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* Egyptian, Museum

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S preceded ours, poised betw een a trem endous past and a vast unseen future, it behooves us to know more of this foundation upon w hich we rest. From a study
of the things o f yesterday can come th a t understanding which, if w e choose to use it, will m ake for a greater tom orrow . A m useum of antiquities provides an excellent place for such an inquiry into the past. It is only fitting, therefore, th a t the Rosicrucian O rder, A M O R C , a non-sectarian, w orld-w ide, philosophic fra tern ity active for centuries in diffusing knowledge p ertaining to mans n atu re, his place in the universe, and his acc m' plishments m aintain an institution fo r the preservation of those things which depict the achievem ents and th e record o f errors of our forebears. T h e Rosicrucian Egyptian, O rien tal M useum was therefore established by the Rosicrucian O rder, A M O R C , u n d e r the authority of D r. H. Spencer Lewis, its chief executive, to house such a collection of E gyptian and O riental antiquities as w ould prove in structive and interesting to the membership of the O rder and the general public alike. T hough the museum is entirely financed and m aintained by the Rosicrucian O rder, an exam ination of its exhibits and enjoym ent of its facilities are made possible to the public w ithout fee or obligation.

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as w e do upon the shoulders o f the great civilizations which have


. K E N D A L I. B R O W E R . . V IO L E T G L U T H . . R A L P H M. L E W IS

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A S S Y R I O L O G IS T ................................... EG YPTO LO G Y , GEOLOGY . . . A N T H R O P O L O G IC A L E X H IB IT S . S A M U E L A . B. M E R C E R . H U G H M A T IE R . . C A R L R O B IN SO N


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S A N JO SE, C A L IF O R N IA , U. S. A .

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'C ' or the convenience o f visitors, the floor plan of the m useum 's galleries, with the location of the principal display cases an d exhibits, is show n below. Galleries are indicated by letters of the alphabet, and cases and exhibits by number. For method of locating exhibits, see explanation opposite.

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principal exhibits only are show n in the following index. These exhibits are first divided into general classifications and then by particular objects. For example, to locate hum an mummies, by referring to the general classification heading of F u n e r e a l , and running dow n the following list, we come to the. caption M u m m i e s . Opposite, we find th e letter E which indicates the gallery, and follow ing th a t arc given the case numbers, 3, 6. N ow , by looking at the floor plan of the galleries on the opposite page, and locating the corresponding gallery and case numbers, the exhibit can be found.


P R E H IS T O R IC Busts of princip al types o f early man (D -4 ). D ioram as showing prehistoric h a b i tats (D -4 ). Flints a n d tools (D -5 ). E G Y P T IA N A ltars (sacrificial) (D -2, E -5). A m ulets and Scarabs (D -7, E -4). A rch itectu ral C olum ns (A ).
Closed P ap y ru s. C o n n t h i a n - G r e c ia n (e v o lu tio n from the E g y p t ia n ). O p en Papyrus.

M o d el of the great p y ra m id of Cheops (A -J). R econstruction o f an A ncien t M e m phis T e m p le ( G ) .

U tility and B eauty O bjects

B ronze arrow heads, k n if e , m ir ro rs, ne e d le s , awls, r a z o r , adz, a la ba s te r c o s m e ti c jars, et c. ( D - J , D - 6 ) .

C a n o p i c ja rs ( u s e d t o c o n t a i n th e vis c e ra o f e m b a l m e d b o d y ) ( E - 3 ) . C a rto n n a g e (gilded a n d painted m um m y masks) ( E - l ) , M u m m ies ( h u m a n a n d animal) (E-3, E-6). M u m m y shroud (E , w all). S a r c o p h a g i ( m u m m y ca se s ) ( E - 2 , E-3, E-6). S tatuettes (of carved wood, clay. F ai e nc e, b r o n z e a n d s t o n e ) ( E - i , E-4 E -6 , D - 8 ) . U s h a b t i u t o m b fi g u ri n e s of b r o n z e , stone, w o o d a n d clay (D -8, E -6).

Benediction Stone (D -7 ). C artouches

L i m e s t o n e c a r t o u c h e of Q u e e n N e f e r ti ti ( D - 7 ) . R ed granite carto u ch e of Ram eses X il (D -7).

N e c k l a c e s , r i n g s , b e a d s, etc. ( D - 6 , E - 4 ) . O riginal R o sa ry of A m e n h o te p I V with r o s e a n d cr os s ( E - 4 ) ,

H u m a n a n d animal ( E - J , E -6).

" P r e p a r in g a M u m m y for B urial, by D r . H . S p e n c e r Le wi s ( E - 6 , w a l l ) " T h e Love Idoi, Q u e e n N e fe rti ti, by D r. H . S pence r Lewis (A - 2 , w a ll).

Bas -R el ief s ( F , w a l l s ) . C o n e s a n d t a b le t s ( F - l , F -?) H o u s e h o l d G o d s ( F - 1) . M a s k ( s c u l p t u r e d t r a g i c ) ( F -4 ). Ba sa lt O b e li s k i n s c r i b e d in c u n e i f o r m a n d bas- rel ie fs ( F - 3 ) Se al s l a p i d a r y w o r k { F - 1 ).

P ottery
C ollection o f early D y n a sty p o ttery (D -5). P red y n astic to G recian perio d ( D - l ) . F rag m e n ts o f colored fa ie n c e p o ttery (D -6).

B a s a l t i n s c r i p t i o n s t o n e of N e b u c h a d nezzar I I ( F - 2 ) . Calendar stone of A lexander th e G reat (F-T). C l a y br ic ks f r o m t h e H a n g i n g G a r d e n s ( F-4 ) F r a g m e n t s o f g la z e d b r ic k ( F - 5 ) , Ish tar G ate of B abylon (reco n stru c tion) (E ).

S tatu ary
Bust of Q u e e n N efertiti ( A - 2 ) . H ead of A m enhotep IV (D -6) R e d g r a n i t e fi g u r e o f H o r u s , t h e h a w k h e a d e d G o d ( G - l ). Sacred R a m of A m o n R a (G -8 ). H eroic s u e o f A m e n h o te p III (G -2 ). Bust o f R am eses I! ( G - 7 ) . Sck h m e t, lion -h ead ed goddess ( G - 4 ) . P r ie s t o f t h e t e m p l e o f P t a h ( G - 6 ) . T w o c a r v e d li o ns o f t h e 18 t h D y n a s t y (G -3, G -5).

Statuary ( C ) .

B u d d h a Statues ( B - l . B-4). C hinese c a rv in g (B - 2 ) .

T om bs a n d Tem ples
Full-size r e p r o d u c t i o n o f a n E g y p t i a n rock to m b ( A - l ) _ M o d e l o f K in g T u t a n k h a m o n 's tom b (A -4).

A co ll e c t io n o f s a c r e d ob je ct s T h i b e t a n T e m p l e s ( B - 3 ). fr om

C O P Y R IG H T , 1939, BY A M O R C F IR ST E D IT IO N , J A N U A R Y , 1939

L ith o g ra p h e d in th e U n ite d S ta te s of A m e ric a T h e R o s ic ru c ia n P re ss, L td .

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organized and aiert mind is never satisfied to accept occurrences, the causes of w hich are not apparent. W e instinctively feel th a t things do not just happen, T h is is, perhaps, because w e are conscious of how m any things our own thinking and doing have brought about. Knowing, therefore, that we are causative th a t is, that we can intentionally cause something to, or n o t to, happen, we are convinced that some cause also exists behind every phenom enon of nature. This belief of man is reflected in nearly all of his religions and in many of his philosophies. It commonly takes the form that in the beginning a deity gave voice to a decree, w hich words, as a cause, created the universe and all that is in it. It is significant that many great philosophies have referred to this divine creative w ord, or logos as the ancient G reeks term ed it, as the law o f the universe. W e may, in our consideration of the physical aspects o f our universe, lay aside religious and philosophical interpretations, but there is much to support a belief in the universe existing and functioning according to well ordered laws. All about us, on this com paratively small orb of some 8,000 miles in diam eter on which w c exist, are exam ples of the regularity of effects that is, th a t like conditions always produce like results. This u n ita ry condition is not limited to earth , but exists in the universe at large. W h e n we study the spectra of the stars and planets, we find them composed o f elements w hich are to be found on earth. T h e laws of motion of liquids and solids are found to govern the form ation of nebulae, as well as the common things w ith w hich w e are fam iliar. A ll about us, change is. ever appar ent som ething is constantly becoming something else. T he surface of our earth also gives evidences of having gone through gigantic upheavels in past geologic ages. These past cataclysmic transitions correspond to the processes which some of the heavenly bodies are now going through, and which we can witness in our great astronom ical observatories. O nly one thing seems to rem ain stationary and a dependable reality, and that is the laws w hich underlie n atu re both its macrocosmic and microcosmic aspects. Logically, therefore, to understand the m anner in which our earth had physical existence and w hy it provides the varied m anifestations it does and w hat its re lation is to the great Cosmos, it is necessary that we make a study o f these realities, these ubiquitous and eternal laws. In earth itself we have a gigantic laboratory, well equipped w ith a great many subjects for examination. T hey provide us with a w ealth of facts from which wc deduce the workings of natural law. W h en we lift our eyes an d project our thoughts and direct our inquiry above the earth, our exam ination becomes ex tremely lim ited: in the stellar spaces there exist countless w orlds besides our own, which is extrem ely small in com parison, yet, ou r only contact w ith them is by the energy they radiate, or the light they reflect. O u r perceptions of them arc therefore obviously limited. A know ledge of those laws which gave existence, in ages C an yon D ia b lo M etepast, to things still perceivable on orite, w eig h in g 5 8 ,5 0 0 earth or above- - -makes it possible to R o T r u o ? " "p fie tar" P ^ n d intelligently and reasonably ium,) the fu tu re of earth and its phenomena.


P age 5

A rtists con cep tion of life d u rin g the h eigh t o f t h e M am m alian P eriod , about 6 0 ,0 0 0 , 0 0 0 years ago.

The Advent of Life

f~ '\U R earth has gone through a series of developm ents, by w hich we can approxi m ate the age and origin of its existence. T h a t it has gone through degrees of solidifying, through eons of tim e in a molten state, its jelly-like surface quiver ing w ith the pressure of subterranean gases, and th a t for still another unknowable period of time its extrem e tem perature, generating steam from the atmosphere, caused torrents of rain to fill its cavities, and th a t the w hole was frequently Convulsed and its masses pushed upw ard, crushed and ground, arc known facts to geologists. T hey have read this history of developm ent in the rocks and strata of the earth itself. In the geologic calendar, the pages of w hich are composed of the earth, is one that is know n as the A rchaeozoic Period. Som ething occurred then, which, so far as we have been able to determ ine, is unique to earth. In th e slimy sediment and saline w aters of the earth came in to existence living m atter, protoplasmic beings, which developed into simple organism s like jellyfish w hich swam about in ocean bottoms. T heir fossilized rem ains are plentifully scattered throughout the w orld, and are found deep in soil an d rocks, in which time has shrouded them. N ow here above th e earth, in the thou sands of island universes and galaxies of stars and hosts of planets are to befound even the characteristics which the simplest living things display. Successively after, but n ot necessarily from, this enig matic beginning, came all living creatures and eventually man. M an made his appearance, it is estim ated, about 1,000, 000 years ago, a date fairly recent in com parison to the advent of life, w hich occurred about 1,850,000,000 years ago. For an understanding of w hat constitutes the very basic natu re of man, th a t which is ini' N eo lith ic , o r N e w m anent and n o t an assimilation of S ton e A g e , M an salut his exterior influences, there is no in g the daw n betw een more im p o rtan t study than man him rows o f u p righ t m o n o liths. self. In a consideration of past ages,
Pape 6

C ro-M agnon artists of 1 3 ,0 0 0 y e a r s ago, pain tin g scenes on the w all of a cavern- (S ee lifelik e dioram a in gal lery D , Rosicrucian E gyp tian M u seu m .)

before history and w ritten records, the study of man is lim ited entirely to, first, the things he used or made and left behind him, and, second, the fragments of his skeletal stru ctu re, from w hich m ust be reconstructed his physical form and deduced his characteristics and habits.

The Products of Necessity

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adage, 'necessity is the m other of invention, is also a truism. It is the need fo r things which has caused man to seek ways and means to provide them. M an existed for milleniums before he had even the simplest form of w eapon or tool. In all probability, du rin g this daw n age w hen century after century rolled by w ithout any appreciable change in his status, w hen he roamed like the beasts around him, he w ould reach instinctively for a stone at his feet and perhaps hurl it at an enem y, anim al or hum an, in defense. T o a g reat extent, we can trace the progress of man by the development of his w eapons and implements. A t first he sought flints, naturally hard but brittle stones, which w ere more or less of a shape which he could con veniently hold in his fist and which had a sharp end. It was not until considerably later that he was able to affix a wooden handle to such hatchets or knives. Finally he learned how to shape these implements to his liking by striking off their rough edges w ith alarger stone. T his method is know n as percussion.M uch time elapsed before he discovered the means of sharpening and shaping tools by pressure, that is, placing a larger stone along the edges of the flint and breaking off its undesired projections, Even tually he learned the m ethod of grinding, w hich is still used in our times. T he breaking Flint o f the P aleolith ic of points of sticks, w hich he had P re-dynastic w ine jar Period, perhaps o f the sharpened to use as spears, caused o f Egypt, estim ated M o u s t e r i a n culture him to invent this m e th o d - -or per period 5 0 0 0 B, C- (S e e approxim ately 4 0 ,0 0 0 years ago. (S e e co llec haps he discovered it by accident- - collection of pottery in G allery D , in Rosi' tion of flints in gallery o f heating the tip in the fire, which crucian E gyp tian Mu* D , in the Rosicrucian considerably hardened it. seum .) Egyptian M useum .)


T h e T e m p le of Kom O m bo near A sw an, b u ilt d u rin g the P to le m aic era. A n exam ple o f the m agnificen t co n struction o f the ancient E gyp tian s.

t i m e s , during the end of th e M am m alian period, w hen giant creatures still stalked the earth, man w as ill-equipped to com bat them and he must have found it far b etter to have th e support of his k ind in hunting woolly mammoths or giant tusked rhinoceroses for their hides, th an to undertake killing them single-handed. T his m utual protection against actual and imagined enemies bound the natural, instinctive fam ily groups together. C ivilization, however, comes w hen man is conscious of his society: that is, w hen he no longer desires to live w ith those o f his kind like a herd of animals, but attem pts to order his m ethod of living for th eir m u tu al good. C ulture arises from th e natural segregation o f those possessing skill an d abilities, and en couraging them to exchange the products of their a p titu d e for necessities, so that others n o t so fortunately possessed of talents may enjoy their effects. Before civilization, as we know it, spcech and language de veloped from the natural cries of fear, surprise, and pain which man uttered. V ocal sounds w ere com bined until man became sufficiently articu late to convey his ideas verbally to another. T he rudim ents of speech must have, and did, exist for a great unknow n period before man began his crudest form of writing. T he object o f language, spoken o r w ritte n , is the communica tion of ideas. W e think in pictures, th a t is, mentally, 111 our m inds eye, w e see the thing we w an t to express. It is natural, therefore, to try to create som ething w hich will convey that picture in m ind to the mind of another. Before language w as sufficiently developed for conversation to express a thought, man


S tatue of A m en h otep III, P haraoh of E gyp t in 1411-1375 B. C.. of the 18th D yn asty. E x am ple of early Em pire P e r i o d sculp tu rin g. (S e e statue in M em phis T em p le, G allery F, in the R osicrucian Egyptian M u seum .)
P age 8

N e c k la c e of E gyp tian n ob lem an s w ife. E x am ple o f g o o d crafts m anship. (O n d isp lay w ith an cien t jew elry in G allery E, in Rosicrucian E gyptian M u seum .)

Fragment from the Book o f T h e D ea d , which contains the rit uals and funeral lit urgies of the an cien t Egyptians.

resorted to draw ing and painting crude forms, w hich told the story of his thoughts better th an his words. T h e first w ritin g , therefore, w as picture w riting. F u rth e r developm ent reached a point when there w as no visual relation betw een the strokes an d the original p icture from w hich they evolved, yet the im port remained the same. C onsequently, the strokes became symbols out o f w hich later developed the early alphabets.

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as w e know it today is m ainly organized thought. T h e fundam ental spirit of religion is the recognition o r presentim ent th at there exists some supernatural pow er or force th a t is g reater than those things w hich man con trols, and w hich is also the creator o f certain things or conditions. T he early religions, like some still in existence today, w ere polytheistic. They included m any gods. F urther, the gods w ere not anthropom orphic, that is, they did not have, to the mind of man, th e form or person of man. Some of these gods w ere the elements, such as the w ind, lightning, rain, and even the sun, the moon, and the stars. In fact, most agencies of n atu re w hich w ere feared were worshipped. E arly religion was not altogether reverential to w ard its gods. M en did not always love them. In 1350 B. C ., in Egypt, P haraoh Amenhotcp IV , as if divinely infused w ith the con cept, declared for the first tim e in the w o rld s history, that there was but one sole, ever-living God. W ith this monotheistic religion, a tre mendous effect w as had upon th e customs and practices of the people, w hich w as never en tirely lost, even to the time of C hristianity. W ith one god ruling the earth, man n o longer had the belief th a t there was a conflict betw een the gods, as betw een men. G od came to rep resent the suprem e virtues and absolute good. M an, therefore, desired to be godlike and em u late the ideals he had of his G od.
e lig io n U sh a b ti or resp ond en t g od , a statuette w hich was su pposed to do the m en ial work for the departed in the n ext world. ( S e e c o l lection of U sh a b tiu in G allery E, in the Rosicrucian E gyp tian M u seum .)

R ed gran ite statue of th e G od H oru s, taken from A b ou k ir, Egypt. ( O n d isp lay in M em p h is T e m p le , G allery F, in the R osicrucian E g y p tia n M u se u m ,)
Pag e 9

Egyptian Burial Customs U L IX ^VutuE to

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laym en cannot see the need of expeditions being conducted at great

expense to excavate tombs, th e last resting places of kings, queens, phar aohs, and lesser im portant personages of centuries ago. T o many, it seems a desecration w ithout sufficient justification. H ow ever, the tom bs of the ancients, particularly those of th e E gyptians, are virtu al storehouses of articles which clearly tell how peoples of that m agnificent civilization lived, w hat they believed, whom they w orshipped, w hat they w ore, ate, d ran k , an d m ost im portant, what they learned of life and the w orld in w hich they lived. T h e tom bs and w hat they contain are the result of the ancient E gyptians' religious concepts. T he Egyptians believed in im m ortality and the du ality o f man. A vital life force was said to enter m ans body at birth and rem ain w ith him as his double, and this inner guide w as called Ka, and was som ew hat equivalent to w h a t w e term conscience. In addition, man possessed a Soul. A t death, Ka w as liberated and w ent to the h ereafter as did the Soul. In th e h ere after it w ould live n ot unlike it lived on earth, possessing many of its earth ly treasures. A t a fu tu re time, Ka would retu rn to take up residence once again in the body it h a d le ft behind. Eternal Houses, or pyram ids, w ere erected to preserve th e body an d store the treasures which w ere for use in the afterw o rld , and again in th is one when Ka should return. N o t only w ere elaborately carved fu rn itu re , m ade from hardwood and

nducted at great

gs, queens, phar' nany, it seems a of the ancients, >f articles which tat they believed, im portant, what 3S and what they i. T he Egyptians Dree was said to , and this inner term conscience, and w ent to the nlike it lived on time, Ka would ichind. Eternal jre the treasures vhen Ka should 1 hardwood and

inlaid w ith gold, and beautiful vases, necklaces, rings, gold platters, glass utensils, A labaster statuary, bronze weapons and tools placed in these tombs, b u t on th eir walls w ere p a in t' ings depicting th e accom plishments of the departed stories w ritten in the hieroglyphic language of th e time, relating the events of the deceased's life. Stilt more im portant w ere murals, beautifully painted, show ' mg how th e fields were tilled for sowing and how the grain was reaped and how the grapes w ere pressed for wine. Scenes revealing goldsmiths, cabinet makers, and other craftsm en at work w ith th e tools common to their period. C onsequently it was these influences of the E gyptian re ligion w hich m ade it possible for th eir posterity, fo r us of today, to know something more o f th e origin, n ot only of ourselves, o f th e m igration of races, but of our customs and habits.

H u m an m um m ies of the Saite P eriod o f Egypt- (T h e se hum an, and also an im al, m um m ies are to be seen in G allery E, in the R osicracian E gyp tian M useum .)

O n e o f several cases in G allery E , in the R osicru cian Egyptian M u seum , disp layin g m u m m ies and funeral accoutrem ent of the an cien t Egyptians.

Page n

The Cedars of Lebanon

n p r e - g l a c ia l t i m e s ,

incongruous as it m ay seem, geologists inform us there

existed on w hat is now the plateau o f the Sahara D esert, a magnificent forest of giant hardwoods. This forest, of course, never existed in th e memory of man, and the prim itive Egyptians, w ho thousands of years later settled along the Nile Valley, found no trees except date palm s and some acacias, an d a few of other varieties along the great river's banks. D uring the Feudal an d Em pire periods

of Egyptian history, wood was very m uch in dem and, especially such woods as could resist the terrific heat o f the N ile V alley and its arid climate. Expeditions were sent far up the N ile to equatorial A frica to bring back hardw oods from the great tropical forests. In Syria, in northw estern A sia M inor, not a great distance from the city of Damascus, w ere the g reat forests of cedar, renowned in history as the C edars of Lebanon. T h is w ood was fo u n d to he most suitable for the purposes o f the E gyptians and could be b ro u g h t through the M editer ranean Sea, along the coast, and up the N ile m ore easily th an tim ber could be brought from the forests of equatorial A frica. Demands w ere therefore m ade by the P haraohs on th e princes of Lebanon to prepare great quantities o f the tim ber for export to E gypt. Sarcophagi (mummy coffins) in particular were made from these cedars. T h a t th e E gyptians were wise

in their choice of this wood is indi cated by th e fact that the m ajority of the cedar sarcophagi excavated to day are found to be in an excellent state of preservation, some w ere even though periodically subm erged,

due to the seasonal inundation of the region by the N ile River. A study of the construction of sarcophagi shows that even as early as 3000 B. C. the carpenters and cabinet m akers of Egypt knew lamination. History recounts how later King Solomon and business associates deait extensively in th e im portation of these Lebanon cedars, of w hich there are today but a few rem aining and these are preserved as a national m onum ent.
F ull-sized rep rod u ction of a rock tom b of th e F eudal A g e of E gyp t. T h e o n ly reproduction o f its kind in A m erica, (G allery A , in the R osicru cian Egyptian M u seu m .)

the structural

a rt of

D isp la y case con tain in g sarcophagi (m u m m y co ffin s), bronze v o tiv e statuettes, can o p ic jars used to h old th e viscera of em b alm ed bodies, and m um m ified a ni ma l s a n d birds. (C ase in G a llery E, in the R os icru cian E gyptian M u seu m .)

P age X?

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A reproduction in Gallery G of one of the magnificent temples of the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis. A visitor to the museum may walk about in this atmosphere of thou sands of years ago and examine statues of the kings and gods of the period. (For more complete description, see Page 22.)

Egyptian Sciences
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huge m onuments of Egypt stand in silent testim ony to the greatness of genius possessed by these peoples of centuries ago. T h e enorm ous pyram ids- composed of huge blocks o f stone exceeding tw o and a h alf tons in w eight, one lifted high above the other hundreds of feet above the surface, each not varying in its dimensions one-sixteenth of an inch, the whole mass composing a perfect, m athem atically correct pyram id, w ith th e apex exactly above the center o f its base these arc evidential of a skill and a know ledge of such sciences as mathematics, leverage, and masonry. G reat irrigation canals, glass-surfaced tiling, m ag' nificent colonnaded temples, mosaic floorings, a calendar of 365 days, copper and tile w ater pipes, papyrus scrolls revealing an am azing knowledge of the hum an anatom y and even using for the first time the term brain, maps of the heavensJKj these are not the consequence o f accident, but of . : the careful investigations, probings, and conclujS . sions of minds which today w ould excel in our scientific fields. In fact, their accomplishments, because o f the laws of nature w hich they dis covered, tabulated, and used to make them sible, w ere definite scientific achievements.

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A b o v e a com p lete Rosicrucian reproduction on a tw o-thirds scale of a great obelisk o f H elio p o lis, Egypt, erected b y U sertsen in 2433 B. C. T h e H elio p o lis ob e lisk w as o f red granite, quarried possib ly near A ssu an, and w eigh ed nearly a thou san d tons. B elo w a cartonnage (m u m m y m a sk ), covered with gold lea f and painted with en during enam el. S om e were m ade o f solid g o ld . (S e e d is p la y in g a llery E, in the R osicrucian Egyptian M u seum .) E xterior view o f the great Pyram id o f Gizeh, b u ilt about 2 9 0 0 B. C .} com p osed of over 2 , 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 h u ge blocks o f stone w eigh in g in excess o f two and a h a lf tons each.

Page 16

T h e o rigin of glass is attri b u ted to the E gyp tian s, glass b ead s, such as this necklace, b ein g fou n d in the tom bs of th e F ourth M illen iu m . Glass v essels w ere com m on in the X V I I I D yn asty.

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reproduction of the fourth and inner sarcophagus (mummy case) of the famous King T utankham en. This is the only r e production' in the world of the costly original, which is to he seen in the C airo Museum. T h e sa r cophagus conforms to the contours of the body which it contained, and the face is a delicately modeled intended likeness. T he original, made of solid gold and inlaid w ith rare gems, has an intrinsic value estim ated in exxess of $250,000.00, It is a masterpiece of the ancient goldsmiths art, not to be excelled by the craftsmen of today. T his sarcophagus was encased in three others, each in turn larger, the largest looking somewhat like a residence garage. (T o be seen in G allery E, in the Rosicrucian Egyptian M useum.)
u l l -s i z e d
Pag* 18

cZcjijjitum Jca%a(ji a n d c ^ n z iX z ti
A MULETS are articles, made o r found in a n atu ral state, w hich are thought to possess religio-magic properties. T hese properties are sometimes believed to be inherent and at other times thought to have been endow ed by sorcerers, priests of the temple, or by other persons believed to have com m union w ith su p er natural powers. The w earer is thought to assume the beneficial or detrim ental influences of the am ulet, w hich may be in one of m any forms. Some have been nothing more than brightly polished pebbles, or the claws, teeth, an d organs of animals, or leaves of rare plants, and insects. In E gypt, a beetle, indigenous to the land, and known now by the entomological classification of scarabaeidae, became an accepted am ulet. Because of the fact th a t this insect seemed to have the pow er to revive itself w hen apparently dead fo r some time, it became a symbol of im mortality. T he hard shell-like back w as inscribed w ith prayers an d ritualistic phrases. T he demand for these increased until artificial ones w ere carved from wood, alabaster, serpentine, and talc, and finally m oulded from a clay-like sub stance. V arious kinds were designed for varied purposes. Pectoral or heart scarabs were placed on the body of th e deceased, bearing the inscription, O h, my heart, rise not up against me as a w itness. T his was in ten d ed to silence the heart w hen the departed stood in judgm en t before the G o d Osiris, so the evil he had com mitted on earth would n o t be revealed to this judge of hum ans in the after-world.

T o p view lection o f scarabs in G allery D , Rosicrucian E gyptian M u seum .)

o f scarab b earin g inscription.

Pectoral scarab placed on of mum m y to silen ce the voice of the heart, w hen it stood in judgm ent in the afterworld.

U zat



Vanity and Oddity

idiosyncrasies and the love of ostentation o f th e ancients w ere no more or less than our own. I f they seem obvious or stran g e to us today, it- is only because the perspective of tim e has revealed them in their true light. M ilady of 2000 B. C. sought to beautify her person by m eans of cosmetics, as does the fashionable w om an of today. T h e w om an o f good circumstances of forty centuries ago had her com plete toilet set consisting of handsome alabaster jars containing rouge and kohl, th e la tte r a substance fo r darkening the eye brows and lashes. She also had an array o f vessels w hich contained complexion creams. As she adorned herself, she gazed in to gracefully designed and highly polished hand m irrors, the polished surface serving fo r glass. T h e mother of King T eta, 4366 B. C., and know n as Shesh, earned fam e at th a t early date by inventing a hair wash. W idow s were not perm itted to m arry until glass bottles w ere filled with their tears of m ourning for the d ep arted husbands. H igh priests, and those w ho could confer pow er and au th o rity by the laying on of hands, had am ulets and gems em bedded in th e flesh o f th eir hands when they were embalmed at death.


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A lab aster an d a rg o n ite cosm etic jars co n ta in in g r o u g e and kohl (ey e-la sh d a r k e n e r ), ( S e e ex h ib it in G a llery D , in the Rosicrucian E g y p tia n M u seu m .)
P age 20

Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian

(2ujiIization a n d d u t tu iE .
Tigris-Euphrates V alley of A sia M inor, thought by some historians to be the cradle of civilization, several thousand years B. C ., there began a civilisation w hich rivalled in m ilitary m ight th at of the Egyptians, In the dim past, no one knows just w hen, persons of the great w hite race of the high' lands far to the ndrth came southw ard and followed the E u p h rates and T igris rivers to their outlet at the mouth. P erhaps they w ere driven southw ard by the descending glaciers that sw ept all life before them.


These peoples we call the Sumerians. G rad u ally they crept n o rth again along the banks of the twin rivers, building thrivin g tow ns and developing the land in between into a great agricultural center. Clashing eventually w ith the Semetics and finally merging, they gave w ay to th e later A ssyrian, Babylonian, C haldean, H ittite and M edian civilizations, w hich all fought for suprem acy in this ancient world. Though these people w ere very w arlike, Babylon, th e chief city of Babylonia, was at one time a center of w orld culture and learning. D uring the reign of the Chaldean Em peror, N ebuchadnezzar, the restorer o f Babylon, the visitor to that city saw magnificent terraced palaces, hanging gardens, walls lined with beautiful faience, tow ering structures reaching a height of ever three h u n dred feet, great canals and dams, asphalt roadw ays, ornate costumes and well tilled lands.
Ish tar G ate nam ed after the B ab ylon ian goddess, Ishtar, w h o rivalled in relig io u s p rom inence M ard u k , the ch ief B ab ylon ian G od who was declared to be creator o f all. T h ro u g h the o rig inal of this gatew ay, rising to about eigh ty feet in h eig h t, and alon g the S acred W ay b eh in d it, m arch ed not on ly religiou s procession als but at tim es such historic characters as Cyrus, D arius, N eb u ch ad n ezzar and A lex a n d er th e Great. (S e c rep rod u ction in G allery G , in the R osicrucian E g y p tia n M u seum .)

T h e obelisk of Shalm anser III, 700 B. C., in th e form o f on e of the B ab ylon ian tower tem p les. Inscriptions and figures tell of c o n quests. O n display in G allery G, in R osi cru cian Egyptian M u seu m .)

Pag e 21

The Love Idol

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w ife of the Egyptian P haraoh, A m enhotep IV , w as know n as the most beautiful queen of E gypt and she ruled w ith her husband in 1350 B.C. H er nam e was N efertete, w hich in th e E gyptian language m eant "Beautys A rriv al. T he king desired to have a bust statue made o f his beautiful wife and he selected the chief of his artists, w ho w as Thutm osis, to do the work, T he king had changed the lifeless, formless a rt o f E gypt in to anew and more modern style and had engaged the best artists and sculptors o f E g y p t to live w ith him in his new city called "T h e C ity o f the S u n " on the banks of the Nile. He gave each artist and sculptor a beautiful home and w orkshop so th a t they might live happily and produce the greatest art of th e ir period. W h en Thutm osis saw the queen, he w as dum bfo u n d ed by her beauty and expressed the fear that he w ould never be able to do justice to her beautiful countenance. But it w as arranged that she should go daily to the studio of Thutm osis and there pose in the queen s chair for him. Several thousand years later, the statue w as fo u n d in the excavations of the sculptors studio in the old Sun C ity algng the N ile, an d today the original bust is in the museum in Berlin and replicas of it are in every large museum in the world.

Memphis Temple
czf^zconittucH on o f c^-f-naUnt (E gyptian
' T ' h e Egyptian Tem ple shown in color on the preceding pages is a reproduction of one of the magnificent tem ples of the ancient city of M emphis. Memphis was the early capital of Egypt, and derived its name from the C reek corruption of the w ord "M enofer, the nam e of a pyram id built there by Pharaoh Pepi I. M emphis grew at that period into E gy p ts intellectual center, as A thens later became in Greece. T he pillars o f the tem ple, as seen in th is reproduction, were of red sandstone quarried in the range of m ountains paralleling the eastern shore of the R ed Sea. Each of these pillars weighed several tons. T h ey were erected on the floor o f the open desert. T he only canopy over the temple w as the sky. Between the massive pillars could be seen the desert sands w hich at night were bathed in cool moonlight. T he flooring of the tem ple, w hich composed an open curt, consisted of tile, Said in a geom etrical design. T em ples such as these were used for religious and sacred ceremonies. T his reproduction depicts one of these tem ples as seen at the break of dawn. A s we look across the desert, wc see silhouetted against d istan t horizons, stately obelisks standing in oases, scanty islands of vegetation. T h e fiery light of the sunrise reflects the sombre, graven expressions of the sta tu a ry deities standing against the pillars, facing the ceremonial courtyard. T his tem ple was constructed from special photographs and m easurem ents provided by the V atican Museum staff in Rome, Italy. It is a replica of the one in th a t institution. W ith the exception of the one in Rome, this temple is the only one of its kind in the world.
P age 22

Egyptian Art of Embalming

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r p 0 m a n y PERSONS

the study o f mum m ies is a m orbid pursuit, y et it reveals

the masterful knowledge the E gyptians had of anatom y an d the com pounding of many useful drugs, as well as m any o th e r related sciences an d arts. It is cornmonly thought that modern science has n o t discovered the means an d materials which were used by the ancient E gyptians in their m ethods of mumm ifying. This is an error of opinion, for science has made a thorough analysis of the materials and substances they used, and through archaeology an d history has learned even the methods employed. T h e bodies w ere preserved by bitum en, spices, gums, and natron. T he w o rd "m um m y, in fact, is believed to be derived from an A rabic w ord m eaning bitum en, or "bitum inised th ings. W h e th e r the art of mummifying came from A siatic countries or originated w ith th e Egyptians is not definitely know n, b u t it is know n th a t the second king of th e first D ynasty, or Teta, as early as 4366 B. C ., w rote a book on anatom y, for the purpose of embalming, and th at he experim ented w ith drugs to dissolve the in tern al organs. Herodotus, the em inent ancient G reek historian, has left us an excellent account of the methods of E gyptian em balm ing. H e states th a t the female memhers of the family of the deceased left the body in the house, then sm eared their hands and faces w ith mud, shredded th eir clothes, exposed th eir breasts and beat themselves as they w andered am ong th e people- all of this as signs of grief. Later the body w as carried out and taken to the embalmers. T h e re w ere three methods of embalming or mummifying. T h e first method cost a silver talent, or about $1,000.00; th e second about $300.00; an d the th ird w as very inexpensive. The first and most expensive m ethod w as to draw out the brains through the nostrils with an iron hook and by the infusion of drugs dissolve the remains. N est, an incision was made in the side a n d the bowels and organs removed. T he abdomen was then cleansed by rinsing w ith palm w ine, and sprinkled w ith powdered perfumes. Finally it was filled w ith pure m yrrh po u n d ed and also cassing, and then sewed up. N ex t th e entire body w as steeped in n atron to r A fte r rem oval from the seventy days; a longer period was considered illegal.

natron, it was washed and carefully w rap p ed in bandages of flaxen cloth and smeared with gum ; then the coffin or sarcophagus w as built to conform to the shape of the body, and the outside w'as frequently painted to look like the body within. The other and less expensive m ethods w ere not as elaborate, and were more commonly used.
Pag e 25

The Story of the Rosetta Stone

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a com paratively short tim e ago, as w e th in k o f tim e in history, that very

little was known to us about the lives and customs o f th e ancicnt Egyptians, T ravelers saw in E gypt the vestiges of g reat stone edifices, coiossai temples, pyram id-like structures, and superbly sculptured sta tu a ry , m any of which were inscribed w ith peculiar characters, little of w hich could be understood. That some great civilization had left these behind w as obvious, and that they were Egyptians was also know n. A lm ost all th a t w as k now n came from the histories of later peoples. T he accounts o f th eir lives and events w hich the Egyptians had left for posterity could not be deciphered. T h e im portance o f the Rosetta stone, therefore, is th at it provided the key to th e lost E g y p tian alphabet, which opened to modern man the stone pages o f the history of a nearly forgotten great people. C o n tra ry to general opinion, the E gyptians themselves did not intend the R osetta Stone as any such key. T h e R osetta Stone is composed of black basalt and was found near the m outh of the N ile in a to w n th e Egyptians called Rashid, and we call R osetta. Some accounts relate th a t it was found on the ground, others say in an old watl. T he finder was Boussard, an officer of engineers in N apoleon's arm y cam paigning in E g y p t at th a t time. The find occurred in A ugust, 1799. Suspecting th a t it m ight have some importance, he sent it to A lexandria. L ater N apoleon ordered it taken to the In stitu t N ational" and fu rth e r ordered that im pressions o f the inscriptions be sent to certain students throughout the w orld fo r exam ination. In E ngland s capitulation treaty w ith France in 1801, she dem anded, and finally, received, the Rosetta Stone. T he Rosetta Stone s inscriptions consist o f tw o languages, Egyptian and A rchaic Greek. T he Egyptian is dual in natu re, the first an d upper portion is hieroglyphic, the ancient p icture w riting. T he second is the dem otic or modified hieratic, a development from the hieroglyphic. tri-lingual in inscription. T h e R o setta Stone is therefore

It was assumed, upon exam ination, th a t th e oval inscriptions it contained had w ithin them the name of Ptolem y. found to be the same. Extensive research bore this out and the name in the oval, or cartouche, was com pared w ith sim ilar inscriptions and C om paring these inscriptions in tu rn w ith the Greek inscriptions, which are identical w ith the E gyptian, in so far as significance is concerned, the key to the hieroglyphic alphabet was discovered after years of study, in 1822. T o a num ber of authorities m ust go cred it for such tedious analysis and research, particularly C ham pollion an d Young.
Page 26

T h e R osetta S to n e bearing th e tri-lingua! in scrip tion s w hich becam e the k ey to the d e cip h erm en t o f the E gyp tian h ieroglyp h ics. (R ep lica on d isp lay in G allery O , in th e Rosicrucian E gyp tian M u seu m .)
P ag e 27

oj- tfiL 'zS/lij
' T'. h e Rosicrucian P lanetarium is called T h e T h e a tre of th e Sky because it presents the greatest dram a of all th e ages the m ythological traditions and cosmic roles of the planets and th e stars, revealing th eir surprising mysteries and giving young and old a clearer conception of th e w onders of the heavens. T here are only six planetarium s in the U nited States an d each of these has been built at an enormous outlay of m oney and time. W h ile com fortably seated in the domed am p h ith eatre o f the planetarium, the spectator may see over his head a reprodu ctio n o f th e heavens, only to be seen otherw ise through the largest telescopes; b u t in th e Planetarium , within tw enty-four minutes, the spectator can see a m ovem ent o f the stars and planets and a change in th e heavens th a t w ould take a ce n tu ry to view through a tele scope. T h e P lanetarium spectator pulls aside the c u rta in of tim e removes the barriers of space and sees the universe on parade. H e can gaze upon the same heavens, the same arrangem ent of stars w hich guided C olum bus on his epochal journey across the w atery w astes of the A tlantic. H e can see a presentation of the heavens as they appeared at various times in th e w o rld 's history. T he P lanetarium is ow ned and operated by the R osicrucian O rder, A M O R C , and is open to the public fo r dem onstration at regular periods w eekly, at a nominal admission charge. Students of astronom y and lovers of n atu re 's mysteries will be enthralled by this scientific visual presentation of th e universe. Lectures are given so that the lay m ind may grasp in a few m om ents an u n d erstan d in g o f the fundamentals o f the astronom ical sciences. Planetarium dem onstrations are definitely n o t motion pictures, but th e result of an elaborate, ingenious, complex devicc, w hich d uplicates the motions of stars and planets, and accelerates their movement ! thousands of times.

T h e large, extrem ely co m p li cated and in g en io u s d evice w h ich projects and d u p licates the m o tio n and form s of the stars and p lan ets as seen by o b servers th rou gh large telescop es today and as seen by the an cien ts centuries ago.

P age 28


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