm the the most common varieties (for fall into one of two the plant. ribbed pods). A. Shal- out most of temperate North America. dry place in tightly closed containers until next season. Dry seeds thoroughly in a cool. or save seed of nonhybrid varieties yourself by allowing a few pods on your best plants begin to split Varieties to mature.) your area. Allium cepa. In each onions are planted as soon as the garden can be Harvesting The pods should be picked are tender varieties). Onions may be method. dwarf. These conditions are caused by either verticilHum or fusarium wilt. Okra plants have short hairs that bare skin. at about the same time lima beans. The large pods rapidly plants southern latitudes). usually late March or early April in prime (usually cut) while they regions for producing onions. in your garden. older. at the seams.

steamed. Store sets in a cool. The home gardener has Care Keep free choice of varieties at the store. harvest every other plant as green onions so that bulb develop- ment Varieties Several varieties are used for varieties are little of the remaining sets is not impeded by neighbor- ing plants. Harvesting Pull green tall. white. bright Elongated set O/2 inch wide) sunny this days. dry. Onion sets may be used to produce both green onions problem). Hilling the necks of the stored bulbs to rot. sets to flower. Remove any for plants that have formed flower stalks and use immediately. produce onions. the bulbs may sun- burn. vegetables and meats. causing smaller bulbs that do not keep as well in storage. in the sets are 2 inches apart. To develop long. Large sets (larger than a dime in diameter) are best used for green onions. with 2 to 4 inches between If sets. Breaking over the tops early interrupts growth. All of these widely adaptable. however. grasses. plant the are larger sets V/2 method for the home gardener. or red. Then. these sets may Green onions become stronger size. fall Allow the plants to (3-4 inches wide) mature and the tops to Green onion over naturally. raw. Pull the mature onions in the morning. if may cause dark environment planting must be delayed after purchase. place them under dry hang them in small on elevated slats or screens or . Yellow sets are row by pulling the loose soil toward the tall. Most and stews and in combination with gardeners prefer white sets for green onions. On days when is likely. plant the smaller sets 1 and dry onion bulbs. To produce dry onions. and they usually do not "bolt. baked. bulbs to air On a especially hot. remove onions to Round onion Green onion (3-4 inches wide) shaded location and allow them to dry thoroughly. flat Onions may be eaten creamed. Allow 12 to really premium dry onions following section. onions with a hoe when the tops are 4 inches not hill Do Purchase firm. Onions from Sets Growing green onions from simplest sets is Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting probably the To produce green onions. sold as the varieties Ebenezer or Stuttgarter. all parts above the roots are edible. Onions have shallow roots "bolt" and form flower stalks. growth in heated salesrooms. white stems for green onions. They sets mature into round onions. Divide the sets into two sizes before planting. for and compete poorly with weeds and the onions are small. merely by sometimes hoeing. Timely dry onions. slightly hill the color: yellow. boiled. dormant sets early —before they begin onions that are to be used as dry onions. Harvest in late July or early August. in flavor with age for and increasing They may be used cooking when they are too strong to eat raw. and allow the dry in the garden until late afternoon. Though leaves are traditionally discarded. The plants inches deep and close enough to touch one another (green onions are harvested before crowding quickly established and become vigorous and becomes a strong. though production of requires inch deep. elongated or french and pickled. If onions anytime after the tops are 6 inches allowed to grow. broiled. because from weeds by shallow cultivation and sets are seldom sold under varietal name. They do not produce good bulbs dry storage. when Round set Flat onion (74 inch wide) most of the tops have fallen over. are used in soups fried. methods described 18 inches between rows. onion sets. The small sets (smaller than a dime in diameter) produce the best bulbs large.90 MAJOR VEGETABLES High temperatures and low humidity are advantageous during bulbing and curing." shallow hoeing and cultivation are important. although red or yellow sets are also acceptable. before evening dew shelter falls. especially Extremely cold weather during early season growth also when may condition onions from Round onion torpedo-shaped sets fried.

as the onions are planted outdoors by . Red Hamburger produces the famous "sweet" onions of various southern states (short-day). if Only individual consumers indoors or in the greenhouse. Prices normally are two to three times as high through catalog sales Another method popular is that has recently flats as become more and may be as starting onions in bedding plants. cut. This method (really a Granex hybrid. dry conditions (see pages 167 and 168). Side-dressing with Onions from Transplants Transplanting young onion seedlings of growing that tive is page 20) may be necessary. and Texas and the island of Maui in Hawaii. and apply 1 cup and place the bulbs tion. for North if the plants can be set out very early in the A longer period of time is required season. least Long-day onions are bred for best performance in traditionally. with seeds. inches apart and harvest every other plant drying. Long-day types may not get the bulbing signal in development from seed. Both green and dry onions can be grown directly from seed. Onions from Seed Growing onions from seed has been. Walla Walla Sweet (long-day). Vidalia Sweet to overwinter and mature in the spring. which areas. In southern choose from a slightly wider variety selection. ready to harvest in Transplants are purchased in bundles (usually 60 to 80 plants) with maturing into August. or those with green tops or thick necks. short-day varieties left can be sown in the fall and then may include Texas Grano (short-day). though onion ern locations. hardy plants. The variety selection goes varieties). as they enhance size). usually by January or February This timing does not interfere with greenhouse space needed to start more tender plants. The normal garden center may White Sweet Spanish (long-day White Bermuda (short-day that offer Yellow and and the varieties available are different from the varieties)." under "Onions from much as buying may produce). Onions as the may be perhaps. cut the tops iy2 to 2 inches long (at space onions 6 to 8 inches apart in Set the transplants 1 directions in beds.MAJOR VEGETABLES 91 bunches. It is best not to wash onions before ability. the may be catalogs (though mail-order and dried (see "Harvesting. and short-day varieties perform best in south- popular method with gardeners. especially for dry onions. or diseased. and moisture during the growing season. Keep the dry wrapper 4 to 5 inches apart in the row to produce large-sized bulbs (closer spacing significantly decreases bulb space 2 to 2'/2 scales as intact as possible on the bulbs. Because onions are very can judge this cost is justified for trying a new variety. Full for may be braided or tied with string before Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant in fertile soil in early spring. The length of storage time varies with the with the sweeter varieties usually being the variety. in dry storage with good air circula- per plant of a starter-fertilizer solution (see page 20). or above the narrow spot where the stem bent over). or all After the bulbs dry. and from 5 or 6 varieties with transplants to perhaps 50 or 60 seeded in the North as soon may or may not be named (Southport Red Globe. the method most regularly produces large. Allow 12 to 18 inches between rows. dry. or the keeping ability. weeds and grass and use or discard those that begin Remove izer (see all by diligent and repeated fertil- shallow cultivation and hoeing. onions When from garden stores and through seed and nursery onion plants often cost as most of the tops have pulled Sets. Catalog shoppers may ground is workable in the spring. as this may reduce their keeping as a green onion. poorer keepers. onion seeds are sown indoors very early." fallen over. Dry compete with the onion plants for onions larly may keep until late winter. Store Care Weeds and nutrients grass under cool. but check them reguto soften or rot. a long-day variety). short-day). Varieties the 60 to 80 full-size mature bulbs they page 90). to V/2 inches deep. the the North. earlier varieties are usually later varieties onions for slicing shown in the catalog pictures). much as ten times as high. Short-day varieties in the may perform acceptably farmers have long used seed to produce large crops of excellent onion bulbs. the Deep South and so should be avoided there. Gardeners should try to match varieties to their location. Do not try to store bulbs that are bruised. Space the plants air circulation for 2 to 3 weeks is necessary complete drying and curing. Tops hanging. 101 5 Y Supersweet (short-day). attrac(as Harvesting The July. Yellow and a red variety varieties sold as transplants.

Walla Walla Sweet. When the seed- Dry Onions (yellow. what makes is Granex hybrid growing in the vicinity of Vidalia. Onions transplant very well. with plants thinned from direct seedings easily taking root grown far away. long-day): Early Yellow Globe. Red Welsh. and Southport plants for dry bulbs because increases the possibility of bulb decay (yellow. long-day): Albion Hybrid. I and Answers my onions in late summer. Sweet Sandwich. If onion bulbs rot at the neck. short-day): later in storage. Transplant to the garden anytime after plants added advantage of using fresh transplants that grow uninterrupted from plants that are flat have grown three or more leaves. but it is harvested fall. "Vidalia" (really a a "Vidalia" is 3 hybrids. Red Weathersfield. as no method of storage keeps them from rotting for very long." page 90). most varieties of dry onions and 3 to 4 inches Dry Onions (white. This allows the plants to be as big as possible Questions Q. (10 to 15 seeds per foot). White Globe. transplants from seed should allow the maturation of a good crop if varieties are matched to the geographic loca- Care Especially with onions that are direct-seeded. with the complete. Rotting at the base fungi or carelessness in harvesting usually caused by damage from root maggots (see page 40). White Lisbon. He-Shi-Ko. Common Problems latitude. After most of the tops have fallen over naturally. . Yellow Bermuda. When stored under Red Burgandy. especially early in the season. lings are 3 to 4 inches tall. short-day): Crystal Wax. root and White Sweet Spanish. Above 40 degrees north maggots may root attack the roots of onion plants (see page 40). Starting your own onion when replanted in their own row. either they have been cured insufficiently before storage or the leaves have been severely infected by fungi during the growing season. Sweet Spanish plants for green onions. Dry bulbs are ready for harvest in Sep- Dry Onions Dry Onions (white. unlike other trans- be worked in the spring. may be sown cell fairly thickly in cell in a cell small weather. Evergreen Bunching. Tokyo Long White. White Granex. Ringmaster. as soon as the soil can to garden. Southport White Bunching. Use a Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting For direct-seeded onions. depending on location and seasonal of seed vari- Indoors. under "Onions from Sets. Plant as soon as the garden can be tilled in the spring. cool. and as To develop long. dried out. Allow 12 to 18 inches between rows. Many of the "sweet" varieties are very poor keepers and should be enjoyed fresh soon after harvest. Onions that were "hilled" or covered with soil before harvest often start to rot soon after harvest. white stems draw White Sweet Spanish. (red. and weeds must be controlled with shallow hoeing and Varieties cultivation. and White Bermuda. Lucifer they are 5 to 6 inches Do it not pull up to the Hybrid. soil around the plants when soil Dry Onions Red Globe. White Lisbon. plant seeds 1 suggested soil insecticide prior to planting if mag- inch deep gots have been a problem in the past. dug. for green onions. (red." Hybrid Red Granex. Southport between plants for Sweet Spanish and other large onions. thin to one plant per once germination ety selection while allowing precision spacing. much as 1 inch of loose tall. and Red Hamburger. and they began Why? A. and very heavily shocked by the move. dry conditions (see pages 167 and 168). grasses tion of the garden. Hybrid tember. Georgia). Red Baron. long-day): Benny's Red. thin to y2 to 1 inch between Norstar. Dry Onions Grano Granex hybrids. Bunching. Onions may rot at either the base or may be caused by soilborne and handling.92 MAJOR VEGETABLES March or April. Spartan Banner. to rot by neck. a and Harvesting Harvest green onions whenever the base of the plant /s Granex Hybrid. short-day): the onions should be pulled and dried (see "Harvesting. This method combines the advantages or two or three seeds per pack. seed flats. Thin to 2 to 3 inches between plants for Hybrid. In the is growing and transplant growing by giving maximal cells. when they get the day-length signal to form bulbs. and Yellow Sweet Spanish. dry onions Green (bunching) Onions (scallions): Beltsville from seed keep until spring. inch or larger.

Good cooks. and Short thyme. winter and flower the second summer. and containers. plant the curled form. Petroselinum crispum var. is can be stored like parnips (see page 95). unit. Moss Curled. in vegetable gardens. adds strength. light batter and served as a french-fried and transplanted the same manner as other onion plants. A. My parents came from Europe. may be parsley desirable to have a supply of each its The plant is prized for ornamental value. Rarely. Sets are available from a limited number of seed houses and can usually be obtained from other gardeners in the area. both and leaves. extremely high in vitamins. soups. Italian Ital- blend flavors. curled or triple-curled parsley. After the tops are air dried. How do grow multiplier onions? A. root where the If real flavor is. winter onions (egyptian or walking onions) are planted from sets I formed at the tops of the plants sets 1 in place of flowers. Multiplier onions (sometimes referred to as "potato onions") are planted and I has been overused as a garnish on restaurant are Ital- plates and seldom eaten. Forest Green. and The clump also either case. Q. forms rosettes of leaves a garnish. Plant the inch deep during August. Pagoda. Petroselinum crispum is though some specialty seed houses have begun old-style crops again. parsley may be used as a flavor base with rosemary.MAJOR VEGETABLES 93 Q. Fakir. ians. What happens when onions they do not cure are broken over? A. It other vegetables. To obtain seed would require allowing the plants to over- Varieties Curled Leaf: Banquet. Italian. rather than the expression of a single herb Parsley is also used as a garnish. In be sure to place the winter onion bed at the There are two distinct types of parsley. Green River. plant flat-leaf parsley. to stock these neapolitanum. tuberosum. It and added to soups and stews. cubed. but very usable foliage Parsley is is little produced in the second season. Hardy through most of the country. Because has a unique ability to Giant ian. crispum. which 63). an attractive It edging or garnish is desired. Individual onions may be "rope" as needed. available. Root Parsley: Early Hamburg. and stews. makes a fine in pots edging plant. and they use is They are not normally grown from seed. leaving the rest of the braid Q. As or dry properly. Paramount. for flavor in salads. though both types handled in exactly the same manner as like shallots (see page 142). Flatleaf. not necessary to develop Root parsley has Parsley is a green leafy a sweet. yielding bulbs of poor quality. Onions are braided for curing and storage. is is grown in the same manner as carrots (see page usually washed. The combination acts as a flavor. Petroselinum crispum var. where they braided the tops of onions. are braided Why are onions hung in braided? a dry. but. Space sets 4 to 5 inches apart. Plain or Flat Leaf: Catalogno. . sweet marjoram. mild parsleylike flavor that blends well with herb that is is grown as an annual but is really a biennial. a good culinary herb if desired. Can grow these? A. parsley seed may be used in cooking. and a small amount of sage. Krausa. cooked with other vegetables. The moss- end of your garden because these onions are perennials. It is and is frequently used as Q. know its that the flat-leaf type. and Plain or Single Sugar. In some cases. basil. may be grown and other Root parsley. may be divided in in early spring (March or April) side or dipped into a vegetable. and Dark Green. but cold its full flavor. Yes. summer Sugar. the most widely grown herb for garnishing and flavoring. especially True multiplier onions. winter onions. one of the most popular herb plants grown it Triple Curled. Sherwood. Incorporating twine with the braiding cut from the braided intact. They stop bulb development at that point a result. var. My grandparents grew winter onions. savory. are difficult to obtain. they and the onions are sheltered location with good air circulation. and may be immature. the rings also separate.



ley leaves,

wash them,
jar in

drip dry,

and place

in a plastic bag



the refrigerator. Parsley

may be

covered lightly with straw and used continuously over
the winter in southern locations.


also can carefully dig a

few plants, pot them in


to 6-inch pots,

and continue


grow them

in the


for a fresh winter supply.


plants need a cool location

and ample


Discard these plants the following
set outside,


to Plant



they are

the leaves

become tough

Parsley seeds can be planted in the spring in cold

and strong

in flavor,

and the plants develop

frames or
is is


boxes, or directly in the garden. Parsas

a biennial, so plants that survive the winter bolt


and seeds may be planted


as the soil

to seed the following spring. or hard-to-find variety,



growing a choice


in the spring. For the

most consistent


of these seedstalks

may be may


the plants indoors or in a protected cold frame (see

allowed to mature seed for future plants.

more than one


and transplant into the garden.

Parsley transintact.

allowed to seed in the garden, crossing

plants very well

the taproot can be


occur, so limit seed production to


variety per year.

Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting
Because parsley seed



fresh seed


important in establishing a crop,
purchased each


seed should be

year. Plant

10 to 15 seeds per inch of row,

no more than U inch deep. Seeds germinate relatively slowly, so be patient and do not overwater. Because parsley seeds are slow to germinate, they

overnight before planting. Radish seeds

may be soaked may be sown
Parsnip, Pastinaca sativa,

every 6 to 8 inches in the row as a marker so that weeds

can be controlled while the parsley germinates. Thin the
seedlings to 4 to 6 inches apart. (The seedlings of root
parsley are usually thinned to 3 to 5 inches apart.) Allow


hardy biennial, grown in the garden annual

as a full-season



long, tapered storage root that resembles a
It is

12 to 18 inches between rows, or space plants 8 to 12
inches apart in



considered a winter vegetable

directions in a bed.




developed until the roots

have been exposed to near-freezing temperatures

2 to


4 weeks in the



early winter.


starch in the

usually picked leaf


leaf for daily use after

parsnip root then changes into sugar, resulting in a
strong, sweet, unique, nutlike flavor

the plants are well established.


plants can be

admired by


sheared off at the ground


the plant


allowed to
varieties will

but despised by a few.

recover fully before further harvest.


allow several such pickings per growing season. The


green leaves
ing season.

may be

harvested anytime during the grow-


Cobham Improved Marrow

(high sugar;


plants are established, foliage can be

half-long shape; better for heavy

Harris Model;


cut regularly

grow back. The plants remain

Hollow Crown.

New varieties that may deserve a trial

green in the garden until early winter, and
ers harvest

many gardenOnce

include Andover and Lancer.

the entire plant to dry in late


parsley leaves are usually placed in a closed container


to Plant

and stored

in the dark so that they

do not

lose their

Plant seed in early April or


in a deep, fertile soil

healthy green color. Loss of color usually means loss of

well prepared. Because parsnip seed
a fresh supply

very short-


you must obtain

each spring.



summer supply


adequate, the leaves


be harvested and dried

page 163). To store fresh pars-



diameter and 8 to 12 inches long) with a shovel,
spade, or spading fork. Yields frequently exceed



per foot of row (single roots

may weigh more than





soil fertility



problem. However, in

well-maintained garden


adequately supplied with
ordinarily should not

Depth of Planting and Spacing of Plants
Plant seeds y2 to 3 A inch deep. Because germination of

organic matter and

fertilizer, this

be a problem.


plants begin to look light green or

stunted during the season due to low

the prob-

even the freshest parsnip seed
thickly, at least


often mediocre, seed
to ensure a

lem usually can be overcome by side-dressing a complete
fertilizer in late

two or three seeds per inch



page 20). Where parsnips



stand. Space rows 18 to 24 inches apart, or plants 8

be grown, avoid


with fresh clumps of organic

to 10 inches apart in a bed. Parsnip seed

slow to germi-

which can cause misshapen or forked

and some gardeners drop

a radish seed every foot in
soil crust.

Parsnips are relatively free of both insects


the furrow to

mark the row and help break the
seedlings are

Once parsnip

up and growing,

pull the

and thin parsnip seedlings

to 2 to 4 inches apart.

Keep young parsnip plants
hoeing or cultivation. Watch

free of

weeds by shallow

for swallowtail-butterfly

which feed on most members of the



Handpicking the

from the leaves

normally gives adequate control. Water thoroughly once


in periods of

extended dry weather to keep

growth from slowing


Pisum sativum


Parsnips should remain in the ground until the tops
freeze in late



a frost-hardy, cool-season vegetable that can

be grown throughout most of the United


In lighter-textured soils, long-rooted

ever a cool season of sufficient duration exists. For





12 to 18 inches after a good

gardening purposes, peas
(english peas), snap peas,

may be

classified as

garden peas

season's growth, so dig deeply
stay back far


carefully, trying to

and snow peas (sugar

enough from the root

to safely undercut

The garden pea


have smooth or wrinkled


these deep roots. At this time, the roots


stored, or they


may be harvested may be left in the garden to be used Gardeners who do not have storage facilities
so that they can be

The smooth-seeded


tend to have more starch

than the wrinkled-seeded


The wrinkled-seeded

varieties are generally sweeter

and usually preferred
are used


mulch parsnips with straw




The smooth-seeded types

more often
beans and

throughout the winter. In spring, before new growth
begins, the roots
lent flavor

to produce ripe seeds,

are used like dry

can be dug and should have excel-


split-pea soup.

Snap peas have been developed



Once growth

really gets


from garden peas to have low-fiber pods that can be
snapped and eaten along with the immature peas within.

way, the root becomes flabby and fibrous and should be

removed and composted unless seed production of



peas are meant to be harvested as


tender pods


before the peas within develop at
carrots, parsnips

The southern pea

Like beets


may be

stored in out-




entirely different

warm-season vegetable

door vegetable

pits or


cellars or



planted and grown in the same




eration at 32°F with high (95 percent) humidity (see pages

page 53).

167 and 168). Dig the roots (usually V/2 to 2 inches in




The following
varieties (listed in order of maturity)


have wrinkled seeds and are
unless otherwise indicated.

resistant to fusarium wilt

(3 inches long)

Early: Daybreak (54 days to harvest,

20 to 24 inches
25 inches,


for freezing); Alaska (57 days,



and Spring (57


22 inches, dark

green freezer pea).

Main-Season: Sparkle (60 days, 18 inches, good for

Maestro (61 days, 24 inches, double pods,


tant to

powdery mildew); Progress #9 (62 Olympia (62

days, 15 inches,

(4 inches long)

dark green pods); Knight (62 days, 18 to 22 inches; long,
well-filled pods);

days; 18 inches; resistant

to fusarium,

powdery mildew, bean yellows mosaic);

Marvel (63 days, 18 inches, holds on the vine

Snap pea
(3 inches long)

Frosty (64 days, 28 inches, resistant to fusarium); Novella

(65 days, 28 inches, "leafless" type);

Bounty (67 days;
Southern pea
(8 inches long)

24 inches; pods
to fusarium race

double; exceptional flavor; resistant

later plantings. Peas

powdery mildew); Green Arrow (68
days, 29 inches, excellent days,

days; 28 inches; pods in pairs; resistant to fusarium

powdery mildew); Bolero (69
for freezing);

and Wando (70

24 to 30 inches, with-


to Plant



heat, best variety for late-spring planting.)

Peas thrive in cool, moist weather and produce best in

moderate climates. Early plantings normally prolarger yields

SNAP, Pisum sativum
Sugar Bon (59 days, 18 to 24 inches, resistant to



may be
sticking to

planted whenever the



at least

powdery mildew);


Snap (60 days; 18 to 22 inches;

and the

soil is

dry enough to


thick- walled, fleshy pods); Sugar


(60 days, 16 to 20


inches, sweet);
days; 24 to


Pot (70 days); Super Sugar Mel (70

Plantings of heat-tolerant varieties can be



28 inches;

pod; resistant to powdery

days. Allow

to late

to the


mature during cool

mildew); Sugar

(72 days, 24 to 30 inches, stringdays, 5 to 6 feet, original snap

more days

first killing frost

than the

and Sugar Snap (74


of days to maturity because cool


pea, needs trellis or fence).

do not speed development of the crop
bright days of late spring.

do the



Pisum sativum



Snowbird (58 days, 18 inches, double or
clusters); Little

pods in

Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting
Plant peas

Sweetie (60 days, 16 inches, tolerant to

to V/2 inches deep



inch apart in

heat and disease); Blizzard (63 days, 30 inches, two pods
per node); Dwarf Gray Sugar (65 days, 24 to 30 inches);

single or double rows. single or pairs of rows.

Allow 18 to 24 inches between
Allow 8 to 10 inches between

Oregon Sugar Pod


(68 days; 24 to 30 inches; resistant

double rows in


to pea enation, fusarium,

powdery mildew);


Melting Sugar (68 days, 4 to 5
Sugar Pod (70 days, over 4

feet, wilt resistant);

feet, wilt resistant);


Snowflake (72 days, 22 inches, high


fiber-free pods. Peas are of the best quality are the yellowing and wilting of the lower and stunting of the plants. lished garden. before producing only a few poorly filled they become hard and starchy. all warm-season peppers are also This stage is usually reached 5 to 7 days after vegetable. plants to keep the plants blooming and producing and hoe shallowly during the Most dwarf and intermediate early varieties longer. Cultivate stages of growth. on well-drained immediately before cooking because their cially quality. Fibers that Bolero) are more productive and more when no develop along the edges of larger pods. Fusarium wilt can be avoided by growing wiltresistant varieties. have a high sugar content and brown or burn quickly. similarly to peas. (at least flowering. and the whole doubt. teria Sugar snap peas. inoculation is a relatively inexpensive process that pod can be Sugar snaps eaten. Pea pods lose their crispness if longer popular. to develop tough fiber in the These must then be shelled and used as other garden peas. Unlike fresh green peas. Peas should be picked pods. to get peak first you may increase the yield by inoculating peas with a In quality. heights of 6 feet or supports. Capsicum annuum the pods have reached their flat. Technically speaking. espe- Double-dug raised beds amended with abundant soil sweetness (like that of sweet corn). Pick a few pods every fusarium wilt and root-rot diseases leaves day or two near harvest time to determine when the peas are at the proper stage for eating. and keep down soil rots. they are ready to be picked. the pods snap like green beans. reduce moisture loss. or 2 days. When the pea pods are swollen (appear Common The first Problems signs of round)." though hot peppers (Capsicum every other day) to assure sweet. more that require fencing or other Pea pods can be stored in a plastic bag in the refrigerator for 2 weeks. but they are stem and blossom ends. frutescens) more usually are be stir-fried. Enlarging peas inside these may be shelled and used as garden peas. are removed during preparation. along with the trained to poles or to a fence for support. pea rate pods deterio- only slightly in quality when stored. left on the vine too long begin pod walls. remove them from the pods injured by direct contact with fertilizer or improper cultivation. Vining types of both sugar snap and snow as peas continue to grow taller and produce peas long as the plant stays in good health and the weather stays cool. inoculation in is but before the seeds grow very At less necessary. Should inoculate my peas with nitrogen-fixing bacbefore planting? A. Pods can annuum.MAJOR VEGETABLES 97 Care The germinating seeds and small seedlings are easily or meat dishes. Harvesting Garden peas. however. is made about one week the last after the Pulling the entire plant for harvest makes picking easier. commercial formulation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. or mixed with oriental vegetables associated with this name. chinense. length but are still (also known as mango). Peas can be mulched (see page 35) to cool overcooked. The pods the soil. The pods on the lower portion of the plant maThe last drainage. Some of the snap and sugar peas are vining types with Do not stir-fry over heat that is too intense. If an estabyou are is this point. deteriorates organic matter can greatly improve aeration and rapidly. is a tender. and C. When peas are planted on new land. Infection of older plants usually results in the plants' when they are fully expanded but immature. As soon as overgrown pods missed in earlier pickings are discovered. The taller varieties (Green Arrow and easily picked peas enlarging inside) should be discarded. varieties have strings along the seams of the pod that must be removed before cooking. Pepper. ture earliest. Sugar snaps are at their best start to fatten when the pods large. Fat snow pea pods (minus the are self-supporting. harvest (usually the third) first. when quite These varieties are generally harvested before the individual peas have grown full to the size of bbs. excellent as fresh peas. Snow peas must be picked regularly known as "chiles. may be canned snow and Answers or frozen. C. Snow peas. steamed. All the listed vari- Questions I eties. Snap peas should be harvested every 1 Q. These diseases are not as prevalent soils. with the fibrous pods discarded. Some easy to do and ensures better plant-nutrient status. Pepper plants require some- .

sutured green to red.95 MAJOR VEGETABLES Variety Color progression. top-shaped 70 75 green to yellow. sutured 73 Sweet frying or salad type: Biscayne pale green to red pale yellow to orange to red pale green to red pale yellow to orange to red 65 65 Gypsy Key Largo 66 70 Sweet Banana . comments Days to maturity Hybrid bell peppers: Bell Boy green to red 70 Camelot Cardinal green to red green to red 67 70 Four Corners King Arthur green to red green to red green to red green to red green to yellow 67 70 72 Lady Bell North Star 66 72 72 72 76 71 Canary Klondike Bell green to yellow green to yellow green to yellow "white" (immature yellow) to red "white" to bright yellow "white" to bright yellow Marengo Orobelle Dove Gold Finch Ivory 72 70 Corona green to orange green to orange green to orange green to orange green to orange 66 76 74 75 Orange Grande Oriole Peppourri Orange Valencia 72 73 72 74 75 Blue Jay Islander Lilac immature purple (lavender) to red immature purple (lavender) to red immature purple (lavender) to red Lilac Peppourri Blackbird immature purple (lavender) to red immature purple immature purple immature purple (black) to red (black) to red (black) to red 73 Purple Belle Secret 70 70 75 Chocolate Bell green to chocolate brown Hybrid elongated Clovis Elisa bell peppers: green to red green to red 68 72 72 Marquis Ori green to red green to yellow 70 Pimento peppers: Super Red Sweetheart Yellow Cheese green to red.

Many at the pepper types listed in the preceding paragraphs (5-8 inches) should be familiar to you from names on the spice rack grocery store. Do not confuse Cherry (172 inches) these peppers (Capsicum species) with black pepper {Piper nigra). When to Plant late Peppers are best started from seeds indoors in winter and then transplanted into the garden after the soil and air have warmed in the spring. The plants can- . mainly due to various ethnic cuisines that use their Banana (6-8 inches) Frying type unique flavors and heat creatively. far The sweet (4-5 inches) Elongated bell traditionally have been by the most popular in the (6-8 inches) United States. and paprika) may be grown for food. stews. Brightly colored. They are eaten green or ripe and are used for salads. (4-5 inches) the familiar table condiment. and pickling. New ties developments in color and form have done nothing to dull the popularity of sweet peppers. chili. sweet bell pepper varieties have recently burst onto the scene. relishes. A vast range of other garden peppers (pimiento. The two species are not related. slim Cherry round 75 75 Cold Spike Habanero (Scotch Bonnet) Hungarian Jalapeno extremely hot! 85-90 70 Wax Hybrid mild 80 70 Mexi Red Belle Chili 84 Serrano Chile 75-80 75 mild mild Super Chile Hybrid Tarn Jalapeno 65-70 (to green harvest) 57 Zippy Hybrid what higher temperatures. cayenne. soup. and are smaller than most tomato plants. grow more slowly.MAJOR VEGETABLES 99 variety Comments Days to maturity Hot peppers: Anaheim Cayenne. tabasco. thick 78 70 73 small. long. Many people do not realize that 6 Spike most of these diverse types can be grown country if in much of this plants are started indoors and transplanted into the garden after frost danger passes. especially the bells. varieties of peppers. stuffing. spices. large. or as Bell ornamentals. Hot pepper varie- have also enjoyed a rebirth of popularity recently. though Columbus's confusion on his arrival in the Western Hemisphere cemented the problem in the language. Cayenne.

are usually picked when they are fully programs. peppers. one or two salad A dozen and hot types. the leaves off. and types available. may more may be possible. many colors. to dry. a condition more commonly associated with tomato. and to advantage with row covers may be used peppers to warm and drain the soil and to enhance the in spring. This condition is blossom-end rot. orange. because skin. and ripen fully to red. varieties. yellow. Common Problems People who use tobacco should wash their hands Spacing of Plants Set transplants 18 to 24 inches apart in the row." light yellow. Hot. apply a suggested insecticide. supplied with moisture. Some by drought. not lack of calcium in the required for some recipes. flavors. dry warm nights (above 70°F). Always exercise caution when cool weather may persist. dry winds and dry soil may prevent fruit fruits. black plastic mulch. (see Watch branch sticky If for accumulation of aphids page 40) on provide enough peppers for most families. Green bell often suspected in these cases because the growth luxuriant. To dry chiles. uneven water availability. weather conditions can reduce fruit set of ods. however. but "green chiles. the bell leaves and stems instead of fruit. Some dishes may actually call for a specific variety of chile to be authentic. The most with cause abortion of small immature winds and common problems later in the season are hot. irrigate eased. plant. It is caused Q. dry. the strung in a "ristras" or entire plants can be pulled in the fall grow slowly. and green. this situation occurs. necessary for truly devoted pepper lovers or for devotees of ethnic cuisines. firm. harvested at any size desired. so look over potential purchases carefully for that is well any leaf spotting or stem cankers. is is Harvesting Fruits may be varieties. Remove infected Irrigation fruits and immature fruit and that should be throw them away. especially near growing tips. Because a Why do my uniform moisture supply cially essential with peppers. when Though the condition caused by a calcium they turn red. more uniform harvests usually result. including all directions in beds. tant varieties if Grow resis- 14 to 18 inches apart in plants.100 MAJOR VEGETABLES not tolerate frost and do not grow well in cold. peppers can actually produce ridiculously high fertility fruit quite well under almost however. and the before frost and hung in an outbuilding or basement flowers drop floating Raised beds. Plastic or rubber gloves may be helpful when picking or handling hot peppers. they break easily from the if developing er fruit attached normally maintain a greener. Periods of extreme heat. Less fruits are appearance because go into producing damage is done to the plants. "honeydew" appears on the lower leaves and fruit. but with so the underside of the leaves. sunken black areas near the ends of the peppers? A. Blossom-end rot is more severe on some varieties of peppers cluding "white. Use a starter fertilizer when trans- planting (see page 20). or brown. off. wet soil. blossom-end rot. espeduring dry periset or pepper plants grow large but not develop They are dark green and do not appear to be disA. healthiall When the fruits are mature. especially with nitrogen. microenvironment of the young pepper plants when handling hot varieties. Several during the harvest season. Apply supplemental dressing) after the first fertilizer (side- Questions Q. transported Bacterial diseases may be on purchased Care Peppers thrive in a well-drained. may prevent fruit set. Hot pepper flavor varies more from variety to variety than was previ- ously appreciated." the immature are also mobility in the plant. or with soap and water before handling pepper plants to prevent spread of tobacco mosaic disease. or (in- they may be harvested green and immature. cut rather than pulled The new. . noses. addition of calcium to the soil Hot peppers stage. especially in some Although overfertilization. Earlier. may turn yellow. seldom alters the condition. and eyes may become painfully irritated. deficiency in the affected fruit tissue. The problem is one of calcium soil. or pruning roots through improper cultivation. or without wind. extreme cold may prevent fruit set. individual fruits can be picked and When plants night temperatures are below 50° to 55°F. fruits? and Answers flush of peppers is is set. that develop in the and purple) are colors than on others. fertile soil transplants. colored to develop full pepper flavor fruits may be left on the plant What causes small. When a large aphid population is present. and mulching can is help to prevent harvested before actually ripening. Early in the season. lilac. Pepper plants that have no the nutrients can grown and mature —3 to 4 inches long. are usually harvested at the red-ripe fruits.

pieces. Potatoes are not roots but specialized "tubers. but they prefer the northern states for tier of Potatoes are among the earliest vegetables planted in all maximal yield and quality. resistant to some (light viruses. resistant to some blight). If adapted to a variety of possible. fluctuation too great for the production of smooth tubers use anyway. Early. poor keeper). Green Mountain is worth the is effort to find certified seed. attractive. smooth. Potatoes planted in March frosts. The white potato it is referred to as condiments required by dry-as-dust Russet Burbanks. Common garden varieties offer better for taste. Plant the pieces soon after cutting. Early: Caribe (magenta skin. but the weaththe moisture extremely winter-defying plantings. Some russets and yellow-fleshed types is demoralizing to the gardener. If atures between 60° and the soil The tubers fail to form the flavor of these market potatoes suits you. Whiteskinned (actually very light brown) and red-skinned eties damp. Late potatoes are best for winter storage. it Due all to a fairly high number of misshapen tubers. Planting too early in it Varieties There are more than 100 varieties of potatoes. the garden. early. Red Pontiac (red skin. may do the as well as produced in the United is States. Solarium tuberosum. These seed pieces may be 1 l small whole that are certified disease free. cold soils makes more likely that seed pieces rot before they can grow. one of the most important diet staple crops in the is human which many people claim requires less of the fattening around the world. smooth. usually variety. Midseason and er over most of the country too warm and late varieties may be planted as late as first of July. Norgold Russet (russet skin. has but disappeared from comall mercial production. and late varieties may be planted in March or early April. Yukon Gold Potato. smooth). and Viking (red skin. grown. often irregularly shaped). and good yields.to 2-ounce good size. resistant to scab). . when temperature reaches 80°F. also vari- may be frozen back to the ground by late Plants with white flesh are the most common in home are also usually recover fully but the blackened shoots are always gardens. and cooking quality varieties are well home Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Potatoes are started from "seed pieces" rather than The following conditions. Midseason: Red Lasoda (red skin. texture. smooth. Potatoes with- look for seed of Yukon Gold. the "Irish potato" because associated with the potato Yukon Gold tive tubers is a very early bearer of large. late brown skin. Some larly shaped). potatoes or potatoes that are cut into k. Russet Burbank cial variety the most important commer- when soils have dried and warmed. these have good flavor and more moist flesh. Be sure that smooth). attrac- famine in Ireland in the 19th century. use northern-grown seed potatoes from true seed. Late: Katahdin (light brown skin. and Superior (light brown skin. often irregu- there is at least one good "eye" in each seed piece. Long popular a cool-season vegetable that ranks with wheat and rice as Europe. bacterial wilts) and Kennebec viruses. verticillium. For dependable production in seasons and the greatest-tasting baked potato ever. Norland (red skin. stand light frosts in the spring and can be grown throughout most of the country in the cooler part of the When to Plant growing season. Medium-early plantings. attractive "baker" shape. midseason. temper- name-brand version of "golden" potatoes." with a hint of pink around the eyes. Many some this underground storage stems called at soil grocery stores around the country now feature Maximal tuber formation occurs 70°F. is the most famous of the new wave of in yellow-fleshed varieties now available.MAJOR VEGETABLES 101 Green Mountain noted for its is an old semi-rough white variety great taste. round. very productive). Irish Cobbler (light brown skin. deep eyes).

Because the rubers Problems brown Early blight causes yellowing and dying of the leaves. Temperatures internal temperatures that inhibit tuber development. They keep in the garage or basement for several furrow between 2 and 3 inches deep. tween the rows. The entire plant develop 4 to 6 inches beneath the or spading fork is soil surface.102 MAJOR VEGETABLES garden centers and seed suppliers sell "potato eyes" that the potatoes reach 1 to 2 inches in size. and cover in a September. Space rows 24 to 36 inches apart. If grown by a special cultural method in that space allows. The straw keeps the tem- perature more uniform and about and 10°F cooler. reduces It is After the potatoes break the surface of the ground. compact caution Use extreme when hoeing near potato plants because devel- oping tubers are easily cut and ruined. you may wish to weigh less than an ounce. remove the film to allow the plants to grow unrestricted. below 38°F cause damage to the tubers. Irrigate to assure uniform moisture while the tubers page 37). Clay soils "Straw Potatoes" Potatoes should be improved with organic matter and plowed deeply in the clover. a shovel becomes infected blight is the disease is not controlled. Misshapsoil. and cool the soil (see page 35). The first signs of the disease are the presence of spots and yellowing if of the lower leaves. Harvest by carefully page 36) to the soil warm the soil is and promote early growth removing the straw and picking up the tubers that the soil surface. beginning when the seedlings are may be dug before the vines die (usually in July). In lie on when temperature low. Some gardeners cover and add more straw through the season if decom- rows of early potatoes with clear (see plastic film at planting position starts to thin the layer. organic mulch can be applied to conserve moisture. help keep down weeds. fall. and subsequent potato production. a cover crop such as they are not hilled or cultivated after planting are called "straw potatoes. en potatoes develop in hard. Pull After the potato plants have emerged. Potato sprouts should emerge through the straw cover. cultivation is The object of potato tion in exhibits use the strawing method shape. any weeds that manage to emerge through the straw cover." buckwheat. When the plants addition to weed control. certified seed potatoes are often the best choice for peas or to butter and roast. Common Harvesting Harvest potatoes after the vines have died. Many gardeners who grow and fairs potatoes for competi- of "sunburned" (greened) tubers. Handle as gently as possible during harvest. Place loose organic-matter content. gradually build up a low ridge of loose soil by cultivation be- usually more rewarding is to straw late varieties than early and hoeing toward the plants. . several other advantages. but the seed pieces are planted at the soil surface. results in better-shaped tubers. Late potatoes are usually home gardeners. Store over the often beneficial besoil winter in a dark room at a temperature between 38° and and prevent high 40°F with high humidity (see pages 167 and 168). to eliminate competition from weeds. which may ones because there a longer period for tuber develop- come 4 to 6 inches high by summer. When 6 to 8 inches tall. reduces the number ment. This ridge. These may be too small for dig a few hills to use for soup or to cook with creamed optimal production. because the potatoes are of excellent size. whole. dug in August or early Plant seed pieces 10 to 12 inches apart. water loss. Colorado potato beetle (V2 inch) are developing (see A uniform moisture supply also helps to cool the ground and eliminate knobs caused by secondary growth. Care The soil should be fertile and well drained. and smoothness. or winter rye grown in the potato bed soil struc- The seed pieces and rows should be the year before potatoes are planted improves ture. The 24-inch spacing cause the plants shade the soil is weeks in their natural dormancy. straw 4 to 6 inches deep over the seed pieces and beis Mulching usually beneficial in growing potatoes. Early a useful tool for digging potatoes. spaced the same as for conventional cultivation. strawing has soil emerge. to soil. loosen and aerate the and to ridge the row. Cultivation should not be necessary. color. best controlled by weekly applications of sug- Potatoes for use in early summer ("new" potatoes) gested fungicides. Check periodically for spoilage. Small.



The potato scab disease
skins) does


by scabby, rough

not develop

Plant resistant

when the soil pH varieties when available.
beetles, flea beetles,

5.6 or lower.

Colorado potato

and leafhop-

pers (see page 40) can significantly reduce potato yields.

(Cucurbita pepo, C.

These insects can be controlled with suggested


and Answers


C. moschata,


C. mixta)


of the

Q. Should save some of my potatoes for seed? A. No, unless you are saving seed of an heirloom variety not commercially available. Saving your own seed potatoes can lead to a
buildup of viruses

vegetable that can be

grown throughout much


States. Besides

being used as jack-o'-lanterns

Halloween, pumpkins are used to make pumpkin butter,
pies, custard, bread, cookies,



Whenever possible, plant seed
be picked
just before or as


certified to


from certain viruses and diseases.

and soup. The flowers may

they open, dipped in

potato plants flowered and formed green fruits that resemble small tomatoes. What are they? A. These small seed balls are the fruits that contain the true seeds. They are not edible. Except for breeding purposes, growing potato
plants from the true seeds in these
fruits is



fried as a delicacy.


immature pumpkin
like a

fruit (before

the seed develops)

may be


squash. These young, tender fruits

may be


a troublesome and

steamed or boiled and then served

as a buttered



vegetable; or sliced, dipped in batter,




causes green skin on my potatoes? A. The green areas on tubers develop where the potato was exposed to the sun. This condition occurs when the potatoes were not planted


immature pumpkin


sometimes cut into



eaten raw with dips for snacks. The seeds of "naked-

deeply enough or not covered with straw. The green portions
taste bitter

seeded" varieties do not have tough seed coats and can

because they contain a moderately poisonous alka-

be roasted in the oven or sauteed for snacks.

These green areas should be cut off and discarded. Expo-

sure of potato tubers to fluorescent light or sunlight causes

Small Cucurbita pepo pumpkins are grown primarily

greening during storage.


How should

cured? A. 60 ° to 65 °F with high humidity (85 percent or

potatoes that are cut into seed pieces be They can be cured by holding them for a week at
higher). This



decorations or for cooking and pies and are

usually referred to as "pie" types because they are associ-


of guestionable value for the

home gardener.

ated with cooking.

They vary

in size




Q. Can make chips from homegrown potatoes? A. Yes. Almost any potato variety can be used to make chips when the
potatoes are freshly dug

2 pounds in the case of Baby Bear to more than 5 pounds

with some of the larger

varieties. In general, small-fruited

and starchy. Commercial

chips are

produce more

per vine than larger ones

made from

selected varieties that are naturally high in solids,

because each individual

fruit takes less

plant energy to

carefully handled,

and properly stored

to preserve starch

Intermediate and large C. pepo varieties are used
primarily for jack-o'-lanterns, for stock feed, and very
rarely for cooking. Recent variety

avoid buildup of sugars. Chips


from potatoes stored at

low temperatures

for long periods are

ring because they contain excessive

brown or have a dark amounts of sugar.




ably not. They

use grocery store potatoes for planting? A Probmay have been treated with a sprout retardant,

developments have

greatly strengthened the walls of these

pumpkins so


which case, they

not grow. Even


they are sprouting,


flat sides.


attractive fruit are

produced with

they have not been inspected
results occasionally


certified free of disease.


may be acceptable,

Generally, these varieties take

up more



of introducing a

nematode, disease, or other pest


higher than from

space in the garden and produce fewer
Flesh quality

per plant.

seed potatoes.

pretty uniformly poor,

and they

consequently almost never used for cooking.


of the species C. moschata are

almost exclusively canned commercially, yielding the
familiar dark orange, fine-textured, dry-fleshed product

most consumers expect to find when they begin to make
their holiday



Because these varieties

look more

like buff-colored

watermelons than pumpkins,



Dickinson Field (12 inches long)

Triple Treat






(7 inches long)

(18 inches long)

(8 inches long)

their C. pepo cousin's picture graces the can; but the true,

out hulling. Newer varieties in this classification include
small pie types

high-quality flesh desired for



comes from


at least


variety that produces

these relatives of butternut squash.

very acceptable jack-o'-lantern-sized

Because the



mammoth pumpkin varieties of the

seeds are not protected


a seed coat, however, they are

maxima have


to attract



While these


have long been used

much more vulnerable to soil insects or to rotting in damp soil. Soil should be thoroughly warm and reasonably well dried to get these types to germinate acceptably

exhibits at county

annual weigh-offs


take place


locations around the country

and through-


quickly. Fresh seed also helps. These types

may be

out the world. The most recent winner topped 900

worth the trouble to germinate
ized seed-starting

in cell-tray flats of steril-

pounds, with 1,000 pounds the goal of these professional
growers by the year


or in peat pellets, where

2000. Here, genetics



temperature and moisture can be controlled. Transplant
to the garden




larger the

pumpkin your



they have two to three true leaves.
Asia, are the type

comes from, the

better your

chance of producing a

Chinese pumpkins, developed in


of your own. Seeds are so valuable that


most recently introduced into the United
Although they
in soups


display in malls or other businesses actually

are eaten pureed, baked, or stir-fried (and

have been destroyed by night raiders and their seeds


pies in Asia), they are

more frequently used

Buy your seed from

a reliable source,




as fall decorations here.


are typically flattened, with



producing the Great Pumpkin.
are C. pepo or C.

prominent sutures and bright orange



White painting types

maxima but


limited, they

may be



a fence or other

creamy white skin instead of the orange more

support. Although they resemble gourds in both plant

typical of these species. This colorless



size of

the miniature pumpkins, these are good

regarded as ideal by

some pumpkin

painters. Flesh

tasting, unlike gourds,

though almost

as durable. Produc-

yellow, similar to the orange varieties. Fruits of these



heavy in terms of number of
varieties of


per plant.

types are often marketed as "ghost" pumpkins.

The following


are well adapted


are relatively large

and long necked, with
blossom end. Most

to a variety of conditions. All are vining types that

an enlarged, bell-shaped base

at the

require considerable growing space

are best suited

cushaws are of the species C. mixta, though some,

for large gardens, unless otherwise indicated.

The bush

Golden Cushaw,
solid flesh,

are C. moschata.

The long necks have

and semi-vining types
smaller gardens.

are best suited to be


with a characteristically coarse texture that
for cooking.


by some people


large size


unusual color patterns make them popular, as well, for

Baby Bear

(C pepo)
Baby Pam;

decorations. Cushaws, especially the C. mixta types,

Small: All 2 to 5 pounds, 100 to 110 days to harvest:
(small, flattened shape; fine stem);


produce long, less-branched vines than other


(hybrid, semi-bush; very



heavy stem,

Naked-seeded types produce seeds without the tough
seed coats of

immature yellow

color); Small

Sugar or


common varieties.

These "naked" seeds are

(the standard pie type); Spooktacular (hybrid; bright

ready to roast and eat as they

come from


orange; ribbed; strong stem); Sugar Treat (hybrid; semi-



bush; bright color); and Winter Luxury (old variety, good
for cooking;

unique netted


Intermediate: All 8 to 15 pounds, 100 to 110 days to

Autumn Gold

(hybrid, yellow



Bushkin (hybrid, bush type); Frosty (hybrid; smoothtextured skin);

Funny Face

(hybrid); Harvest


(hybrid); Jack-O-Lantern; Spirit (hybrid, semi-bush);

Young's Beauty.
Large: All 15 to 25 pounds, 100 to 110 days to

Aspen (hybrid, deep orange, uniformly
(hybrid, yellow



to Plant



when immature);




a very tender vegetable.



do not by

(selection of Connecticut Field); Connecticut Field (the

germinate in cold

and the seedlings

are injured

old standard, continually reselected); Ghost Rider (dark


not plant until

danger of



and the

orange; very dark green handle);

Happy Jack



has thoroughly warmed. Plant pumpkins for Hallolate

dark orange; good handle);
standard for the


Field (the industry

ween from


in northern locations to early July in
sites. If



Jackpot (hybrid; round;

extremely southern

rot before

are planted too

compact vine


Jumpin' Jack

dark orange,





tall fruit);

and Pankow's

Field (large, variable

pumpkins with exceptionally
Vif d'Estampes


long handles). Rouge

a C.

maxima type



Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Vining pumpkins require a minimum of 50 to 100
square feet per
seeds per

orange, flattened, heavily sutured.
for Cinderella's carriage
as "Cinderella"


was the prototype

Plant seeds


inch deep (four or five

pumpkin and

sometimes sold

Allow 5 to 6
feet apart.


spaced in


rows 10 to 15

When the young plants are well
two or three

established, thin each hill to the best

Processing: All C. moschata, tan skin color, widely

Plant semi-bush varieties seeds per

inch deep (four or five

and thin

to the best

two plants per


used for commercially canned pumpkin: Buckskin
(hybrid); Chelsey (hybrid); Dickinson Field;

Allow 4




and 8


between rows.


Plant miniature varieties

inch deep, with two or


three seeds every 2 feet in the row.

Rows should be 6

to 8


All C.

maxima, 50 to 100 pounds, or

Max; Big

feet apart, with seedlings thinned to the best plant every

more; 120 days to harvest: Atlantic Giant (most true

2 feet

when they have
and thin to



true leaves.

come from

selections of this variety); Big

Plant bush varieties
of row),

inch deep

or 2 seeds per foot

Moon; Mammoth Gold; and Prizewinner



a single plant every 3 feet.

Allow 4 to

shape, orange color; not the largest, but the

6 feet between rows.

most dependable).

White Painting:

Casper, Lumina,

and Snowball


plants should be kept free from weeds by
Irrigate (see

maxima); and



(C. pepo).


group: Green-Striped Cushaw, Sweet Potato,

hoeing and shallow cultivation.

pages 37 and

Tennessee, and White
(C. moschata).



C. mixta);

and Golden

an extended dry period occurs in early summer.
tolerate short periods of hot, dry




All C. pepo: Trick or Treat (hybrid,

pretty well.

semi-bush, 10 to 12 pounds, good for carving); Tricky
Jack (hybrid; small; bush type); and Triple Treat (thick


are necessary for pollinating squash



may be





6 to 8 pounds; cooks, carves well).

cides are used, they should be applied only in late after-

Miniature: All C. pepo: Baby Boo (white); Jack-BeLittle


or early evening


the blossoms have closed for
visiting the blossoms.

(standard orange miniature); Jack-Be-Quick


the day and bees are

no longer


darker orange);
fruit); fruit).


(uniform, attractive orange


blossoms open each day and bees land only inside

and Sweetie

Pie (small, scalloped,

medium orange

the open blossoms, these pollinating insects should be

from contact with any potentially deadly


though you can expect a fight with purists. small decorative all gourds. Allow a single fruit to and pick off all female flowers that develop after this has set on the plant. It is dis- cussed in this section are and var- Questions and Answers ieties of each are called "squash. proper insect control. The first flowers that appeared on my pumpkin plants did not form fruits. system. when harvesting because many varieties have when do not is Green-Striped Cushaw. Remove the first two or three female flowers after the plants start to bloom so that the plants grow larger Q. Q. and pumpkin. The table on pages 113 and eties of pumpkins. in and gourd grouping. in They can be controlled with alert for because each variety comes from a areas where Because cide. pumpkin. Plant in early June. Snapping the stems from the vines results in velop so quickly the vine as they and so large that they may actually break from expand on a vine anchored to the ground. My grandmother made Is is Pumpkins without stems usually do not keep gloves Wear long-necked pumpkin. There are four main species ofCucurbita usually included the pumpkin. There no swelling on the bases of the male flower stems. Store in a dry building vine crops called "cucurbits. and Big Max the same area without crossing different species. The small ers. If vines remain healthy. Why not? A. many gardens are in close proximity. still many broken fruit or missing "handles. The and largest one called a first male. cross-pollination does not affect the taste. suburban squash bugs. This table is meant to classify many of the diverse varieties of these four species. no matter what you do. Two variety called same species. page 40) are saved and grown all the following year. squashes. is most varieties) and the rind hard. fruits. Varieties of each of the four species popularly called "pumpkins. identify at the bases of the female flow- them. Q. C. and shallow cultivation are essential. ripening. Male flowers bloom one day. The first squash is gray to green. Will pumpkins. moschata. Not all varieties listed in the table are recommended in this book. The varieties within a botanical species (which may be referred to as pumpkins. before heavy frosts. pies with a green-striped. In orange color sometimes helps determine what varieties of the a pumpkin. Pumpkins. I from disease or other causes. if fruits must be vari- because these insects can damage the mature ring their appearance mar- bagged and pollinated by hand eties is pure seed of nonhybrid desired. Fruits that are Q. and C. C). harvest the mature store with develop. The male flowers fruits. Shape may vary slightly. " " A. flowers are almost always attracts bees vines. or color of the appears before the fruits are fully grown and (see current season's fruits Crosses show up only if seeds from these Cucumber beetles and squash bugs attack seedlings. The pollen on these alerts them to the location of the male flowers blooming and By the time well estab- the first female blossoms open. C. squash. Apply a suggested fungicide powdery mildew ripened. What all in what you the difference a pumpkin and a squash? call it. and leave 3 to 4 inches of stem attached. visible is may predominate pumpkin is pinkish to orange. mixta. and gourds cross-pollinate and produce freak fruit if interplant several kinds in I my not fully mature or that frost garden? A. Avoid cutting and bruising the pumpkins handling them. zucchini crosses with Howden's growth on the upper surfaces of the kill leaves." well. but these two freely interpollinate and are botanically pretty much indentical. and gourds are members of the have been injured or subjected to heavy keep. and allow 150 square feet per hill. Cut pumpkins from the vines carefully. Unless you are dealing with specific rules or regulations at a show. maxima. White pumpkin could be grown in Cushaw pumpkin. this variety available? A. " The name is derived from their where the temperature botanical genus classification ofCucurbita (often abbreviated between 50° and 55°F (see pages 167 and 168). vines. this Do not allow the vine to root fruit down at until Halloween. The variety texture. C. Use one of the jumbo varieties. or under certain kinds many common vari- of stress. shape. fruits. Be an infestation of cucumber beetles and late bees carry pollen for distances of a mile or more. For example. However. sharp prickles on their stems. Varieties from different Powdery mildew can powdery mold growth species Field do not. Butternut squash. This condition is natural for cucurbits (such as cucumber. High fertility.106 MAJOR VEGETABLES Harvesting Pumpkins can be harvested whenever they solid color (orange for are a deep. fact. acorn or spaghetti squash. then drop off the plants. the bees' route the male flowers pollen ' lished and is transferred to the female for flowers by the bees. or gourds) can cross-pollinate. Because prefer it has a unique some cooks for custards and pies. more by tradition than by is Q. This pumpkin. and watermelon). pepoj. pepo. it Yes. harvest in late September If or early October. Thin to the best one or two plants. and both immature and mature a suggested insecti- Small Sugar pumpkin. and them in a moderately warm. botanical species (C. the joints near developing because these varieties de- using pruning shears or a sharp knife. 1 under certain 14 shows conditions. especially early in the season. gourd. or Jack-Be-Little miniature pumpkins because they are the leaves prematurely and interfere with proper if members of the same fruit. turely fruit vines die prema- How can grow pumpkins that weigh more than 100 pounds? A. you can pretty much interchange the words squash and pumpkin. is squash. dry place fruit more leaf surface before setting fruit. squash. maxima. squash. is and making them less likely to keep properly. as populations build in summer. and gourds belonging to the botanical species ofC. Common Problems causes a white. hold the records for the world's largest squash muskmelon. . squash.

summer. deep Early Scarlet round. color mix recommended for late-spring planting for summer the same includes reddish purple. days. Plum midsummer to late summer). seed % to '/ 2 inch deep. pink. lavender. are usually more pungent. small taproot. much They are slower to develop than spring radishes. Champion red. scarlet. long. for proper development of their larger roots. Purple (25 days. oval. and squash). fast-maturing. ter can be planted for summer bet- The variety French Breakfast holds up and grows if than most early types in summer heat water is sup- plied regularly. and varieties. Later-maturing vari- Hybrid (24 days. eties of radishes (Icicle or French Breakfast) usually with- Globe (23 days. Easter Egg (25 days. Winter radishes require a much longer time to at medium tops. Garden Garden (172 inches) Icicle grown wherever there is sun and moist. resis- mature than spring radishes and are planted time as late turnips (usually tant to fusarium. smooth). round. Chinese White (60 days. or con- Cherry Belle (22 days. large. Raphanus sativiis.MAJOR VEGETABLES 107 «*fr Radish. white. Fuego (25 days. creamy white roots). more moist days of Winter radishes are sown in midsummer as fall turnips. rounded. On beds. but varieties some later-maturing use. Spring radishes should be planted from as early as the and woody can be worked until midspring. and Tama Hybrid (70 days. red). large. Spring radishes also can be planted in late smooth white red). tomatoes. and Snow Belle (30 days. stand heat better than the early maturing varieties and are bright red). (55 days. Icicle (25 days. round. roots as long as 18 inches. Black Spanish radishes may be broadcast lightly and thinned to stand all blunt-tipped. . tolerant to black root/black scurf). harvest. winter in a protected cold frame. black skin. round. smooth. round. slim. later for warm-season crops (peppers. square-shouldered. attractive. white). and they grow considerably larger. Round 2 to 3 inches apart in directions. summer. long. round. deep magenta). white). Additional sowings of spring types can commence to late in late fall. Thin spring varieties to oblong red with white tapered white). globe-shaped. Cherry Queen house or on the patio. V Winter (8-9 inches) even on the smallest city lot. Winter radishes must be thinned to 2 to 4 inches. blunt tip). and has adequate mois- When soil to Plant ture maintained. in taste Slow development makes radishes hot in texture. white. Plant in and should be checked often for approaching maturity. large. rose. (28 days. daikon type. radishes can be fertile soil. easy-to-grow vegetable. or even farther apart to allow Winter (for storage): China Rose (52 large. is a cool-season. slow to become pithy). skin). Early varieties (3-6 inches) usually grow best in the cool days of early spring. tainer in the window box. white flesh). with 3-inch diameter. rough. is soil that is prepared fertilized before planting. red. Seed (6X) Seedling remain crisp longer. Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Sow y 2 to 1 For Spring or Summer Use: tip) French Breakfast (23 days. hold in the ground or store longer than spring spaces between slow-maturing vegetables (such as broccoli and brussels sprouts) or in areas that will be used Varieties Spring: Burpee White (25 days to harvest. Make successive Radishes mature rapidly under favorable conditions plantings of short rows every 10 to 14 days. to mature in the cooler. Care Radishes grow well in almost any well. and inch between plants.

Pull smaller. to Plant and Answers my radishes to crack Plant or divide rhubarb roots in early spring while the What A causes and split? A. their size. The radishes either grew too growing rhubarb. before heat. and tops with no root develseed planted too the size. it should it maturity. MacDonald (tender Root maggots page 40) may runnel into radishes. brilliant red). 1 /2 1 Ruby. the seedlings do not come true to color Why do my radishes grow all A. yields for 5 years or longer in the same location. good flavor). Apply a suggested soil insecticide Green Petioles (leafstalks): Victoria (shaded with red). skin. Size conditions. extra sweet). ing if this insect previously has been a problem. and sauces. established. The plants are still dormant. and still maintain excellent quality. Radishes remain in edible condition for Rhubarb. and much shade (must be really severe to com- Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant the roots with the pletely discourage root enlargement). availability. Seed-grown rhubarb also tends to produce more opment? thickly There may be several reasons: seedstalks. Planting on raised beds . Cherry Red (rich red inside and out). or seedstalks can begin to develop. thick stalks. common above 40 degrees north before plant- inches. pointing stragglers that have taken too long to develop. they maintain high quality for a fairly long be planted will soil at the end or one side of the garden where activities to time in the garden. is a very hardy perennial garden and avoids disap- vegetable that grows well in most of the country. which sap strength from the developing for leaves. plump petioles). Rheum rhabarbarum (also only a short time before they become pithy (spongy) and hot. Harvesting Pull radishes when they are of usable 1 size (usually starting when roots are less than inch in diameter) and relatively young. or Chinese radish. Although considered fruit in pies.106 MAJOR VEGETABLES Harvest should size commence as soon as roots reach edible and should be completed quickly. When Questions Q. a vegetable. Varieties Red Petioles (leafstalks): Canada Red (long. What causes my radishes to be too "hot"? A. weather too hot for the spring varieties that do best temperature (planted too late or unseasonable too weather). The "hot- the surface of the soil. Also. Space the roots 36 to 48 inches ness" of radishes results from the length of time they have apart in rows 3 to 4 feet apart. outside of the and plants not thinned (though some roots along row usually develop fairly well even under in cool than do the cultivars selected production. Planting seeds is not recom- radishes are too old. A half-dozen plants should provide for all Daikon. essential in Good garden drainage is grown rather than from slowly or are too old. tarts. and Valentine (petioles 22 by These insects are more latitude. can achieve particularly large size enough rhubarb but truly rhubarb-loving families. them when they are younger and a period of relative dryness mended except in extremely southern parts of the counit flush of moisture after also may cause mature try because roots to burst and may take too long for the plants to become split. pithi- ness. Winter radishes can be pulled before the ground freezes and stored in moist cold storage for up to several months. rhubarb is used as a Winter varieties mature more slowly and should be size. Because rhubarb produces harvested at considerably larger Once they reach weather. Try to avoid uneven moisture Q. moderate to light seed extreme crowding). crown bud 2 inches below Q. Common Problems (see Crimson Red (tall. Proper thinning focuses the harvest known as pie plant). especially in cool continues to increase under favorable fall fall not be disturbed by normal prepare the each year.

Can I not be eaten. Harvest them moist. take them indoors warm. and A severe freeze has A. The parent plants. soil. and the petioles tender and uniformly remove bright pink. A. from the plant. The ideal temperature is 55° when the stalks are 12 to 18 inches tall. plants produce small foliage the best conditions. and roots of rhubarb plants. To harvest. Newly set plants need crowns. Vegetatively propagated. begins in the spring and side-dress with manure (see other high-nitrogen fertilizer in late sites. during or extended dry periods. Destroy all prevalent in many areas of the weeks during the second full year. Each piece Dig the roots of plants that are to be forced (3-year-old plants are best) must have leaf size. June page 20). . seed-produced plants. Treat the base of plants with a suggested insecticide. as a cellar or hotbed) and cover plants to establish a new bed the spring before the old or sawdust. cut them from the base of the plant soon as they appear and discard them. vigorous. is also attacks all their foliage to build a strong root system. ditions named varieties usually have been selected to produce many fewer seedstalks than cheaper. They should be if crisp and fairly thick. bores into the It year of plantstalks. Working plenty of well-rotted You can grow tender rhubarb Forcing at is stalks out of season by "forcing" winter and early spring. The leaf blades contain large amounts of oxalic acid and should Questions Q. a snout beetle. Allow more space between rhubarb plants. Buy only varieties. Stalks may be harvested for for 8 to 1 or 2 (a wild dock. flavor. It is usually best to discard roots after forcing. gether and keep to 60°F. Except in poorly drained organic mulches help Irrigate moderate soil temperature and moisture. To keep the plants healthy. Common Rhubarb the first Problems curculio. Yield and quality full size are get divisions from another gardener petioles that just reached high-quality planting. Do not the crowns. seedstalks and flowers develop during the spring and as summer. post is An application of manure comcover beneficial in late fall or early winter. blades. remove only about one-third of the at eat the leafstalks? No. lish a one strong bud. Harvesting Do not harvest rhubarb during ing. may result from excessive crowding. Keep excess on the roots to prevent from subzero freezing. and oxalic acid may have migrated from any one time.MAJOR VEGETABLES 109 ensures against rotting of the crowns. chilled (about 45 to 50 days). and petioles (leafstalks) are of the highest quality color. a weed that country. divide fertilize regularly. Place the crowns close to- planting is to be discarded. vegetatively propagated who has a (maximum are highest and tenderness) have in early spring. These conQ. and Answers damaged my rhubarb. Cut the roots into four to eight at least pieces. Care Cultivate shallowly as often as necessary to the leaves small. After the roots are thoroughly Plantings older than this tend to begin crowding themselves out. or low soil fertility. and trim off the leaf blades. Dig the roots of the most vigorous. dark place (such with peat. Harvest in the fall only when the plants are to be Burn badly infected rhubarb plant parts in July after discarded the next season. Apply a complete garden fertilizer before growth tea or month. old plants. pull the leafstalks the beetles have laid their eggs. Why do my rhubarb plants send up seedstalks and produce small leaves and leafstalks? The petioles are not as large as they have been in previous years. The leafstalks will be of poor texture the leaf and from a plant flavor. harvested before any coarse fiber can develop. manure into the rhubarb bed before planting home during the late greatly increases production. healthy ground. 1 The harvest period for forced roots is about weeds. To improve vigor and and allow them soil to freeze on top the damage to a many gardeners divide the old plants and estabnew planting after at least 5 years of full harvest. safely producing leaves If well. years. or Some seed-propagated and many seedstalks even under named. and 10 weeks wild dock growing around the harvest season) during the third and subsequent garden. most successful with the Victoria variety bestalks Old roots may be dug and divided to make new plantings. cause it normally produces with large diameters.

improved after several frosts in the fall may be sweeten the roots. leaf Savoy (crinkled) spinach catches fine soil parti- When the seed- cles. and frequent is shal- and an edible root the a low cultivation necessary to remove weeds. pointed leaves. second year. Scorzonera: Gigantia (120 days. fall It is grown in early Salsify and scorzonera are both grown in much the spring or late because long. Spinach. giving salsify and scor- Harvesting The flavor of salsify is zonera a somewhat exotic appearance compared to most other garden vegetables. long.110 MAJOR VEGETABLES Salsify. Harvest anytime through April. repelling the carrot Varieties Salsify: vest. lings are 2 inches tall. Top tender harvested anytime frozen ground allows until early spring. Mammoth Sandwich Island (120 days to harroots) creamy white. very resistant to bolting). hard like that of parsnip. Spinacia oleracea. thick roots). Salsify is grows slowly when young. and Black cooked foliage Salsify. The tops form a spreading rosette of narrow. Scorzonera is horn most garden diseases and dry conditions once it is and withstands a black-skinned root that well established. salsify sends If allowed to grow a in the skin of the roots. Because they are able to withstand hard freezing in the winter. and served cold as a salad vegetable. like tiny grains that are splashed by rainfall. This If thin to 2 to 4 inches apart. Scorzonera hispanica. simply is sometimes sold without by the name of the vegetable. The roots of salsify Gardeners without storage facilities may mulch the are usually peeled after cooking. 8-inch European variety. Spring shoots of either plant up a seedstalk and bloom. When to Plant is a hardy. makes the spinach slightly "gritty" when chewed. Plant seeds in a deep. Care Salsify Both are hardy biennials that produce first year. growth in the spring may be To cut when young and when new growth depletes the overwintered 3 and used leaves 1 like asparagus. and all can be grown in certain Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant seeds y2 to 3 A inch deep (10 to 12 seeds per foot of row) in rows 18 to 24 inches apart. may be eaten like asparagus. either crop and scorzonera. Tragopogon porrifolius. produces yellow flowers. able. cool-season vegetable. good companion plant to carrots. from the flavor of the roots. cut off the The tapered roots (V2 to A inch in diameter and inch above the roots and hold the roots under 8 to 10 inches long) are made into a chowder or cooked conditions similar to those for storing parsnips (see page 95). cylindrical. Scorzonera is reputed to be a fly. hot summer days making it cause it same way prepared. store the roots. Either salsify or scorzonera variety names. spinach is one of the more imporUnited States for both before freezing weather in the tant vegetable greens salads grown it in the and cooking. you . Rich in vitamins. are both known as vegetable oyster or oyster plant. and Lange Jan (115 days. as parsnip. wellfertile soil in early to "bolt" (form premature seedstalks). while the roots of scor- vegetable oyster rows with straw and dig the roots as zonera are not because a large proportion of their flavor is needed throughout the winter. unus- spring (about 100 days fall). seasons in parts of the country. insects It is free creamy white root that produces purple flowers the second season. roots.

harvest. Some gardeners prefer to pick the planting can be If made soil as soon as the soil in the is fall. Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Sow 12 deep. wintering). spring. mediumraces 1 to long-standing. Little cultivation necessary. Spinach of best quality cut while young. fall. tant to Under these conditions. Melody (42 days. Tyee tal fertilizer is needed. many soil protected cold frames for winter salads. summer or fall plantings in the refrigeraweeks before planting. Plant because leaves quickly lose condition as flowering begins. glossy dark green leaves) be as close as 12 inches apart.MAJOR VEGETA6LES 111 successive crops for several weeks after the initial sowing to keep the harvest going until hot weather. 2. long-standing). which do not catch and hold cleaner. thus. growth is slow or the plants are fertilizer (39 days. mildew. spring. Seed spinach again in late Chill seeds for tor for 1 or 2 tions. summer harvest). heavily savoyed. With mulch. mosaic. Closer spacing (no thinning) best varieties for spring or fall satisfactory Choose the planting. to 15 seeds per foot of row. tolerant to downy light green. or winter). slow to bolt. good spring or fall). plants to stand 4 to 6 inches apart in is Winter Bloomsdale (45 days. cold tolerant. very crinkly. good for over- tions. The rows may Crinkled-Leaf: Bloomsdale Long Standing (48 days to harvest. very savoyed. Harvest the prepared in the spring. Cover '/ eral content. downy mildew races 1 and tolerant to resis- Spinach grows best with ample moisture and a well-drained soil. Horvestina The large downy mildew and 2 plants may be may be harvested whenever the leaves are Plain-Leaf: Giant Nobel (43 days. In beds. outer leaves when they are 3 inches long and allow the for later harvest. leaves. Spinach can be grown in hotbeds. tolerant to cucumber mosaic virus. large. Late thinnings eaten. when the entire plants are to be harvested. and Vienna (40 days. no supplemenIf downy mildew. harvested as whole plants and Plain-Leaf Hybrid: Olympia (46 days. and wash tion is on organic Much of commercial spinach producmuck soils. Hybrid Savoy: Indian Summer (39 resistant to days. side-dress with nitrogen (page 20). the was prepared younger leaves to develop entire seeds can be broadcast over frozen ground or in late winter snow cover remaining crop when seedstalk formation begins and germinate as the soil thaws. smooth enough to use (a rosette of at least five or six leaves). thin to 2 to 4 is Varieties inches apart. semi-savoy. borderline gardeners should be able an early spring sunrooms. In southern loca- immature spinach seedlings survive over winter on well-drained soils and resume growth in spring for early harvest. do not 2 inch When the plants are 1 inch tall. plant sorts. . spinach blight). or to coax seedlings through the winter for find this unacceptable. Two or three separate seedings of short rows can provide harvest over When The to Plant first an extended period. summer for fall and early winter harvest. Cut the plants is at or just if below the soil surface. and. may be thinned all direc- slow to bolt. tolerant to as well as spinach blight). depending upon the and method used for keeping weeds down. which have little or no minmake the spinach gritty. dark green. one of the the as plain-leaf particles. thick. lightly crinkled. fertile.

and keep the after planting problem. not true spinach. A few healthy and yields.112 MAJOR VEGETABLES Common Problems Cucumber mosaic virus Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting causes a condition in Plant seeds 1 inch deep where they are to grow in the early in flats.free season. Varieties This vegetable green is indeed native to New Zealand. inches) are cut as needed throughout the summer. warm-season vegetable that can When to Plant be grown throughout the United States anytime during spinach plants are cold tender. but if named varieties are seldom. or start leaf diseases are a them Soak seeds overnight soil Downy mildew and other fungal both. especially in seasons that are wet. and early death of plants? A. The large. the warm. spread 4 to 6 feet by the end of the season. "New Zealand pepo and C. Grow resistant varieties. or moist because they are sometimes slow to Some resistance is available through variety selecair germinate. a tender. the supply of "spinach" can be relatively spinach. Summer squash. Spinach bolts quickly to seed during the long days in late spring or summer. which also helps prevent infections. marrow is a vining type that It is of good quality when can also be started indoors commonly grown in the United States. New Zealand New Zealand salads or greens. humid. where summer squash varieties are virtually all bush types. Raised beds create excellent and water drainage allows precision spacing. but an entirely as a grown it is warm-season substitute for spinach because because it is similar in taste and texture and tolerant to heat and drought. Summer squash differs from fall and winter immature. spreading plants produce succulent leaves and branch tips that are used in the same way as spinach. frost. tender leaves and tips of shoots (3 to 4 (cucumber mosaic virus). not squash in that rind hardens it is selected to be harvested before the fruit and the matures. stunting. Plants may be cut back (sheared) occasionally to force first new fall. These conditions are caused by blight disease Harvesting The young. Because New Zealand The is true English vegetable seeds should not be planted before the frost-free date. Cucurknown as vegetable or ital- ian marrow). spinach called blight. stalks) causes spinach to develop flower stalks (seedbefore a crop can be harvested? A. Q. in the spinach bed. are "long standing" or slow to bolt are best adapted for spring planting. well- maintained plants produce abundant . Starting plants in flats tion. It grows on bushfall type plants that do not spread like the plants of and winter squash and pumpkin. seen in this country. Thin or space plants 12 inches apart in the garden. maxima (also is Summer bita and it is listed in garden catalogs simply as is Spinach. What causes yellowing. •quash. Be sure to allow space between rows because the plants may Questions Q. Varieties that than normal cultivation. ever. What Care New Zealand spinach requires no special care other Warm temperatures accelerate this development. a same vegetable that thrives under summer heat and is used for uninterrupted. in lukewarm water before planting. dependdiligently and Answers ing on how you harvest them. (See the maps. different species It is Spinach is growth. garden.) Seeds for transplanting. Harvest until the fall hard freeze in the As plantings of true spinach begin to mature about the time. page 26. Tetragonia tetragonioides." There some variation in plant type.

MAJOR VEGETABLES 113 Botanical species Cucurbita pepo Gourds and ornamental Pumpkin Aspen Summer squash green elongated Ambassador Black Beauty Winter squash acorn type All-Season squash Apple Bicolor Autumn Cold Baby Bear Baby Pam Big Big Black Jack Black Zucchini Autumn Queen Cream of the Crop Ebony Raven Royal Acorn Crown Orange Pear of Thorns Nest Egg Autumn Boss Classic Field Tom Sweet Sugar Connecticut Early Cocozelle Swan White Table Ace Table Gold Table King Table Shenot Cousa (Lebanese zucchini) Elite Spoon Extra Early Sugar Frosty Funny Jack Ghost Rider Half Fiorentino (hybrid cocozelle) Queen Tay-Belle Moon jack Field Greyzini Halloween Midnite spaghetti type Orangetti Pasta Tivoli Happy Milano Napolini Pale face Howden Jackpot Jack-O-Lantern (compact plant) President Jumpin' Jack Senator Pie delicata type Delicata New England Spineless Beauty Pankow's Field Viceroy Heart of Gold ProCold 500 Seneca Harvest Zucchini Honey Boat Sugar Loaf Moon Spirit green round Garnet Globe Sweet Dumpling Spookie Spooktacular Ronde de Nice Scallopini Tallman Winter Luxury Wizard Young's Beauty yellow round Sun Drops Suntop yellow elongated naked-seeded Lady Godiva Mini Jack Blondie Butterbar Classic Sugar Treat Trick or Treat Triple Treat Condor Crescent Early Prolific Straightneck miniature Baby Boo (white) Jack-Be-Little Eldorado Jack-Be-Quick Munchkin Sweetie Pie Cold Finger Gold Slice Goldbar Golden Girl Goldie Medallion Seneca Sundance Super Spike Superpik Supersett flat-shaped Patty Pan Peter Pan Sunburst .

flattened. depending on the stem end is straight or bent). hybridization. which like a plate round of varieties. dark Marblehead Mooregold orange) Snowball (white) NK530 NK580 NK 4000 Red Kuri Sweet Mama Sweet Meat Cucurbita moschata Buckskin butternut type Butternut Early Butternut Cheese Dickinson Field Golden Cushaw Kentucky Field Hercules Hybrid Butternut Patriot Palomino Ponca Puritan Supreme Ultra Waltham Zenith Cucurbita mixta Green-Striped Cushaw Japanese Pie Sweet Potato Tennessee White Cushaw Varieties number appears in of varieties is staggering. See table starting still on Summer squash and flattened many different fruit is page 1 13 for a wider (yet far from complete) listing shapes and colors: scallop (or Patty Pan). selection of summer squash has markedly and the number of varieties as the result of changed in recent years. constricted neck (thinner at stem end than blossom end. and introduction of disease resistance. which are usually shades of green but The varietal may be yellow or nearly white. classified as either "crookneck" or "straightneck" Zucchini (open-pollinated): Black Zucchini known summer if squash. and caserta.114 MAJOR VEGETABLES Botanical species Cucurbita Gourds and ornamental Pumpkin Atlantic Giant Summer squash Winter squash All squash Aladdin Turk's maxima Season Bush Big Big Max Moon Baby Blue Hubbard Banana Buttercup Delicious Turban Casper (white painting) Hungarian King of the Mammoth Mammoths Lumina (white) Mammoth Rouge Vif Prize Emerald Gold Nugget Golden Hubbard Green Warted Hubbard Prizewinner Honey Delight Kindred d'Estampes (also called Cinderella. which is usually yellow. white flesh). with scalloped edges. The . offered has greatly expanded new interest. and the cylindrical to club-shaped italian marrows. cocozelle. usually Recommended varieties of summer squash include: (best- white but sometimes yellow or green. such as zucchini. greenish black skin.

or four or five seeds in hills 3-4 inches 3-4 inches 48 inches apart. Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Sow two or three seeds 24 to 36 inches apart for single-plant production. and Sundance (hybrid. Gourmet light 4-6 inches Crookneck 4-6 inches Globe (hybrid. with stripes. dark green. open plant). with slight ridges. may also be grated for baking Do not allow summer squash smooth to Prolific become large. open plant). compact.MAJOR VEGETABLES 115 color. in breads and other items. Classic (medium green. bright yellow. Patty Pan types are harvested when fruit they are 3 to 4 inches in diameter. hard.) until midsummer. green spot at the blossom end). bright yellow. Cover 1 inch deep. no more than two or three plants per very slender fruit). When to Plant 4-6 inches Plant anytime after the danger of frost has passed. Embassy (medium green. Certain mulches (see page 36) increase earliness White Bush (creamy greenish color. light flecks. Care Any well-drained garden soil produces excellent yields of summer squash. spines. light green). waited. picked when they are 2 inches or less in diameter and color. AAS winner. thin to one vigorous plant or hill. medium and yields because the roots are shallow. fruit may be harvested like summer squash. upright. firm male blossoms. and Sun Drops (hybrid. tall. golden yellow. but remove female blos- soms Straightneck for largest supply of male blossoms). and seedy because they sap Pick oversized squash with Yellow Straightneck: Early Straightneck strength from the plant that could better be used to (standard open-pollinated straightneck. Most elongated varieties are Golden Zucchini deep gold straightneck). very tender). globe-shaped. and Spineless Beauty (medium dark green. upright spine- summer squash and tender are often picked when they are too large plant). These larger fruits heavy yields) skin). superior fruit quality. delicious). stuffing. attractive straight fruit) and Goldbar (hybrid. waxy. dark green). Chefini (AAS winner. President (dark green. Other: Butter Blossom (an open-pollinated variety selected for its large. When the plants are 2 to 3 inches Black Beauty (slender. very pale green when immature. curved neck. medium green). a zucchini not a 6 to 8 inches long. Scallopini (hybrid. page Some gardeners have two main plantings one for early summer harvest and another for late summer and — <*? Patty Pan Scallopini fall harvest. from early spring 26. They should be harvested when small for best quality. dark blackgreen). Slightly larger Yellow Crookneck: Early Yellow Summer Crookneck (classic may be salvaged by hollowing out and using them for open-pollinated crookneck. Cocozelle (dark green overlaid with light green stripes. extra early. . long. lustrous sheen. (hybrid): Gold Rush (AAS winner. glossy. (See the maps. open bush). may be harvested as baby with blos- som Zucchini attached). and overmature. and Vegetable Marrow oblong shape). less petioles). AAS winner). unique oval shape. creamy yellow. Elite (medium green. few green yield). high Harvesting Because they develop very rapidly after pollination. Scallop: White Bush Scallop (old favorite Patty Pan type. Peter Pan (hybrid. light cream produce more young fruit. and Sunburst (hybrid. Zucchini (hybrid): Aristocrat (AAS winner. early.

medium size. may rice. with acorn squash. like Delicata. slightly smaller than Waltham). plant. sweet). dark green). Especially the delicacy creamy smooth. flaky flesh texture). great better). flesh. long cylindrical shape. Cross-pollination is not evident in the current crop. sweet potatoes. and Vegetable fruit). stores (hybrid of Spaghetti and Delicata. or batter Squash blossoms may be dipped True Winter Squash orange skin. Delicata (C. dark green oval. blocky. otherwise indicated. Will summer squash cross with winter squash? A. they bruise in smaller gardens. Stripetti taste. with tiny develop. fluted. pepo): 80 to 100 days to harvest: Cream of possible. Summer squash varieties can cross with one another. excellent. Vining squash plants require considerable growing space Although summer squash has both male and female flowers. light yellow. When ripened to this stage. tan Summer squash does not cross with melons or cucumbers. stores well). maxima): All Season (bush. background with dark green very sweet stripes. Waltham and Winter squash pies. very sweet). Pasta (yellowish cream fruit. C. is ately after picking. near black Common borer (page Problems Cucumber beetle (see 40). Use a varieties are identified as OP. Puritan (OP-uni- matured rind. (See table on pages and 1 14). The bush and semi-vining types can be grown the fruits are harvested when still immature. They to pick within 4 to 8 days after flowering. 1 Tay-Belle (OP-semi-bush. mixta). uniform. Tivoli (hybrid-bush habit. pepo): Orangetti (hybrid-semi-bush Squash. 1. and wear gloves if Acorn (C. baked. pepo): Delicata (also known as sweet- and with jack-o'-lantern pumpkins. color holds Questions and Answers Table Queen (OP-standard dark green acorn type). sharp knife or pruning shears to harvest. Table Gold (OP-compact page 40) and squash vine bush habit. improved flavor). dark green. . smooth. and C. made into (OP-uniform. Some gardeners also pick the open male and fruits the Crop (hybrid-AAS winner. Spaghetti (OP-good keeper. (C. King (OP-compact bush. AAS winner. high yield). Here. elongated and Sweet Dumpling (flattened round. flesh). low-fiber flesh). and use immedi- may be The in listed as pumpkins by certain seed companies. pale yellow flesh). glossy dark fruit attached. and the skin has hardened into fruits tough form. uniform white acorn type. moschata): Butterbush (bush habitfruit). high yield). tasty flesh). Table well). smooth. orange version of spaghetti. early. light stripes). harvested and eaten winner. Ultra can be stored throughout the winter. 10. it is dif- 2-pound Early Butternut (hybrid-AAS from summer squash in that mature fully fruit stage. uniform. uniform 3 to 4 pounds). fruits). with dark green Spaghetti (C. thick-necked. early. Sugar Loaf (tan background. and are usually ready wide variety of conditions. attractive in fruit. good leaf canopy).116 MAJOR VEGETABLES developed seeds and hard skin. only the female flowers and are best suited for large produce fruits. fruit. when dipped in a batter and white skin. cream to white background. high in carotene). attractive bright golden yellow. are a fried. green. Handle with care. and it is frequently used in place of irish potatoes. Ebony (early. as the leafstalks and stems are prickly and can scratch what you choose to call them. Be careful when picking summer distinction between squash and pumpkins mainly squash. C. Occasionally. female blossoms before the female blossoms. light fruit. 13 potato squash. yellow. especially in hot weather. (largest fruit early. but the seed should not be sown for the following year. for use of most varieties Supreme (hybrid-thick neck. Ponca (extra in the when the seeds within have a small seed cavity. Because gardens. be steamed. and throw them away. vegetable that can be fers grown most of the country. cream color with dark green stripes). Varieties Go over the plants every 1 or 2 days.to (C. oblong maxima. flesh. in is a warm-season It Butternut early. delicate. and fried in the same manner as pumpkin blossoms 8 or more small fruit per plant). Swan White (OP-creamy smooth.to 12-inch Zenith (hybrid. and Q. Squash grow The following varieties of squash are adapted to a are vining types unless rapidly. moschata. may also be harvested as summer squash when light yellow). Inter Winter squash (Cucurbita pepo. or 6 to 10 pounds. Honey Boat (shaped stripes. sweet Table Ace (hybrid-semi-bush. open-pollinated and irritate unprotected hands and arms. some of these varieties and scratch easily.



Hubbard 12-18 inches


9-12 inches

Acorn 5-6 inches

orange; teardrop-shaped; smooth-textured flesh; 3 to 5

pounds). For giant

varieties, see

"Pumpkin" (page



to Plant


a very tender vegetable.



do not by

germinate in cold

and the seedlings

are injured


not plant until

danger of




thoroughly warmed.




10-12 inches

8-10 inches

Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting
The vining types
square feet per
seeds per

of squash require at least 50 to 100

Plant seeds

inch deep (four or five

Allow 5 to 6





plants are well established, thin each hill to the

two or three

Allow 7 to 12


between rows.

Plant semi-vining varieties seeds per

inch deep (four or five

and thin to the


two plants per


Allow 8


between rows.

Plant bush varieties

inch deep


or 2 seeds per foot

6-8 inches

Banana 18-24 inches

18-30 inches

of row),
5 feet

and thin

to a single plant every 3 feet. Allow

between rows.


(pink, blue, or gray; long, slim, pointed at the

Squash plants should be kept hoeing and shallow cultivation.

ends; 10 to 30 pounds); Buttercup (dark green fruit with
distinct gray cap at

from weeds by
page 37)

blossom end; the standard

for fine-

Irrigate (see

grained, sweet flesh; 3 to 4 pounds); Delicious (5 to 12

an extended dry period occurs in early summer. Squash



top-shaped, green or gold



minimal care

after the vines

cover the ground.

than Hubbard); Emerald Bush Buttercup (bush habit);


are necessary for pollinating squash


Honey Delight (hybrid-3
cup type; excellent
flattened round;

to 4 pounds; buttonless butter-

pumpkins, are




insecticides are

flesh quality);

Gold Nugget


used, they should be applied in late afternoon or early

to 2 pounds; orange skin, flesh;



after the bees stop visiting

blossoms for the day.

habit); Baby, Blue, Chicago,

Golden, Green, and Warted
pointed at ends; warted

skin; 8 to

(large teardrop shape,

Winter squash can be harvested whenever the

25 pounds); Mooregold (bright orange skin,
keeper with tough rind; buttercup type;

flesh; excellent

have turned

a deep, solid color

and the rind



2 to 3 pounds); Sweet


(hybrid-AAS winner; semi-

Harvest the main part of the crop in September or October, before

vining, buttercup type; uniform; tasty; 2 to 3 pounds);


frosts hit



Cut squash from

Sweet Meat (OP-old time favorite; flattened;



the vines carefully, leaving 2 inches of stem attached

10 to 15 pounds); and Red Kuri (OP-bright red-

Avoid cuts and bruises when handling.





that are not fully mature, have been injured, have
their stems knocked



or have been subjected to heavy

do not keep and should be used


as possible

Turban an edible squash? A. Yes, but it has relaand is more often grown for its ornamental value than for cooking. (See "Gourd," page 7 38, and the table on pages 1 1 3 and 7 14.)




flesh quality

or be composted (watch for seedlings in the compost).
Store in a dry building

where the temperature



50° and 55°F (see pages 167 and 168). For prolonged storage,

do not


squash more than two



It is


where space

allows, to place the fruits in a

single layer so that they

do not touch each

other. This

arrangement minimizes the potential spread of


Problems Cucumber beetles (see

page 40) attack seedlings,

and both immature and mature

They can be

Sweet potato, Ipomoea
a tender,

controlled with a suggested insecticide applied weekly
either as a spray or dust. Be alert for

warm-weather vegetable that requires
large, useful

an infestation of

a long frost-free
It is

growing season to mature


beetles in early

September because these

one of the most important food crops

in tropi-

beetles can

damage the mature

and subtropical

where both the roots and

Squash bugs
begin to

page 40) attack vines as the


tender shoots are eaten as a vital source of nutrients.


increase in

number through the


Commercial production

in the

United States


mainly in

summer, when they can be quite damaging to maturing

the southern states, particularly

North Carolina and

They hatch and

travel in groups,

which seem to

travel in herds until

they reach maturity. Using the
the numbers of this pest are

Sweet potatoes, which are related to morning


proper insecticide


grow on
at the

trailing vines that quickly cover the soil, rooting

small minimizes damage.

nodes along the way. "Bush"


with shorter

vines are available for situations where space

may be


and Answers


Q. Can squash varieties cross-pollinate with one another or with pumpkins in the garden? A. Yes. Any variety of squash or pumpkin


orange-fleshed varieties are most


today in commerce, white- or very light yellow-fleshed
types were once considered the finest types for sophisti-




can cross-pollinate (see
does not affect

on pages

1 1



4). Cross-pollination

cated people.


white-fleshed types are



the current crop, but the seed does not


true the following

though they may be hard to find outside the Deep South.
For their ornamental value, sweet potatoes are often

Q. Does squash make as good a pie as pumpkin? A. Yes. Most people cannot tell whether pumpkin or squash is used in a
pie. This finding



ground cover or in hanging

baskets, in planters,

not surprising given the whimsical applica-

and even

in bottles of water in the kitchen. Cut-leaf

names pumpkin and squash. Many cooks prefer winter squash to pumpkin because they make a nonfibrous pie, much more akin to the C. moschata processing pumpkins commonly bought canned. (C. moschata Is closely related to buttion of the

types exist that are particularly attractive.

The sweet
are often used



rich in vitamin A.

It is

not related to the yam,


in the marketplace the

two names

ternut squash.)




yam, Dioscorea

sp., is


Q. have vine borers in my squash. Can control them with insecticides? A. No. Vine borers cannot be controlled

entirely separate species that

grows only in the

effectively with insecticides.

You can reduce potential


Beauregard (100 days to harvest, light purple skin,
dark orange

the following season by disposing of infested plants. Vining
types of squash can be encouraged to root at the nodes, giving

the plant


ability to

withstand attacks of vine borers.


extremely high yielder from Louisiana

success in control of
carefully splitting

an active infestation may be achieved by open areas being fed upon and removing the

State University);

Bush Porto Rico (110 days, compact






(100 days; orange

skin, flesh;

good keeper;

resistant to

internal cork, wilt); Georgia Jet (100 days, red skin, orange

somewhat cold

tolerant); Jewell (100 days,






yield, excellent keeper);


(ivory to very


damage the


Dig below the

level of the ridge,

light yellow flesh,

may be

substituted for irish potatoes in
days, golden
foliage pur-

and gradually move
soil until


toward the plants, removing




and Vardaman (110

fat roots are

exposed. Carefully dig under


compact bush


these roots to gauge the depth to dig as you go row.



Commercial production

currently dominated


Jewell in North Carolina

and Beauregard

in Louisiana.

Proper curing can be a problem in the cool
son. Ideally, the roots should be allowed to dry

fall sea-

on the


to Plant



2 to 3 hours, then placed in a

warm room

Sweet potatoes are started from plants called
Transplant the
last frost

curing (85°F and 85 percent humidity
to 14 days,

possible) for 10

slips as


as the soil

warms up



and then stored

in a cool (55°F) location (see

to allow the

maximal wann-weather growing
certified disease-

pages 167 and 168). Sweet potatoes should be handled as

period. Always
free roots.

buy plants grown from

as possible to avoid scuffing


bruising. In case of

To grow your


plants, place several sweet


cut the vines from the roots immediately to

potato roots about

inch apart in a hotbed, and cover

prevent decay spreading from the vines to the roots; and
dig sweet potatoes as soon as possible. Cold soil temperatures quickly lessen the roots' ability to keep in storage.

with 2 inches of sand or light

Add another


inch of



the shoots begin to appear. Keep the

soil in

the bed moist throughout the sprouting period, but never


not allow roots drying in the garden to be frosted



become waterlogged. Keep



because they are quickly ruined. For best quality, use the
potatoes as soon as possible after they have been stored.

between 70° and

80°F. Plants are ready to pull in

about 6

weeks (when they are rooted and 6 to 8 inches



can allow roots to continue possibly producing additional
flushes of plants




are desired.

The sprouts

(slips) are

To prevent diseases, plant

with multiple

planted directly in the garden from the sprout bed.

resistance, use "certified" plants,
toes' location in the garden.


rotate sweet pota-

Spacing of Plants
Set the plants 12 to 18 inches apart, preferably

At certain


mice may become


problem by

wide, raised ridge about 8 inches high.
dries better in the spring

but also

on a A ridge not only warms earlier than an

burrowing into the

mound and

eating the tasty, nutrifor

tious roots before harvest can

commence. Check

evidence of mouse infestation regularly, and apply appropriate control

unridged area. Black plastic mulch can be a good way to
speed early season growth by capturing and storing more
of the sun's heat in the soil under the plastic cover.





and Answers

Because the vines of spreading varieties need a great deal
of space, allow at least 3 to 4 feet between rows.


splotches in the skin.

sweet potato roots are covered with black What can do to prevent this conA. This condition
is is

probably caused by a disease

After early cultivation (which

not necessary with

as "scurf" that

superficial in the skin of the root.
to eat,


sweet potatoes are
keep as well


although they

may not

in storage.


for varieties resistant to this

black plastic), sweet potatoes need minimal care to keep



Once the

vines spread to cover the ground,


Why did my

sweet potato roots grow long and


required. Irrigate

an extended drought
3 to 4 weeks before

stringy instead of short

and plump? A. Too much





not water during the


gation, or poorly drained soil prevents proper root formation.

harvest to protect the developing roots.

Sweet potatoes prefer

hot, dry

weather once the vines cover the

Early roots


What makes sweet potatoes

crack and split?



rains or too

irrigation during the final

3 to 4 weeks before

may be

"robbed," starting in late summer,


may cause

the roots to



by digging into the

side of the ridge




have been dry

a period before


water application begins.

some developing

roots while leaving the plant in


Dig the main crop of sweet potatoes around the
first frost

Q. Are sweet potatoes ruined if the vines were frosted before digging? A. No, but they should be harvested immediately.

time of the

in the



a spading fork or

The length of time that they can be stored

may be

stout shovel,

and be

careful not to bruise, cut, or other-


and some

experts say that taste


quality of the

may be adversely affected.

The main-crop varieties are large selection of tomato varieties. rity. may grow taller. and choosing the difficult. These can be harvest season begins with the medium-early varieties. medium-sized problems with inadequate foliage cover and early. to ripen their fruit over a shorter period of time. your needs. counted upon to produce abundant foliage and to ripen flavorful fruit. and greenhouses problem in hot weather. As the Many of them can be pruned and trained to name implies. causing the plant set between the extreme to stop growing in height. The tomato Older varieties are almost indeterminate. toes are "determinate" cluster at the terminal if Toma- they eventually form a flower MEDIUM-EARLY RED (60 to 69 days) These varieties are intermediate growing point. however.to medium-sized red fruit and are Tomato plants fall into one of two which usually not suitable for pruning. Some of the extreme dwarf anything available on the market. garden centers. Tomatoes are a Roma (2 inches wide) (1 Cherry -1 V2 inches wide) usually easy to grow. small. Newer determinates produce ripen fruit of similar from cracking and other deformities. then choose the varieties best suited to your growing seasons are shorter and the summers intended use and method of culture. The real determinate varieties developed had taste. is lycoper- today the most popular garden vegetable in America. . Lycopersicon sicum. have adequate fruit foliage cover. even in season. better staying coming through the and fruit of Determinate vines are easier to control and support high quality. They range widely color. and few plants provide an fruit adequate harvest for most families. warm-season perennial that all mature plants. They still tend on trellises. and They are suitable for growing on mulch. and season of matuoffer a Catalogs. First-early varieties are better suited for one or two varieties can be extremely Evaluate northern areas. Spring and fall freezes limit on pages 121 and 122. here are widely adapted to a variety of conditions and produce good yields around the country. in wire cages. shape. The types are determinate as well as dwarf. tomatoes (then called "love apples") were considered poisonous and were (1 8 Pear V2 inches wide) grown solely for their ornamental value." all improved. disease resistance. but only lateral ones. and sunburning of the a fruit is home gardener. The quality of picked in the garden when fully ripe far surpasses during the growing season.120 MAJOR VEGETABLES o Globe (2-4 inches wide) Beefsteak (6 inches wide) Tomato. or quality to modern indeterminate varieties. they should make up the power in the garden. tively free varieties bear maturing. affect ultimate plant height and cultural requirements. For many years. real flower clusters. They may. varieties are listed in order of maturity in the is grown as an annual in summer gardens over the Tomato table continental United States. FIRST-EARLY RED (60 or fewer days to harvest) These varieties have more compact plant growth than the main-season varieties. plant type. successive plantings to keep the harvest may be desirable with determinates entire season. bulk of the main-crop harvest because they have superior yield. Varieties Hundreds of varieties of tomatoes for the are now available in size. and are rela- but they ripened very better foliage. continue indefinitely to and production Fruit size is characteristics of the is grow taller and are called "indeterminate. They have types. however be extremely first late in MAIN-CROP Most of these main-crop to large fruit. so stakes. Plants that never terminal earliness of the first earlies and the sounder plant type main-crop types. Most of the varieties listed the outdoor growing season. where the cooler. as quality. best generally far superior for summer-long harvest. producing truly tiny some tomato plant is a tender.

ind. det. Supersonic crack resistant Extra. and dry VFN 80 3oz meaty. tolerant to early blight 80 deep red. green at maturity Long Keeper (OP) Yellow Stuffer (OP) ind. ind.MAJOR VEGETABLES 121 Variety First-early red Disease resistance Days to harvest Plant type Weight Comments Sub Arctic Plenty 45 VF 55 det. sweet. det. orange skin. high yield 9oz 12oz 10oz 12oz Better Boy VFN VF VF VF VF 72 74 75 easy-to-find plants Mountain Pride Floramerica Burpee's Big Girl det. 4 oz lobed. meaty. ind. large fruit clusters Early Girl V VFFNTA 54 60 earliest full size Quick Pick 4 oz round. shaped like pepper. smoth. 9oz globe. attractive fruit solid. smoth. ind. keeps for weeks 80 ind. 8oz 7oz deep tangerine orange lemon yellow. resistant juicy. 10oz 10oz large. large det. 2oz 3oz standard red plum. lemon yellow. crack resistant. mild flavor. very smooth Main-crop red Celebrity VFFNT VF 70 70 70 det. 78 79 16oz 12oz crack-resistant. 2 to 3 oz early Roma type. semi-hollow. 7oz 12oz smooth. 10oz solid. ind. ind. productive Lemon Boy jubilee (OP) VFN 8oz 8oz deep orange-yellow deep golden fruit. solid. ind.large red Delicious (OP) 77 ind. ind. over 1 1 lb world record (7 extra lb 1 2 oz) with this variety Supersteak VFN VFN 80 81 to 2 lb to 2 lb meaty Beefmaster 1 large Beefsteak type Yellow or orange Mountain Gold (OP) VF 70 72 72 det. productive Mountain Delight Fantastic no green shoulders deep globe. det. heavy yield Medium-early red Champion Mountain Spring VFNT VF 65 65 ind. easy to stuff Red paste types Veeroma (OP) VF VF 72 det. orange-red flesh. crack large. 8oz 8oz 6 oz creamy white flesh and skin flesh bright green skin tinged with yellow. ind. det. deep sguare shape Roma (OP) San Marzano (OP) Viva Italia 75 det. ind. heirloom. great taste Other colors and types White Wonder (OP) Evergreen (OP) 85 85 78 ind. ind. ind. ind. ind. flat globe bright red AAS winner. good fresh . Brandwine (OP) 80 rough. smooth. Golden Boy 80 few seeds Pink Pink Girl VF 76 ind. 3 to 4 oz fruit concentrated in center clusters Early Cascade 4 oz 5 oz trailing plant.

size. with ing in certain regions of the country. types like Supersteak and Beefmaster have with much more consistent shape. AAS winner. ind.and orange-fruited larity. and maturity. but yellow plants Hybrid II 52 65 2 oz 3 oz compact dwarf Patio Hybrid strong dwarf plants. Current varieties in this tion have much earlier maturity and better plant-growth Red Paste Paste tomatoes are usually used for paste. PINK The fruits These varieties always have maintained a loyal follow- may be rough extremely large but also can be misshapen. 1 in. crack resistant. ) FNT 1 1 clusters of yellow. det. Pinks traditionally scar tissue ("cat-facing") this scar tissue on the blossom end. disease-resistant plants with very attractive fruit. sweet. in. red. VF VF ind. ind. 6 inches similar to tall. but more often about the highest eating quality. Their meaty. crack resistant. pear-shaped fruit 70 ind. 6 oz smooth pink fruit on same husky-type plant Abbreviations used for disease resistance: A = Alternaria. N = Root-knot nematodes. good in hanging baskets extended harvest Husky Red Hybrid Husky Gold Hybrid Husky Pink Hybrid 68 70 72 6 oz 6 oz dwarf plant. and late maturing. Red Robin Yellow Canary Pixie 1 mild taste fruit 1 Red Robin. OTHER COLORS AND TYPES Although odd colors and types have been around for YELLOW OR ORANGE Contrary to popular varieties are belief. in. det. which making catsup. det. low-moisture flesh makes processing these prod- . and they are equally safe to can or process. red. cherry-sized fruit in large clusters red. As these not significantly lower in acid content than outlets have competed to offer the newest and brightest red tomatoes. ind. large clusters Sweet Million Yellow Pear (OP) Large Red Cherry (OP." a higher sugar content. though.V 122 MAJOR VEGETABLES Variety Small-fruited salad types Super Sweet 100 Disease resistance Days to harvest Plai Plant type Weight Comments VF 70 65 70 ind. they have experienced a resurgence of popu- yellow. fueled in part by the upscale salad bar. large fruit. relatively large ideal container plant fruit. Large have been similar to yellows with regard to plant type When must be cut away. some almost-forgotten tomatoes They "taste" sweeter than red varieties because have been "rediscovered. some of the older types may still Some of the newer hybrid large fruit be at the top for flavor. For the yield. tasty fruit Mountain Belle VF 65 det. T = Tobacco mosaic virus. and sauces and for canning whole. det. 1 in. Small Fry 72 VF det. 1 1 deep red. V= Verticillium EXTRA-LARGE RED These varieties are relatively late maturing. det. 1 in. a long time. same gold fruit plant type as Red and Pink. some of the size is lost. in. characteristics than older yellows and oranges. y4 in. ripens uniformly and holds on the vine Dwarf container types Tiny Tim 45 45 55 55 det. ind. red cherry fruit Cherry Cold 1 golden version of Tiny Tim super-dwarf plant. FF = Fusarium Races 1 and 2. 2 in. solid. they have classifica- assortment of produce. Recent breeding work has developed is advantage of extra-large almost never about total novelty of huge size. in. in. red. F = Fusarium. tended to be big. solid. sprawling. very dwarf.

but ripening most of the crop in a mended varieties in listed classifications. mainly because tomatoes fruits of normally do not cross-pollinate. very high. processing activities are best done in fairly large When gets to Plant early. which should be used for the most satisfac- and trellised or ground bed plants 24 to 36 inches tory results. For best results with very early plant- hybrids have attempted to lessen the problem.MAJOR VEGETABLES 123 ucts less complicated. warm. start in the garden when toma- These varieties are generally vigorous growing and warm weather in and it saves several weeks their productive. These plantings have the advantage of increased vigor traditional vegetable gardening not possible. Splitting seems overnight to protect more of a problem with cherries. Because more people now is live where summer. short period has been a bonus for paste tomatoes because lots. or starting seeds indoors Small-Fruited/Salad tomatoes off to the best finally arrives. some fruits almost anywhere except a large load of fruit in in the shortest-season areas. For best results with minimal risk. to the point that picking may be when there a high risk of damage from freezing. These are usually short plant types that tend to set a short time at once. Space dwarf plants environment. sprawling. these usually mature ing trendy and popular for eating fresh. Recently. these types. have resurfaced lately have their origins in these is self-saved varieties. some up of them are becom- the gardener wants to try a few truly weird or tasty types. vari- Disease resistance may also be suspect. Some gardeners transplant soon after the soil is is diameter and are usually suitable for pruning. Seed saved from nonhybrid varieties produce plants fairly identical to the parent plant. Some catalogs now routinely list 12 inches apart in the row. soon For fall after the frost-free date for your area. eties. when the soil is Dwarf/Container These tomatoes are popular for use in containers. it is exchanges are a source of the widest variety of heirloom tomatoes imaginable. (See become to be tedious. Production per plant is toes prepared for spring gardening. These types are usually described as especially sweet and tasty. apart. They vary in size from 1 to 1V2 inches in growing time. ings. and they often produce from early yield an added benefit. Buying transplants. Consult catalogs for varieties available. consider black plastic mulch and plant floating row covers for heat accumulation and frost protection. . Whole clusters may sometimes page 26 for the average prepared to cover early frost-free date for set plants your area). Some particularly vigorous indeterminate varieties may need Heirloom 4 feet between plants and 5 to 6 feet between rows to allow comfortable harvest room. depending on the length of the growing season. With tomatoes used fruit usually seen as an advantage to have ripening over an extended season The table on pages 121 and 122 most of the gives cunently recom- on individual plants. harvest and early winter storage of tomatoes. A particularly large number of heirloom tomato vari- eties are available today. staked plants 15 to 24 inches apart. though newer them from frost. Specialty seed houses and and then ripen a large proportion of this fruit fresh. Greenhouse Gardeners interested in growing greenhouse tomatoes should for this Spacing of Plants The space required depends upon the growth pattern of the variety that specific varieties have been developed know and method of culture. Be picked at one time to speed the harvest. late spring until hanging baskets. and garden or patio locations where space is late plantings may be made from mid- limited. The plant type compared usually large. and their fruit better-quality tomatoes than later pickings quality has recently been fruit in improved colors as well. They have spring plantings. container and patio gardens have become more popular. and late to current commercial If. Many of the odder colors and types that older. Their ornamental value is and freedom from early diseases. transplanting for most varieties). Time late plantings for maximal red and some other and are not suitable for before killing freezes in your area (up to 100 days from pruning (except the new Husky hybrids). however.

The fruit is held off the ground as with staked is The advantages and disadvantages of various systems are cultural or caged plants. If not available. get fertilizer Do not end posts and woven back and forth between the off the on the leaves. and the fruit is more accessible than with Tomato cages may be made from concrete-reinforcing wire. holding the tops of the plants up and Many gardeners trellises. tomatoes grow another 6 inches.^»m^wwi i -"•**"<£* tomato row. (The woven rows of tomatoes can catch much tions 3 and 6 weeks the weather dry following wind. use applica- driven very securely into the ground to prevent wind pounds of 10-10-10 fertilizer. and make ammonium later. (See the illustration. soil Delay application of has them fruit- organic materials until after the pletely in early warmed comnot retarded by ground with stakes or steel posts to keep the summer so that growth is laden plants from uprooting themselves in late-summer cool soil temperatures early in the season. Use cages that match in height the variety to be caged. ground. however. Most nate tomatoes easily grow 3 to 4 feet modern determitall. weave another string back and forth between the stakes in the tomato row to hold the plants and developing fruit upright.) As the tomatoes grow upward. or about every 6 inches of growth. This operation is repeated about as often as the or cages with great success.124 'MAJOR VEGETABLES . The short. and firmly anchor to the mulching (see page 35). woven-wire stock fencing. staked plants. until the plants reach maturity. out damaging roots. Trellis-weave systems have recently for Water the plants thoroughly and regularly during prolonged dry periods. water the plants thoroughly. starter fertilizer without bruising. Mulching cially for recommended. or various wooden designs. Black plastic or organic materials are suitable for reaching at least 6 feet in height. Once a Firmly anchor posts or stakes every 2 to 3 plants in the week. train their tomato plants to stakes. cages. small. Side-dress nitrogen 1 garden planting. Tall stakes are securely driven into the fertilizer (ammonium first nitrate) at the rate of tomato row about every two or three plants in the row. and indetermifall. gardeners who wish to maintain their plants for nates continue to get taller until frozen in the easily full-season harvest. narrow type often when transplanting (see page sold at garden centers is all but useless for anything but Hoe or cultivate shallowly to keep is down weeds withespe- the smallest of the dwarf types. supports. Care Apply 20). pound per 100 feet of row (equivalent to 1 tablespoon size Make sure the stakes are tall enough to accommodate the sure they are per plant) after the of golf balls. Plants confined in containers been developed just as well in a may commercial operations and can work need daily or even more frequent watering.) Make two more is damage. windstorms. page 125). but the foliage cover better than with shown in the table on page 125. large Choose wire or wooden designs that have holes to allow fruit to be picked enough and removed . 3 (If tomatoes have grown to the nitrate is growth of your tomato varieties. Not all varieties. are equally suitable for staking and pruning. strings are attached to the these applications.

and handling latest to of cage. Short cages {2} 12 to 3 feet tall) usually when the wire prongs at the bottom are pushed into the ground. Large (6-inch by 6-inch) cucumber plants) they mesh permits easy harvest. pick your tomatoes every day or tered locations. and allow plants to hot size. labor and time to tie and prune the plants single-stem. least space. the tomatoes individually in paper and store at 60° to 65°F. Wrap temperatures are high the softening process temperature of 90°F or more). harvest all green summer temperatures (air is When fruit that desired for later use in the fall. and blossom-end may use lowest yield per plant.MAJOR VEGETABLES 125 Wire cages placed over small tomato plants support themselves (unlike (left) hold the vines and fruit off the ground. best ripening in mature. fruits are larger pruning systems Plants and easy to pick cost of cage. harvest the fruits when is color has started to develop. difficult to pick inside grow in naturally later weather. reducing quality. during weeks. killing freeze is expected. main stem and tie tightly to the stake (right). ground work. They are and ripen them day before a mature further indoors (at 70° to 75°F). where fruit . For this reason. Loop ordinary soft twine. On the when they ripen on healthy vines and average about 75°F. cord. highly intermediate yields more fruit cracking rot- recommended (10-15 pounds per plant). or multiple-stem together. storage grown Most varieties not generally highly high yields (15-25 inside wire are suitable. cage intermediate space. sunburn. and rots to sprawl on are suitable. or cloth loosely around the them. Tying the stems too tightly injures Cultural system Plants allowed Variety All varieties Pruning not Mulching highly Advantages high yields (15-25 Disadvantages most space. Tomato plants must be tied to supporting stakes or a trellis because do not support themselves with tendrils. summer weather. double- plants can be closer stem. ground spots. Taller cages require a stake. post. recommended: increases size and earliness. or wire for support. Whole plants may be uprooted and hung in shelcontinues to ripen. normal and maturity Plants tied to Use stake or trellis recommended vining types. recommended recommended pounds per least size plant). some gardeners prune early recommended pounds per plant). normal foliage the season no tying necessary Harvesting Tomatoes should be firm and of highest quality daily fully colored. recommended. two. accelerated and color develop- They continue to ripen slowly over the next several ment hot is retarded.

green caterpillars with white stripes on the body. A horn protrudes from the top the rear Common removed and destroyed so that healthy fruit setting later can develop more quickly. worms on one fruit. premature death of plants. is fruit that is common some seasons and wide seldom the is on tomatoes. The problem is especially bad in hot weather. you see hornworms with small. for control. to use fungicide sprays to achieve high yields fruit. other diseases such as early blight. In some seasons. Soil applications of calcium help. plant can quickly defoli- whitish area a on the fruit during hot. you under the my tomatoes. What can do I to prevent my tomatoes from cracking? Early blight is characterized by dead leaves brown spots A. The problem the use of resistant (VF) Q. Sunscald occurs as a large. Although early blight most resistant varieties to minimize this problem. you can Keep soil moisture uniform as the tomatoes develop. wilting. leathery brown in rot of the fruit plantings. Handpick in cooler parts of the If day or use suggested biological insecticides. or day temperatures above 95 usually disappears as the weather improves. it sometimes occurs on the stems Q. affected fruits cannot be saved. The fruits are small (1 to 2 inches in diameter) and are used primarily in stews or preserves rather than in salads. severe on the leaves. tomatoes do not set and flowers drop. During unfavorable weather (night temperatures lower than 55 °F. though foliar calcium sprays may minimize occurrence of the problem. Once they build with drying hot winds). Use suggested fungicides can injure your tomato plants. irregular. For this reason. vigorous. " Cyphomandra betacea. or on early varieties that normally have poor foliage cover as the fruit ripens. leave Questions Q. they are difficult to see. is of the leaves first and stems after spraying the plants for the it Septoria leafspot black spots characterized by numerous small time. is a different species from garden tomatoes. The centers of these spots later your tomato plants have been injured by 2. a tree ing (such as Ponderosa) are also sold as climbing or "tree What Pruning causes the plants that may tomatoes " by some seed stores. on the lower and spread up the see concentric is are resistant to cracking. It is a woody tree that grows 8 feet or taller and bears after 2 years. foliar application. indeterminate garden tomato varieties that are suitable for training and prunQ. or severe stress to damage could tomato? A. cloudy white spots just skin of and can cause severe defoliation. Once the blackened ends They are best appear. It should not affect diseases that cause yellowing of the leaves. What causes the young leaves of my plants to become pointed and irregular in shape? noticed some twisting I tolerant of early blight than others. . and Answers my tomato is them alone. Make sure the formulation designed for result. It is caused by the combination of a local- ized calcium deficiency in the developing fruit fluctuations of soil moisture. rings within the spots. Severe pruning increases cracking. Poor color and sunscald occur when high temperatures retard the end of development of full red color in toma- worm. These diseases dens where susceptible plants up. fruit. Leaf roll (curling of the leaflets) a physiological the individual wearing Verticillium them already doomed. Many of the newer varieties and plant that usually start plant. and fusarium wilts are soilborne and pruned. persist in gar- Q. and tiny black dots appear in the white centers. Upon close inspection. and roll A. and high-quality Supersonic) are Certain varieties (Roma and more Q. Some tomato Tomato hornworm (2-3 inches) varieties are much more susceptible to this condition than others. Cracking varies with the variety. It ate it and ruin developing Because their green becomes problem when foliage has been lost through coloring so closely resembles tomato foliage and stems. Never use the same sprayer for in The disease starts on the bottom leaves and may your vegetable garden that you use also weed control in your lawn. What causes the flowers to drop off my tomato plants? A. Judging from the description. °F are is grown. The treelike plant sold as a "tree tomato. caution is when applying lawn-care chemicals near vegetable or Blossom-end rot blossom end of the a dry. Drift from herbicides originating '/> mile or more away use extreme become severe in wet weather. What causes small. These structures are the pupae of parasitic What up? causes the lower leaves of plants to insects that help control the hornworm is population. Tomato hornworms and several feed on the leaves and toes exposed directly to the hot sun. Some of the common. turn white. A. and condition that occurs most commonly when plants are trained fruiting or quality.4-D or a similar growth-regulator weed killer. These spots on green or may need ripe fruits are caused by the feeding of stink bugs.126 MAJOR VEGETABLES increase the incidence of blossom-end rot. the only practical control varieties. A. white cocoons protruding. The tree tomato is a tropical plant and does not overwinter outside anywhere the temperature drops below freezing. Problems Tomato hornworms are large (2 to 3 inches long when fully grown). dry weather. seem likely that on the leaves. Mulching and uniform watering help to prevent blossom-end rot.

smooth white get pithy). which used to be fairly commonly offered and has recently become rare. fast growth. Although both potato and (hybrid-28 days to harvest for greens and 60 days for roots. The opposite directions until they snap. blossom-end rot. Prune the plants every 5 to 7 days. you like Queen (hybrid-45 days. Bend the shoots in in 2 months and may be planted fall either in the spring. high-quality. dark pink tomato Ball (60 days. tomato plants can be called "topato") intergrafted. by doing some cooked or pickled in the Scarlet skin. along with pars- were staples in parts of Europe before the introduc- tion of the white potato from the Western Hemisphere in the late 15th century. flattened- . The shoots develop in the axil of each leaf (the angle between the leaf petiole and the stem above it). eties. Be careful not to prune the develop- and the roots are rounder. large. resistant to downy mildew. globe roots). To prune the plants properly. which have been finding and rescuing old varilike (hybrid-52 days. and can't find a source for the seed. smooth almost like a rutabaga). purple top. including root development. homework and contacting one or several can find a variety that is of these sources. fall crop. exchanges rah. not likely to be particularly successful. pure white roots). Brassica napus var. sweet. What can do? A. Vermont heirloom. Double-stem or multiple-stem pruning systems sacrifice commonly grown in the northern tier of states and is Canada but should perform fairly well anywhere there or early winter. smooth. cool- season vegetables that are often used as substitutes for potatoes in the nips. mild roots. Be sure that your variety is suitable for pruning (see list of varieties). flavor. Box 239. is ing flower clusters that off grow from the main stem the plant. is for roots or greens. smooth foliage. the more you limit plant growth. They mature You may wish to prune staked or caged tomato plants to stimulate early maturity. Perhaps. Scarlet Ball (red skin. Grandpa's gone. the "potomato" (sometimes is smooth. flesh. Brassica rapa var. uniform roots. Rutabaga most more you prune the foliage (for example. these roots. White Knight (75 days. round roots. diet. More old and heirloom varieties are also available from resistant to bolting). The uniform. Varieties Turnip (white-fleshed unless noted): Just Right Q. creamy white. rapifera. yet juicy with great flavor. Because rutabagas require 4 weeks longer to mature than turnips. In fact. slow to all- Tokyo Cross (hybrid-35 days. often stored for winter use. and turnip. RR #3. fall). The fall is which is and of higher quality. Fortunately there are a number of seed that I Express (earliest. the variety sounds like one called Oxheart. pure white. for advertised simply a tomato seed together. The planted for early usually larger summer use. producing in inserted into a potato tuber and planted Gilfeather (75 days. 38 days for baby turnips. What is a "potomato?" commonly A. white. My grandpa grew a I heart-shaped. fine-grained yellow flesh). delicate both a tomato plant and a potato plant results are the same hill. or spring crop crop. uniform. late summer. texture. exactly (or very nearly) those you remember from your grandfather's garden. uniform. white conventional seed sources these days. Purple Top White Globe (55 days. Royal Crown flesh. DecoIA 52101. AAS winner. or to pinch the growing severely tip (terminal) of Remember —the and firmer than those of turnips. Turnips are easy to grow if sown in the proper season. pure white. a single stem rather than two or more stems). was thick and meaty. remove the shoots (suckers) when they are 1 to 2 inches long. a fairly long cool period in the autumn some of the earliness and fruit size for less risk of cracking. napobrassica (also known as swede or swede turnip). the standard purple and white. bright scarlet root. they are best grown as a leaves are smoother. As a guess. Seed Savers Exchange. the flesh turns red as well).MAJOR VEGETABLES 127 Rutabaga. egg-shaped. smooth. Golden Market Q. slow to get pithy). and sunburn. larger. Breaking off the shoots by hand is preferable to cutting them. are frost-hardy.

turnips. and Red Chief (90 days). . germination and vigorous plant growth. should be 2 to 3 inches in diameter and Fall may also be broadcast after early potatoes. If you have planted turnips for greens. In southerly locations. purple shoulders. Thin turnip seedlings to 2 to 4 inches apart when they are 4 inches tall. more shallowly roots. smooth tops). cultivate 2 to 3 inches larger. small taproot). may be become too in field later in fall). Harvest fall roots starting in are of the spring as possible. cultivate deep between rows. Thin rutabaga inches apart when they are 2 inches tall. Turnips and rutabagas are of first best quality (mild size (turnips and tender) when they medium and plant turnips about turnips 3 to 4 weeks later. When the plants are small. for tops the growing points are not removed. Turnips refrigeration. vigor- provide later harvests of quality roots or greens. vigorous. roots good when tinue to regrow. purple shoul- weeds that appear large. They may be dipped in and left early winter stock feed when broadcast onto fields warm (but not hot) wax to prevent loss of moisture. light yellow below. resistant to mosaic. purplish red shoulders. Question and Answer Q. similar to Laurentian. and bitter tasting? A. When they develop and mature in hot weather. pale yellow below. Prepare a good seedbed. Spring turnips should be pulled or cut turnips should be planted as early in fall when the roots or tops reach usable early size. (See the maps. pale green roots also edible). mild. Water should be treated with a suggested necessary to germinate the seed and establish the seedlings (especially for insecticide before the next planting. with purple top and light yellow Improved Long Care Island (90 days. Why are my rutabagas small.126 MAJOR VEGETABLES globe roots). Rutabagas due to their longer are not sown in succession time Rutabaga (yellow-fleshed): Altasweet (92 days. The page 40) can be a problem in areas 2 inch deep (3 to 20 seeds per foot of if radishes. rutabagas 3 to 5 inches in diameter) and have grown cabbage. days. Provide ample water for seed and rutabagas keep well pit. plant rutabagas about 100 days before the frost. and woody. Seven use as greens. harvest the tops as needed tall. small necks). American Purple Top (90 days. and rake the seed in lightly. tough. large rutabagas may hold in the garden well into the winter. heavy yields. Rutabagas are best grown in northern areas or as a fall crop. large globe-shaped roots flesh). seedlings to 6 summer sowings). Both are hardy to frosts fall No and may. sweet. Successive plantings at 10-day intervals young). resistant to mosaic). tender. smooth. or rutabagas soil were grown the row). slow to get pithy. or between rows of sweet corn. cultivation is quickly and without interruption. dark green leaves. Pull left to prevent injury to the tender feeder in the uniform roots. high-yielding. The removed plants are large enough to Turnip Greens: Alltop (hybrid-35 days. they do not develop typical sweetness try adjusting the planting and flavor. and peas. As the plants become dark purple shoulders. autumn or as needed. and White Lady (hybrid-pure white. delicious roots. and Topper (hybrid-35 days. Allow 12 to 24 inches between rows. good bolt resistance. page 26. better leaf cover. be sweetened by cool weather. mild. large. Pike (100 days. vacant by earlier crop harvest. row before they ders. early in A necessary. but you may find that a few large heavy straw mulch extends harvest through the part of the winter. sweet flavor). Harvesting When For to Plant summer use. beets. season so that root development fall. Old turnips tend to be tough usually ous regrowth. requirement before harvest. rapid regrowth. light yellow below. in cellar (see weeds must be removed by hand. tender. takes place in the cooler days of whenever that may be in your area. spherical.) For harvest. tops con- Shogoin (42 days. Common Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Plant seeds '/ Problems (see Root maggots where previous year. Both an outdoor or in an underground turnips and rutabagas have been used for excellent fall pages 167 and 168). in fact. In mild areas. If when they are 4 to 6 inches Top (open-pollinated-40 only). Laurentian (90 days.

Parker (hybridred. Main-Season (80 to 85 days): Charleston Gray Watermelon. Nova 17 tion in unseasonable cold spells. 12 to 16 pounds). Cotton Candy (red. and thin to the best one or two must be interplanted with seedless melons. 15 to 20 pounds). After the seedlings are established. soft. produce seedless melons. Because germination of these types less often that Plant single trans- vigorous than normal types. cultivation is simi- out in the garden (see "Starting Plants Home. Honey Heart (yellow flesh. 20 pounds). Crown Sugar (red green skin. the often sweeter than normal types. 14 to 22 pounds). Yellow flesh. by warming the (see beneath the 14 to 16 pounds). Jack of Hearts (red. Baby (red flesh. shape. 11 to 13 pounds). white. providing some frost protec- Hearts (red. where the germinating conditions can be weeks before they are to be at set closely controlled. skin turns yellow when ripe). Do not early start too type so that the seedless and seeded at harvest. is to Plant is ing a normal diploid watermelon with one that has been Plant after the soil past. or plants. 22 to 26 and longer growing season of southern areas espe- pounds). 15 to around the young plants. warm-season vegetable. is a 20 to 25 pounds). 6 to 10 pounds). 14 to 22 pounds). warm. The seeds Watermelons grow best on a sandy loam soils produce plants that. Watermelons can be in all Madera (hybrid-red. form but remain small. an extremely relatively is inch deep in hills spaced 6 feet apart. (red. and undeveloped tiny seedcoats that are eaten Spacing of Plants and Depth of Planting Watermelon vines require considerable seeds 1 virtually undetected along with the flesh of the melon. when pollinated by although yields on clay can be increased normal plants. For cell." pages peat pots. Queen of Hearts (red. develop normal-looking seeds. Start the seeds inside 3 they be started in peat pots or other transplantable containers. 45 to 48). King of (red. Plant Seed production for these seedless types labor-intensive process. Baby (hybrid- yellow yellow 6 to 10 pounds). Gardeners in northern areas and Sweet Favorite (hybrid-red. For pollination necessary to set types fruit. it is recommended plants 2 to 3 feet apart or double transplants 4 to 5 feet apart in the rows. lar Once transplanted. Plant 2 or 3 seeds in peat pellets. Crimson Trio (red. but the warmer temper- 22 to 25 pounds). 80 to 85 days): Mulching with black motes earliness plastic film (see soil page 36) also proplastic. —large watermelon seedlings transplant poorly. is space. significantly by mulching raised planting rows with In seedless watermelons (genetic triploids). are triploid hybrids. ermelon j tender. . Allow 7 to which makes the seeds 10 feet between rows. grown atures parts of the country. Crimson Sweet (red. to that for regular watermelons. Seedless (all should choose early varieties and use transplants. cially favor this vegetable.MAJOR VEGETABLES 129 Varieties Early (70 to 75 days to harvest): Golden flesh. plant one seed to a pot or pollinator should be distinct from the seedless cultivar in color. or and discard those that do not germinate. The expensive seedless types. Sangria (hybrid-red. 20 to 22 pounds). Seedless watermelons are self-sterile hybrids that pounds). normal seeded cell packs. and the vines are noticeably more vigorous as the season progresses. and Tiffany (red. and when all danger of changed genetically into the tetraploid from this cross state. thin to the best three plants per hill. Citrullus lanatus. and Yellow Doll (hybrid6 to 10 pounds). expensive. rudimentary seed structures tasteless. fruits but no fully developed are The seeds for growing them produced by cross- When frost soil. black plastic film. melons in the patch can be separated seedless types flesh is Because do not put energy into seed production. 14 to 18 pounds). flesh. Sunny's Pride (hybrid-red. 8 to 10 Floating row covers page 32) moderate temperature pounds). 20 to 25 pounds).

It may be aggravated by continued deep hoeing or close cultivation. Questions Q. Common plants. This condition is probably caused by an extended period of extremely dry weather when the melons were maturing. in the tops of my wateror producing a good crop in a short season. row covers are used in the early season for temperature eration. at which time pollinating insects must be allowed to reach the flowers. These covers may be in place until the plants start to bloom. . the skin becomes resistant to penetrais tion by the thumbnail and rough to the touch. not apparent unless seeds are saved and planted the following Watermelons do not cross with muskmelons. These indicators for choosing a ripe watermelon are much more reliable than "thumping" the melon with a knuckle. from weeds by shal- cultivation. curly tendrils on the stem near the point usually turn fruit of attachment of the melon brown and (3) dry. and Answers ideally between 80° and 85°F. squash. Harvesting Many home gardeners experience difficulty in determining when watermelons are ripe. high rainfall. and black plastic mulch advantageous Q. Is the low sugar content caused by the watermelons' crossing with other vine crops in the garden? A. The poor quality of your melons result may from wilting in vines. fertile The seedless melon varieties do not have the fruit. (2) the surface color of the turns dull. For these. cross-pollination is alongside. may find floating row covers. or a short Care Watermelons should be kept low hoeing and deep roots. early-season insect pests modif may also be left excluded the covers are applied so that the pests cannot penetrate to the crop below. and it lies (4) the bottom of the melon (where on the soil) turns from light green to a yellowish color. If you grow seed- My watermelons are not very sweet or flavorful. No. In cooler What can do to prevent my watermelons from developing poorly and rotting on the ends? A. Mulching Q. free growing season extreme northern areas. is The plants have moderately and watering for a seldom necessary unless the areas. or cucumbers. weather turns dry prolonged period. Problems Cucumber beetles (see Apply page 40) attack watermelon If a suggested insecticide for control. What causes deep holes A. Place black plastic film (see page 36) over the row before planting. Although watermelon year. Many watermelons do not emit the proverbial "dull thud" when ripe. varieties cross with melons. mushy melon. drip in the plants with black plastic film helps to reduce this problem. pollen necessary to pollinate and set the pumpkins. you must plant a standard seeded variety one another. melons? other The holes were probably made by pheasants wildlife searching for water during dry weather. Use a izer (see less starter fertil- page 20) when transplanting. cool weather. the dull thud may indicate an over-ripe. Use a combination of the following indicators: (1) light green.130 MAJOR VEGETABLES Growing transplants inside requires a warm temperature. I experienced gardeners irrigation.



Leaves should be harvested in the young-tender stage. at which time a new planting may be made. or mustards. Eventually. They have never been popular the United States." page common name until recently. Young . Vigna angularis. dull green. Successive plantings germinate until average last-frost date. mature. may be added to salads or mixed greens they after Tampala is a broad-leaf variety. Frost marks the end of harvest beans are high in protein. plant has enjoyed a surge in popularity. Each planting remains in peak eating condition for only a short time. they are often used in desserts. Thinned plants may be eaten. early fall. especially as flowers develop. know as roquette. tender leaves '/ may be Seeds should be sowed about 2 inch deep. with an added zesty tang. as they require cool summers. Amaranth should grow and produce has been cultivated for hundreds of years in the Far East. they will attempt to Bean Adzuki bean. well through the for the year. is and arugula has now become the name of choice in the trendy greens trade. Harvested the proper stage (about 7 weeks after sowing) these summer Few for fall harvest. Arugula is a cool-season plant in the Cruciferae (cabbage) family. hon-toi-moi. pests normally bother this plant. and eat adzukis as a fresh vegetable. when exposed to hot Plant seeds in the garden about the tricolor same time fall. so long inches apart. in rows 18 harvested from the remaining plants. until the plant bolts to seed. or collards. to extend the season. composted. Under favorable growing conditions. spinach. to 24 inches apart. and white Many of the States are adzuki beans imported into the United pepper. Plants should branch and after harvest. Successive plantings Rich. low in Arugula Arugula. The beans mature summer or though it can add considerable zest and Pull and dry the plants once they are fully interest to salad mixes. or boil Some gardeners harvest the immature pods. after sowing. green. The deep in rows 24 to 36 inches to 3 inches apart. deeply cooked as snow peas. Chinese seeds '/ 2 to 1 inch deep in rows 12 to 18 inches apart. spicy flavor Minor Vegetables Amaranth Greens Amaranth Amaranthus greens. quickly cut. Soil temperature should be at least 55°F. with seeds planted about inch salads or as a cooked green. Leaf shapes are varied. like spinach. have enough cool days to mature the crop before or discarded. as Amaranthus and other radishes or spinach. sugar. sowing. Roquette was the preferred used for sprouting (see "Sprouting Seeds. vesicaria var. flower. Starting about 6 weeks able in the United States. as a bitter flavor develops in older leaves. reminiscent of peppercress or horseradish. Thin seedlings to stand 3 to 6 through the early spring season. as they enlarge. sativa. or pigweed. are also know as tampala. as the may be made every 7 to 10 days as the plants seedlings are frost tender. Because the warm season. Remove flowering plants to and the planting planned so that the seeds do not after the avoid self-seeding problems. and variegated color patterns. purplish. pungent. though it is spinach. which is most often avail- removed from the row. Resume plantings in late the taste at is similar. Thin plants to stand about 4 inches plants are Thinned as with red. when this 169). greens have more iron and calcium than kale. Plant seed in the spring after frost danger past. Vicia faba (horse bean. chard. broad bean. with plants thinned in late probably too strong to be eaten alone. in either early spring or Sow species. individual young. pods are edible when young and may be in forms a low rosette of succulent. Greens are usually cooked and summer's heat. apart. closely related to the Fava bean. and the seeds then are removed easily by shelling. it Windsor bean). is and easy to digest and have a o <\ ^^^^r \ _S t Emca also slightly sweet flavor. rocket salad.MINOR VEGETABLES 133 compound leaves with a biting. probably wise to be on the lookout for leaves are ready for harvest common pests of The shoot about 3 weeks regrow tips and young the cabbage family. saute them briefly. Arugula quickly bolts to seed temperatures. is may be made apart. 1 Arugula is commonly used in mixed taste loamy soil is best.

much deep like pole beans. is which may most parts be red. the vines may grow 15 frost-free 20 feet can be stored year. or white. vegetable An Garbanzo bean. popular Windsor. oval. chestnut bean. is beans. locations. applications are not necessary. seasons. lablab. Both mature shellout favas prepared like dry beans for use in casseroles. where mung beans are mostly used for season crop (about 100 days to harvest) and are not a sprouting. Plant grow about 2 short. vari- Because they do not require high fertilizer side-dress Berken and Oklahoma. and should be planted earlier in the season. first Care should be taken when Italy. They number of seed houses and catalogs and very racks. and to flailed from the pods when they are completely dry. Fruits resemble lima Edible soybean. high in protein. mung beans may be eaten as a known that is as chickpea.12 are two commercial eties. is when the plants are 15 to 18 inches and begin Hyacinth bean. or mature dry pods may be and the snap beans or asparagus beans. After the soil 1 sometimes available. Vigna radiata (Chinese bean). Favas are popular in gal. and gourmet and The most spectacular feature of the hyacinth bean specialty vegetable references for more information or sprouts. which turn brown when Allow 24 to 30 inches between rows. eating wires. may be either glossy green or reddish soya bean). Culture 1 is Fava beans are a cool-season vegetable. Dolichos Although the for also called lablab. grown where the vegetable and flower gardens all and Spain. and indian bean. or the plant Its more often is cultivated as an ornamental vine. a dry them on clean papers on the floor of a shed or garage that is appearance somewhere between trifoliate leaflets are southern pea and well-ventilated. is "Sprouting Seeds. and store in airtight jars or cans. ancient crop of India. with seeds planted to 2 inches after all danger of frost is past and the more like garden peas. in the United States bunches and hang them overhead. free of rounded green pods. food in southern Asia and is Africa. pharaoh. it is . The beans tall start beans. variety found on garden-center seed be found. Chinese flowering. There are two types. The pods contain three brown. and planted in your garden. roasted for soups and salads. like Immature seed pods may be harvested and cooked like green peas.134 MINOR VEGETABLES fresh beans may be shelled from pods and eaten shelled. pea). can be successfully grown as a shellout or dry bean in of the country. The broad. or where plants are freely interplanted. are widely used Mung beans Tie the plants in are ready to harvest as dry beans in and green pods about 100 days. may be purchased in gourmet food stores Garbanzo beans grow any well-drained garden fertility. In areas of short growing started early indoors or in a after height. but varietal names used may include Long Pod. inch deep in rows 24 to 36 inches apart. "mung bean" in most 1 Thin seedlings to 3 inches feet tall. Garbanzo beans United States. that are suitable to warms. seed catalogs. warm weather strings. Cicer arietinwn (also Mung bean. long white A food naturally prepared as seed scar along most of one side of each seed. Keep weeds formto Pick fully mature pods as they turn brown. or as a dry bean and egyptian a tender annual It is when which are dried or are a long- they mature. seeds are may be ordered from a very limited rarely are common listed as garden vegetable in the United States. or white. This a gorgeous plant genetic allergy to them. Favas also greenhouse and transplanted outside arrives. In the grown for its chestnut-flavored seeds. Culture is favas for the time because a few people carry a Portu- without supports to be not advised. Some sources offer them simply as fava meet. no name in is listed. The bushy plants by ripe. Glycine (also called bean pods and purple. with gardeners interested in oriental vegetables. See for sprouting or for planting the following where the season is long enough. plant seeds apart.S. Plant in soil has warmed thoroughly. make a good cool-season cover crop for green- The stems are twining and will climb manure soil building. a distinctive. depending on the 30-inch rows. Harvest by pulling up the entire plant. flower." page 169. White flowers are followed mung beans 1 inch deep and inch apart. seeds soil. the 4. one with green neither a pea nor a bean. is when the pods are green. tall With support. no other source can Commonly. or Broad Windsor Long Pod. There to six seeds. seed coats and one with yellow. hardier than green beans. wild ripe seeds field. purple. They pointed. The beans can be easily shelled or a pole bean. or most other is common supports.to 6-inch clusters of sweet-scented flowers in about sprouting and using mung beans max shades of pink. They are listed simply as many U. plants may be with seeds 5 to 6 inches apart and 2 inches deep. Selections are available that are adaptable to long or short day length. They grow to 40 to 50 inches in variety. poles. beans and dried seeds also can be cooked and eaten. shell as dried by shallow hoeing and ing cultivation. If garbanzo or chickpea in garden catalogs.

digging the crop can be a challenge. to stand 1 sprouting. can be eaten. tender shoots. Seeds As they come from the garden. if about 70 to 90 days. but their valued both for food and as a tonic to purify the blood and and grown much like relieve arthritis. 1 as edible soybeans. Soaking or scarifying piercing or breaking the seed coat) tion. lappa. flowers. the pods are to 2 feet apart. minus. Roots allowed to grow days. Arctium lappa (also called gobu in Japanese or soybeans are usually larger-seeded. tried the true gobu. green. The leaves of a thriving many of them spontaneously popping burdock plant may spread 2 to 3 feet in all directions. of the roots.MINOR VEGETABLES 135 a fresh vegetable. Maple Arrow.) soil forms the ible in first year. rough. or other uses. in Cooking makes the vegetable protein easily digestible Yard-long bean. Harvest can begin about 10 weeks after seed rows 4 feet apart. shorter plants than the field varieties. to avoid losing beans because the pods touched. but fall-planted seedlings may flower in the the entire plant and pick off the beans in the shade. in past. Im- the Small root pieces that break off in the soil may mature pods. you can pull are possible. the edible nature of the entire plant at various stages. so press them into the soil at a them for 1 to 3 minutes or steaming spacing of 4 to 8 inches. Vigna unguiculata subspecies pedalis (asparagus bean). in 95 to 110 days. you had a bad experience eat. Envy. too. A. is Burdock is a hardy biennial plant large storage root Edible soybeans are planted that grown as an annual because the snap beans. At this time. Harvest carefully. roots the size of have some tendency to shatter (burst Some plants of burdock actually if left from the pods) once the pods dry. tofu. between rows. harvesting early in the may grow up to 8 feet tall. Fiskeby varieties of V. and Prize. (See the maps. Almost any where weedy When completely dry. but they them. and becomes ined- danger of frost has the second. At this time. maybe you have not In the garden. Dry beans can be harvested the choice one for eating. harvested when ngau pong in Chinese). quickly toughens. Flowering occurs under short to facilitate the sowing in most years. warmed. wait until the leaves Thin or space transplants soil have turned yellow and brown. Fall sowings pods are plump. has been cultivated for centuries in parts of Asia but in recent years has stony or heavy soil. they as or flailed in the edible soybeans same manner may be easily shelled mung beans. allowed to go to seed the second year. especially in four-angled bean). is out of their pods in the garden. lappa and A. see sesqui- soybeans more and palatable. spring without making a root big enough to use." page 143. These garden Burdock Burdock. Field soybeans. minus. become brown and the sow seeds of burdock in the spring to at least 50°F. page Allow 24 to 30 inches There are two closely related species. The beans may be frozen you may be started in flats indoors. has enlarged storage roots immature. Most burdock grows can produce cultivated gobu. you may want to baseball bats to grow through one whole season. soybeans are to shell. . leaves. dew still moistens the pods may Because mature roots often may be 2 feet or more in Winged bean. Seeds also (somehow them in a covered pan for 5 minutes makes shelling a if may speed germina- comparatively easy are not ready to use task. Plant seeds foot) after the inch deep (8 to 10 seeds per has passed and the 26. but before the pods seeds harden. season. however. To harvest dry soybeans for should be transplanted before the taproot becomes distorted within the container. Plants should be grown on wires too large develop a tough outer bark that requires peeling harvesting of tips. is and pull cautiously to After frost danger apart. also flavor may be used may be more bitter. Green-shell beans are ready to harvest digging burdock out of the raspberry patch to then when the seeds are fully enlarged. seed. but boiling difficult prefer light to germinate. If not smoth- may burst when day help. flowering. A. Added compost or fertilizer helps make more grow spectacular results. mature leaves all seeds. while If Allow enough space so a neighboring crop ered. and the young beans. and all Because nearly when the soil has warmed the beans are the same size and maturity. the plants seedstalks this is a problem. the hairy. so that the young roots will tion in the United States for its high protein content and not be deformed by encountering impediments in soil. Care should be taken to dig the bed drawn much atten- deeply before planting the seeds. seeds are planted 2 to 3 feet minimize breakage. begin harvest before the beans are completely dry to avoid having too Space can be a problem. and form new plants and become moderately weedy. Edible soybeans reach the green-shell stage of maturity in The one most commonly found growing wild States is around the United is A. so dig carefully alongside the plants. fallen. They also mature earlier and are easier to shell. Butterbeans. Varieties available include Black Jet. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (goa bean or length. "Southern Pea.

the crown 7 inches in diameter. The two or three flat. Witloof is attractive dark green stems and chicory (also called french or belgian endive) a blanched. the same manner and escarole (see page 79). Above 40 degrees north latitude. and Sugarhat (cut-leaf). At that time. Alabaster. remove garden cubed. Mitado. the with carrots as a vegetable side dish. Forcing: Flash. prices in some produce markets. Robin (pink color in when forced. Celeriac can be blanched by slightly hilling the plants to cover the roots as than a cooked carrot and as slightly stringy. Dolvi. 5 to plants should be watered uniformly. celery. If Do not plant seeds too early for may be left in the garden to be harvested as you do.136 MINOR VEGETABLES To prepare tender. Some gardeners the roots. roasted. scrape the should be harvested before freezing weather and stored in down to the white fiber beneath. Monitor Hybrid. The celery root. row). Brilliant. curled. It a novel form of The slightly bitter. Most commercial production chicory root is in Michigan. dandelionlike grown for the swollen root that line. ed use. It is forced as are generally free from pests. Use a (see starter fertilizer solution annual. the frozen into the ground. tender. especially during The usable periods of drought. forcing roots. varieties are listed according to intend- grated or sliced in salads and cooked in soups and The following stews. Slice or julienne for eating. Although the exterior flesh is brown in color. fresh-salad delicacy. var. but page 20) to get the plants established. and stews. Space the be harvested for greens in 60 to 70 days. Chicory also plants 6 inches apart in rows 18 to 24 inches wide. is Apium graveolens (also a hardy vegetable that rapaceum known as is used in three basic forms. sold at high popular with is many European cultures. is seedlings are rather delicate. and Large Brunswick. in the Forcing chicory. Dig roots in the late fall before they are is of growth seriously decrease the size of the roots. root Celeriac does not attain until after the celeriac first frost its full fall. like celery. is 9 to 10 inches long. the United States. When the plants are 2 to 2V2 inches Greens. Chicory root grown is as a long-season handling the transplants. tender leaves 6 to 8 inches long can they can be transplanted into the garden. Celeriac. Diamant. Plant in and greens. Cichorium intybus. Witloof. roots are dried. knob celery. When the seed should be planted in the early spring in cell packs. thin to 9 to 12 inches apart for chicory roots for witloof. roots. then roasted for grinding. Giant Prague. Greens: Catalongna (asparagus type). Young. making then unsuitable for fore- . Jose. The roots also add a pleasantly aromatic flavor to soups remains a bright white. Allow 18 to 24 inches between rows. Turbo Hybrid. and celery). and interruptions conditions. and prepared turnip-rooted celery. sweetness and flavor In southern locations. stir-fry It can be used they an ingredient in oriental dishes or combined develop. The yield should exceed pound of until tender. The roots are scrubbed to soil. though cooked gobu remains more crunchy is usable root per foot of row. may be blanched by tying the outermost leaves in the as endive Though the plants later become very robust. and Monarch. single plant per cell after the plants have at 120 days before frost for production of roots for forcing. permitting harvesting at any time during the 1 two to three times improves the color Cook winter months. the roots develop flower stalks. some sort of protected cold storage. and about Thin to a least tall. Chicory Celeriac Celeriac. young roots outer layer from them. either in a cold frame or greenhouse. the roots may grow too large or needed. and Plant seeds l Zoom hybrid. so use caution when cele- Chicory root. Celeriac requires a minimum growing period of 120 San Pasquale. Plant l seedlings are 2 to 3 inches tall. but new introductions now include /2 inch deep (12 to 15 seeds per foot of Alba. two true leaves. tapering into a taproot. and 3 to 4 inches apart of the fine seeds U inch deep in each cell of the seed May for greens and roots. Because appreciates moist soil easily grown under a variety of climatic riac. Chicory Root: days and can be grown successfully throughout most of the United States. and soak in cool water or mulch the plants with straw or leaves to protect the place directly in the cooking utensil. and Zealand. Chicory. is is german as a coffee substitute or in coffee blends. Changing the water and flavor. Madgeburg. Smooth Prague are the varieties most frequently found unique). greens (sometimes called italian dandelion) are develops at the ground The leaves grown and used as potherbs. Radichetta.

warm- to the wild dandelion. The plants form a rosette of leaves on a woody. A polyethylene tunnel can late crown are preferred for forcing. (such as streams) and is moving water two additional waterings may be requires 3 to 4 necessary. The cultivated sorts if become just as weedy bleached quality of the witloof heads that is desired. The proper temperature for forcing is Upland Cress in garden catalogs). season annual plant of the nightshade family. which grow 12 inches apart in the row. length (6 to 8 inches). One plant that grows in shallow. Barbarea verna. 50 days to harvest. A sheet of leaves together over the plant. The spicy addition to salads. Smaller side is heads develop you plant fall spinach. made be used. Add rapidly (12 to 20 days to harvest). and cover them U Garden the sand or sawdust. gardening. Winter cress. When the heads (chicons) break the surface. may be cultivated in the home garden when plants are not available. Store the roots in a cool place with high moisture. the greens become and are of poor quality. Curleycress a named variety that grows sifted between the roots to the tops of the crowns. Plant garden cress at 2-week intervals as as the point of attachment with the root. With a knife. berries are shrublike perennial plant. requires is between 60° and 70°F. If tinuous supply. cool. The cresses require relatively soil and cool growing conditions. leaves remain attached. Fill with sand or fine soil salad green. Taraxacum officinale. It is used as a garnish or 6 to 8 inches of sand or sawdust over the crowns. cold. placed over the trench to increase soil Cut off the slender tips so that the roots are a uniform Garden Cress Garden cress. Unharvested plants may be left During the winter and early spring. The variability in plant types Garden Huckleberry Garden huckleberry. Cut just below the crown with a sharp knife so that the vegetable pit or underground cellar. Chicory grows very rapidly and usually not thinned. Forcing not usually suited for home l weeks to develop firm heads. Thick-Leaf and Improved Thick-Leaf. or cut the entire plants size before any whose lion leaves are gathered as potherbs or greens. are superior in flavor tics and growth characteris- known as wonderberry or sunberry). and overwinter in the garden. cut off the head at the to Vz inch deep. is a tender. Solatium melanocerasum (also The named varieties." Ripe garden huckleberries are used for pies or Dandelion requires a long growing season and develops best at low temperatures. Some garden- Some gardeners force witloof in cold frames or hotbeds. and place the roots close together in a Lepidium sativum. such as an outdoor Harvest in the fall when plants reach satisfactory size. great. They can grow in not eaten . Blanching leaves milder makes the clear or black polyethylene film (see page 36) should be temperature. Sow seeds y4 to y2 inch deep in late spring to early summer. Dandewild is the seedstalks form. force it blanch the inner rosette of leaves by tying the outer and some in a trench in the garden. Thin seedlings of winter cress to 2 main chicon harvested. Roots with a diameter of 1 to VU inches at the the weather any well-drained garden soil. Most gardeners put their forcing boxes in the basement because the absence of light produces the pale. Harvest in early spring before the plants form flower stalks and go bitter to seed. dig the roots When be placed over the row to force growth in early spring cutting. cool-season box or other container. They can be grown in protected cold Dandelion Dandelion. These heads also may to 3 inches apart in the row. fresh. Prepare heads for the ground can be worked in the spring. flowering occurs. and thin seedlings to 8 to preserves. Unlike true highbush blueberries. garden hucklefresh. (often listed as blanched tops grow into compact. is kitchen by removing dirty and loose outer leaves.MINOR VEGETABLES 137 ing. Pick the leaves when at hardy perennial they are 3 to 5 inches long. winter for becomes and cut off the tops about 2 inches above the crown (top of root). Plantings of either type in the heat of results. The familiar watercress or an aquatic Water thoroughly after preparing the forcing box. roots can be prepared in a new forcing box every 2 to 3 weeks for a con- for use the following spring. is a frames during the winter months. remove Sow 10 soon cress to 15 seeds per foot of row. is is a hardy. though the shoot quality begins to deteriorate after the summer usually produce moist disappointing second flush of sprouts as the root's reserves are exhausted. Plant seeds of winter cress in late summer at the same time that heads keep after the for 2 to 4 weeks. Store the excess in a plastic bag in the refrigerator. The seeds are listed in garden catalogs simply as "garden huckleberry. pointed heads. and less bitter. as the wild types ers allowed to reseed freely.

cylindrica. pepo pumpkins. stiff. Calabash. space is limited (see pages 124 and shells and may begin to change from green to 125). too. Utility types develop hard lighter. acutangula. or punc- pages 113 and 114). Lagenaria. As with other members the plants emerge from the of the soil. Edible (Lagenaria species): Cucuzzi. development of the this fashion if summer or early fall. Small of Thorns (Bear Claw). most of the nonarid The and necks on long-handled types should be limber. soft. other utensils." page 145). Crown inch deep. pepo gourds (See "Cucuzzi gourd" page 146. When the seedlings are well established (with one or two true leaves). Plant after the danger of has passed and the soil has warmed thoroughly. Luffas are most notable the "vegetable sponge. Shenot (mixed-color crown of thorns). dry . and Luffa genera. Edible (Luffa species): Chinese Okra. bottle. hold soil if allowed to lie on the ground. Orange. locations use black polyethylene (see page 36) to being used for decoration only. Dishrag (Luffa L. Large Warted. The and drums and pubescent tures) fruits (covered with fine. brightly colored shells. summer squash. Dipper. and Ital- same general ripe (usually when they are fully Hercules' Club. to 2 inches of stem attached. 2 weeks after they 3 first turn black). after the soil has warmed in the spring. Direct contact with sorts. Vegetable Gourd. for mat the of tissue that devel1 soil may mar the surface of some The fruits ops within the mature fruit and has are picked for eating when they are immature The New Guinea Bean (less is fre- than a variety of scouring and cleansing uses. A inch in diameter and grow in loose and Zucco. Ornamental: C. ian. The green. C. The following growing in varieties of gourds are suitable for parts of the country. species): L. Some the of the Lagenaria warm the season growth and to and Luffa types are eaten when fruits are immature. Both Lagefences. In general.138 MINOR VEGETABLES Sow seeds. Plant seeds V2 Warted. The stems should be quite tough. when the fruits develop hard. Drum. striped. Pear (bicolored. The Lagenarias are the most widely raw week after blossom). berries are V2 to clusters. Bruises. related to and 2 to 3 They are (Lagenaria species): Bottle. used gourd group. maxima (ornamental squash): Turk's Turban. Spoon. fruit. scratches. aegyptica. squash. Cave Man's Club. Plant seeds 1 inch deep and 6 to 12 inches apart in rows 6 to 8 feet apart. and club varieties) develop the best-shaped plants are when the "Chinese okra. pepo types are bitter and not eaten at any stage. Keep the rows free from family Cucurbitaceae. and these two genera have a wider variety of uses than The utility gourds (dipper. and White C. until and Luffa types should usually be grown on or stakes for proper Ornamental gourds should mature on the plant late trellises. hairlike struc- are the material of various styles of scrimshawlike naria art. tures result in rapid discoloration and deterioration. or start indoors and transplant outdoors and white). Luffa require a fairly long season to mature In Gourd "Gourd" is short-season areas. you may need to start plants indoors to guarantee fully in advance of settled warm weather (see the name commonly applied to certain ripened fruit. or winter squash varieties (see table on Handle gourds carefully. They are utilized as dippers. immature berries are not edible. weed competition. Nest Egg. pepo: Apple. thin to frost 2 to 3 feet apart. Harvest with 1 not C. pepo varieties cross-pollinate with C. Control cucumber beetles page 40) with weekly warm-season vining crops that are closely related to applications of a suggested insecticide from the time that pumpkin and confusing." a fibrous grown on a fence or trellis. control weeds. long-necked. The ripe New Guinea and Bean (Guinea Bean). Cure gourds for a few days in the shade under warm. storage containers. and thin to 12 inches apart. Bicolor. slightly yellow shades. pepo types can also be grown in glossy. quently grown on a support for easy harvesting. Both Lagenaria and fruit. Utility semi-erect. Pick the berries Swan gourd). widely branched. Dolphin (Maranka or tomatoes and peppers and should be given the care. Lagenarias are the most vigorous between and may need to be spaced up rows if to 12 to 15 feet the plants are not trellised. Some gardeners mulch soil for better early the C. and fruits the C. The plants grow feet tall. common is nomenclature can be used to describe members weeds by shallow hoeing and cultivation growth covers the further entire until rapid vine The term "gourd" ground surface and shades out in northern of the Cucurbita. L.

Illinois is the leading state in U. off-flavor in 4 to 6 weeks. and waxed or dipped in shellac. Harvest mature dishrag gourds only after gardeners save small pencil-sized roots to produce next year's harvest. The American Gourd to prepare fresh horseradish in small batches to meet their Society. it is diameter of a pencil. birdhouses. the fruits of brightly with a ridge or mound of soil to a depth of 4 to 5 inches. gardeners like and for other purposes. Plant as soon as the soil used in jam. publishes immediate needs. preserves. especially in the late summer and late fall Zucco gourds are harvested before stored for fall killing frosts and early fall. which grow from the The connoisseur. Some cooks use the thick flesh in (after a hard frost) until the spring. also called "common" taller horse- radish leaves. The roots may be dug anytime from growth starts in use. or as The plants also are spring. the center "sponge core" by cutting lengthwise halfway between servings. The set roots. however. by commercial growers. These 1. bathing sponge. but plants survive indefi- tainers. or innersole for shoes. during hot weather. yellowish tinge. the outer surface can be easily off and used as needed (see pages 167 and 168). which are 10 to 12 inches long and the Horseradish Horseradish. periods in a warm. with the top end slightly elevated. perennial. Ohio 43338. with the skin loosening. After curing. Even under ideal condi- through the gourd. garden. forcing when ground pork. plant con- divided and replanted yearly. Armoracia rusticana. and cover solution before drying. The removed. has crinkled. Apply water if the plants wilt or whatever the shape size suggest. and mixed in sauces for seafood. leaves. with Utility gourds require additional drying for extended dependable moisture. fertile soil colored ornamental varieties cloth may be polished with a dry Crowns should be planted even with the Horseradish grows best in deep. works of art. Mt. some surface grow as a perennial it These usually do not affect the usefulness of the garden and keep weeded by shallow is and may enhance the surface with interesting patterns. or grated dishes. but they may not be true to the Husk Tomato Husk tomato. warm-season annual Horseradish is started from crown divisions or root can be worked in early plant It is grown for the sweet honeylike flavor of the fruits. cuttings. stored in cold (32°F).MINOR VEGETABLES 139 conditions.O. on wires until they are thoroughly dry. Even under the the cooling weather of radish to Most gardeners allow horsealong one end of the cultivation or if best drying conditions. As a condiment. The plants grow 2 to 2V2 feet tall. and plant them in another row. A ing year. Gilead. after dig- begun to develop They may be Use roots to prepare your favorite sauce soon gathered before frost and allowed to ripen slowly or may ging. Maliner Kren or Bohemian are the varieties offered in most garden catalogs. are planted in early spring. For this reason. soil level. heavy organic mulch. gourds may be made and into dippers. rounded known The Bohemian types usually grow and have a suit- ground cherry. they can be cleaned. nitely without any care. pipes. and the is a very hardy.S. Place the roots 18 to 24 inches apart in shallow grown pot plants or for other ornamental uses. loose. and Physalis). is a tender. are stored to plant the follow- continues to grow horseradish for fresh pungency. Some soups and stews. and rinse in a weak bleach trenches. and free prepared product must be kept in a closed container and refrigerated tions. Either variety makes tomato. Horseradish is a newsletter on varieties and uses of gourds. production of horseradish. Surplus sauce can be frozen in small containers for be allowed to freeze before harvest. wastepaper baskets. "Lifting" the roots is a practice savored for hotness that removes the side roots from the upper portion of the set root. shake out the seeds. readily horseradish processors. Although the roots store best left in the hard frost should dry quickly. The sets. Wash dirty fruits. dry room. they have fully developed on the plant and have a lighter. Cut both ends. its plants are dug in the fall. gourds and the roots make their greatest increase in size during fall. When they are dry.to 2-pound roots are sold to commercial horseradish today because the prepared product available in grocery stores. The resulting rectangular sponge may ground horseradish turns brown and develops an be used as a scouring pad. commercial few plants should provide ample roots. grown commercially as an annual crop. more pointed ably hot preparation. the plant to develop one large main and beef Most home gardeners do not grow is root. its bottom of the main root. Poha berry. The gourds should be hung molds may develop. . moist storage. Those harvested after a year-round use. P. strawberry smooth. pies. Production is better horseradish Once dry. pruinosa (also Physalis as original type. Box 274. Maliner Kren.

dry shed or garage for a mature. and Valencia. but they soil. soil OP refers to the Keep the loose and hilled toward the row of open-pollinated varieties. even can be grown in food and in most in most of the northern large gardens for soil Peanuts develop best in loose. which form the peanuts. peanuts also can be grown successspecial care. When the husks turn brown. black. After the plants have dried. Color varies from the standard yellow to red. homegrown popcorn kernels). transplant to 18 inches apart in the row. Sow seeds to l /2 inch deep. about The should be dry so that it can be inch in diameter. a very large. Cure the peanuts by stacking the husk. Plant There are two basic types of popping corns: round (or the entire two or three individual seeds 1 husk "pearl" kernels (usually produced on large ears) and containing the seeds) to V/2 inches deep in hills 10 to sharp-pointed "rice" kernels (usually produced on smaller ears). They fully may drop is off the plant when by hanging them warm. Tomatillo. Culture the same as for ground When roast. under these conditions. White . include: Recommended varieties plants. shake off any remaining soil. Pearl-type kernaels are 12 inches apart. readily enter loose soils Hulless (OP-105 days to harvest. With proper care. with states. baked A light covering (1 to producer). they have matured (begun to turn growing. Although lower- Dig the plants yellow) in the a hard freeze. Physalis ixocarpa. the fruits are ripe and plants in an open shelter in a where they will not freeze. and thin or Hand pull weeds after in the row. whole hulls when popped. 350°F oven for 20 minutes. annual plant that resembles Although usually considered a crop of the Popcorn Popcorn. Vari- and storage. are especially tender and are prized March or early April is and transplanted to the home gardeners. top white cannot penetrate hard. after danger of frost past. little rapidly grow into plants 18 to 20 inches tall. Peppy (90 days. the flowering shoots elongate and send a "peg" into the soil. Most varieties and the peanuts near soil after "ground cherry" or "husk tomato. or can be harvested. peanuts can be started indoors in peat pots in late hull after popping. White varieties (hybrid unless indicated): Japanese These pegs. Do not disturb the but named varieties may be 'A under Physalis. the plants should be given the same general care as tomatoes. a warm-season clover.140 MINOR VEGETABLES The varieties offered in garden catalogs have either a 2 inches) of loose organic mulch material around the plants helps to keep the soil loose yellow." the surface of the ground. Zea mays var. except the plants are larger and need wider spac- Peanuts should be roasted in a shallow pan in a ing to develop fully. In extreme The rice-type hulless hybrids. Peanut plants are sometimes grown for their ornamental value as patio or known is as goober pea or pot plants. and plants readily reseed themselves. hill. garden. Arachis hypogaea (also nuts are used in baking and candy. 1 Harvest in early to midOctober before soil The berrylike fruits are smooth. usually 2 to 3 seeds per the spring. fall. Allow 36 inches between rows. rice kernels). but they usually do not yield any harvest earth nut). After the bright yellow flowers are pollinated. rice kernels). The seedlings emerge with three cloverlike leaflets that smooth and rounded and produce large. Purdue and do not require that you cover by hand. Raw pea- Peanut Peanut. and pull the peanuts horn the vines. Continue or shallow pans for fruited Physalis that has recently come to prominence in to air dry the peanuts in mesh bags the United States as a main ingredient is of the authentic another week or two. Snow Puff (100 days. rice kernels). purplish. achieves superior peanuts suitable for growing in shorter-season flavor and maximal popping size (30 to 40 times the areas are Early Northern. the flower pegs have buried themselves. the peanuts are dry. sandy and require a gardens as an ornamental. In the following. without disturbing and white and even multicolored the roots. brown. Deep South. Early Spanish. fully in most of the country and. or red fruit are listed simply as when listed mature. Roasted peanuts are favorite snacks and are also made into peanut butter. praecox. which leave or no by northern areas. green- week. they are ready to shell or cherry. 307 (102 days. harvesting. Usually 50 to 75 in Plant seeds or transplants after the soil has warmed peanuts are formed in each pod. volume of the unpopped Red Tennessee. Mexican green salsa. ornamental kernels. Jumbo Virginia. minimum eties of of 120 frost-free days to reach maturity. and completely enclosed by a papery shaken off the peanuts.

kernel it sustains less seed coat and dens. but not removed. may become ears. happens. garden before the A light frost does still not days. Side-dress nitrogen fertilizer (see page 20) when the Many gardeners two them. planting too low for good and maturity dates should be planned so that sweet corn and popcorn do not pollinate at the popping. calico). Some gardeners check- cob. pearl kernels. calico). Cutie and place them Pops (100 days. during shelling. Avoid using heat above 100°F to dry popcorn. In most gar- removed. As the ears mature and dry. If stored in a heated room possible. pearl kernels). Popcorn can be conveniently stored almost . the ear has a very solid feel. Tiny damage and less or sprouting caused by contact with the soil. ears. Harvest by hand.to 4V2 -inch ears.MINOR VEGETABLES 141 Cloud Hulless (85 days. as kernel same time. light and Tom ears). 3to 5-inch ears. back. and White Dyna- The popcorn should mature in the garden. not damage popcorn unless the kernel moisture above mixed colors on each ear). 4-inch ears. this helps hybrid varieties. as early or eating the popcorn. until they are nearly dried (longer necessary). If during the winter. Popcorn dries naturally varieties for an outdoor shelter to about 13 to 14 percent kernel the corn has sufficient time to mature before all moisture —ideal for popping. Popcorn planted near sweet corn or corn may around the tip of the ears. and occurs. rice kernels. especially during pollination and ear developfield place the kernels in moistureproof jars or cans for storage. may be and be pollinated by these crops. and Seneca Mini Indian (103 days. pearl kernels. 20 percent. Iopop 12 (94 days. northern areas so that frost. mite (95 days. If Cutie Blues (100 days. As ears reach proper dryness. Popcorn dried on the cob it as fully as possible is of with the hills spaced 40 inches the highest quality because absorbs as much of the two directions. If Puff (100 days. pearl kernels. is above 35 percent. and the rice kernels). If at and hang from a beam. round both ornamental damage popcorn kernel moisture unless the plants are green or the and tasty popped). Papoose (85 days. Kernels ment. the ears should be harvested immediately finish drying off the plant. and tasteless) and reduces the popping efficiency of the popcorn. Plant kernels k to 1 together. the kernels shell from the ears tough. calico). These string ears can be strung in to dry in a dry bunches with twine or fertile. drained garden Plant at the Select early soil well- area with good air circulation. and freezing does is Ornamental colored popcorns: Carousel (110 4. and speed drying. many unpopped kernels from the stored prod- no popping ability. light yellow). you should physically separate sweet corn plantings. popcorn dries to 7 percent kernel moisture. To prevent rodents from that can produce good sweet corn. good popping quality). This planting method permits sugars stored in the cob as possible before being cross-cultivation to help keep down weeds. short. the kernels are tightly pressed Space rows 30 to 40 inches apart. and hung Popcorn may be grown in any good. pollination ruins the sweet corn (making starchy. shell close to the plants. Thumb Red (OP-heirloom with varieties: yellow Popcorn normally dries to Robust Red S-100 (hybrid-105 days. 6-inch ears. Crossit damage may occur. much more easily than from damper ones. further air prefer to air dry the ears for a if week or plants are 12 to 18 inches tall. Indian Finger (110 4. solid dark blue). the stalks Yellow varieties (hybrid unless indicated): Creme of some varieties.to 5-inch ears. This moisture content is and popcorn that cannot be done. shucks are pulled 2y2. (Never save seed produced from shelled.to where they can continue to dry. calico). the first method is preferred. These pops. weakened and this over from the weight of the Purdue 410 (105 days. early yellow). than 20 percent kernel moisture on the first frost. 4-inch days. but do not save cross-pollinated ears for seed any other damaged kernels elsewhere on the ear should be removed before the entire ear is the following year. to avoid moisture Purdue 608 and should Robust 20-70 (85 days. if Cultivate or hoe shallowly. particularly fall the rice types. calico or days. store in coarse-mesh sacks or wire baskets in same time maturing midseason sweet corn. plant four kernels per apart in hill. high (105 days. Irrigate an extended dry period dry the kernels in shallow pans. yield). they help wick moisture from the ears 6-inch ears. especially. deep red) and Strawberry (OP-105 ears. Tim (100 days. stalk in the large ears. and some kernels inch deep (two to three kernels per foot of row). Thin may even start to be forced from the ear by the shrinking the plants to 6 to 8 inches apart. tiny. Cross-pollinated popcorn still damaged in some way or greatly undersized. plants should dry. rice kernels). high yield. Popcorn can usually be harvested when both the husks leaves have turned brown. top yielder). shuck the ears. damage that might hamper proper popping. When l the ears have dried.) The resulting cross may have little or eliminate uct later.

deep. Seal the con- Maintain the planting bed free of weeds through- shake several times. In the southern eties. Allium cepa var. plant seed in enough. and forms. onionlike Many gourand the a met chefs use shallots for sauces. is family that prized for flavor. attractive heads form. The dry bulbs weather of fall. Rubello and Firebird (both hybrids) are two of the newest introductions. semi-heading to tightly heading plants are by name include Dutch Yellow. Varieties are used in salads and mixed greens or may be been grown with a pink tinge are generally more highly regarded. divide the clump of shallots into individual bulbs. Caesar. and in the cool weather of fall. cut off the leafy top to an inch above the crown. Package in 1 -pound or late fall. which resemble 1 large. in first any season. 1 -quart container of popcorn. Harvest and handle in the rosettes that turn into brilliant little red heads in the cool same manner dry onions (see page 90). Milano sprouts. French grown all across the United States today. between water to a tainer. gives the best yields. and Prince de Bretagne. The popcorn should be "fanned" before storage to remove the papery cob dust that kernels. Judge by If when chaff stops coming off the corn. well-drained soils in rows 24 to 28 inches apart. gravies. In the are the best known dry bulbs. aggregation. The Red Treviso bulbs should be planted 2 to 3 inches deep (deeper than in the spring) to help prevent frost heaving. If heads have not formed by Labor good snow Shallots cover. Pink. or Shallot Shallot. is and both are tolerant to mixed with the summer heat. Day. ing. To plant. developed for Plant these individual bulbs to inches deep and 3 to The Giulio variety was the strain 4 inches apart. ture for a few days. Frog Legs. Some people prefer to cut them back in may be placed in a mesh bag and stored under cool. delicate. especially and overfertil- three passes back and forth between containers should be with nitrogen. The heads grilled. uniform heads with white midribs. thin to about 4 to 6 inches plants. may be pulled as green onions tall. ues to produce even after can be grown on a rate the dry. as a fall vege- Shallots produce a cluster of bulbs from each single but newer varieties have been developed for spring bulb planted. when their tops are 6 to 8 inches Each bulb produces 8 to 10 tight. or the gourmet section of a food Varieties available loosely wrapped. Shallots are and Early Treviso are planted in midsummer and form slender. taking care not to injure the growing point. as soon as the soil spring planting. is Simply drop kernels from one container to air Radicchio very tolerant to cool weather and continfrosts. another early heading variety that may be half of the country. Vs inch or larger in diameter. Traditionally. they recently has been introduced are usually listed in garden catalogs simply as "shallots." into this country There are kinds. and use as needed. and the red or another gardener. 1 inch above the crown. a hardy member is of the onion its Radicchio Radicchio. store. and leave at room temperaof the shelled this out the growing season. The moisture content or other popcorn increases about 2 percent. Ideally. Epicurean. the corn becomes too dry for some reason. radicchio has table. they form loose. but avoid acidic soils ization. the next year's crop can be planted in late planted in early summer. consistently produces winecolored. and let small heads 2-pound containers. Bulbs for planting may be obtained from seed houses. October to sprout and overwinter in the garden. Shallots are planted and cared for in much same manner as onions. unique. planting that can mature successfully in the summer. Cichorium intybus (leaf chicory). is mold damage could happen. quickly form. fat l'/ 2 onion sets. Radicchio culture can still be tricky. dry . tangy-flavored vegetable that has long been roasts. Do not overdo procedure. allow the tops of the plants to die summer. colors. Planting during late winter or early spring. spear-shaped heads resembling belgian endive or very hardy and survive most winters. It and it is vigorous and resistant to boltvari- produces small heads months before other can be tilled. stews.142 MINOR VEGETABLES indefinitely in the home freezer. Allow 12 to 24 inches between rows. For depending on the and Red Verona (Rossa Di Verona) Italian varieties. variety. especially if there is small Cos lettuce. It another in the outside and allow the breeze to sepagrain. green down naturally in as summer. When seedlings are estab- increase the moisture content by adding tablespoon of lished in the row. many variegated. grown in Italy and only Although there are several varieties of shallots. 1 you can with seed about 3 A inch deep. meaty. light chaff from the heavy Two or variety of soil types.

single row. maybe freezing the excess. Mississippi Silver. The plants continue to produce for Day for good luck. Most gardeners pick beans cowpea. between rows. of the bean mature. Asparagus beans. Two varieties are offered. It freedom from this disease. and then trained on Onion yellows bers of the a viral disease that affects all mem- strings or wires as pole beans because the plants are onion family. Crowder. Squash. meat sauce. the beans may grow up to 3 feet long. and the "peas" are colored or speckled or have an eye pattern. Califor- variety that is oval. best to keep them picked regularly. All members is of this group are sensitive to cold (nonseed) propagated types and multiplier weather. Allow 24 to 36 inches tall. When boiling. so that the pods mature first on the lower portion all of the plant. The virus infects the plants as they grow. or sour cream. which slows down or stops addidaily known is as tional pods from setting. stunts their If growth. For this reason. Plant seeds after 1 manner inch deep and 4 to 6 inches apart squash (see "Winter the danger of frost has passed. the is same as cowpeas. these bulbs are planted the following as well implies long fruits. insects can quickly infect the whole planting young. Shallots keep well and are stored than onions until planting time in eties much more easily the spring. yellowish. use and then allow the remaining beans to mature and the shallots attractive may be braided into garlands. The vines then dried at the may be pulled and shelled for hanging in the kitchen end of the season and the beans used. an impor- during the peak of the season. houses or others of who can give you reasonable assurance They is are cut or snapped and then or steamed. Varieties of southern known and pea suitable for growing in most as vegetable spaghetti) is a C. Many for fresh gardeners harvest of the seeds that they want . The bushy plants grow 24 to 30 inches cooked by baking or The peas are ready to harvest as shellouts when the the flesh separates into spaghetti-like strands that taste like pods appear firm and plump. allowed to not actually a pea but a is member sites. 8 to 10 inches long. Although the name the bulbs. however. Spaghetti squash can also be eaten as a salad by chilling inches long. sharply. black-eyed pea. It nia Blackeye. usually planted 2 weeks later than green soil is onions. Brown Crowder. Vigna unguiculata (also the seeds to develop. depending upon the variety. they should be harvested 3 when year. Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis (yardlong beans). The first pods forms the ters in foliage. planting and still tender enough to snap when bent stir-fried stock should be obtained only from reputable seed Asparagus beans are often used as oriental vegetables." page 116). with swellings around each individual seed inside (about 60 to 70 days after planting). Pods the precooked filaments and serving with seasoning or salad dressing. When family and adaptable to all areas of the country except they reach this length. which are until the bulbs are dry on the plants. they are past the best stage for cooking as snap beans. pepo of the country include Big Boy. eaten as a green bean. about /s inch in diameter. and then overwin- are ready to harvest in 60 to 90 days. If tant garden vegetable in the southern part of the United States. These strands. and crowder pea). the most northerly or high-altitude Southern pea Mature asparagus beans may be harvested as a green shellout vegetable or as a dry bean. technically classified as a southern pea but all. can twice a week. The pods range from 3 to 8 be served with cheese.MINOR VEGETABLES 143 conditions. Many people eat black-eyed peas and rice on New Year's is may be several shelled and used in the same manner as southern peas or dry beans. pod and rather than as a shellout Spaghetti Squash Spaghetti squash (also vegetable or dry bean. which are low in calories. rather than allowing the pods to get tough and Southern Pea Southern Pea. and White Crowder. de- when the thoroughly warm. Pick squash. as any onions in the vicinity. If harvested while the tops remain strong. Purple Hull. usually are may remain useful into the second winter after grown in a harvest. Seed beans. develop in the order they are pollinated. planted and cared the same may be for in much as other Southern peas are grown in a manner similar to green beans. but particularly vegetatively like shallots vining. It is one red- and the other black-seeded. 8 to 10 inches long. The yardlong or asparagus bean is weeks if beans are kept picked when immature. Colossus. Some vari- winter use or as seed for next year.

Home which may be like salted an accumulation of hulls under the feeder grass and gardeners grow sunflowers for the seeds. the gourds. Clean the hulls up regularly or site the feeder where there is no danger of damage to prepared and eaten wild bird feed. may need to be bagged (after and grayish green they are pollinated) to keep birds and squirrels from stealing the harvest of seeds. also warm-season annual that is may sow few seeds in unusual locations if sun- grown commerand flower seed care regularly fed at a bird feeder. In other winter-type squashes but which leaves are mottled usually longer. and pumpkins and squashes grows on a vine similar to is Sunflower seeds may be heads eaten without processing.144 MINOR VEGETABLES Sunflower Sunflower. head before the seed seeds loose starts to loosen and shatter. Cucurbita moschata. Sunflowers soils consumed. attractive yellow. Allow the heads to mature in the garden. which Its flattened a bit on the may "volunteer." that is. pumpkins. Other widely adapted varieties are garden. sunflowers round shape. they transplant fairly well. melons. other herbaceous vegetation. and seedlings of the need with good in areas where melon is commonly grown and on a trellis to display taller varieties to full 24 to 36 inches apart. as well as surrounding crops. they started need support and can be brown fallen. Helianthus mature heads. around their bases. Plant seeds 1 many branches and smaller attractive foliage and fruit. and have flower heads. and color vary greatly between growing areas local strain selection. A few of these plants left in out-of-the-way spaces in the garden can lend a naturalistic feel to the garden. nuts or used for chicken or The plants have ornamental value screens. top and bottom. These ethnic types shape. snacks. as background tall. the back of the head is are 8 to 12 inches long. requiring up to 2 weeks. Calabaza. fruit. At maturity. Calabaza dehulled and roasted. Most members varieties (6 to 12 feet) that bear large (12. dry. grown The size. where seeds shatter from the mottled with buff-cream. Side-dress nitrogen fertilizer twice during the beauty and conserve space.(ioo gwa) grown double flowers. Rub the store for future use. is When a is small. Being a warm-weather it is season to promote growth. crop. Acceptance of is inch deep. Fruit many areas. Sunflowers shade and suppress weeds. must be taken when feeding sunflower seed because kills cially for oil. Bitter its sun and can grow in most garden melon is usually trained drainage. sunflower require 100 to 120 days to develop mature seed heads. The firm. Momordica charantia. that identifies several strains of is a common name by hand. Ornamental or dwarf sunflowers (l'/2 and size than more familiar varieties of vine to 6 feet tall) may be multiflowered crops grown in the United States. lawns or other desirable vegetation. bear single or Bitter for its melon. Heads also may be picked due to outcrossing and The most when the back turns from green to rich yellow and then common and has a form of the fruit weighs about 6 to 10 pounds is dried in a dry. most of the yellow petals have dried and buds and green fruits are they are Mature yellow the seeds are plump. Most varieties of squashes. Vine Crops The vine crops family (Cucurbitaceae) of plants. and dry. meaty flesh light . Bitter melon large-seeded varieties of sunflower are requires high fertility The tall. When vines harvested for snack food. color. and cucumbers with which we are familiar. and the seedcoats are black-and- not eaten but may be used to harvest next white striped. not seeded until is after frost danger is past in the is spring and the ground thoroughly warm. The fruit has a definite bitter taste from the presence of quinine. The seed slow to germinate. shape. red. and plenty of water. Thin seedlings of the orna- this flavor rapidly acquired bitter by both adults and children mental varieties to 12 inches apart. In the garden. or salted in the hull. or white flower heads. wildlife food. Cut the main stem about 1 foot below the year's seed crop. up a trellis or fence. animus. Birds a tender. is and of various colors (including white).to 24-inch) of this family require large amounts of space in the fruits single heads. color is usually either green or yellow is come up the next year. Incidentally. protected location. There are a number of plants from this family that are Mammoth Russian and Grey Stripe are tall grown mainly in other parts of the world. may have of different Manchurian and Royal Hybrid 2141. in color. including all is Some varieties of sunflowers grow extremely a large group others have been developed for their multiple. as You can harvest both young less bitter. in the tropics.

processing pumpkins. Calabaza can be grown as far north as 40 degrees earlier. Because Chinese okra requires Green Knight. aegyptica. Armenian cucumbers. Plant after danger is Prepare the soil and fertilize as you past and when the soil is warm. climbing. Calabaza tolerates hot weather conditions. you want to keep seed this upcoming are vigorous. is and bright yellow. pumpkin and squash other varieties. freezes. Green Long. Lagenaria siceraria. is the immature squash. like Mature Luffa shaped cucumbers but are Chinese cucumber. In sponge. or fruits members of the cucurbit family. When grown near calabaza intended production all crushed. and butternut-type squashes. running okra. Plant trellis. annual vines with Other members of group that cannot be for seed several-lobed cucumberlike leaves. and Yard Long. diame- and are prepared like squash or eaten varieties. cylindrica). Luffa acutangula Because calabaza requires a somewhat longer Chinese okra or aegyptica fruit of growing season than some other common varieties of (L. The inside in peat pots and transplanted. and scouring. Cucurbita pepo (nung gwa). Both pollinated years. especially in northern areas. Because seed channels. cultural prac- grown Angled L. Sooyou much growing space. it cloth or sponge for cleaning (See "Gourd. species Once you have seed from if must be The two all other C." page 103. subtropical areas of the United States. Yamato Extra Long. larger. fall crops may be and loofah. are sweeter of the more common varieties include Early Occhai. 1 to 2 feet in length and 4 to 5 inches thick. from seeding to harvest. they may be started scented annual plant of the same species as dipper. After seedlings are established. with flower. also called Syrian. moschata varieties or be handto plant in are somewhat similar in appearance. Prolific. The interiors of both are cucumberlike hundreds of years. are longer soil may helpful. past and the ground has warmed to at cultural and handling suggestions the same. rather large tary. Because develop decay. mulch is fruits touching the ground or Fruit on fences or trellises to conserve space. the leaves have a rank odor. and longer than conventional cucumber Some Some the smooth type." page 138). The has been in existence for exterior is green. If you keep mature fruits harvested. sometimes luffa is sown. is a vining. much frost like more continuously develop. (cee gwa). Chinese cucumbers are forerunners of the than 6 inches long). there are several many so-called ethnic vegeta- when immature but (less quickly develop a network of fibers flat. Tokyo Slicer. in rows at the base of the support. Other than planting tices are similar to acutangula. thin to 10 to 12 inches apart. Unlike bles. musky- growing areas. recognized and readily available surrounding a large number of blackish seeds. Both male and female flowers are yellow and occur on the same females. The female flower is soli- with the tiny. have lighter-colored also but are all should be planted in the spring as soon as the frost is members of the Chinese cucumber group. Cucumis sativus (kee chi). planting should not be delayed much past this the plant grown as vegetable early opportunity. slender fruits are ovary attached. with a comparatively large central cavity. ter which are usually thinner in fruit. see "Pumpkin. than others. dishcloth gourd. it is A tender crop. young luffa gourds are desired "burpless" varieties. not readily available through regular to find a seed which is useful as a rough some searching may be necessary of calabaza. acclimated to the tropics. develop a bitter taste. It easily injured by and yard-long cucumbers. source. turkish. Both species are in this country. they may seeds are rather small. plants. is and the smooth-fruited version have value those for the common kinds of I. moschata have a continuous. males greatly outnumbering The male which occurs in clusters. The plant requires about four warm months Both luffas as food items. cylindrica or L. Kyoto.MINOR VEGETABLES 145 yellow. In short-season Cucuzzi gourd. or space plants Rules for planting oriental for cucumber are the frost same as about 3 to 4 or provide a feet apart in a single row. isolated is but most gardeners grow them for their fibrous interior. Unless cucumbers ample supply of water. include Golden Cushaw. seeds inch deep. with danger of least 60°F. They may be grown on would the for squash or cucumbers. Small varieties. which is typical for C. Serpentine. squashes. along a fence conventional cucumbers. bird- . north latitude. grown on supports 1 and straighten Plant Chinese pumpkin. plant seeds in hills spaced 6 feet apart. particularly raw like cucumbers.

This in and grow cucuzzi you would pole beans. In the garden. Allow a few gourds on the best-looking plants to mature for next year's supply of seed. uniquely shaped. name might imply. shalutil- 6 feet wide. due to the influence of gravity. Benincasa hispida is (Doan Gwa). same ner. as a vegetable. and other utility gourds. and stir-fries may be cut in half grown with great success is and cultivated the same as and stuffed. Pickling when use or the melon fully ripe. and sweet smell increases with maturity. Benincasa hispida gwa). while the stem of the ripe fruit is easily the other has three lobes. immature stage. is another warm-weather apart. after all sow seed." that is. including Honey Gold. When mature. native to China is prized. See but the fruits may be used like summer squash or in Winter melon. Trichosanthes is oblong. A in agreeable weather. The watermelon's leaves much more room. Varieties range from white to golden rinds. In harvest fruit before they start to is them above the foliage. Aroma fruit. There a wide choice of varieties. It has large. species. Production is handled in the same page 76. Cucumis angaria as gherkin or burr gherkin). which a small-sized cousin of the winter melon. white.146 MINOR VEGETABLES house. The fruit is are also good cooked and eaten may be stored for as long as several months. covered with spines. Plant four to five seeds per best plants. or serpent gourd. is off the ground. Harvest when fruits are 4 to 6 started in peat pots indoors. They are usually processed very similar in appearance to the cucuzzi. routinely up to 3 feet long and 3 inches in diameter at If hill. plant inches in length. the fruits are coiled and twisted. most are very straight and Knowing when knack that is enough to harvest is is a club-shaped. are light green in color. cucuzzi is a popular Italian from few ounces to 3 pounds. as one of white and pulpy and contains many the best indices for ripeness of the pleasant. fruit is ripe when grown on The seeds. The outside of the is fruits has a distinctive fuz- watermelon. but the mature fruit is may be most Pickling melon. but most fruits are long and cylindrical. Like the Lagenaria ity you choose for the type of pickle you want to make. climbing on anything within a native of Africa. in the Cucumis sativus. Plant West Indian gherkin. oval to The snake gourd. melons a like honeydews and cantaloupes. with a very their They As Sweet melon. train up the supports The seed requires warm soil outdoors or may be two the ground. hairy. but give it plant is most commonly grown is South America. flat grown Melons are best planted after danger of frost on the ground. with similar to the way conventional cucumber all cases. Harvest when fruits have matured to the size low-lobed leaves on long petioles. Because pickling melon crop. Fruits are edible only in the lighten in color. Vines may stretch to 25 feet or more and vines. 1 inch deep. familiar varies is similar to Size smooth surface. and soup and main dishes or to serve on a relish tray. Many varieties Drip. the plant grows reach. the male flowers borne on long slender stems up that raise harvested. One end of the seed is pointed. angidna. seeds fruit 1 inch deep and a foot apart. This plant commonly known as wax It is zy coat that removed by and first rubbing and then peeling. 3 to 4 inches apart next to keep the gourd because the for fruit appears gray and waxy. structure like a grape arbor can be plant's appearance somewhat like used to advantage. viper. and Sakata's Sweet. chieh-gua (mao pickles offered in the store as gherkins. then thin to the two maturity. Like other removed from the vine. especially fruit is not trellised to keep Honey. The fruits are 1 to 2 inches in length. past and the ground has thoroughly warmed. from young. Fuzzy gourds are grown in the same man- manner as cucumbers for pickles. which maturity are y2 inch long. with record lengths exceeding 8 feet. members as of this species. and Japan and may be processed melons like melon and has a whitish is wax which develops only then ready for sour pickles or pearl onions or by any favorite pickle recipe. and pale green in color. Cucumis conomon (chung choy). Takii are vegetable. turning yellow when mature. soup. Cucumis melo (chung gwa). The cantaloupe types "slip. casseroles. usually to about 10 inches in light to dark green in color. before the hard fibrous shell begins to form. frost. length. if available. it is the size and shape of a waterlayer. an inch deep and 6 inches danger of allowing room for the rows to develop to . the honeydew types do not slip. interior at is developed by experience. with various degrees of netting. Honey Shape it varies. into sweet pickles that are superior to the tiny cucumber are really Fuzzy gourd. is (also known vigorously. can be bread. both male and female flowers are white. is var. grown Plant seed an inch deep to a fence or fruits off trellis. Young stem tips and harvested. supports. also called the club. often served in a tomato sauce. types are gourds.

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tain good quality dried. Whether you use them you can always beds may be good idea page 5). Over the last from tastes insects or diseases. there is Herb gardeners experience relatively few problems no "mystery" about them. like a garden. a few herbs. they have now "arrived. In tious low-salt dish. when Direct sowing also can be used successfully later in the stuffing the Thanksgiving turkey. weight or volume. beautiful. Therefore. foraging for wild herb plants usually not Fresh herbs are always preferable to dried are available. Drying. Do some reading to under- both raw and in cooking. basil. It is not always best to grow herbs from seed. listed rooted cuttings. there are dangerous plants that can cause illness or may be eaten uncooked in salads or sprinkled over a classified as fine herbs. Today's famous chefs consider less the exception of french tarragon. "herb gardens" that contain four to six different herb plants. the flavors may may actually be more adjust quantities. raised (see "Raised Beds. formal herb gardens or interplanted with your vegetables or landscaping. Parsley used it what you are buying. come to appreciate the pure and the best-flavored plants selected to propagate for future crops. chives on a baked still season. a large crop of seedlings can be started begin to use them. incom- essential for most herbs. to prepare an outstanding. many herbs cover seeds minimally. grow herbs in raised beds. some seed. Small herb gardens of 5 to 10 square be located near doorways or along walkways. vegetables. While some herbs mainalmost worthless. or integrated into other. If your drainage poor. stand each herb's uses. limited to individual specimen plants. hundreds of plants used over the centuries Among as "herbs. The soil should be moderately fertile and well is it is supplied with organic matter. While the average cook knows how to use sage houses or cold frames can lengthen the harvest season. herbs are used for medicine. Some herb plants can be grown successfully indoors for use throughout the year. Although the fresh product includes water. Many of the strong odors and 5 to 10 years. and cosmetics. The finest-flavored varieties of most fresh from the garden. Herb gardens may be formal. nutri- perennials must be vegetatively propagated as well. those here are com- seed. is Good soil soil drainage is vegetable gardening book. For early plantings. and garlic for Caesar salad. informal. This herb serves as a "blender" of other herbs is unique because flavors. starting seedlings in green- mon and versatile culinary herbs. plete without herbs. others are garden plans. Because basil prefers germinating with light. Although herbs have long been ignored in American gardens. a very few plants produce enough harvest to season a family's cooking . All the annual herbs come from dyeing. some East Coast locations. Whereas herbs were previ- insects." Culinary experts classify herbs into two groups: the robust herbs and fine herbs. For either in a sunny location or in a home greenhouse. always cooked dish are purchase herb plants from a reputable source to exactly know in also often used before or during cooking. Use less dried product by may be incorporated around the patio or terrace. Most of them are as easy to in Even if you a are blessed with excellent soil. present a mystery to most Americans fresh — especially herbs Most of the perennials can be and must be started from with from the garden. potato. herbs that however. which does not form viable seed started nothing too." being prepared or cooked are classified as robust. and mint can be seed. preferable to pots. larger feet under ideal conditions. intense. Unless field you become an expert is and botany. many varieties of herbs.HERBS 149 Herbs usually do well in any soil that is suitable for Herbs A fun. containers. you soon pleasure of herbs. fragrance. even when they recommended. Fine herbs are is even death if misused." grow common vegetables. Good soil and air drainage are essential elements ously in demand only in trendy spots like California and of disease control. from some form of can add a pinch of oregano or a dab of sweet cuttings or division. herbs have larity made a breakthrough in popu- of herbs have evolved to ward off or discourage throughout the country. they are from grown most successfully from plants or easily Although some crafts. and you. Herbs are user-friendly: Once you some instances. Herbs added while food is Herb books and recipes are abundant today. if at all. Herbs are easy to grow. causes loss of essential oils and flavors. but experiment with fresh herbs to Plant dealers sometimes offer combination packs or Tender perennial varieties need to winter indoors. and also may be worked into a rock garden. or and rewarding as to use. started find space in a garden for Although rosemary thyme. than fresh herbs for their creations.

and may be added with apple They blend espe- cially well ies salads. Leaves When thoroughly dry. and then seed. fennel. may be used rated from the stems. sow seed yearly to have flowering plants but. Seeds lose viability soon after ripening (within and 1 to 2 feet across. Mature leaves may be harvested fresh for tea or may be dried. foliage. not buy large numbers of plants. is grown commercially easily in Europe. and only small Anise Anise." under good snow cover and with good winter drainage. The stand should be light cultivation is The following in U. The flowers make attractive edible garnishes and dry easily for use in winter everlasting bouquets. and seeds may be used in in salads. is removed before flowering. Angelica and candy. somewhat an annual. very fresh seed plants cannot be found. followed are by seeds. Because Seeds should be planted early in the spring at the rate you usually good plants quality. Plants survive most winters in Zone 5. An Italian the United States. you of 10 to 15 per foot in rows 2 to 3 feet apart. sow of anise and mint. and garlic (or garlic A Mexican will 24 to 30 inches. so was indoors. the seeds should be sepafor later use. and tomatillo. with anise predominating (hence the this A inch deep in moist. Fresh flavors are very intense. gardens. Angelica archangelica. If the flower stems Anise Hyssop Anise hyssop. A few are a better investment sometimes poor or very spotty. Germination of anise seed is should look for high-quality. Clip the umbels from the plants in bags to catch the shattering biennial of the and thoroughly dry them seeds. produces rounded umbels of white flowers. it in midspring. at least 2 feet apart. short purple flower spikes are is some degree in future years If if seeds are allowed to iresistible to bees and butterflies. some types may be needed To start. as Angelica Angelica. that larger quantities. As with other Seeds should be sown in flats in late winter or early last frost. Agastache foeniculum (also called licorice mint). is amounts are required. Like most idea for assortments members of might be ethnic groupings. are the most widely used culinary herbs thinned to 3 to 6 inches apart. cleaned. Beginners should buy started plants. the Umbelliferae family.to 4-foot perennial plant in the tive for several years. basil. though. will ral grow and make if a good flo- Angelica prefers a cool climate and moist conditions. Clumps of tall herb commonly grow 3 to 4 feet tions. partly shaded loca- name). (coriander). All plant parts are aromatic and useful.S. Space plants biennial plants. producing assortment would contain cilantro The seed heads resem- ble those of wild carrot or caraway. Leaves may be oil is when spring to be set out after the or they cooked. Only needed for weed control. stores energy. a nice assortment adapted to conditions in much of usually does the trick. chives). single-plant packs. Umbelliferae family. especially called angelica "the guardian angel. stems The seeds have a flavor similar to that of the to fruit salads. The fruiting umbels (seed-bearing seeds begin to turn should be harvested in the when a brown summer. direct-seeded 'A to 'A inch deep in the garden may be when the dried for out-ofsoil has warmed and mellowed a perennial.150 HERBS needs. when raw. chartreuse. The fragrance a blend mature on the plants. The than several of lesser surface of the soil should be made smooth and the seeds covered to a depth of 'A inch. and vermouth. chile peppers. 2 weeks). is Green leaves may be harvested soon as plants become stalks) established. Plants ulti- season use. especially started early once was believed to cure or prevent the plague. Although the plant is like Benedictine. The showy. The essential used for flavoring liqueurs mately should be spaced 18 to 24 inches apart. the plant grows a rosette of basil. roots may be cooked like a vegetable. As your tastes become more in sophisticated. each year. which self-sow to mint family. The seeds are used in cook- cooking. and stored fresh leaves may be candied. Stems are bitter they taste like parsley. It showing the first year. In . the plant remains vegetaa fragrant 3. bolts up to a height of oregano. seasonings usually include such herbs as flat-leaf parsley. Pimpinella anisum.

wreaths and garlands). all To plant that winter. Ocimum and is an aromatic. basil seedlings need warm greenhouse condi- midbackground or accent planting. These herbs act as a unit. featheriness. This handsome and search. useful plant will and Cinnamon basil. damage to basil resembling frost injury in other crops. or very fast. For ornamental edgings and for more than reward the garnishing. Laurus offers wide adaptability and attractiveness in however. and slowly. Other types that find market logs or visit several herb plant sales to find your original acceptance include Lettuce-Leaf. may be 10 inches apart so that they develop into strong plants. is a tender perennial tree ornamental gardens. Plants can marjoram. tolerate frost. attractive foliage and growth habits and often Dark Opal because it used as a border plant. Flowers that escape make attractive edible and dried cooking or everlasting crafts (such as fresh. must be harvested before the cut back a plant or Many gardeners As long as plants are protected from the cold. stiffness. In . Basil plants is seed makes a very attractive dried material for everlasting green or purple. Basil is you can hang whole branches tray dried. trickle irrigation If on the plant where to mature. Basil may be either known for its is arrangements. Selections award Bay Laurel Bay laurel or basil won an AU-American Its flavor. should be thinned or transplanted 8 to Plants may be started from cuttings or it seeds. bay tree. Bay is may be used leaving one or two pairs of leaves on the main stem to used in "bouquet garni" with parsley. To harvest. for a bit strong native to Mediterranean climates. imparting a subtle produce numerous harvests throughout the warm and unusual flavor. planting stock. also one of the is easiest to grow once its needs are understood. too. around most of the many basil species and countless and variations in country it must remain a potted is plant habit. it it can be treated as an annual in works very well. and a few peppercorns. Because it most palates. is still the season. Mammoth. Also. Because basil extremely sensitive to first freeze. pots in the house for winter use. Temperatures below 50°F cause picked or if the spent flowers are regularly removed. parts of the growing season. larly If flowers are regu- tions to develop well. leaf shape. Excess basil production that flowers and produces tender annual plant with a spicy odor flavor. they should thrive for years in their pots or tubs. cut back the growing terminals. low-mounded plants that make an ideal Ocimum species. long-term winter survival areas. Spicy Globe is a dependable producer of Basil Basil. Single leaves two and put them in containers or When prunto dry. it not one of the most easy- the cover from damaging the succulent basil plants could has recently increased in popularicata- be used to advantage. in garnishes. basil plants develop quickly from seed and often plant large ares with this herb because bees turn need not be started very early in the spring to be ready the abundant nectar into anise-flavored honey. is nobilis.HERBS 151 the garden. black plastic mulch helps warm basil stands readily self-seeds some and keeps down weeds. well. row covers with some sort of support to keep While anise hyssop to-find herbs today. because flowers abun- some amount plastic with black dantly the areas first year. Sweet basil is the generic green- You may still have to scour several specialty seed leaved variety available. ing to shape plants. Dark Opal. when they grow rampantly. the plants rebloom until Gourmet honey producers Fortunately. may be used both as a green is leaf and dried frost. does not The plants usually grow from 12 There are to 18 inches tall. Although of dry soil. there is a need for basil early in winterkills. anise hyssop makes an especially attractive the spring. left it is if not dependable in northern of the flower heads are it For field production. Heat the key. thyme. ty. While when outdoor conditions the soil are suitable. fine-textured. frost. produce easily new shoots for the next picking. Basil buy started plants from your favorite herb source. for it Although cuttings do not root very seeds germinate poorly winter. one of the most popular seasonings in various It is may be ethnic styles of cooking. Because easier to Basil plants only one or two plants are needed. both Purple Ruffles and Green Ruffles are hard to beat. Leaves season. remove the flowers in Mature leaves are harvested for use in bud stage. basilicum and other low border for beds. brought inside for the keep the plants actively growing.

" and thin to 6 to 8 inches apart first "Oswego The Through the leaves contain thymol. then strip the leaves from the tough Store in closed containers. Store in airtight containers. coarse. a rosette of leaves have been used to make an infusion called tea. vegetables. Celery Celery. hairy leaves. vivid. V cash crop by early European settlers and has escaped It is to large. Catnip was brought to America as a /\o* sowing annual with thick. Fresh as well (grown be chopped. is a self- hardy perennial with square stems. carrots. They also flavor vegetables spinach or summer apart. Bag 18- inch centers in mixed beds or borders. prepared then served with butter or white . in flats for transplanting into the up seedstalks (umbels) during the second garden when the temperature warms. clumps or by stem-tip cuttings Thin seedlings to 1 to 2 feet apart. and become naturalized over most of North America. which are very Caraway seeds Caraway are used in baking is and with many and popular with cats and cat lovers. gently covering with water. as the flower can quickly ruin small plants. is a coarse-leaved. is in salads. or stews. which tered from the wind. to be transplanted into the garden. Carum seeds. is a Steep covered. They regrow in the started indoors spring to send seed. frozen in used as needed. in midspring inch when Mature plants settle. Borage Borage. sional plant has pink flowers. stalks are very brittle and easily broken over. steep in hot water a little more dried leaf than you would use of regular tea. Plant in locations shel- Protect newly set plants from possible cat attacks. carvi. Leaves may be replace mint leaves as a flavoring. and of sources to seed the may be sown in A limited may be made frozen whole by putting now offer an it is annual variety that bolts them in ice cube trays. or stake the plants. Dry carefully stalks. and into a tea or used to same year planted. as the flavor and aroma are very volatile. Best fragrance requires abundant sunlight. is sauce. or plant on few plants usually produce enough seed for a family. Like their mint relatives. cut them from the plant before they A 12 to 18 inches apart in rows 3 feet apart. In the early spring. mixed with water. The colorful blossoms make lovely edible garnishes and can be added summer when the plant bloom. When the seeds begin to turn from green to shatter. Caraway Caraway. caraway quickly. squash. ornamental perennial plant with colors. potatoes. star-shaped flowers. and separate the seed by rubbing the heads over screens they tend to spread vigorously in the garden or papers. coarse stems. quickly. cheese. dry the umbels thoroughly. varieties are vegetatively propagated by divisions. place in sealed containers for storage. bloom and dry bergamot may ice cubes. They are like parsnips. Some cooks crush the seed with oil and onion juice to make a mixture used in roasting pork. Monarda didyma. to drinks. from underground stems." page 66). plants may be down with freezes during the winter. Plant brown. Harvest the foliage and flowers in full When the seed has become thoroughly dry. sky blue. Catnip Catnip. gray-green. either in the shade or sun. particularly popular for use with cabbage or cole slaw. Where autumn number winters are mild. desserts. though Gather leaves and stem in full tips Young leaves have a cucumberlike flavor and are used some shade can be in tolerated. Nepeta cataria. indoors or in the greenhouse. Soft white fuzz covers \ —^ the stems and leaves. Oil of Bergthis plant season. An occa1 found almost universally around old farmsteads. a popular Young leaves may be used in spring soups or spicy like green salads. For tea. drinks. Flowers as a winter annual). breads. freezing. Seed should be sown y2 to deep.152 HERBS Bergamot Bergamot or bee balm. Roots may be used when young and tender. Borago officinalis. and and salads or candied for cake decorations. '/ 2 a range of blossom Plant seeds Bergamot is native to North America. soups. the plants grow amot comes not from from finely cut foliage resembling a carrot and then they die but from a Citrus tree. biennial plant grown for its Dried leaves may be used to stuff cat toys. Apium graveolens (see "Celery. and the inch apart in the spring in rows 2 feet in the row. Plants may be started in flats in late winter. The choicest ornamental summer. the weather has begun to may be increased by division of the in the early season.

Sow keep growth vigorous. For the in They are planted in (see german (annual) chamomile. and plain-leaf types. selections for type can be made when old plantings are flowers from the stems. Chamaemelwn nobilis). is another member and of ings to assure a continuous supply. and a sweet applelike fragrance 12 inches tall. Chives or other porous cover to keep seeds moist until they germinate. which are blended with other herbs to make excellent combina- added at the last minute to soups. and and omelets. as the stems have a bitter offflavor that spoils the flavor of the sweet blossom. from seed planted in the early spring. nobile (Anthemis is grown throughout most grow of North roman chamomile.to a America. Single clumps of the plants can be separated into individual plants and then form identical dry the flowers and store in closed containers. subtle taste in the background. Chives normally Chervil Chervil. Anthriscus cerefolium. and mist on dishes that have the are a pretty. It Sow the green edible portion. Matricaria recu- commonly known other. Allium schoenopra- 2 to 3 tita. and number of Harvest the blossoms for drying when the petals Separate the leaves per plant. there are curled- being The flavor is similar to onion but more subtle. is best. and tions for salads many foods and frequently tarragon in the "fines herbes" of French cooking. Both leaves and stems used as a them in a pot. Both have daisylike clumps 8 to flowers. Steep in clumps of their own. as german sum. The ing to the onion family. Sow tiny seeds in spring. before chop them freeze them for winter use. the famous herb. Chamomile in Greek means "ground seeds." it is colored flowers appear in May. possessing the plant is same erect One a tall. different plants flavor. seeds should be sown fall the same manner as onion transplants in the or early spring. fresh both is between anise others Some and gardeners dry the leaves. Seeds late fall to may be sown in germinate the following spring. successive plantGarlic chives. and bring them in the house for are used in cooking. necessary to divide clumps every 2 to 3 a few blossoms are allowed to mature years to prevent overcrowding. begin to curve back from the disk florets. . salads. The attractive violet- and flavor. hot water for traditional chamomile tea. They can be divided It is fall or enhance germination. especially in hot weather. cate onionlike flavor to soups. feathery foliage. Many gardeners place dig a clump of chives in late January. When perennial that needs division only every 2 to 4 years to seedlings are 2 inches thin to 6 to 12 inches apart.HERBS 153 Chamomile Chamomile. (3. as they quickly bolt the onion family that has flat leaves like leek garlic. annual reaching Chives Chives. If extremely uniform plants are needed. The The bulbs flavor of are not used. Tray divided after 2 to 3 years. and whole fresh use during the winter. offshoots or divisions. stews. The Lengthy cooking makes chervil flowers should be removed to ensure greater growth of As chervil transplants poorly. thickness of the leaves. feet in height. direct seeding prefers light to germinate. bitter. bulbous plants in low-growing 6-inch) perennial. tall. Either type can be started easier to propagate from though The plants are usually propagated by roman (perennial) chamomile from dividing the clumps. delicate fernlike leaves are it bolts up to flower and set seed. to page 91). chopped dependable regularly to keep moist or cover the row with cheesecloth leaves as an ingredient. and parsley —a warm. Chervil accompanies parsley. Freezing and thawing seem established. The borne in a basal rosette. apple. Like parsley. The tender leaves and the stem may be harvested are whenever desired during the season. The flower heads are very popuin a trench without soil lar edible garnishes covering. is a perennial plant belongIt is chamomile. is harvested by snipping off the a hardy annual plant amount of leaves you need. The green leaves add a deli- sautes. Once usually reseeds if chamomile and early spring. is then chopping them into or onto whatever dish prepared. keeping four to six bulblets per clump. sprigs are Chives are used with garnish. Chives started may also be and shatter seed. Harvest leaves still tea actually two when they are fully expanded but tender. Seedings sunny vary in height. Allium tuberosum. of the Umbelliferae family. thyme. Both types like well-drained soil locations. is to seed. and sauces. The small.

in the heat of summer keep it it may be difficult to After the seeds have germinated and the seedlings (1 picked before flowering starts. Another and grows than regular chives. bloom. which is called either Chinese or pars- self-reseeding annual with depending on is who is using the cilantro. Coriander plants are allowed to flower very much is forms when and mature." the immature rosette of foliage that is The flowers are borne in flat umbels resembling grows before the plant bolts to seed. Other varieties. Clean it Coriander Cilantro and coriander. flower heads. like from of seed. Flower heads are edible. Mexican feathery leaves and open. The ultimate height of the 3'/2 feet. and tie the plants in bundles or spread them on screens to dry. The flavor of the foliage similar to the seed. the seed heads should be cut when harvested like the regular chives. bolting are similar to wild is With some cially in can be a problem. mexican cucumber plant pickles. Cut the stems with the flowers in full cultivated for the flavor and odor of its dried seeds. Garlic chive has white flowers they are starting to turn brown and before shattering of the seed begins (about 90 days from planting). a tall-growing. Conun- the fruit by winnowing in a light breeze before storing is in containers. then cut Whole cilantro rosettes should be harvested by and tie the plants. weed. Plant one seed every inch. for that quickly bolts desired. fertile dill These types may give an extra week or two of leafy conditions. same The seeds plant. thin that get away and flower then can be harvested Resume planting in late them to 6 to 9 inches apart. As soon as the plants are dry. is common the seed that herb that has become associated with induced to flower. soil. shorter days of The method of harvesting depends upon how you then a variety intend to use the herb seed. ley. for abundant plants should be 3 to crops in the cooler. combination of day length and temperature reaches a certain the plant is Anethum graveolens. remove the heads before the seed shatters so that the plants do not reseed. seeds are mature. To prevent a from becoming production before the inevitable flowering. By contrast. and the tops are For coriander. but more subtle and more useful for . It has long been flower heads are preferred. is a level. and in combination with an herb. Cilantro and separate the fruit by rubbing the plants together. have been selected to hold longer without bolting. "Dill Hang the them to growth. The Both Asian and Latin cuisines use large quantities of cilantro. Cleaning necessary to ensure the pleas- drum sativum. Even then. In fact. Leaves may be harvested from the plants even after seedstalk formation begins. summer fall. or in pickles. Coriander an annual plant The most common use which the that is found in all parts of the world. Cilantro many is other spices and herbs. Remove seedheads before they mature to prevent excessive production of method is to harvest the entire plant when most of the weedy seedlings. used fresh from the garden. der seed. but before seedstalks appear. States today. and do not thin. weed in your garden. at its best when is queen anne's lace (wild carrot). if you want coriander is seed. When a Dili Dill. Tie the stems in bunches and dry as described in the The seeds should be planted in early spring in rows 20 open or bag dry soms on page 163. coriander is are used in desserts (particularly cookies) in generally considered a spice cilantro and the dressings. For seed. Dill easily grown types summer. Successive plantings are necessary to maintain a supply of cilantro. but prefers well-drained. the flowers to mature (usually 2 to 3 weeks after the blosappear). is —as dill is weed. allow to 30 inches apart. with meat dishes. The plants varieties. It it can usually grow in all Santos. are two products ing flavor of the coriander fruit because both the foliage derived from different stages of the and green seed may have an off-taste. cutting at the base leaf when the plants have made abundant plants in bunches with papers spread beneath collect the seed. Cilantro plantings as corian- have established themselves to 2 inches tall). green rosette of foliage that forms when the plants are immature. espeLong-Standing and carrot in appearance.154 HERBS The flavor is very much taller like garlic. salsa the number-one use of cilantro in the United umbrella-shaped seedheads.

hot manner for a limited time. Foeniculum vidgare. seeds. Plants should be staked. Select "seed bulbs" that are large. Fernleaf. though its use is more an an appetite suppressant when chewed. soils that are fertile danger is past. summer days come too soon after the last and it is irregular in shape the soil becomes compacted. Do not divide the bulb until you and once in a great while its can be found in upscale is is are ready to plant —early separation of the cloves results free of disease. and the proper entire plant size. when they are as onion crops can grow good fertility levels. Seeds moved soon as frost but a type of leek that forms a pungent bulb may be sown outdoors as that tastes like and resembles the garlic bulb. The aniselike flavor of fennel fish. Fennel seed is also said to monly herb. onion family. and place the that is do not harvest the if when it is small. Garlic seed in the heat of rosettes. Gardeners that garlic.or anisedill. keeps A recently intro- rapidly become top-heavy. weed available through the season. mild sweet flavor a real treat in decreased yields. Planting should be late enough to allow roots to develop . This second separately. but they transplant acceptably if mon on the garlic at all. tie the tops. hollow stems. both is started in cell with and without topsets. If seed is desired. grow 3 to 5 duced variety producing bushy side is feet tall. and hang them 100 square dry. vari- with thick. Stems and leaves as when it may be harvested are be prepared by bag drying or tray drying the young plant foliage before the flower needed throughout the season. of normally winterkills anyway and makes the the highest quality. Harvest the in a dry. fresh. Like stored in the dark. Fennel grown and begin to sprout before cold weather. Dill salads. For out-of-season use. for seed may be seeded directly and allowed to bolt. Elephant garlic not really a packs or peat pellets so that the roots can be undisturbed. seedlings may normally divided into cloves and planted in the Plants root out to mature in cool fall weather. Successive plantings are the only dill way to keep flower. weed may begins to turn brown. It reseed themselves plentifully. a and herb blends. The first grows tall and stemmy cloves that are divisions of the large bulb. flavored annual with leaves resembling usually Garlic is started by planting small one of two distinct types. Several types are available. as they Plants in flower fine. easily. and set seed. cool place. seedlings started ahead of time may be the only Throughout the country. dill Many gardeners dry the self- seeds are allowed to shatter from mature plants.HERBS 155 cooking. A red. it mature bulb at harvest. is fully throughout the temperate a licorice. steamed. Thin seedlings to stand 8 to 10 inches flor- Garlic grows best on friable loam apart as soon as they are well established. though Its health benefits are becoming so well-known as well sources differ on this point. used widely with smooth. dill weed weed is used as a fine herb in Garlic Garlic. dill. restaurants. and feathery shoots through the season and ety for an especially good a steady but dill foliage. does well at high fertilizer blanch them. Apply 3 pounds of 10-10-10 per bulbs. they seeded that appears in their gardens in the fall. whenever they heads appear. The bulbing type may form bolt to that is it might be considered here as an herb. is and Fennel seeds are the ingredient that gives italian its Garlic a member of the onion family that is comlike sausage act as characteristic taste. Each bulb and produces and type and the other forms a flattened may contain a dozen or variety. ters Golden yellow flowers appear in flat-topped clus- home gardeners who want not over- (umbels) atop the plants. sold as a vegetable. After drying. rosette of thickened petioles (often referred to as a "bulb") is is more cloves. succulent.or bronze-leaved is also available. depending on each clove is planted called finocchio or florence fennel. feet. member of the may be grown success- Fennel Fennel. omelets. it United States in is home gardens. The bulb is small if if the soil is excessively They store acceptably in this When frost. Harvest seed whelming supply. to soil. Again in late set summer. plants bolt to seed. Bulbs of and high in organic matter. The larger the clove. summer without forming acceptable is used both cooked and raw in a wide variety of dishes. Garlic grow good ence fennel should be covered with large as a good-sized egg. which germinates and replanting to produce the bulbs that are com- Seedlings do not transplant well because they have a taproot. fall all but the hottest and coldest areas of is way be to get good bulbs to form on finocchio before the planting preferable. Dry bulbs are fall. Allium sativum. market. the larger the size of the becoming more where common on vegetable markets. foliage in a container green. Although sion garlic is a perennial. it needs annual divi- Fennel grown from seed. remove the stems.

is an herb page 139). and cover of 1 them to a depth to 2 inches. Pelargoniums are very tender perennials (Zone 10) and Hyssop starts fairly easily from seeds. usually in July or August. perennial plant with a strong. green onions. whenever it first can be worked. is up) to assure a straight neck. but ful and shape color- textured. cuttings. Tops The best-known use of this herb as a normally cannot be allowed to dry completely in the field soothing agent for sore throats. sion. harvest as plants are planted cleaned. Harvest by cutting one-third of the top growth. liqueurs. the plants are off and growing true from seed. tray dried. or divifall. Cuttings should be taken from young. Bulbs and remove the tops when complete drying. Armoracia rusticana. Marrubium vulgare. are you development. sandy 1 soil. (See and a Hyssop Hyssop. garlic should full leaves as needed. In Some of the flowering types actually come rather of spring. for the highest flavor. is The pungent. Hyssopus officinalis. seeds y2 inch deep in light. tive because the unpredictable moisture in the scales. Flowers are often secondary to the scent of the foliage. airy place to mature bulbs are best stored under cool. stews. and stored in sealed be dried for perfumery. In the year. is the tops start to yellow. Scented Scented geraniums are actually Pelargonium species selected for their flavors fragrances. Plant outside in containers or in all ground luxuriantly. so rose-. tea. and stuffings (with sage). fairly thickly in a row and the green plants dug. If beds only after danger of frost has passed. tops then chopped into dishes Geranium. Divide mature plants in spring or when plants most of the United They are normally propagated are fairly dormant. As a flavoring. show between June and August. horehound can become weed hung in a dry. They then usually keep for months. perfumes. bushy plant 5 inches apart in directions on perennial with woolly leaves and stems. soup. but Do not harvest when on trays ornamental plant in the garden. or sachets. soil may cough drops. growing Bulbing occurs in June. Harvest planting must be delayed until spring. Horehound also may be a screens or slatted bottoms. or raised beds. Topsets or small cloves are the dried product stored in airtight containers. which root fairly readily for most most areas. dry conditions. vinegar. Because An interesting recent development horehound second just loses flavor quickly drying should be fast and garlic in the form of scallions. and syrups. and quickly tray drying. Fall preparation of the soil is desirable become bitten by the novelty bug. fine- variety of other plants. some are used in desserts. Plants make a nice edging for beds. slightly medici- some types have nal smell. dark. plant. flower Hyssop makes a good spicy foliage used for potpourri. is removing the the culture of leaves. It also makes an attrac- begin to rot the delicate papery wrapper wait until all leaves have browned. kept sheared to about 6 inches. The whole for flavor. apple-. is which mimic wide a compact. Some of the most popular types include If be planted very early (March or April) to permit lemon-. commonly grown as a vegetable. Horseradish Horseradish. a hardy. Leaves may be used fresh when they reach Hyssop also can full size or may be harvested. Plant the cloves 3 to 5 inches apart in an upright position (with points Horehound Horehound. or plant flat-started on the with seedlings at 1-foot spacing. cuttings. is shed. In is from stem-tip types. there hundreds of that the soil can be fertilized tillage and planted with minimal types available. and bunched and all. . this planting date the first sometime in October. Place the bulbs seedlings to stand foot apart. punch. and tea. and bulbs can be dug when up to 2 feet tall. usually in the form of candies. Sow Thin about pers five green leaves remain: This assures good wrapdried bulbs. is like budding to flower. and peppermint-scented. Oil of hyssop is occasionally used in containers until needed.156 HERBS well and top growth thaw to begin before the soil freezes. must be grown as house plants throughout winter in States. The divided to produce new plants. Allow 18 to 30 inches all between rows. dry. Leaves and flowers are used to flavor salads. Unless you remove seed can be braided or bunched with twine and heads before seed in the garden. especially if and attractive inflorescenses.

three or more harvests very highly perfumed in may be made annually. is a dried product. protection. they should be severely divided for rejuvenation or For peak flavor. marinades.HERBS 157 actively growing stem deep in tips. you rub fresh lemon balm on wood wax polishes the it. Keep until they sprout. Lavendula plant. is tree. oil The aromatic midsummer and another fairly before returning content is highest at this time. be used fresh (chopped and frozen into ice cubes) or dried for winter use. tender and may not survive In northern locations. Aloysia triphylla. Breaking these roots might severely affect the member of the mint family. cutting 2 to 3 inches above Both the flowers and foliage have been used ground fertility level. After the first year. to flavor the garden. Yellow from division or stem-tip cuttings. damp or shady conditions full Harvest leaves and tips as needed. Some of the others are verbena. For tea. unexpected touch. indoors helps to keep the plant in bounds. into Zone 5 gardens. Cuttings be maintained by asexual reproduction. all fairly taken in hardy midsummer root fairly readily. A new seed-propagated variety called Lavensown by must have the distinctive fragrance. it is used to prepare a mild. Lavender icings. add finely crushed dried leaves to banana. are hardy. but exposed to light. Hardy throughout also propagates easily North America. is sometimes boost at least once a year. leaves are narrow and pointed. The aroma and flavor are health of the plant. and vinegars. in airtight containers. Fresh leaves are calls for a lemon bever- balm. and dressings before serving. All parts second Many types do not flower well until at least the year. Balm may be replaced. mostly English types. Thin to They become and weedy if they stand 1 foot apart. There are several species and cultivars of lavender. much more Zone 7. It is most planted pot and in the summer garden and then being brought back indoors each winter. or carrot breads or to cooked rice. as well as Lavender Lady. It resembles both celery and angelica. der Lady apparently flowers abundantly from seeds in late winter lemony The long and set out as transplants in late spring. Give it good drainage and sun. commonly grown in pots or rubs and moved into greenhouses or light rooms for the winter. vegetables. Because the plant a fairly fast grower. potpourri. all species of lavender can be propagated Although lemon verbena may be started most of the choice varieties are selections that from seed. Dry quickly and store used culinarily to flavor cakes. The quality of mature plants tends to are held back by some shade. It other beverages. The plant is a heavy feeder and should be soil fertilized regularly. and perfumes. and in any dish that flavor. species. Levisticum officinale. quality. Because the mother plant may wilt after cuttings are taken. Munstead and Hidcote. are varieties to try. harvest before flowering. invasive spring. few plants are produced that way. is Lavender does not tolerate in the garden. is keep them from rooting into the ground over the upright perennial that a summer. decline after 4 or 5 years. strongly like lemon. y4 inch rows to 2 feet apart. Place pots of lemon verbena on stone surfaces to loosely branched. is a perennial herb that the seeds are not covered. While seed. Seeds should be 1 sown in early apart. bees literally cover the blossoms of lemon tea. Dried. In Lemon verbena is used as a lemony tea. with a subtle undertone of mint. Plants harvested this heavily may need a sachets. Harvest making one heavy harvest in the fall at it flower heads before the last flowers open. nalis. so strain them from can also be used in and fish dishes. pamper bit of it with adequate water and a shade until it recovers. They appreciate are less likely to full sun but tolerate some shade. lemony salads. wood and the lemony scent perfumes Lovage easily Lemon balm germinates them moist from seeds. ages. provided Lovage. with Lemon Verbena Lemon a tender. it grows to 4 to 5 feet in height. but never allow the roots to remain Melissa soggy. For an The the essential oils reputedly possess If some bacteriocidal surfaces. zucchini. plants all much beyond may require being deciduous woody hardy outdoors only into Zone 9. Lemon Balm Lemon balm. tough. stems can be included in the Lavender Lavender. Some of these. Space plants 2 feet . is a Keep the offici- moist.

or hardiness is in doubt. candy. and gum. as harvest of grow rapidly sweet marjoram. but most of the United States. into the mild areas of Zone 5. comes in a wide range of varieties. rather tasteless plants that plants to contain their growth. other than soil cutting to slow or reduce flowering keeps production removing the weeds. Care should be taken to get propagating material from sources clean of Verticillium. varies. Dry.158 HERBS florets are borne in umbels. store Dry the mint thoroughly. Leaves bit tough. which are attractive in dried used to advantage. apple mint. but most mints prosper in Ameri- plantings. is which is removed by good addition to health-conscious cooking. lovage has been staging a minicomeback. In arrangements and in the garden but are culinary True greek oregano seeds can be obtained. and a host of other types. Stems angelica. celery but with It appear. Half barrels may also be produce purplish pink flower heads. Because mint thrives under continuously moist conditions." common variety is you should sometimes sold there is Even given the right strain. uncover the plants in mint is not contained. peppermint used in nial that survives outdoors. Mentha species. Lovage likes rich. root cuttings. Unfortu- recommended for home gardeners where it is nately. Because the plants in the spring. rub the and truest flavors come from vegetatively propagated is seeds free. to ensure high-quality production. when essential oils in the leaves peak. A large tile or chim- (Origanum vulgare) produce plants that are useless in the kitchen. which makes a mint is grown for the plant oil. however. the underground stems spread a The oregano seeds commonly sold rapidly and become garden weed. is The most common is are spearmint and peppermint. hollow and juice or may be used as "straws" in drinks Some gardeners are especially interested in various tomato bloody marys. the poor-quality oregano more dependably practical. and ^%-< in enclosed areas or If where its spread can be controlled. If Mint is propagated from roots. distilling process that not practicable for the home should be chopped finely as they are a are Stems like gardener. use a entire plants. Peppermint. spearmint. orange Plants are usually grown from fresh seed sown either at mint. and them in a sealed container. washed. used principally for flavoring iced is other a hardy peren- and chewing gum. No sure it special care necessary for mint. hardy than the is really tasty one. In the late fall. a close Oregano dries easily throughout the growing season. moist a and mass propagated and grown in much the same way. at least medicines. ney flue set on end may be used for individual mint They form rank. Leaves may be may be dug. needed. The leaves are dried. commercial mint growers variability between plants sufficient to make it turn the top 6 inches of soil (which contain the rhizomes necessary to propagate the most tip cuttings. All are in the fall or early spring. so Store in closed containers. Origanum heracleoticum. Spearmint beverages. then separate them from stems and chaff. least Thin or transplant seedlings soil popular in teas and for flavoring. the leaves are available for use Harvest of oregano handled the same relative. The vigor some shade and makes good background plant in and hardiness can gardens. the number-one disease pest of mints. Oregano True greek oregano. and making moving through the season. mint lives as a perennial. Commercial a an extra-peppery bite. April. flavors of mint. like plants. and stored until dried and stored for making tea. Seeds should be harvested by picking whole heads as While many mints can be started from seed. a sterile hybrid. or desirable plants by stem- or underground stems) to form a soil mulch. mint is an invasive plant that should be planted November or December. tea. pages 163). mulch the area. care must be exercised because the as "greek. remove the tastes like it leaves. Because plants produce spreading lateral generous application of mulch in stems. with best-quality foliage in July when cut and hung as described for other herbs (see and August. is does not invade nearby areas. the best they start to brown but before they shatter. Not as widely grown as in past years. disasters. Mint Mint. keeping the moist. As with other herbs. Lovage has a long history of Many gardeners buds first harvest their mint when the flower medicinal use. removed from the . Mints tolerate some slight shade. such as peppermint. Harvest leaves and stems anytime desired. All mints are iy2 to 2 feet apart. This practice also is crown is divisions. curly mint. Roots may be candied beware "peppermint" seed. rooted cuttings.

rosemary grows into an impressive shrub. or divisions. Transplant the and store them in closed containers. Fresh or dried leaves are used sparingly in soups. It is standard blue to white or pink. which appear Parsley Parsley. Seeds can be planted in cold frames. or mail-order herb nurseries. or inside the house. hedge. Space large. is redness. stem cuttings. is Sage Sage. There are various types. rosemary also may be added without Harvest can begin spring when leaves begin to mature in late fall. (See page 93). cuttings. become and sauces. the fine herbs. however. strip the window boxes. cooking as an excellent ingredient in mixed herbs. the plants live a long time. transplanting rosemary to the garden in the 1 When which occurs growth. leaves crown divisions. a a small. and placed in a closed container until needed. feed the plants to stimulate regrowth. and Mexia semi-evergreen perennial for fish can dishes. that Common garden sage is the one perennial readily herb houses. is dried leaves are used in many Spanish. The varieties Arp and Hill's of the mint one of the Hardy are more winter hardy than standard from stem-tip in most widely cultivated herbs Plants varieties. as well as in stuffings and game. The growth can or in may be propagated from seeds. Ruta graveolens. young seedlings when they are 2 to 3 inches tall. Space them about 18 inches apart. when they are dry but before they open. may grow to a height The plants propagate cuttings Starter fairly easily of 18 inches and begin to and make very acceptable plants one season. allow foot or more between plants so that the individual plants maintain their beauty. be pruned back several times during the season for drying. where it is In areas dependably hardy. is from summer through an herb commonly upright. perennial. or trailing ground cover. mary valuable mary The is for flavoring and as a scenting agent. needing can be overwintered in a bright house or greenhouse. Salvia officinalis (and other species). prostrate. making rose- healthy buds in the spring. —as an accent One of seedlings 15 to 18 inches apart so that they attractive plants. The blue- green foliage and bright yellow flowers. Petroselium crispum. late spring. Rosmarinus officinalis. gardens. uniform habit fall. comes from large. Rue can be harvested several times each season. bloom the second rosemary plants may be purchased from green- season. nonwoody plant that grows to 3 feet in height. much Rue may find the skin more sensitive to sunlight. or soil. protect it garden in drained sun and well- with rose cones. The flavor so associated with poultry stuffings has other uses as well. though bitter taste. garden centers. has somewhat Overexposure to rue can cause blistering of the skin in Rosemary Rosemary. stews. which can be of use in the landscape. either indoors or on the patio. almost like poison ivy. evergreen person shrub that is not winter hardy areas. Italian. and can continue into the Cut 6 to 8 inches . as an accent in numerous dishes. Rose- used sparingly. poultry. for Its makes a good hedge herb it grown as a vegetable. from upright to with flower colors from the a shrubby perennial plant family. they quickly grow into magnificent specimens that flower started only an annual spring pruning and regular harvesting. the plants Once established. Seedlings prefer full beyond mild Zone 6 Some Start seeds in late winter in flats for transplanting to the gardeners mulch the rosemary plant. After harvest. After ingesting rue. swelling.HERBS 159 stems. For best herb production. The Rue Rue. is flavor vaguely pinelike. severe spring pruning discourages most flower production. Harvest seed pods mulch during the winter months. a It can be eaten in small amounts. Prune back to The narrow leaves have a spicy odor. make it it an attractive plant. easy-to-handle seeds and Some the gardeners pot a rosemary plant from the garden in produces a very acceptable herb product. more profusely. Plants at the expense of vigorous vegetative spring. tender. and even some people. Sage makes beautiful flowers. Some varieties of rosemary can be from seed in a cold frame or indoors. When the stems are thoroughly dry. may be started from seeds. leafy greens. fall and bring it into the house for use over the If winter and stem propagation in the spring. Plants use a combination of rose cones and can be grown in pots.

veal and poultry. Poterium sanguisorba. burnet readily reseeds fall parsley. Many herb growers use the bag-drying meth- hardy into Zone usually is The flavor of the better. Salad Burnet Salad burnet. weakens their winter-survival The seeds may be started in a cold frame or seeded directly in the row. which help blend various inches apart. Like parsley. strip the well-known. may be cut when when the top more crops to regrow is left with an overall purple glow. perennial herb. the plants need little Savory. with 10 to 12 seeds per foot. Savory. and many egg it dishes. and loin results in a flavor resembling that of stuffed turkey. Golden has during the growing season. Not growing season. is a short-lived perennial. easily grown horn severely in late ability. semi-evergreen plant. three. burnet consider- cooking green beans or used in soups. duck. tied into small loose clump of com- The cut top growth may be bundles pound leaves arching outward and hung or spread on papers or screens dark. After drying these stem leaves tips. well-adapted through- ther north where winter snow cover is adequate. to 12 inches is tall and 12 in to 24 inches The plant dependably hardy Zone 5b. x Some people seeds should be planted y4 to k inch deep. herb. Excess out most of the country and grows under a wide range of winter moisture leads to premature death of this herb. Two or three nodes if on the plant should the plant keeps be sufficient to permit regrowth. The flowers are small When the cut herb thor- and pinkish. fertile loam.160 HERBS of top growth from the plants at least twice during the climatic conditions but prefers a dry. Use sauces. Plants grow quickly from seed for stuffing pork. soils. as older ones become a bit bitter. Winter Satiireja Winter savory. drinks. red. become weedy. ham. salad dressings. well-ventilated place. Purple has leaves blooming begins and growth is are usually dried tall. fall. ably tastier than of today's trendier greens. several varieties of vegetatively propagated sages available. but they survive most Zone 5b winters. and white. 6 to 8 inches if Two. The plants green leaves edged in attractive yellow. kept in short a time as possible. Use the leaves sparingly with onion turkey. ter storage. steep the dried leaves for tea. so . montana. There summer 5. is producing through the season a tips are continually full harvested to keep starts. to dry in a fairly is resembles a fern. There are also cultivation other than weeding. It is excellent in herb blends. The plants grow to a height of 12 to 15 inches and require little worked into landscapes. Plants like sun and slightly alkaline (high-pH) attention. strip the leaves from the stems and store rounded heads. It is is compact bush 6 an annual plant across. mixes well with other herbs and Plants If may be left divided in spring before growth begins. Once flowering very hardy. Tricolor is The tender leaves and stems may be used anytime striped green. only new tender leaves. Along with seeds are to mature. or far- belonging to the mint family. bushy. eties is None of these colored varisort. the plant most likely matures and dies. but have some tendency to become leggy flats. stuffings. In the garden. perennial type of savory. which removed to encourage continued leafy regrowth through interfere with the flavoring of foods. Summer Summer savory. or as hardy as the common green unfortu- may be harvested enough of the plant left nately. spices. The seedlings should be thinned to Sage makes attractive silvery gray plants that can be fairly easily 6 inches apart. In fact. Sow seeds in late or early spring. and a variety is dried for summer savory leaves may be added and with of other dishes. Once established. Once very some popular. Left to mature. itself. they freely reseed and possibly and discarded. and it probably should be used more often. savory is a very tasty and adaptable from them and place in closed containers for win- is also a winter. Satiireja hortensis. borne in oughly dry. it from flowering. summer savory is considered one of the mixer flavors. or goose. should be removed the season. Leaves taste and smell like cucumber and are used in Summer fresh savory is a fine herb and may be used both to the water and cooked. after cutting. full and thin to 12 to 15 herbs. summer variety seeds in the od (see page 163) and do not remove the sage until they it. when grown in Rubbing the powdered leaves on This tendency usually corrects flats for as itself if the plants are the outside of fresh pork. The 12-inch tall. thought to be savory is are ready to use Plants should not be cut back too as this Summer spring. Fresh or salads. sandwiches. forming a fine-textured. Woody stem pieces. Seeds should be them in a closed container.

Although sweet Rumex a marjoram perennial with shield-shaped leaf blades in is a tender perennial. sweet which can aggravate gout. syrup. plants Myrrhis odorata. from a large taproot. Profusion. piney flavor. or by division of in a french an acidic. marjoram oxalic acid in the diet is is a hardy little plant. may be umbels followed by propagated by division or by stemseeds that fairly easily. or in areas sun in fairly rich soil. Seed may be respond best to started in flats or moist and full sunlight. Plant 1 inch to overwinter as a houseplant for use the following spring deep. not wasting any harvested regularly to keep flowering and seeding to a energy on flowering and seed production. marjoram should be seedstalks. inches apart in the garden. seedlings while they are small. winter thawing help germinate the often used with stronger-flavored seeds. while stratifications to germinate. Seeds a low. Space plants 12 to 18 game meats. to 2 feet in length. dark 1 borne in summer savory and should be started in indoors or basal rosettes resembling ferns. brown. anise- grow as long as inch and have a which root The plants may be sheared to form low. cakes. As soon as the first blooms appear. Replant vigorous. in milder cli- seeds. Once established. and thin or transplant seedlings to full foot apart in where winters are harsh. and bounds. The seeds are used like anise or caraway seed in candy. dishes rather than as the main item. the leaves contain oxalic acid. lished plants tip cuttings. and sow in winter savory has a stronger. Origanum majorana. seed. They rich. French French sorrel. summer Sweet Marjoram Sweet marjoram. Planting in favorable locations. The plant in the fall may be dug up and be redivided soon as soil can be worked in the spring. as older clumps keep expanding checked. The roots are edgings for planting beds. There is un- Buying started plants or moving self-sown plants seems to work best as a source of sweet cicely. Leaves may be is harvested Winter savory has the advantage of staying green and usuable well into the fall. Cut back seedstalks to keep marjoram can be allowed to overwinter outdoors where it is plants producing fresh greens. The leaves are used fresh as garnishes is and in anywhere sweetness needed. Seedstalks arise that greatly resemble the related wild dock species. Even under should be divided every 2 or 3 Sweet Cicely Sweet cicely. It grows easily from seed. dried. mounded salads. Transplant to a perma- nent location in the spring when soil plants are 2 to 3 inches problem for individuals. cut back . A nonseeding that produces hardy. sharply ridged spicy. Cutting back overwintered plants heavily in the spring before reinvigorates the plants and helps new growth begins to keep them in if left steamed and used like parsnip. Classic use is crowns. Divide every 3 to 4 years. Use sorrel to spice up other tall and the weather has dependably warmed. is available (plants only) Like so no many of the other herbs. and discard the woody middles. sorrel soup. The taste is a combination of anise and lovage. with deeply toothed shiny. ideal conditions. Although the the variety has the fall in a well-marked row natural freezing and more popular flavor. and arthritis. healthy outer portions of the clumps. which have with the aid of a rooting hormone. only leaves. it is grown may be started from seed. require a complicated Summer summer savory is and poorly understood Use fresh to let series of savory has a sweet. Flowers are 2-inch white Estab- in a greenhouse and transplanted into the garden. more slowly than flats the Umbelliferae family. seeds as they ripen. kidney Leaves should be used sparingly a if stones. peppery flavor. is an example of Sorrel.HERBS 161 plant where good drainage can be provided. liqueurs. "lemony" It is flavor. though the seed and also eaten raw in salads or cooked like seedlings are fairly fine. is the oregano-marjoram group sometimes become confusing. sweet cicely seldom mates and and greening again early a in the spring. Sweet marjoram In the garden. Also like spinach. creeping form of the plant that can be used as a ground cover or hanging-basket herb. like flavor. variety. or even beyond. giving much longer fresh-harvest season than the front-tender variety. minimum. Space sown in the garden as 1 the plants 6 to 8 inches apart. is a hardy perennial of years. mulching. growing to 3 feet in height. Care should be taken to thin the spinach. by cuttings for the leaves. how common names within scutatus. The leaves are leaflets Seeds of winter savory germinate triply compound. it frequently winterkills is much of the United States and usually cultivated as on long sturdy rosette l'/2 petioles that grow in a an annual. whenever they Other than the are young and fresh. which reaches and using other forms of protection make overwintering possible in areas with mild winters.

or chop and to die. leaves in melted butter may be added is to cooked spinach which can be separated and before serving. is sometimes if sweet woodruff may have serious side effects. What causes winterkill most established in the often are soggy conditions. all is ground. The plants can be cut back three or viable seeds. It also adds flavor to potato salad. rarely even blooming in temper- more times each season. and the disappointment. Clusters of white. glass jar probably of concern only to plant biologists. Tarragon can easily overpower in a tions for an adequate supply in subsequent years. fish sauces. Artemisia dracunculus. Fresh leaves. Tarragon leaves are used in salads. asking only to be divided regularly to avoid overcrowding. so blend with caution. Most famous in French cuisine. creamed cuttings rooted to form new plants. than hay. the queen of it is herbs. tarragon produces very well. Sweet woodruff has traditionally tarragon fresh. Overconsumption of it only resting. sealed to prevent rapid deterioration. so use in should withstand -30°F the crowns are moderation. Due to the may be The veal used whenever available. the leaves and tops should be dried rapidly depending on which school of botanical thought one follows These genera are so closely related that this is without light and stored in a dark brown. the foliage displays its May wine in Germany. French tarragon plants or crown divisions are usually planted 1 foot apart in the row and need to be Sweet Woodruff Sweet woodruff. the stems removed. although they are tray dry. dressings. Tarragon vinegar can be Cuttings or divisions are also good propagation tech- made by putting a fresh stem or two of washed tarragon niques for sweet woodruff. shaded. loss of some gardeners use dried. and green beans. almost perfumelike used to create an abundance of next spring. widespread use of french tarragon and is marjoram especially good with its relatively difficult propagation. a process that are may take 200 days. Tarragon is new plants the tastiness to a dish. Galium odoratum (Asperula odorata). mixture. less taste- clean. Either and air dry. on cold and roast beef sand- always a premium. French tarragon does not form . Many of them it thrown out. In favorable locations. vinegars.162 HERBS the plants several inches. producing lance-shaped leaves grow in whorls around the stem. Potted plants on balconies get may appear listed as cutting near the base. tender top can be harvested throughout the growing woodsy season and used fresh. a hardy. star-shaped flowers appear at the stem tips in early new tender shoots. plants also blended with other herbs to make an excellent addi- once started. Foliage may be tie fall. in fact. Seeds of "tarragon" are always a tops should be dried rapidly. potatoes. wiches." If you are going to preserve tarragon for The genus name may be either Galium or Asperula. flavor of sweet liver. plant. Store in closed containers. sweet odor only when much of its characteristic flavor in the drying process. in poultry stuffings Plants can be divided or stem-tip and soups. sweet marjoram is often the mystery a vigorous perennial ingredient. Chopped sweet marjoram The plant forms numerous rhizomes in the fall. the plant in a pint of apple or wine vinegar. use in winter. Although it is preferable to use it summer. given excellent drainage. haylike invasive. Once Tarragon French tarragon. Allow a few weeks for may become weedy and sweet. tartar sauces. despite the been crushed and used to flavor Oddly. low-growing perennial thrives best in moist. plants of russian tarragon. Repeated harvest of this herb over the season keeps the plants branching out. seeds require freezing and thawing If and certain egg dishes. Some sources describe dried tarragon as "little better crushed or dried. its used throughout the world for a licoricelike flavor with mild bite. they obediently self-sow future genera- tion to the mixture. not gardeners. in egg and meat dishes. the flavor balance to develop. Thin. After a plant has become established. Although tarragon winter tender. as they produce rank. the normal for the plants to go into a dormancy in actually drying the herb. the leaves of the ground cover plant that settings. If there a sweet. It is often used to negate the "fishy" charac- ter of seafood dishes. is subdivided every 3 to 4 years. Like sweet cicely. dry leaves stored for winter. They are to germinate. The leaves and flower ate regions. sells at it and in herb butter. of course. It is The aroma is developed by cutting and harvested as needed by.

Turn the herbs every day to off 5 to 6 inches of the flowering tops with clippers or a ensure uniform drying.m. Herbs harvested for drying should be washed only they are splattered with dirt or depending on variety. is The leaves. After the plants are room to whole as possible. and may be of and they root with Two common methods surprising ease. stem tips one layer deep on drying trays. For the classic varieties. well-ventilated room common thyme recipes. and open air. may be the total shelf life of many herbs only 1 or 2 years. Most varieties of survive U. except that the heavy stalks can A well-drained. mon thyme may be used of varieties of thyme. When the water has the plants are 2 to 3 inches row. Leaves are best packaged as nearly during one season.S. criti- Decorative types for which flavor and aroma are not cal can be successfully dried in the microwave.HERBS 163 Thyme Thyme. gravies. store them in a The quality of herbs declines rapidly. Put the trays in Harvest when the plants begin to bloom. become thyme excessively woody and do not produce the snap them free of the stems and package them in an light. dew has if dried from the plants mound-forming. Thymus vulgaris is Drying Herbs and The herbs should be gathered maturity after morning at the proper stage of other Thymus species. and along Bag drying. or by Most thyme growers Old making stem tall. well-ventilated dry. cuttings. years. remove the leaves. the quality and clam chowder. The plants should be spread on a fine screen or newspaper in a dark. A dark. shrublike perennial that grows to a height of 3 to 10 inches. components. New plantings is should be started every Tray drying. drying as for bag drying. Shake off excess water. place the herbs in a paper bag and start new plants every 3 or 4 Leave a 1 or 2 inches of the stems exposed. The preparation the same for tray few years to avoid encroachment from perennial weeds. soups. low. When the leaves are dry and the sharp knife. but indi- should be dried at temperatures exceeding 100°F. strip the leaves and package in an away from the and flowering tops from the stems and closed container. Com- otherwise soiled. ventilated room. Generally. Often two or more crops can be harvested stems tough. Several related varieties of thyme are drying are bag drying and tray drying. Place the bag in location. 1 When with absorbent toweling. either The clean herbs should be dried to retain color french or english is the most agreeable with varieties of and flavor. cheese dishes. flavor as washing may remove some of the soluble some culinary. For culinary purposes. (usually about 10 a. often used as ornamentals in rock gardens walks. much of their flavor components to be successful. There are literally hundreds washed. oils vidual seed sources should be evaluated. especially in hot or brightly lighted conditions. and wrap dried from tie loosely. tender leaves desired in culinary use. No herb also may make acceptable plants. Under proper conditions. In Microwave drying of most culinary herbs drives too off the spring. winters pretty well. set them foot apart in a the surface. by cutting a dark. the stem portions are discarded. especially with cover. fresh or as a Clean herb leaves should not be dried herb. ing form makes it a rock garden and edging favorite. a small. cuttings are preferable. dry When the leaves become brittle. is lush new growth. otherwise. most varieties have a stunning floral display. Spread the leaves and tender thyme successfully. thoroughly dry.). by dividing clumps. airtight container away from the When you are them ready to use the leaves. light. rapidly in the shade others decorative. Thyme's creep- declines even more rapidly. they warm. Seed-grown such as an attic is ideal if it is not too hot. sunny location essential for growing be discarded before drying. if they are dirty). heat. usually blended with other herbs. and then as carefully as possible with clear water only. egg dishes. poultry stuffings. pulverize by rubbing good snow Most spread out and form dense mats between your hands. Leaving herbs whole preserves that benefit from annual spring mowings to stimulate more of the flavor and aroma until they are used. Higher temperatures cause loss of the plant responsible for flavor changes. used in meat dishes. When exposed to light. . plants should be divided. (only Collect 8 to 12 stem tips about 4 to 8 inches long. Rinse the herbs with cold running water is Thyme best propagated from seed started indoors. Allow the leaves to become very airtight container dry.

164 HERBS Here is an example of a small kitchen herb garden. If 60mrv\e<Z.SfirJofzy -F&£hkM -meAje&orO UofFLe*? Bftsn ftxr- ChNVES *£(&€ LOsfM>£ 6' CiLP^irtD Pit jZosenvfiu/ TttVmZ . possible. last-minute access. feet. What a herbs needed by an average household during the garden season. the garden should be sited in a sunny spot near only 36 square that could supply most of the fresh the kitchen door for easy. with simple way to enliven and enhance your summer meals! enough left over to dry for winter use.

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sweet Horseradish Kale Leek. Carrot. dry Onion. For this reason. colored) Tomato (mature. green Lettuce Onion. greens Turnip. Vegetables in the cold-dry and cool-dry groups may be Storage Storage period Relative Vegetable Cold-moist group Asparagus Beet. for information about harvesting specific crops. sweet Potato. root 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 2 weeks 1-3 months 3 1 weeks month 3-6 weeks 3-4 months 4-6 months 2-3 weeks 2-3 weeks 4-8 days 10-12 months 2-3 weeks 1-3 months 2 weeks 2-3 weeks 2-6 months 2-3 weeks 2-3 weeks 4-5 months Cool-moist group Bean. sweet (after curing at 80° to 90°F for 10 days) 55°-60°F week week 10-14 days 1 week 2-3 weeks 4-6 months 4-6 months 1 1 Squash. an underground or a "Major Vegetables. temperature humidity 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F topped Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cabbage. important to harvest the cold-moist and cool-moist groups may be stored in cellar. early late topped Cauliflower Collard Corn. snap and Bean. Vegetables in stored in a cool area in a heated basement. Cabbage. follow the in the table below. green) Watermelon Cold-dry group Onion. winter 50°-55°F 50°-55°F 60-70% 60-70% months 2-4 months 2 ." pages 51 to 130. irish (late 90-95% 90-95% 90-95% 90% 90-95% 85-90% 85-90% 40°F Potato. summer 45°-50°F 60°-65°F 60°-65°F 90% 85-90% 85-90% 80-85% 7-10 days 4-7'days 1 -4 weeks 2-3 weeks Tomato (firm.STORING VEGETABLES 167 Appendix A: Storing Vegetables When storing vegetables for later use. them when they are at the proper stage of maturity. specially designed interior storage area in the basement. Do they not allow the vegetables to Your vegetables will not improve in quality it is after recommendations given are harvested. sets Shallot 40°-50°F 32°-35°F 32-35° 32-35° 60-70% 60-70% 60-70% 2-8 months 6 months 6-8 months Cool-dry group Pumpkin Squash. green Parsnip 32°F 32°F 32°F 32°F Radish Turnip. Avoid water that may condense and drop from freeze. pipes of ceilings. lima wax 40°-45°F 40°-45°F 45°-50°F 45°-50°F 45°-50°F crop) Cucumber Eggplant Pepper. See an old-fashioned outdoor pit.

Outdoor air pit (middle). peas. Vegetables in the cold-dry and cool-dry groups (onion. and other root crops) an underground cellar. Place the vegetables on the straw. shallots. and turnips) should not be washed if not eaten immediately asparagus. potatoes. pumpkins. Home Storage Facilities for Vegetables Air vent Straw Furnace Underground can be stored cellar (top) Vegetables in the cold-moist in and cool-moist groups (cabbage. and squash) may be stored on shelves outside the interior storage area (B). Root crops (beets. . Cover with 6 inches of straw and at least 6 inches of soil. carrots. leafy crops should be cooled to they are to be stored for extended periods. Cross-section of straw on the ground. Bruised or If damaged vegetables decay easily. is used for storing vegetables in the cold-moist and cool-moist groups. bles carefully. carrots. This cellar also can be used as a storm shelter. must be insulated and made vaporproof. and mound an outdoor storage pit used for vegetables in the cold-moist and cool-moist groups. potatoes. Washing as result in the may and below 40°F as soon development of soft rot. handle your vegeta- possible after harvest. sweet corn. parsnips. which is partitioned off from the central heated area. Leave an pit.168 STORING VEGETABLES To maintain quality after harvest. vent to prevent overheating and place a 1-inch board on top of the interior storage area (A) Basement storage (bottom). The This area. salsify.

a relatively easily accomplished opera- all.DRYING HERBS & SPROUTING 169 Appendix Many B: Sprouting Seeds and eaten. and radish are for sprouting. insecticide. widemouthed the upright and add cool water to fill the jar Potato* about half way. Pepper. pop- 75-80 1 None of these chemicals is particularly desirable in alfalfa. green-shell stage 40-60 20-25 then drain. Sprouts should be raised in fairly small batches for use rather quickly after sprouting pleted. among Cucumber. Corn. and redrain. mung beans. Most seed intended for planting has been treated with fungicide. daily. Light greens the sprouts. green bell than the seeds) and running water over the seeds. put several spoonfuls in a glass jar. wheat. the vari- pickling (varies with size desired) seeds ety more commonly used interest to winter They add Eggplant 40-50 40-50 80-90 8-10 5-7 and and spring cooking and salads. as these are a function of day length. each with a distinctive Sprouting tion. securing the netting with screw-on metal summer (zucchini and crookneck) 4-5 bands or rubber bands attached around the Set the jar jar mouth. and flavorful interest to delights. Corn. ripe (such as red. lima (pod) Beans. edible. yellow. lentils. When the sprouts have Temperature Season Pollination reached the desired they may be used immediately or stored in the refrigerator for several days in a closed plastic bag or box. Allow the seeds to stand overnight in jar. Adzuki. sugar Pea. Pumpkin Soybean. making them tough and Factors that influence days to harvest: Size preference strong in flavor. or Beans. Any foreign matter 40-45 50-55 30-35 --- and broken seeds should be removed. size. sprouts destined to be eaten. to make sure you use only untreated seed for sprouting. orange) Pepper. snap 10-14 6-8 both to aid in successful germination in garden soil. or nylon Squash. and other culinary . winter (note varietal differences) 40-60 45-50 45-60 on its side in a dark. It is different seeds can be sprouted Days from Flowering to Harvest for Selected Vegetables Appendix C: extremely important. slicing 8-10 3-10 fenugreek. screening. it is what seeds are designed to do. sweet banana When seeds have been washed. Mung the pod bean is one of the easier choices for beginners. fine plastic. Squash. Cover the mouth of the jar with cheesecloth. shelling Pea. relatively warm Tomato Watermelon The seeds should be washed regularly. Sprouts of most seeds appear the third day at normal room temperature. wash. As the skill of the sprouter increases. Wash snap 8-10 seeds by placing them in a colander (with holes smaller Pepper. wide ety of seeds lend nutritious salads. After is flavor. 2 to 3 times each time draining the seeds and returning them to the jar. a is comvari- *There is no relationship between flowering of potatoes or sweet potatoes and underground tuber or root development. however. cooking. sweet (after 0% of the silks appear) 18-21 Cucumber. location. Muskmelon Peanut Pea.

or pest management directly through mass trap- index. Also. Order IPCU-95. timing ways to identify weeds. 1993. 1989. mulching. their effec- Discusses the origin of these insecticides rizes their Addresses nonchemical insect control. other ornamentals. seed germination. you achieve a bountiful harvest. can be used as a handy reference. Urbana. Addresses concerns of people in the horticulture profession Order CI 145-93. 1987.170 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS List of Publications Urban Pest Management Handbook Home Fruit Pest Control Helps home gardeners keep pests from ruining their Available from Information Services 1995 Illinois fruit. landHydroponics as a Hobby: Growing Plants without Soil scapes. 54 pages. Alternatives in Insect Management: Beneficial Insects Illinois Fruit and Vegetable Garden Schedule your garden during a and Mites Describes biological control as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. Order annually. Order C1297. mechanical removal. Order C1051.25. —lawn-care professionals. $10. on how to use beneficial organisms $8. and the prevention of mouse. Also discusses in how to use insect attractants and traps safely determining the need for chemical control. $2. 256 pages. . free (additional copies $1). Discusses pest trees. Order NCR471. and where to Order C1296. methods including cultivation. Revised Suggests experiments using soilless cultures. and bird damage. $1. up-do-date information on pesticides. Alternatives in Insect Management: Insect Attractants and Traps Explains for Weeds of the North Central States Describes and illustrates weeds commonly found the north central region of the United States. Controlling Weeds in the Describes various Home Garden for controlling weeds. 20 pages. and plant disease control in turfgrass. 8 pages. and garden. $2. ping or mating disruption. Also Home Fruit Insect Control and how to use them. 11 pages. Tells what tasks to perform in particular week or month to help $2. 1993. rabbit. Discusses various systems. nursery owners. and commonly used synthetic tiveness in controlling specific insects. 1986. and garden-supply store owners. 24 pages. Contains a glossary and control. Discusses sprays and spraying schedules. C844. and herbicide use. Alternatives in Insect Insecticides Management: Botanical Insect Traps for and Insecticidal Soaps and summaeffective uses. 40 pages. shrubs. Gregory Dr. For a current catalog or to place an order. $5. 1990. free (additional copies 50 cents). Order CI 262. 1983. Order B772. Order NCR359. $1. 1988. Calendar format. 303 pages. and symptoms of nutrient deficiencies. nutrient solutions. obtain the traps. $2. home. 25 pages. Order C1298. 1989. 18 pages. 8 pages. arborists. 1990. contact University of Illinois Biological Control of Insect Pests of Cabbage and Other Information Services Crucifers 67-BK Mumford Hall Provides information offers practical advice on several natural enemies and 1301 W. IL 61801 (217)333-2007 (217)244-7503 fax for pest management. Describes insect traps available most examines the toxicity of botanical insecticides pesticides.

VC-8-80 Conversion Tables for revised February 1982. VC-21-82 Producing and Setting Out Vegetable Transplants. 4 pages. 4 pages. The minimum order list is and orders must be VC-26-82 Fresh Market Mushroom Production. is 25 cents. 4 pages. Urbana. VC-40-85 Asparagus and Rhubarb: Two Important revised October 1985. HM-2-79 Liability and Insurance for U-Pick Operations. 4 pages. A single fact sheet is free. revised June 1987. VC-11-80 Harvesting Vegetables. 4 pages. 4 pages. Department of Horticulture University of Illinois VC-29-83 Ginseng. Fertilizer Calculations. 2 pages. 4 pages. October 1985. 4 pages. VC. VC-19-82 Hydroponics. VC-34-86 Commercial Popcorn Production in 4 pages. in Common Retail Units. 4 pages. 4 pages.16-82 Planting Vegetable Seeds. HM-1-79 Pick-Your-Own Marketing of Vegetables. HM-5-82 Yields of Commercial Food Crops in Illinois. revised February 1983. 4 pages. 4 pages. VC-2-81 Garden Values for Vegetables and Small Fruits. revised Garden. 4 pages. revised June 1987. VC-32-83 Sources of Herbs. VC-39-85 Coldframes and Hotbeds. revised April 1985. VC-44-93 Growing Herbs in the Home Garden. IL 61801 VC-31-83 Harvesting and Drying Herbs. 1105 Plant Sciences Laboratory 1201 S. VC-30-83 Commercial Muskmelon Production in Illinois. 4 pages. May 1986. 4 pages. VC-41-85 Onions and Related Crops. revised 4 pages. 2 pages. . VC-24-82 Exhibiting Vegetables. for Illinois Gardens. 4 pages. VC. revised January 1986. VC-43-85 Organic Gardening: Some Pros and Cons. 4 pages. For a complete of fact sheets or to order. and Vegetables 4 pages. VC-1-80 1986 Commercial Vegetable Varieties VC-38-85 Examining the Economics of Gardening. Dorner Dr. 4 pages. 4 pages. prepaid. Perennial Crops for the Home Vegetable Making Compost for the Garden. 2 pages. Guide for Market Gardeners VC-42-86 Irish and Sweet Potatoes. 4 pages. Trickle Irrigation. VC-5-80 VC-6-80 Organic Gardening and Soil Fertility. 4 pages. 4 pages. for Vegetable HM-3-79 Net Weights and Processed Yields of Fruits VC-17-81 Micronutrient Applications Crops. 4 pages. revised Horticulture Marketing September 1981. write Horticulture Facts VC-28-83 The Fall Vegetable Garden. HM-6-82 Estimating the Trade Area and Potential Sales for a Pick-Your-Own Strawberry Farm. Illinois. VC-9-80 Fertilizing Your Vegetable Garden. in VC-7-80 Fertilizer Illinois. Home Vegetable Growers. 5 pages. 4 pages.14-82 Vegetable Planting Guide.LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 171 Available from Vegetable Crops ill Department of Horticulture for Plant VC-37-85 Some Worthy Herbs 4 pages. HM-4-80 Establishing a Community Farmers' Market. Fruits and VC. revised February 1982. VC-36-85 Selected Herbs for Illinois Gardens. VC.15-81 Testing For and Deactivating Herbicide Residues. 4 pages. 4 pages. Each additional one $1. 2 pages.18-82 Liming Vegetable Crops. VC-22-82 Training Tomato VC-23-82 The Basics of Plants. 4 pages. 2 pages. 4 pages. 4 pages. VC-27-83 Storing Vegetables. 4 pages. 4 pages.

Gainesville. 1989.. Lebanon. Mel Bartholomew. 1981. 213 pages. VA. 879 pages. PA. Growing Great tions. 284 pages. It's Adelma Grenier Starting Plants Simmons. New 223 pages. 310 pages. Gibson. VT. 1962. Cynthia Westcott. and Summer Herbal Sampler. James Little. Burlington. The American Crockett's Victory Garden.172 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS Other Suggested Reading Gardening The Cook's Garden. Pete Louquet. 1991. New World Publish- The New Organic Grower. Engeland. 1994. Suzanne Ashworth (edited by Kent Whealy. Marge Clark. NY. Carolyn Jabs. Rodale Earth Publications. Emmaus. Emmaus. Peter Henderson. 1977. York. Metcalf. 1988. Club Books. David Chambers and Lucinda Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin SP-40. McCullagh. Spring PA. Joy Larkcom. Ron L. Stephens. Tom Hamlin. 545 pages. IA. Manual of Minor Vegetables. New York City. photography by David Cavagnaro).L. The American (a Botanist. Thyme Cookbooks. Doubleday 222 pages. W. NY. Hylton. Underwood Botanist. Viking-Penguin Books. in Five Seasons. Claire Emmaus. MidValley Press.. Chillicothe. Rodale Press. 19th-century reprint) Sierra The Heirloom Gardener. Inc. 1983.087 pages. IL. IN. Eliot Coleman. Filaree Produc- 843 pages. 1991. and R. 1971. 1. 123 pages. Seed Savers Exchange. Chillicothe. Van Herbs Nostrand Reinhold Company. Good Ogden. 347 pages. Square Foot Gardening. 328 pages. York. Eric L. Cynthia Westcott. Nancy Bubel. Emmaus. 1994. New York City. Vegetables. The Seed-Starter's Handbook. Kowalchik and William H. and Don Haynie. . Oriental Vegetables. Green. Rodale Minor Vegetables Press. 1978. C. Heirloom Varieties Unusual Anne Moyer The Field and Garden Vegetables of America. Marketing Backyard Market Gardening. 80 pages. 1989. Halpin. Ellen Lee. 1993. 363 pages. VT. NY. Andrew W. Garlic. MA. Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. PA. PA. edited by James C. Raphine. PA. 230 pages. Kodansha International. 1978. 667 pages. Metcalf. L. James M. 1988. 1993. 1978. IL. Emmaus. Garden City. NY. Crockett. 1984. What You Sow. West The Solar Greenhouse Book. The Gardener's Bug Book. Destructive and Useful Insects. About Thyme. Rodale Press. Pests 443 pages. 232 pages. Chelsea. Plant Disease Handbook. Emmaus. New Seed to Seed. Pantheon Books. NY. Okanogan. editors. (another 19th- Brown. McGraw-Hill Book Company. NY. Chelsea ing. CA. Jr. Florida Vegetable Gardening. Carmichael.P. Flint. New York. Decorah. CA. FL. 496 pages. 1991. 1994. 351 pages. 1956. Mays. Gardening for Profit. PA. & Company. Boston. 1987. 1991. Knopf Publishing Group. Rodale Press. 318 pages. 302 pages. San Francisco. Shepherd and Press. Herb Gardening 353 pages. Rodale Press. century classic reprint) Sell 326 pages. and Company. WA. Fearing Burr.

asparagus lettuce. 153 garbanzo. mung. "love. soy(-). 116 celery. chicory. 134. 136 aubergine. 84 bush bean. 56 choke. 153 bean. 143 celery. 160 lettuce. white mustard. 151 chunggwa. 134. 143. 136 bay laurel or tree. 134 bee balm. 135. 53. 137 "burr" cucumber. 97 Chinese okra. runner. 136 asparagus bean. 135. chile." 64 collard. pole. 51 celeriac. horticultural. 57 corn. italian. sun. snap. 56. sweet. chard. romano. 150 calabrese. 133. winged. 53. 139 flowering. 80 bok choy Chinese cabbage. 97 Windsor. 69 broccoli. chestnut bean. 70 brussels sprouts. 53. 133. 68 beet. 145 asparagus. 56 Chinese cucumber. 54. 148 burnet. 81 cicely. 154 burdock. 68 amaranth greens. 134. Chinese cherry. 151 celery root. 151 chamomile. 145 catnip. 143 Chinese bean. 68 chung choy. bitter poha. 145 Chinese parsley. napa. pharaoh. 69. Chinese. 11 celery cabbage. 84 cowpea. 161 broad bean. 104. 134 lima. four-angled. or turnip-rooted. 134. 63 armenian cucumber. 134. knob. 145 melon. 134. 53. 134: dry. anise. witloof. 146 borecole. 133 nonheading. 69. adzuki. 135 Cos burr gherkin. 153 black-eyed pea. 154 "broccoflower. 68. 59 coriander. 68. horse. 143 blood turnip. adzukibean. 135. 53. 152 anise hyssop. 53. black 110 Chinese spinach. 80 cauliflower. 108 salsify. 68 basil. indian. shellout." 120 carrot. soya. 133 chives. fava. 144 angelica. sweet. 136 bell pepper. wild field. 136 134. 134 hyacinth. 67 bush. 68. string. 67. chervil. acorn squash. 53 . leaf. goa. lablab. 86 caraway. broad. 53. chestnut. 133. 135. 134. flowering. 134 belgium endive. 134. 62. 57 150 cantaloupe. yard-long. 136. 95 cress. 53. 133 cee gwa. 134. 66. 53. 146 borage. 53. 84 cabbage. swiss. 139 Chinese pumpkin. 142. salad. 133 cilantro. 144 Chinese radish. 151 berry. 84 german. asparagus. 77 crisphead lettuce. globe or Jerusalem. 53. 133. 135. chickpea.COMMON NAMES 173 Index of Common Names butterhead lettuce. 60. Chinese. 154 bergamot. 133. 53. wax. 64 arugula. 135. 152 artichoke. ground. 150 apple. tree-. 145 Chinese flowering bean. 152 Chinese cabbage. 133. 134. 133 calabaza.

135 mango. 75. 136 lima bean. 93 italian broccoli. 138. 153 gherkin. 80 mangel. 145. 156 horticultural bean. 146 goober pea. 79. geranium. 53 earth nut." 120 globe artichoke. 136 french sorrel. 155 flat4eaf parsley. 161 marrow. 145 dandelion. 146 cucumber. 133 horseradish. 79 favabean. 157 lettuce. 146. 82 136 161 knob celery. bay. 156 horse bean. 139 136 guinea squash. 143 gourd. 144 four-angled bean. 145. 155 field indian bean. 88 hon-toi-moi. 77 154 gumbo. 134 garden beet. 112 flowering cabbage. fuzzy. 134 hyssop. armenian. amaranth. 77. 56 goa bean. 158 greens. anise. lavender. 156 84 german celery. 101 bean. Chinese. 133 doan gwa. wild. mustard. 155 endive. leek. 156 hyssop. "burr. 53 57 finocchio. ground cherry. 134 irish potato." 77. french tarragon. sweet. 135 kee chi. 88 cucuzzi gourd. 157 West Indian. italian dandelion. leaf 84 garden huckleberry. 53 loose-leaf lettuce. 81 foo gwa. 77 horehound. 134 hot pepper. 150 belgium or french. yard-long.174 COMMON NAMES crowder pea. 137. Syrian. 155 marrow. 54 egyptian onion. 113. 95 garlic. 157 leaf chicory 142 137 leaf lettuce. 157 lemon verbena. 145 greek oregano. 88 garden pea. 80 kale. 146 dry bean. 112 . 145 kohlrabi. 162 fuzzy gourd. 140 eggplant. 56 garden cress. 146. 133 greens. turkish. 135 gobu. 139. 133 fennel. garden. 140 marjoram. italian 136 florence fennel. 146 "love apple. dill. 97 huckleberry. 137 elephant garlic. 93 egyptian pea. 146 lablab bean. 95 escarole. 134 laurel. scented. 145. 134 italian bean. garlic chives. italian. 145. 97 mao gwa. 139 hyacinth bean. 84 lovage. cucuzzi. 151 garbanzo bean. 62 Jerusalem artichoke. husk tomato. 83 155 153 lemon balm. french endive. 136 english pea. german chamomile. burr. 137 mustard. 145.

146. 140 okra. "potato onion. winter. 134 spaghetti squash. 93. 112 peppermint. 68 sorrel. 93 multiplier onion. 116. 143. 68 romano bean. (greens). 133. 68 mustard. strawberry tomato. 146 pie plant. 133 muskmelon. 108 summer. 69 rosemary. sweet-potato. 113. 133 New Zealand spinach. french. 158 oyster plant. 88. snow. 134 Physalis." 102 winter. walking. 56 mung bean. garden. 93. nung gwa. southern. sugar. 93 parsnip. 140 pepper. 134 rhubarb. 140 potato. goober. (irish). 142 radish. 53 flat-leaf. 110 shallot. 154. "potato. 133 84 pimento pepper. 95. 159 runner bean. 108 rocket salad. 56 poha berry. egyptian. "winter. 93 roquette. english. 159 rue. triple-curled. 68 parsley. sweet. 139 pole bean. 95 pe tsai Chinese cabbage. 93. snap. snap bean. 88 romaine lettuce. 103. cow(-). 116. Chinese. 162 Chinese. 93 110 160 oregano. stem lettuce. 57 sprouts. pak choi Chinese cabbage. 145 rutabaga. guinea. michihli Chinese cabbage. 143." 102 popcorn. 94 snow pea. 143. 84 roman chamomile. 146. 145 nut. 95. 93. 95. onion. "straw. 143. 98 stem turnip. winter. 142 shellout bean. Chinese. 133 spearmint. 135 nonheading cabbage. 112. Chinese. 158 spinach. 158 moss-curled parsley. 152 napa Chinese cabbage." 86 "potomato. water(-). acorn. crowder. 95. southern pea. 110. mexican. 116 pigweed.COMMON NAMES 175 melon. pickling. 95 moss-curled. 104. bitter. 154. 116." 93. white. 143 107 red beet. 113. scorzonera. 97 pepper. 154 pumpkin. 53 . 95. 161 pea. 68 mint. mustard. 143. 146. 140. white. 59 pharaoh bean. 143 soya bean or soybean. 53 root parsley." 93 144. brussels. 93. root. 88. spaghetti. 86 mustard cabbage. vegetable 143 black-eyed." 127 mexican parsley. 95. New Zealand. 139 101 string bean. 160 salsify. 143. 129: potato. 93. multiplier. egyptian. 95 peanut. 157 sprouting broccoli. 127 sage. 110 savory. 82 stock beet. 112 ngau pong. 116. 53 snap pea. 93. earth. 77. 134. 93. 89. 159 salad burnet. 95. 139 squash. 145 radicchio. 53 "straw potato. 143 spaghetti. pickling melon. 53 russian tarragon.

95 winter cress. 103. swede. 133 wild field bean. 163 tomatillo. 127 tree. 143 yard-long cucumber. 135. 160 winter squash. 145 table beet. 80 wonderberry. 133 tarragon. 115 sweet woodruff. 139 topato. 137 swede turnip. 151 tree tomato. 135 ." 86 summer summer savory. 143 vine crops. 143. 113. white mustard. 70 sweet marjoram. 137 "winter melon. 67 Syrian cucumber. 56 sugar pea. 144 sunroot. 118 cabbage. 69 triple-curled parsley. 129 wax bean. wong bok Chinese yam. 120. West Indian gherkin. 137 sunflower. 116 witloof chicory. 162 swiss chard. 134 Windsor bean. 68 white pepper. 136 sun choke. 56. 133 winged bean. 146 sweet potato. 145 zucchini. 68 161 woodruff. husk or strawberry. 138. 118 sweet-potato squash. (true). 53 77. 56 tampala. 160 winter melon. 112 winter onion. 126 tree-cabbage. sweet. 162 sweet corn. 75. 127 sweet cicely. 93 watercress. 144 walking onion. 137 watermelon. 88 146 white mustard cabbage. 116 yard-long bean. 80 sunberry. 140 tomato. 93 turkish cucumber. blood. 56. 162 thyme.176 COMMON NAMES sugar beet. 136 vegetable marrow. bay. 127. 93 winter savory. 161 sweet melon. 112 vegetable oyster. 146 squash. 82. 112. 86. 145 turnip. 116. 110 vegetable spaghetti. stem. 127 turnip-rooted celery.

5 to -37. * ' ' -178 to -20.8 to -45 5 -40.7 to -34.0 to i* -427 n -37.4 -28.1 -20.9 to -6.3 •« ..7 to •• -94 m •• -3.0 -34.6 -26.2 to -3.9 to -31.6 and below .1 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map Tempecati re (C°) -45.0 to -12.6 -1.2 -31..2 to -28.8 » <M 16 to -1 • 4.5 to -12.2 -6. ' -42.8 -23..5 -15.3 to -177 -150 ft -9.4 to 1.4 to -26.3 to -40.6 to -23..7 4 5 and at ove H .

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