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Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures

CONCRETE DESIGN MANUAL

COMPUTERS & STRUCTURES INC.

R

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 7.4 Revised May 2000

COPYRIGHT

The computer program SAP2000 and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Tel: (510) 845-2177 Fax: (510) 845-4096 E-mail: info@csiberkeley.com Web: www.csiberkeley.com

© Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978–2000. The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. SAP2000 is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF SAP2000. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

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. 12 Element Unsupported Lengths . . . 2 Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 P-. . . . . . 14 Choice of Input Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Identifying Beams and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CHAPTER II Design Algorithms 5 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 17 20 21 21 23 23 23 25 26 27 i . . . . . . . . Determine Section Forces . . 8 Design of Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 CHAPTER III Design for ACI 318-99 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Design of Columns . . . . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects . . Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Organization . . . . . . . 12 Special Considerations for Seismic Loads . . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . 6 Design and Check Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents CHAPTER I Introduction 1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . Beam Design. 71 74 74 75 75 77 77 77 80 81 81 83 ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Moment Magnification Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . Determine Shear Force and Moment . Determine Factored Moments . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strength Reduction Factors . . . Column Design . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-94 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . 43 46 47 47 48 50 50 51 52 53 54 55 55 59 59 59 60 66 66 67 67 CHAPTER V Design for CSA-A23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . Determine Shear Force and Moment . . . 28 30 30 31 31 31 38 38 40 40 CHAPTER IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . Beam Design. . . . . Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . Determine Shear Force and Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. . . . . Beam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 87 87 87 88 95 96 97 98 CHAPTER VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . Determine Additional Moments . . . Beam Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . Determine Capacity Ratio . . Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . 119 119 122 123 123 125 125 125 127 128 132 133 133 133 139 CHAPTER VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 143 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . Design Strength . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments and Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 iii . . . . . Determine Code Total Moments . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments . . Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Check Column Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 101 104 104 105 106 107 107 109 110 111 111 112 112 117 CHAPTER VII Design for Eurocode 2 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Check Column Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 175 176 177 179 References Index 183 187 iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Moment Magnification Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical Display of Design Output Tabular Display of Design Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Check Column Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Member Specific Information . . . . . . . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement. .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Strength Reduction Factors. . . . . . . Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . Determine Factored Moments . Determine Factored Moments and Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . Column Design . . . . Dynamic Moment Magnification . . . . . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . 146 147 147 149 149 150 152 152 153 154 155 157 160 160 160 161 168 168 169 170 CHAPTER IX Design Output Overview . . . . . . . . . . . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine Shear Force and Moment. . . . .

1997). British (BSI 1989). make appropriate changes. A single mouse click on an element brings up detailed design information. and update the design without re-analyzing the structure. European (CEN 1992). The program currently supports the following design codes: U. The output in both graphical and tabulated formats can be readily displayed and printed. Members can be grouped together for design purposes. AASHTO 1997). The program provides an interactive environment in which the user can study the stress conditions. However.S. The program is structured to support a wide variety of design codes for the automated design and check of concrete frame members. such as member size revisions. Canadian (CSA 1994). the program provides a set of default load combinations for each design code sup- Overview 1 . and New Zealand (NZS 3101-95). The program provides the user with options to create. modify.Chapter I Introduction Overview SAP2000 features powerful and completely integrated modules for design of both steel and reinforced concrete structures (CSI 1998a. all from within the same user interface. The design is based upon a set of user-specified loading combinations. 1998b. (ACI 1999. analyze and design structural models.

Chapter VI gives a detailed description of the British code (BSI 1989) as implemented in SAP2000. and other special consideration required by the code. Each chapter describes the design loading combination. However the user may specify the longitudinal steel. in which case a column capacity ratio is reported. In the design of the columns.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual ported in SAP2000. If the default load combinations are acceptable. This chapter describes the common terminology of concrete design as implemented in SAP2000. Backup design information produced by the program is also provided for convenient verification of the results. The presentation of the output is clear and concise. the program calculates the required longitudinal and shear reinforcement. The column capacity ratio gives an indication of the stress condition with respect to the capacity of the column. Chapter III gives a detailed description of the ACI code (ACI 1999) as implemented in SAP2000. column and beam design procedures. Each of six subsequent chapters gives a detailed description of a specific code of practice as interpreted by and implemented in SAP2000. Chapter IV gives a detailed description of the AASHTO LRFD concrete code (AASHTO 1997) as implemented in SAP2000. Every beam member is designed for flexure and shear at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used to define the model geometry and to specify design parameters. The information is in a form that allows the engineer to take appropriate remedial measures in the event of member overstress. no definition of additional load combinations are required. Organization This manual is organized in the following way: Chapter II outlines various aspects of the concrete design procedures of the SAP2000 program. Chapter V gives a detailed description of the Canadian code (CSA 1994) as implemented in SAP2000. 2 Organization .

Finally the user should read “Design Output” in Chapter IX for understanding and interpreting SAP2000 output related to concrete design. Recommended Reading It is recommended that the user read Chapter II “Design Algorithms” and one of six subsequent chapters corresponding to the code of interest to the user. Recommended Reading 3 . It is recommended that first time users follow through the steps of this tutorial before reading this manual. Chapter IX outlines various aspects of the tabular and graphical output from SAP2000 related to concrete design. Chapter VIII gives a detailed description of the New Zealand code (NZS 1997) as implemented in SAP2000. A concrete design tutorial is presented in the chapter “Concrete Design Tutorial” in the SAP2000 Quick Tutorial manual.Chapter I Introduction Chapter VII gives a detailed description of the Eurocode 2 (CEN 1992) as implemented in SAP2000.

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• The 1997 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. EUROCODE 2 (CEN 1992). CSA-A23. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). • The 1994 Canadian Standards Association Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings. 5 . However. this chapter provides a background which is common to all the design codes. The concrete design and check may be performed in SAP2000 according to one of the following design codes: • The 1995 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Design of Concrete Structures. • The 1992 European Committee for Standardization. • The 1989 British Standards Institution Structural Use of Concrete. AASHTO LRFD 1997 (AASHTO 1997). NZS 3101-95 (NZS 1995). Details of the algorithms associated with each of these codes as implemented in SAP2000 are described in the subsequent chapters. • The 1995 Standards New Zealand Concrete Structures Standard.3-94 (CSA 1994).C h a p t e r II Design Algorithms This chapter outlines various aspects of the concrete design and design-check procedures that are used by the SAP2000 program. BS 8110-85 R1989 (BSI 1989).

Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the negative of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the above described permutations generate the required sub combinations. The program has an option to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each time step of the time history. Similarly. the program automatically produces multiple sub combinations using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities. For example. – References to the ACI 318-99 code has the prefix of “ACI” – References to the Canadian code carry the prefix of “CSA” – References to the British code carry the prefix of “BS” – References to the Eurocode 2 carry the prefix of “EC2” – References to the New Zealand code carry the prefix of “NZS” Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are used for determining the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code. 6 Design Load Combinations .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual In writing this manual it has been assumed that the user has an engineering background in the general area of structural reinforced concrete design and familiarity with at least one of the above mentioned design codes. a unique prefix is assigned for each code. Also an option is available to request that moving load combinations produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each design quantity but with corresponding values of interacting quantities. When a design combination involves only a single multi-valued case of time history or moving load. further options are available. The load combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the associated load cases and are then summed to obtain the factored design forces and moments for the load combination. For multi-valued load combinations involving response spectrum. time history. all references to the AASHTO code are preceded by the word “AASHTO”. moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping. The load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. square-root of the sum of the squares or absolute) where any correspondence between interacting quantities is lost.

However. For other loading conditions involving moving load. If any default combination is included in design. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. The number of segments in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is made. Design and Check Stations 7 . The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load to be additive. each static load case declared as wind or earthquake. The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested to be recovered in the analysis for some or all the frame members. Design and Check Stations For each load combination. and earthquake load. all cases declared as live load are assumed additive. wind load. etc. separate consideration of roof live load. is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lateral load combinations. each element is designed or checked at a number of locations along the length of the element. time history. the user must provide the appropriate design combinations. If these conditions are not correct. the user must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the default design loading combinations. then the effects of these loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them. Similarly. pattern live loads. These are based on the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the corresponding chapters. The user can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more segments.. The locations are based on equally spaced segments along the clear length of the element. and/or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load the program has built-in default loading combinations for each design code. snow load. then all default combinations will automatically be updated by the program any time the design code is changed or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified. or response spectrum cases.Chapter II Design Algorithms For normal loading conditions involving static dead load. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to be included or if no other user defined combination is available for concrete design. live load.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of loading combinations at a particular station due to the beam major shear. But design of beams and columns requires separate treatment. If the beam section is not adequate. shears. in general. then the required compression reinforcement is calculated. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. the determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. and the determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. Negative beam moments produce top steel.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Identifying Beams and Columns Since SAP2000 is a general purpose analysis and design program. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Special considerations for seismic design are incorporated in SAP2000 for ACI. minor direction bending. the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section of a particular beam. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of stations along the beam span. all beams and columns are represented as frame elements. Identification for a concrete element is done by specifying the frame section assigned to the element to be of type beam or column. load combination factors. the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel.or a T-beam. the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force. The beam section is de+ signed for the maximum positive M u and maximum negative M u factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. For the design of flexural reinforcement. 8 Identifying Beams and Columns . Design of Beams In the design of concrete beams. and other criteria which are described in detail in the code specific chapters. Effects due to any axial forces. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. Canadian. and New Zealand codes.

The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. or if the longitudinal steel is specified.Chapter II Design Algorithms Design of Columns In the design of the columns. A typical interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1. Axial compression +P0 Pmax Curve #1 Curve #2 M bx 1 3 2 Pbx Pby Curve #NRCV M by Mx My -P0 Axial tension Figure II-1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface Design of Columns 9 . the column stress condition is reported in terms of a column capacity ratio. which is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. the program calculates the required longitudinal steel.

Varying Linear Strain Plane −ε 0 εc Reinforcement Bars +ε DIRECTION 1 εc −ε 0 εc +ε Varying Linear Strain Plane Neutral Axis Direction εc DIRECTION 2 Reinforcement Bars Neutral Axis Direction 3 2 a a 1 0 εc +ε −ε Varying Linear Strain Plane εc DIRECTION 3 Neutral Axis Reinforcement Direction Bars Figure II-2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces 10 Design of Columns .0. The generation of the interaction surface is based on the assumed strain and stress distributions and some other simplifying assumptions. These stress and strain distributions and the assumptions vary from code to code. A typical assumed strain distribution is described in Figure II-2. • Design the column shear reinforcement.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each end of the column. This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.

this assumed distribution remains valid. British and European codes. as shown in Figure II-3. Axial Compression Lines Defining Failure Surface C L P My Mx o MX MY Axial Tension Figure II-3 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio Design of Columns 11 . except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity needs to be considered. However.Chapter II Design Algorithms Here maximum compression strain is limited to e c . The details of the generation of interaction surfaces differ from code to code. and vice versa. the value of e c varies from code to code.003 for ACI. The capacity check is based on whether the design load points lie inside the interaction volume in a force space.0035 for Canadian. The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for beams. For example. These are described in the chapters specific to the code. and e c = 0. For most of the design codes. e c = 0. AASHTO and New Zealand codes. If the point lies inside the volume. the column capacity is adequate.

The user can turn the P-D analysis ON and set the maximum number of iterations for the analysis. For the individual member stability effects. Whereas. the user is referred to SAP2000 Analysis Reference manual. For the braced moments in columns. 12 P-D Effects . In SAP2000. AASHTO. and New Zealand codes or with additional moments as in the British and European codes. Element Unsupported Lengths To account for column slenderness effects the column unsupported lengths are required. for example. For further reference. The users of SAP2000 should be aware that the default analysis option in SAP2000 is turned OFF for P-D effect. If significant forces are present in other type of elements. The length l 33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis). huge axial loads in shear walls which are modeled as shell elements. Canadian.Effects The SAP2000 design algorithms require that the analysis results include the P-D effects. These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions. Canadian. The default number of iteration for P-D analysis is 1. then the additional forces computed for P-D will not be accurate. For lateral drift effects. the moments are magnified with moment magnification factors as in the ACI. The moments and forces obtained from P-D analysis are further amplified for individual column stability effect if required by the governing code as in the ACI. The P-D effects are considered differently for “braced” or “nonsway” and “unbraced” or “sway” components of moments in columns or frames. “lateral drift effects” should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual P. For unbraced components. it is assumed that “braced” or “nonsway” moments are contributed from the “dead” or “live” loads. “unbraced” or “sway” moments are contributed from all other types of loads. the effect of P-D is limited to “individual member stability”. The two unsupported lengths are l 33 and l 22 . The user is also cautioned that SAP2000 currently considers P-D effects due to axial loads in frame members only. Forces in other types of elements do not contribute to this effect. SAP2000 assumes that the P-D analysis is performed and that the amplification is already included in the results. and l 22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). and New Zealand codes.

Therefore. the distance between END-I and END-J of the element. the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element. that affect the unsupported length of an element are automatically taken into consideration. the beam is assumed to give lateral support only in that direction. allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single member for design. The program. See Figure II-4. This can be done differently for major and minor bending. The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an element-by-element basis.. i.Chapter II Design Algorithms Normally. Figure II-4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length Element Unsupported Lengths 13 . Therefore. diaphragm constraints and support points. however.e. extraneous joints. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported element length. the unsupported length of a column may actually be evaluated as being greater than the corresponding element length. as shown in Figure II-5. In determining the values for l 22 and l 33 of the elements. the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths. If the beam frames into only one direction of the column. such as member connectivity.

the current implementation of the British code and the Eurocode 2 in SAP2000 does not account for any special requirements for seismic design. and New Zealand codes. The Canadian code requires that the concrete frame must be designed as either an Ordinary. frames with Limited ductility. Zone 3. The AASHTO code requires that the concrete frame must be in either Zone 1. Elastically responding. All equations and descriptions presented in the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless otherwise 14 Special Considerations for Seismic Loads . or Special moment resisting frames. where Zone 4 is designated as the zone of severe earthquake. AASHTO. or Ductile moment resisting frame. The New Zealand code also requires that the concrete frame must be designed as either an Ordinary. Zone 2. Canadian. Figure II-5 Unsupported Lengths and Interior Nodes Choice of Input Units English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Intermediate. But the codes are based on a specific system of units.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Special Considerations for Seismic Loads The ACI code imposes a special ductility requirement for frames in seismic regions by specifying frames either as Ordinary. Nominal. or Zone 4. Unlike the ACI. The Special moment resisting frame can provide the required ductility and energy dissipation in the nonlinear range of cyclic deformation. or Ductile moment resisting frame.

Chapter II Design Algorithms noted. Choice of Input Units 15 . However. any system of units can be used to define and design the structure in SAP2000. all equations and descriptions presented in the chapter “Design for ACI 318-99” correspond to inch-pound-second units. By default. For example. the ACI code is published in inch-pound-second units.

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English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. and Special (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions. But the code is based on Inch-Pound-Second units. Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise noted. SAP2000 provides options to design or check Ordinary.C h a p t e r III Design for ACI 318-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the ACI 318-99 Design Code (ACI 1999). The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. if a Design Load Combinations 17 . The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in the following sections. For the ACI 318-99 code. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table III-1. For simplicity. Intermediate (moderate seismic risk areas).

000.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Acv Ag As As¢ As (required ) Ast Av a ab b bf bw Cm c cb d d¢ ds Ec Es f c¢ fy f ys h Ig I se k L Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement.000 psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. in Coefficient. in Table III-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI code 18 Design Load Combinations . psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). sq-in Area of shear reinforcement. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. in Width of web (T-Beam section). psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. assumed as 29. sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. in4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length. neglecting reinforcement. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. psi Dimension of column. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. in Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. in Width of member. sq-in Gross area of concrete. dependent upon column curvature. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-in Depth of compression block.

lb-in Factored moment to be used in design. lb Factored axial load at section. lb-in Factored moment at section. lb Radius of gyration of column section. in Shear resisted by concrete. lb Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. lb-in Sway component of factored end moment. lb Shear force from span loading. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. lb-in Nonsway component of factored end moment. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column. lb-in Factored moment at section about X-axis.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 M1 M2 Mc M ns Ms Mu M ux M uy Pb Pc Pmax P0 Pu r Vc VE VD +L Vu Vp a b1 bd ds d ns ec es j Smaller factored end moment in a column. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. lb-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis. lb Critical buckling strength of column. lb Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor Table III-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI code (continued) Design Load Combinations 19 .

1 EL 0.75 (1.3. axial force.2.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only.2.75 (1.3 WL 0.2) (ACI 9.2.1). Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. the stress check may need only one load combination.3. = 0. namely 1. then the following load combinations have to be considered (ACI 9.7 These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the ACI 318-99 code is used. 20 Strength Reduction Factors .9 DL ± 1.90 for flexure.3.90 for axial tension. shear. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column).3.1) (ACI 9. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.2) (ACI 9.7 LL (ACI 9.2.7 LL ± 1.85 for shear and torsion.4 DL + 1.1) WL) * 1.75 (ACI 9.3.4 DL 1. and torsion are as follows: j j j j = 0.2.4 DL + 1. = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure.70 j = 0. However.2. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. and axial compression and flexure (tied column).1 EL) (ACI 9. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. in addition to the dead and live loads.2) (ACI 9.2.2) (ACI 9.7 LL 0.3) ± 1. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads. and j = 0.2).7 LL 0.2. 1.3) for axial compression.3 * 1.4 DL + 1.7 (ACI 9.2) (ACI 9. for axial compression. The j factors for flexure. j .9 DL ± 1.4 DL + 1.2. = 0.3.2.

The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user. See Figure II-2. the program checks the column capacity. However.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. square.2. Column Design 21 .9. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain.4. or circular column section.1). if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1.3). • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10.003 (ACI 10. e c . The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. at the extremity of the section to 0. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1.3. • Design the column shear reinforcement.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21. When the steel is undefined.3). Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10.

f y (ACI 10. See Figure III-1. with a stress value of 0.85 f c¢ (ACI 10. = 0.003 d' c εs1 εs2 1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c εs3 εs4 Ts3 Ts4 (i) Concrete Section (ii) Strain Diagram (iii) Stress Diagram Figure III-1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.80 j [ 0. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. e s E s . The effects of the strength reduction factor. See Figure III-1.85 f c¢ ( Ag .70 for tied columns.5.Ast ) + f y Ast ] spiral column. (ACI 10. 0.3.4). and = 0.2.2) 22 Column Design .7. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to jPn(max) . such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder.85 f c¢ ( Ag . where j j j j Pn(max) = 0. j .1).Ast ) + f y Ast ] tied column.3. and is limited to the yield stress of the steel.85 f'c εc = 0.2. are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity.85 j [0.5.1) Pn(max) = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column. (ACI 10.

therefore.12. For low values of axial load. j is increased linearly from j min to 0.9 (ACI 9.and M uy . where Pb is the axial force at the balanced condition. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns. d ns .2).3. moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken Column Design 23 . Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station of each column.and M uy . M ux .9 based on the axial load. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. giving Pu .2).3. lies within the interaction volume. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10. if required. Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases. M ux . Determine whether the point.6 + 0. In cases involving axial tension. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect). In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular station. The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway”. • Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. d s and for non-sway (individual column stability effect).9 as the axial load decreases from the smaller of Pb or 0. • Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments.03 h) inches. Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different. j is always 0.1 f c¢ Ag to zero. The program assumes that a P-D analysis has been performed in SAP2000 and.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 The value of j used in the interaction diagram varies from j min to 0. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu . to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.2.

and M 2 is the larger factored and amplified end moment. d ns . The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the non-sway ( M ns ) components.12.10. d s .75 Pc EI . where (ACI 10.3) M c is the factored moment to be used in design.7 live load)/j .2). associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.75 (1.3) d ns = Cm Pu 10.3).13.13). For the P-D analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of 0.13. as follows: Mc = d ns M 2 . where j is the understrength factor for stability which is taken as 0. and EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: 24 Column Design .12.75 (ACI 10. the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = M ns +ds M s . ( kl u ) 2 p 2 ³ 1. and are related to the cause of side sway.4 dead load + 1. The non-sway moment magnification factor. (ACI 10. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (ACI 10.0 . d ns . For individual columns or column-members in a floor.3) The factor d s is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. The non-sway components which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load. is taken as 1 because the component moments M s and M ns are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-D) analysis” (ACI R10. where Pc = k is conservatively taken as 1. however SAP2000 allows the user to override this value. See also White and Hajjar (1991).SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual as unity (ACI 10.12. The moment magnification factors for sway moments.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor.

the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu . the column is overstressed. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. C m = 1. C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis.75Pc .4 . M ux .and M uy . must be a positive number and greater than one. See Figure II-4. The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d ns .6 + 0. and M b is numerically larger than M a .4 (ACI 10. If transverse load is present on the span.3.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 0. d ns . The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. however. a capacity ratio is calculated. the column capacity is adequate. The magnification factor. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. C m = 0. M ux . The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. a failure condition is declared. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.4 E c I g 1 + bd EI = . or the length is overwritten. respectively. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outColumn Design 25 . The point (Pu . or for any other case. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0. M uy ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3. and maximum factored axial total load Ma Mb ³ 0. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. bd = maximum factored axial dead load .1) M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column.75Pc . If the point lies within the interaction volume. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. Therefore Pu must be less than 0.12.

The capacity ratio. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. respectively. is given by the ratio OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. CR. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. in addition to the factored moments. the shear design of the columns is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. OL . that can be resisted by concrete alone. • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. See Figure II-3. If the reinforcing area is not defined.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual wards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. V c . The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu . Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation.and M uy set and associated load combination number. 26 Column Design . M ux . For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames). • Determine the shear force. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section. • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of V c . Pu and V u .

and L M I+ + M J. M J- = L = Column Design 27 . V u . the forces for a particular load combination. and Clear span of column. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Pu . V u .5. the column axial force. • In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (seismic design) the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force. V u . where L = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.5. M I- M J+ . M u ticular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. of the column in a parpositive and negative moment capacities. M I+ .1) Vu =V p + V D+ L (ACI 21. and the column shear force. namely. the factored axial load. Pu . Then. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. in a particular direction is also calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. Therefore. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions.+ M J+ . where V P1 = V P2 = M I. is calculated. the design shear force in a column. For each load combination.4.0). the + and M u .Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Determine Section Forces • In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. is then given by (ACI 21.1) where.4.0). In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames.

2.25 (ACI R21. • If the column is subjected to axial tension.3) 28 Column Design . in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.3. (ACI 11.10. • For Intermediate moment resisting frames. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (j = 1.2.5.1. V c = 2 f c¢ ç 1 + ç è æ Pu 500 Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø Acv ³ 0 (ACI 11.2) where.1). Pu is negative.2) Pu 500 Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø 3.3). and æ ç1+ ç è (ACI 11.3. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and V u .1. V c . is calculated as follows: • If the column is subjected to axial compression.2) The term Pu must have psi units. Acv is the effective shear area which is shown Ag shaded in Figure III-2.3. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames. V c = 2 f c¢ ç 1 + ç è æ Pu 2000 Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø Acv . i.4. the shear force carried by the concrete. (ACI 11. except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the design nominal shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. Pu is positive. For most of the columns. it is zero.5 f c¢ Acv .e.0) moment capacity and factored shear force. f c¢ Vc £ £ 100 psi.25 (ACI R21. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.10). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.

5 V u ) (ACI 21. is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (V E ³ 0. including the earthquake effect is small ( Pu < f c¢ Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake. V c is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 • For Special moment resisting concrete frame design.5.4. Pu . Acv Column Design 29 .2). d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv b RECTANGULAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE Acv CIRCULAR Figure III-2 Shear Stress Area. V E .

Effects due to any axial forces.V c ) 8 f c¢ Acv (ACI 11. the strength reduction factor. Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing. load combination factors. The maximum of all the calculated Av values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label.6. is given by Av = (V u /j . shears. f ys d £ (ACI 11.2) (V u / j . SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. s.6. is 0.85 (ACI 9.3). minor direction bending.5.V c ) s . and other criteria described below.2.9) Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required.3. Here j . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given V u and V c . The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement 30 Beam Design . The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon shear strength consideration.

When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. or the grade of concrete. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Negative beam moments produce top steel. Beam Design 31 . The design procedure used by SAP2000. Intermediate. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. the width.3). In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.3. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.3). In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular.2). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure III-3 (ACI 10. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.3.or a T-beam.1 f c¢ Ag (ACI 10.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (ACI 10. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.and T-beams) is summarized below. hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maximum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.

003 b 0.e.2.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. M u .2.05 ç ç è = e c Es e c Es æ f c¢ 4000 ö ÷. Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows: b1 = 0. 87 000 + f y (ACI 10.3) cb +fy d = 87 000 d.85 .2. ε = 0. a = d - d2 - 2 Mu 0.85 f c¢ j b . designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure III-3).4) The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max = 0. the value of j is 0. (i. 10.3.85.90 (ACI 9.7.85f'c A's Cs d' c a= 1c d As (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tc (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure III-3 Design of Rectangular Beam Section where. 1000 ÷ ø - 0. (ACI 10.65 £ b1 £ 0.2.75 b1 c b .7.1) 32 Beam Design .1) in the above and the following equations.0.3.2. where. (ACI 10.

and ù ú û j the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As 2 = M us . – Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us = Mu - M uc . f y ( d .3.003 E s é c . ö ÷ ø This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M u is positive.d¢ ) j Beam Design 33 . the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by Mu f æ y çd è a 2 . compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.7.1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is M uc æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷ j ø . – So the required compression steel is given by As¢ f s¢ = M us .d¢ ) j ¢ = 0. (ACI 10.2.85 f c¢ ba max .2. • If a > a max .3) and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0.max ê 2 ë . or at the top if M u is negative.d¢ ù ê ë c ú û .4) – The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1 = M uc a f y é d .Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 • If a As = j £ a max . where f s ( d . and (ACI 10.

(i.2. bf ds (ACI 10.7. Design for T-Beam In designing for a factored negative moment.75 b1 c b . no T-Beam data is to be used. If M u > 0 . M u ..e. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max . the total tensile reinforcement. However. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design.e. 0. designing top steel). the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . in this case the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. As = As1 + As 2 . i. As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top if M u is positive.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual – Therefore. 34 Beam Design .85f'c d' As' c d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure III-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • If a £ d s .85f'c 0.1) ε = 0.003 0. the depth of the compression block is given by a = d - d2 - 2Mu . and vice versa if M u is negative. See Figure III-4.85 f c¢ j b f The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by a max = 0.

1) Beam Design 35 .3) and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C ¢ = 0. as shown in Figure III-4. The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d . M u to be carried by the web is given by M uw = M u - M uf . compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by M uw æ y çd è j f a1 2 . (ACI 10. As1 = given by M uf = C f æ ç è Cf fy and the portion of M u that is resisted by the flange is d - ds 2 ö ÷j ø .85 f c ( b f . C w . calculation for As is done in two parts. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. C f .85 f c ba max . C f is given by Cf ¢ = 0. • If a1 > a max . Therefore. the value for j is 0.b w )d s .Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 • If a > d s .3. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d - d2 - 2 M uw . the balance of the moment.7.2. 0. and ö ÷ ø As = As1 + As 2 . Again. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.85 f c¢ j b w • If a1 As 2 = £ a max .90. Therefore.

and the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us = M uw - M uc . – Therefore.003 E s é c . where f s ( d .d¢ ù ê ë c ú û . 3 (ACI 10.4) – The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As 2 = M uc a max f yæ çd 2 è . As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 .d¢ ) j ¢ = 0.d¢ ) j – The total tensile reinforcement. the compression steel is computed as As¢ f s¢ = M us . Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ³ max í ï î ì3 ï f c¢ fy b w d and ü 200 ï b w d ý or fy ï þ (ACI 10. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . and ö ÷j ø the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As 3 = M us .2.5. f y ( d .3) 36 Beam Design .5.1) As ³ 4 As (required ). As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual – Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is M uc æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷j ø . (ACI 10.

Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) (ACI 21. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: • At any support of the beam. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table III-2 for comprehensive listing) : • The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top and bottom.10.10.4.2.e.1).Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).3) • The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ³ 0. 3 (ACI 10. For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).2).4.1). As(min) ³ max í ï î ì3 ï f c¢ fy b w d and ü 200 ï b w d ý or fy ï þ (ACI 10.3. • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.2.5. • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.5.2).3. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.3.1) As(min) ³ 4 As (required ) .025 b w d . (ACI 21.1) • At any end (support) of the beam. Beam Design 37 .2. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21.1).2. the beam positive moment capacity (i.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than ½ of the beam negative moment capacity (i.3.

is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces.1) Vu =V p + V D+ L (ACI 21. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Column Design” on page 27.3. that can be resisted by the concrete. V c . The shear force. This check is done in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the probable shear due to the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. the shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. Therefore.3. • Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. V u . • In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). V u .1) where. where 38 Beam Design .4. See also Table III-2 for details. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames).4. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored shear force. in addition to the factored load design. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. respectively. • Determine the shear force. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors. The design shear force V u is then given by (ACI 21.

using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the design nominal shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads.0). using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. V P1 = V P2 = M I- M J+ = M I+ = M J- = Moment capacity at end J.0). with top steel in tension.3. and L M I+ + M J.25 (ACI R21.10). is also the same as that for columns. with top steel in tension. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force. except that a is taken equal to 1 rather than 1. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.0). using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.4. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. For Special moment resisting frames a is taken as 1.Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 M I.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames. Beam Design 39 .0). where L = Moment capacity at end I. with bottom steel in tension.25 (ACI R21. which is described earlier on page 28. The procedure for calculating nominal (j = 1. Moment capacity at end I. and L = Clear span of beam.3). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame.10.1). • For Intermediate moment resisting frames. with bottom steel in tension.+ M J+ . Moment capacity at end J. See also Table III-2 for details. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.

3.e.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by V c = 2 f c¢ b w d .3).3.2.5 V u ) (ACI 21. V E ³ 0.6.85 (ACI 9. is 0. V c is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force including the earthquake effect Pu is less than f c¢ Ag / 20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V E is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member V u (i.3. (ACI 11.1.9) where. j . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given V u and V c . the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (V u /j . The maximum of all the calculated Av values. the strength reduction factor.6.1) For Special moment resisting frame concrete design. f ys d (ACI 11.V c ) s . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5.2) The shear force resisted by steel is limited by V u /j - Vc £ 8 f c¢ bd .5.4. obtained from each load combination. (ACI 11.2). The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely upon shear strength considerations. 40 Beam Design . is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.

0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 a NLD = Number of specified loading Table III-2 Design Criteria Table Beam Design 41 .. Moment Override Check No Requirement + M uSPAN M uSPAN - 1 M uEND 3 1 ³ max M u+ .Chapter III Design for ACI 318-99 Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (Interaction) Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (non-Seismic) Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Capacity ϕ = 1.025 3 fc¢ 200 . M u4 Column Shears NLD Combinations a Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations + M uEND ³ Beam Min.r ³ r³ fy fy 1 M uEND 2 1 ³ max M u+ . M u4 1 ³ max M u.25 and ϕ = 1.0 NLDa Combinations α = 1. M u5 1 ³ max M u+ .0 and α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations and Column shear capacity ϕ = 1.25 NLDa Combinations r £ 0. M u5 + M uEND ³ { { } } END + M uSPAN { } END END M uSPAN { } END Beam Design Shear NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with α = 1.0 and α = 1.0 plus VD+L NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (VP ) with α = 1.

.

all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Kip-Second units unless otherwise noted. and 4 (high seismic activity) as required for seismic design provisions. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should help satisfy requirements for the design of most bridge type structures. 2. 3. For simplicity. SAP2000 provides options to design or check moment resisting frames of Zones 1 (low seismic activity).C h a p t e r IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AASHTO LRFD 1997 Design Code (AASHTO 1997). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table IV-1. 43 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The details of the design criteria used for the different seismic zones are described in the following sections. But the code is based on Inch-Kip-Second units. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.

in Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). ksi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sq-in Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Acv Ag As As¢ As (required ) Ast Av a ab a max b bf bw Cm c cb d d¢ ds Ec Es f c¢ fy f yh h Ig I se k L Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. neglecting reinforcement.000 ksi Specified compressive strength of concrete. in Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. sq-in Gross area of concrete. in Width of member. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. in Coefficient. assumed as 29. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. ksi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. in Width of web (T-Beam section). sq-in Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. in Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). dependent upon column curvature. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. sq-in Depth of compression block. in4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. ksi Dimension of column. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Table IV-1 List of Symbols Used in the AASHTO code 44 . used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement.

kip Euler buckling strength of column. kip Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. kip-in Factored moment at section. kip Shear force from span loading. kip Maximum axial load strength allowed.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 M1 M2 Mc Mb Ms Mu M ux M uy Pb Pe Pmax P0 Pu r Vc VD +L Vu Vp a b b1 bd q ds db ec es j Smaller factored end moment in a column. kip-in Factored moment to be used in design. kip Factored shear force at a section. kip-in Larger factored end moment in a column. kip-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. kip Reinforcing steel overstrength factor is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load An angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses with the longitudinal axis of beam or column Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway (braced) moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor Table IV-1 List of Symbols Used in the AASHTO code (continued) 45 . kip-in Factored moment at section about Y-axis. kip-in Factored moment at section about X-axis. kip-in Nonsway component of factored end moment. kip Factored axial load at section. kip Radius of gyration of column section. kip-in Sway component of factored end moment. in Shear resisted by concrete. kip Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity.

90 DL ± 1. and earthquake loads (EL). dead load of wearing surface and utilities (DW). downdrag (DD).50 DL 1. Each type of dead load case requires a separate load factor.75 LL 0.25 DL + 1.5 LL (Strength-IV) (Strength-I) (Strength-III) (Strength-III) (Strength-V) (Extreme-I) (Extreme-I) ± 0. There are six types of dead loads: dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments (DC). If the structure is subjected to structural dead load (DL). wind load (WL). vehicular dynamic load allowance (IM). the following default load combinations have been considered for Strength and Extreme Event limit states (AASHTO 3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. vertical earth pressure load (EV).35 LL 0. However.0 EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AASHTO LRFD 1997 code is used.25 DL ± 1.4 WL 1. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. the user has full control of the definition of loads and load combinations. live load (LL). earth surcharge load (ES).4 WL 1.4. All these load cases require the same factor and do not need to be treated separately.25 DL + 0. and live load surcharge (LS). There are more different types of loads specified in the code than are considered in the current implementation of the default load combinations. 46 Design Load Combinations . vehicular centrifugal force (CE). vehicular braking force (BR).0 EL 1. There are six types of live loads: vehicular live load (LL). The user is expected to define the other load combinations as necessary.90 DL ± 1.1).25 DL + 1. horizontal earth pressure load (EH). and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. 1.40 WL ± 1. pedestrian live load (PL).

(AASHTO 5. For low values of axial load.1) (AASHTO 5.4. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user.1) (AASHTO 5. j is increased linearly from 0. axial force.9 as the axial load decreases from 0.5. When the steel is undefined.2. j is always 0. shear. the program checks the column capacity. or axial compression and flexure.5. 5.5. For low values of axial load.2.1b) j = 0. For seismic design in Zones 3 and 4.2. = 0.4.4.2 f c¢ Ag to zero (AASHTO 5. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. = 0.75 to 0.11.11.5. In cases involving axial tension.1). Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.5.9 based on the axial load.10. However.90 for axial tension and flexure.9 (AASHTO 5.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. and torsion are as follows: j j j j j = 0. and = 0.1 f c¢ Ag to zero (AASHTO 5.4.2.2.3. j is increased linearly from 0. (AASHTO 5.4.4.10. the value of j involving axial compression and flexure varies from 0.4.1) for axial compression only.90 for axial tension.9 as the axial load decreases from 0.1) for axial compression only.5.5 to 0. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement ratio (Ast Ag ) Strength Reduction Factors 47 .75 to 0. j .4.1b).4. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.5.90 for flexure. The j factors for flexure.2.1).75 (AASHTO 5.1) (AASHTO 5. = 0. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user. or axial compression and flexure in seismic zone 3 and 4.50 The value of j involving axial compression and flexure varies from 0.9 based on the axial load.4.5.2.90 for shear and torsion.5 to 0.2.

A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1. See Figure IV-1.10.2.7. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (AASHTO 5.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual 0. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder.08 for moment resisting frames (AASHTO 5.1). and is limited to the yield stress of the steel. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column.7. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. • Design the column shear reinforcement. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. f y (AASHTO 5. e s E s . Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface.06 for ductile moment resisting frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4 (AASHTO 5. at the extremity of the section to 0.4.1a).2) and 0.11.1).003 (AASHTO 5. square.2. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column.4. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending. e c . 48 Column Design .7.0 when calculating the required reinforcing area. The target capacity ratio is taken as 1.01 to 0. See Figure II-2. or circular column section.135 f c¢ f y to 0.7). The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity.

(AASHTO 5. (AASHTO 5.1) The limit of f y is taken to be 75 ksi for all frames: fy £ 75 ksi.85 .7.2.85 f c¢ (AASHTO 5.1) The interaction algorithm provides a correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. 5.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 0. See Figure IV-1. (AASHTO 5. with a stress value of 0.4).003 d' c εs1 εs2 1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c εs3 εs4 Ts3 Ts4 (i) Concrete Section (ii) Strain Diagram (iii) Stress Diagram Figure IV-1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular (AASHTO 5.2.2). and The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 10 ksi for all seismic regions: f c¢ £ 10 ksi. are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.1.2) (AASHTO 5.2. where b1 = 0.7. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to Pmax .2.1). j .4. The depth of the stress block of b1 c.85 f'c εc = 0.4.85.2) 0.65 £ b1 £ 0.2.0.3.7. The effects of the strength reduction factor.05 ( f c¢ . where Column Design 49 .7.

4. • Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments.85 j [0. In cases involving axial tension.5.9 as the axial load decreases from 0.1). The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. M ux .4.85 f c¢ ( Ag .2. lies within the interaction volume.4.2. For seismic design in Zones 3 and 4. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. j is always 0.and M uy .2 f c¢ Ag to zero (AASHTO 5.1b). the value of j involving axial compression and flexure varies from 0. j is increased linearly from 0.9 based on the axial load. j is increased linearly from 0. For low values of axial load.9 as the axial load decreases from 0. giving Pu . Determine whether the point. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu .9 (AASHTO 5.and M uy . • Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. 50 Column Design .Ast ) + f y Ast ] spiral column. For low values of axial load. Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases. (AASHTO 5.11.4) Pmax = 0.7. Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station of each column.5 to 0.10.75 to 0. (AASHTO 5.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Pmax = 0.80 j [ 0.7.4) The value of j involving axial compression and flexure varies from 0. The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “braced” or “unbraced”.9 based on the axial load.4.85 f c¢ ( Ag .5.75 to 0.5 to 0.1). In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular station.4.1 f c¢ Ag to zero (AASHTO 5. M ux .Ast ) + f y Ast ] tied column. The computed moments are further amplified by using “Moment Magnification Factors” to allow for stability effects.

7. For individual columns or column-members in a floor. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (AASHTO 4.2b) k is taken as 1.2.3.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect).2.2.5. where j is the resistance factor for axial compression which is taken as 0.3.5.5 for seismic zones 3 and 4 by default (AASHTO 5.3. and Column Design 51 . d b .2.3). d s .5.4.2b). db = Cm P 1.5. the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M =db M b +ds M s .5. d ns . ( kL) 2 2 (AASHTO 4.2. (AASHTO 4.2b) The factor d s is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. where (AASHTO 4. The non-sway or braced components which are identified by “b” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load.2. Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different.1). This factor is taken as 1 because the component moments M s and M b are obtained from a “second order elastic (P-D) analysis”.4. See also White and Hajjar (1991).6.75 for seismic zones 1 and 2. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the nonsway ( M b ) components. however SAP2000 allows the user to override this value (AASHTO 4. moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity (AASHTO 4.0 .2b) Pe = EI .3). and as 0.5.5. The program assumes that a P-D analysis has been performed in SAP2000 and. 5. The nonsway moment magnification factor. For the P-D analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of (1.25 dead load + 1. and for nonsway or braced (individual column stability effect).u j Pe p ³ 1.35 live load) /j .3. therefore. and are related to the cause of side sway. The sway components are identified by “s” subscripts.

The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports and the member is braced against side-sway. The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. the column is overstressed. d b . If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to jPe . C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis. a failure condition is declared. the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d b . Therefore Pu must be less than jPe . See Figure II-4. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu .7. If transverse load is present on the span.7. M uy ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3.and M uy .4.4 .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: EI = E c I g 2. and M b is numerically larger than M a . M ux . If the point lies within the interaction volume.2b) M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column. M ux . must be a positive number and greater than one.5.4 (AASHTO 4. The above calculations use the unsupported lengths of the column. 52 Column Design .6 + 0. respectively. the column capacity is adequate. or the length is overwritten. a capacity ratio is calculated.5 1 + bd . (AASHTO 5.2. M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.3) bd = maximum factored dead load moment .3) C m = 0. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. C m = 1. or for any other case. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. The point (Pu .3.4. however. and maximum factored total load moment Ma Mb ³ 0. The magnification factor. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. (AASHTO 5.

is given by the ratio .10. M ux . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. Note that M u and Pu are needed for the calculation of v c . Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C.and M uy set and associated load combination number. OL The capacity ratio. OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. For moment resisting frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu . Point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface.4. M u . v c . Pu and V u . that can be resisted by concrete alone. CR. the shear design of the columns is also based upon the overstrength moment capacities of the members in addition to the factored moments (AASHTO 3. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. See Figure II-3. Column Design 53 . • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section.3). If the reinforcing area is not defined.9. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. • Determine the shear stress. This point is determined by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.

the column axial force.3.4. M I.10. Pu . V u .4. Then.= Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column obtained by multiplying the nominal resistance by 1. M u ticular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.= Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column obtained by multiplying the nominal resistance by 1. Therefore. the forces for a particular load combination. the factored axial load. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.+ M J+ . is calculated. M J+ . the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the moment resisting frames in Zones 1 and 2. namely. where M I. and L = Clear span of column. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 . the + and M u . V u .10. is then given by (AASHTO 3.10. the design shear force in a column.9.4. For each load combination.3) Vu =V p + V D+ L (AASHTO 3. Pu . and the column shear force.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Section Forces • In the design of the column shear reinforcement of moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 1 and 2. M J. where L M I+ . The design shear force. and V P1 = L V P2 = M I+ + M J. 54 Column Design . In the design of moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4.3) where. in a particular direction is also calculated from the overstrength moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column (AASHTO 3.9.3). V u .3. of the column in a parpositive and negative moment capacities.9. • In the shear design of moment resisting frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4 (seismic design).

v c is taken as that given earlier (AASHTO 5.11. including the earthquake effect is small ( Pu £ 0. v max .4.10. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as. For most of the columns. is limited to a maximum limit.8.3. v c . It is a function of stress condition and its approximate value is 2. See also Table IV-2 for details. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set M u .3) where. v .1c).8. v c is set to: v c = 0.10.3) if compressive axial force is high ( Pu > 0. (AASHTO 5. is calculated as follows: • For designing moment resisting concrete frames in any seismic zone.1c). • For designing moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4.4. This provision is applied to all locations of the column irrespective of whether it is in the end region or not. bw d For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv .8.3. (AASHTO 5.3.8. Pu .3.2-1 through an iterative procedure.8. the shear capacity provided by the concrete alone. if the factored axial compressive force. It is computed from AASHTO Table 5.4. Pu and V u .3.3. v c is taken as zero if axial force is tensile.3.0316 b f c¢ . given by v max = 0.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. v= Vu .0 (AASHTO 5. v c is linearly interpolated between zero and that given by AASHTO 5.4.8. • The average shear stress.1 f c¢ Ag ) (AASHTO 5. it is zero.3) Column Design 55 .25 f c¢ . b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension.1). the effective shear area which is shown in Figure IV-2.11.1 f c¢ Ag ) (AASHTO 5.

Here the default value of j .4) < Av s else if Av s else if Av s =0.3. (AASHTO 5. (AASHTO 5. 5.3.90 (AASHTO 5.1d) The maximum of all the calculated Av s values.4.8. The limit of f yh is taken to be 60 ksi for all frames: f yh £ 60 ksi.0316 . a failure condition is declared.2-1 through an iterative procedure.3) = -j v c ) bw .10. is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.8. j vc 2 v £j vc + 0. (AASHTO 5. (AASHTO 5. = 0.1) In calculating the shear reinforcement for seismic moment resisting frames in Zone 3 and 4.8) The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 10 ksi for all seismic regions: f c¢ £ 10 ksi.5. (AASHTO 5.4.2.0316 f c¢ cot q . a limit was imposed on the f ys as f ys £ f y.8. is 0.1).8.5) j < v £j v max .8.1).3.3) Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses. (AASHTO 5.4.2. f yh cot q else if v > v max .4.8.11. 56 Column Design .4.2. f c¢ cot q (AASHTO 5.8.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v £j vc 2 .0316 f c¢ b w f yh vc (v j + 0. It is computed from AASHTO Table 5. It is a function of current stress condition and its approximate value is 45 degree (AASHTO 5. the strength reduction factor. obtained from each load combination.3.1.2.2.

1c) The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations.4.4. 18 ¢¢ (AASHTO 5.6) In potential plastic hinge locations.10.11.11.11.10.10.4.11. The length of the plastic hinge. l 6 .1d) é 1.30 f c¢ h core f yh f c¢ h core f yh (Stirrups) (AASHTO 5.1d) In the above equations.5 + ú f c¢ Ag û ë (Stirrups) (AASHTO 5. Column Design 57 . the minimum area of transverse circular hoop reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s ³ 0.10. the minimum area of circular hoops and transverse stirrups is imposed as follows: Av s Av s Av s é 1.4. of Seismic moment resisting frames in Zones 2.7.1d) f yh £ For the definition of the potential plastic hinge. as described later.25 Pu ù . b .1d) (AASHTO 5.11. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.16 ê0.12 ê0.25 Pu ù ³ 0. it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plastic hinge.4.45 é Ag ù -1 ê ú ë Ac û f c¢ h core f yh 4 (AASHTO 5.25 Pu ù ³ 0.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 For all columns and at any station.1d) ³ 0. the following limits are imposed: é ê0.11. 3 and 4. ú ³ 10 f c¢ Ag û fy (AASHTO 5. in a column is taken as follows: Lhinge = max h .4. Lhinge .5 + ú f c¢ Ag û ë é Ag ù -1 ê ú ë Ac û f c¢ h core f yh 4 (Hoops) (AASHTO 5.10.5 + ë 1.10.4.

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv b RECTANGULAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE Acv CIRCULAR Figure IV-2 Shear Stress Area. Acv 58 Column Design .

and other criteria described below. load combination factors. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. The beam section is then designed for the maximum + positive M u and maximum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Negative beam moments produce top steel. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. shears. minor direction bending.or a T-beam. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Effects due to any axial forces. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Beam Design 59 .Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of moment resisting concrete beams.

1 where.4.1) in the above and the following equations.42 d (AASHTO 5.7).2.1) (AASHTO 5.2. 0.7.3. the width.85. a = d - d2 - 2 Mu 0. Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows: b1 = 0.1) cb = +fy = 87 d.3.e. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the following limits are imposed on the steel tensile strength and the concrete compressive strength: f c¢ fy £ 10 £ ksi.2) (AASHTO 5. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this limiting condition. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure IV-3). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.4. (AASHTO 5.7. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure IV-3 (AASHTO 5.1) 75 ksi.3.7.1).90 (AASHTO 5.05 e c Es e c Es f c¢ d - 4 . Furthermore it is assumed that the maximum depth of compression block is limited to 0. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The design procedure used by SAP2000.1. the value of j is 0.2.and T-beams) is summarized below. (i.85 .85 f c¢ j b .2. Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.2. 87 + f y 60 Beam Design . M u .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. In designing the beam flexural reinforcement.4. is computed as.7.65 £ b1 £ 0. or the grade of concrete.0. (AASHTO 5. 5. (AASHTO 5.

42d .3.3.2.7.85 f c¢ ba max .3.2) Beam Design 61 .2.7. and (AASHTO 5.1). (AASHTO 5.7. • If a > a max (AASHTO 5. or at the top if M u is negative.7.2.1). ö ÷ ø This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M u is positive.1) ε = 0.3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max = min b1 c b .85f'c A's Cs d' c a= 1c d As (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tc (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure IV-3 Design of Rectangular Beam Section • If a £ a max (AASHTO 5.7.003 b 0. 5. 0. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As = j Mu f æ y çd è a 2 .3.3.

Design for Flexure of a T-Beam (i) Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top if M u is positive.1) – The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1 = M uc . and a f y ( d . M u .a 1 f c¢ )( d ¢ .7.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual the moment resisted by concrete compression and bottom steel is M uc æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷ j ø . the total tensile reinforcement.d¢ ) j .2.d¢ ù ê ë c ú û . no T-Beam data is to be used. and vice versa. where = 0. (i.003 E s é c . and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . – Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us = Mu - M uc . the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above. (AASHTO 5. the depth of the compression block is given by (see Figure IV-4). As = As1 + As 2 .d¢ ) j – Therefore. 62 Beam Design . i.max ) j 2 the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As 2 = M us .. (ii) Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M u > 0. f y ( d . – So the required compression steel is given by As¢ f s¢ = M us ( f s . designing top steel).e.e.

2.42d .2.2.2. 0.1) in the above and the following equations.3.2) Therefore.3. C f . 0. the balance of the moment. As shown in Figure IV-4.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 2Mu . However.85 .1) cb = The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max = min b1 c b .85 f c ( b f . calculation for As is done in two parts.4. 0. (AASHTO 5.2.85. Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows: b1 = 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously done for the rectangular section design.1) (AASHTO 5. As1 = given by M uf = C f æ ç è Cf fy and the portion of M u that is resisted by the flange is d - b1 d s ö ÷j 2 ø .7. 87 + f y f c¢ - 4 .90 (AASHTO 5. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.1) where. M u to be carried by the web is given by M uw = M u - M uf .05 87 d.2. C w .2.2.7.7. Therefore.85 f c¢ j b f a = d - d2 - (AASHTO 5.1) • If a £ b1 d s (AASHTO 5. The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d .2).85 f c¢ j b w Beam Design 63 .2). and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.0.7. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max . 5.7.65 £ b1 £ 0.2. Cf ¢ = 0. • If a > b1 d s (AASHTO 5. 0.3. (AASHTO 5.3.7.5.3. the value of j is 0. (AASHTO 5. in this case b f is taken as the width of the beam.7.7.b w ) b1 d s . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d - d2 - 2 M uw .

3. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As 2 = j M uw f æ y çd è a1 2 .85 f c ba max .85f'c d' As' c d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure IV-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • If a1 £ a max (AASHTO 5.3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C ¢ = 0. and ö ÷ ø As = As1 + As 2 . (AASHTO 5. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam. and 64 Beam Design .7.7.1).2) – Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is M uc æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷j ø .2. • If a1 > a max (AASHTO 5.003 0.1).7.3.3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual bf ds ε = 0.85f'c 0.

As is to be placed at bottom and As¢ is to be placed at top.7.2) The minimum flexural tensile steel provided to prevent premature flexural failure in a rectangular section is given by: As ³ min í0. As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 . as follows: Beam Design 65 .8.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed.d¢ ) j .003 E s é c .d¢ ) j – The total tensile reinforcement.2.Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us = M uw - M uc .0015 b w d ý or þ ü (AASHTO 5. upon request.a 1 f c¢ )( d ¢ . – Therefore.d¢ ù ê ë c ú û £ fy . the compression steel is computed as As¢ f s¢ = M us ( f s .7.3.03 î ì f c¢ b w d and fy ü 4 As (required ) ý or 3 þ (AASHTO 5.3.1) – The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As 2 = M uc . and a max )j f y (d 2 the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As 3 = M us .10. Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum temperature and shrinkage flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section is given by: As ³ min í î ì 0.11 fy b w d and 0. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ . f y ( d . (AASHTO 5. where = 0.2) An upper limit of 0.

the shear design of the beams is also based upon the overstrength moment capacities of the members in addition to the factored moments (AASHTO 3. is also calculated from the overstrength moment capacities of the beam (AASHTO 3.4. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.10.3) 66 Beam Design . V u .10.4. • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.3).04 b d £í î0. the design shear force in a beam. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the moment resisting frames in Zones 1 and 2.4. Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 1 and 2.10. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section. In the design of moment resisting concrete frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4. Note that M u is needed for the calculation of v c . The design shear force V u is then given by Vu =V p + V D+ L (AASHTO 3.9.04 b w d ì 0. • Determine the shear stress.04 b w d As As¢ Rectangular beam T -beam Rectangular beam T -beam Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. • In the shear design of moment resisting frames in seismic Zones 3 and 4 (seismic design). v c .04 b d £í î0. For moment resisting frames in seismic zones 3 and 4.9.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual ì 0. that can be resisted by concrete alone.3).9. M u and V u .

Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 where V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 , where V P1 = V P2 = M I- + M J+ , and L M I+ + M J, where L

M I+ , M I- = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the beam obtained by multiplying the nominal resistance by 1.3, M J+ , M J- = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the beam obtained by multiplying the nominal resistance by 1.3, and L = Clear span of beam.

V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. See also Table IV-2 for details.

**Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

Given the design force set M u and V u , the shear capacity provided by the concrete alone, v c , is calculated as follows: • For designing moment resisting concrete frames in any seismic zone, v c is set to: v c = 0.0316 b f c¢ , (AASHTO 5.8.3.3)

where, b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension. It is a function of stress condition and its approximate value is 2.0 (AASHTO 5.8.3.4.1). It is computed from AASHTO Table 5.8.3.4.2-1 through an iterative procedure.

**Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

• The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as, v= Vu . bw d

Beam Design

67

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv , the effective shear area which is shown in Figure IV-2. • The average shear stress, v , is limited to a maximum limit, v max , given by v max

=

0.25 f c¢ .

(AASHTO 5.8.3.3)

**• The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v
**

£j

vc 2 , (AASHTO 5.8.2.4)

<

Av s else if Av s else if Av s

=0,

j

vc 2

v

£j

vc

+ 0.0316

f c¢ cot q ,

=

0.0316 f c¢ b w f yh vc (v

j + 0.0316

, f c¢ cot q

(AASHTO 5.8.2.5)

j

<

v

£j

v max , (AASHTO 5.8.3.3)

=

-j

v c ) bw , f yh cot q

else if v > v max , a failure condition is declared. (AASHTO 5.8.3.3)

Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses. It is a function of the current stress condition and its approximate value is 45 degrees (AASHTO 5.8.3.4.1). It is computed from AASHTO Table 5.8.3.4.2-1 through an iterative procedure. Here the default value of j , the strength reduction factor, is 0.90 (AASHTO 5.5.4.2.1). The limit of f yh is taken to be 60 ksi for all frames: f yh

£ 60

ksi.

(AASHTO 5.8.2.8)

**The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 10 ksi for all seismic regions: f c¢
**

£ 10

ksi.

(AASHTO 5.1, 5.4.2.1)

68

Beam Design

Chapter IV Design for AASHTO LRFD 1997 The maximum of all the calculated Av s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Beam Design

69

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Type of Check/Design

Moment Resisting Frames in Zones 1 and 2 (non-Seismic)

Moment Resisting Frames in Zones 3 and 4 (Seismic)

j In Compression

Column Check (Interaction) Column Design (Interaction)

j = 0.75, if Pu > 0.10 fc¢

NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 0.135 fc fy < r < 0.08 NLDa Combinations

¢

j = 0.50, if Pu > 0.20 fc¢

NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 0.01 < r < 0.06 NLDa Combinations and Column capacity shear (VP ) with overstrength factor 1.3 vc = 0.0316 b fc¢ if Pu ³ 0.1 fc¢ Ag

Column Shears

vc = 0.0316 b fc

¢

vc = 0.0316 b fc¢

Pu ³ 0 otherwise 0.1 fc¢ Ag

Minimum volumetric shear reinforcement in potential plastic hinge only for Zone 2

Minimum volumetric shear reinforcement in potential plastic hinge for both Zone 3 and 4

Beam Design (Flexure)

NLDa Combinations

NLDa Combinations r £ 0.025 3 fc¢ 200 ,r ³ r³ fy fy 0.11 bw d , 0.0015 bw d , fy 0.03 fc¢ 4 , As,required ff 3

Beam Minimum Flexural Reinforcement

0.11 bw d , 0.0015 bw d , fy 0.03 fc¢ 4 , As,required ff 3

NLDa Combinations Beam Design (Shear)

NLDa Combinations Beam capacity shear (VP ) with overstrength factor 1.3 vc = 0.0316 b fc¢

vc = 0.0316 b fc¢

a

NLD = Number of specified loading

Table IV-2 Design Criteria Table

70

Beam Design

Chapter V

**Design for CSA-A23.3-94
**

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the Canadian code, CSA-A23.3-94 (CSA 1994). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table V-1. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. SAP2000 provides options to design or check Ordinary, Nominal (moderate seismic risk areas), and Ductile (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in the following sections. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted.

71

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Acv Acore Ag As As¢ As (required ) Ast Av a ab b bf bw Cm c cb d d¢ ds Ec Es f c¢ fy f yh h Ig I st k L M1

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-mm Area of concrete core, sq-mm Gross area of concrete, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), mm Width of web (T-Beam section), mm Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, mm Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Dimension of beam or column, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, mm4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section, mm4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length, mm Smaller factored end moment in a column, N-mm Table V-1 List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code

72

N Reinforcing steel overstrength factor is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension An angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses with the longitudinal axis of beam or column Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Factor for obtaining average compressive stress in concrete block Absolute value of the ratio of the maximum factored axial dead load moment to the maximum factored total load moment Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Moment magnification factor for sway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor for concrete Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Shear strength factor Table V-1 List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code (continued) 73 . N Maximum axial load strength allowed. N Critical buckling strength of column. N-mm Factored moment at section about Y-axis. N Shear resisted by concrete. N-mm Factored moment at section. N Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. N-mm Factored moment to be used in design. N-mm Factored moment at section about X-axis. N Shear force at a section resisted by steel.3-94 M2 Mc M ns Ms Mf M fx M fy Pb Pc Pr. N-mm Sway component of factored end moment. N-mm Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. N Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. N Shear force from span loading.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. N Factored axial load at section. N Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Nonsway component of factored end moment.max P0 Pf Vc VD +L Vp Vf Vs a b q b1 a1 bd db ds ec es jc js jm l Larger factored end moment in a column.

00 DL ± 1.4. In connection with buckling resistance.25 DL ± 1.7 (1.85 DL ± 1.2) (CSA 8.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. live load (LL).25 DL 1.50 EL 1. is used as an additional reduction factor in addition to j c and j s (CSA 8.50 LL (CSA 8. and earthquake (EL) loads.2 ) (CSA 8. Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.25 DL + 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.4.3.3.1).2) ± 1. is material dependent and is defined as jc js = 0.60 for concrete and = 0. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).00 EL) These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the Canadian Code is used.00 DL + (0.3): 1. j . a member resistance factor.75 (CSA 10.15. or pattern live loads are to be considered.3.3) In some special cases. For this code.50 LL 1. 74 Design Load Combinations . the importance factor is taken as 1. (CSA 8. wind (WL).50 LL 1.3). In generating the above default loading combinations. other types of loads are present. j m .50 WL 1.85 for steel. j m is taken as 0.50 WL 0. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. then the following load combinations may have to be considered (CSA 8. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4.25 DL + 0.50 WL) (CSA 8.2) ± 1.

9. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction surface is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated in the three-dimensional interaction failure space. Column Design 75 .0035 (CSA 10. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user.4. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting frames (CSA 10. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending.1). the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. e c .1. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1.1). However. the program checks the column capacity. square. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column.3).9.1 and CSA 10.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. or circular column section. to 0. • Design the column shear reinforcement. See Figure II-2. at the extremity of the section.3-94 Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. When the steel is undefined.3. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (CSA 10.2) and 1 to 6 percent for Ductile moment resisting frames (CSA 21. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations.

67 .0.0025 f c¢ .3. e s E s . a 1 ³ 0. α1 f'c 1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c εc = 0.1) 76 Column Design .1. f c¢ . and is limited to the yield stress of the steel.0.6. The depth of the stress block is b1 c.1. where a 1 = 0.0035 d' c εs1 εs2 εs3 εs4 Ts3 Ts4 (i) Concrete Section (ii) Strain Diagram (iii) Stress Diagram Figure V-1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.7). See Figure V-1. (CSA 10.3.2).67 b1 ³ 0.5.1) (CSA 21.1. f y (CSA 8.2.85 . See Figure V-1.97 . The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). with a stress value of a 1 f c¢ (CSA 10.0015 b1 = 0. The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c¢ f c¢ £ 80 £ 55 MPa MPa (Ordinary) (Nominal and Ductile) (CSA 8.7) (CSA 10.7) .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity.1.

Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. The effects of the strength reduction factors are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.10. M fx . Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load conditions. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. where the maximum factored axial load resistance is given by Pr.Ast ) + j s f y Ast ] (tied column). Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are applied in two different stages.10.3-94 The limit of f y is taken to be 500 MPa for all frames: fy £ 500 MPa. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give P f . The maximum compressive axial load is limited to Pr. (CSA 10.1) The interaction algorithm provides a correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. First the moments are separated into their “sway” and “non-sway” components. The computed moments are further amplified by using “Moment Magnification Factors” to allow for “Lateral Drift Effect” and “Member Stability Effect”.max = 0.Ast ) + j s f y Ast ] (spiral column). and M fy .80 [ j c Pr. Although according to Column Design 77 . Determine whether the point. and M fy .max . • Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location.max = 0. M fx . lies within the interaction volume.16). (CSA 8.85 [ j c a1 a1 f c¢ ( Ag . (CSA 10. • Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored loads obtained in the first step.4) f c¢ ( Ag . The sway components are amplified for lateral drift effect (CSA 10.4) Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station of each column.5. giving P f .

3). for unbraced frames. can be taken as 1. See also White and Hajjar (1991).SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual the code. According to the code. SAP2000 analysis uses EI of gross cross-sectional area in conjunction with a multiplication factor. and ³ r P f c¢ Ag f (CSA 10.14. Lateral Drift Effect For all frames.15. for braced frames. The program assumes that a P-D analysis has been performed in SAP2000 and.50 LL)/j m (CSA 10. especially those related to the value of EI used in analysis (CSA 10.16.2) kL ³ r 35 P f f c¢ Ag . therefore. The sway components are identified by “s” subscripts.10 M 1 M 2 . The user is reminded of the special analysis requirements.16.0 if a P-D analysis is carried out (CSA 10.15. the moment magnification factor for lateral drift effect is applied only to the “sway” moment in SAP2000. These amplified moments are further amplified for individual member stability effect.4) However.5). be different.1). For the P-D analysis the load should correspond to a load combination of (1.16. where j m is the strength reduction factor for stability and is equal to 0.1). The multipli- 78 Column Design . SAP2000 treats all frames uniformly to amplify nonsway components of moments. M = M ns +ds M s (CSA 10.16. in general. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. d sx and d sy . The moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions can. (CSA 10. The non-sway or braced components which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load.3.25 DL + 1.2) The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway ( M s ) and the nonsway ( M ns ) components. SAP2000 considers individual member stability effect for all compression column elements. moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. The moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway.75 (CSA 10. the individual member stability effect is only significant if kL 25 . this amplification is significant for “unbraced” frames only and may be avoided for “braced” frames. and are related to the cause of side sway.

Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.15.3) (CSA 10. from the analysis and a magnified factored moment. or for any Column Design 79 . P f .1) M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column. The moment magnification factor.15. If transverse load is present on the span.75 . and M c is the maximum moment occurring either at the end or at an interior point within the span of the column.25 E c I g .6 + 0. for moments not causing sidesway associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by db = 1jm Cm Pf jm ³ 1. and C m = 0.15. ( kL) 2 2 k is conservatively taken as 1. the user can explicitly specify values of d sx and d sy .3) (CSA 10. however the user can override the value. where (CSA 10.15. The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. (CSA 10. Member Stability Effects All compression members are designed using the factored axial load. or the length is overwritten.4 Ma Mb ³ 0. and M b is numerically larger than M a . If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member.3) Pc (CSA 10.3.4 . M c . M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.3-94 cation factors are defined in a section-by-section basis.3) where M 2 is the column maximum end moment obtained from elastic analysis after considering minimum eccentricity and lateral drift effect. The magnified moment is computed as.15. (CSA 10. EI is associated with a particular column direction given by EI = 0. d b .3) = 0.0 .15. p Pc = EI . Mc =db M 2 ³ M2 . so that effect of axial force and cracking can be modeled in a first order analysis.

the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P f . where h is the dimension of the column in mm unit in the corresponding direction (CSA 10. If the point lies within the interaction volume. M fy ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3. The pre-magnified factored moments are increased. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. See Figure II-4.15. M fx .03 h (CSA 10.3) The moment magnification factor. The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. a failure condition is declared.3. to obtain minimum eccentricities. C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis. C m = 1 (CSA 10. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. such that C m M P f is at least (15 + 0.03 h ) mm about each axis separately. If P f is found to be greater than or equal to j m Pc . a capacity ratio is calculated. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. CmM ³ P f 15 + 0. d b . Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. CR. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. must be a positive number and greater than one. The capacity ratio.3). M fx . The capacity ratio is basically a factor which gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.2) . and M fy . The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. d b is taken as 1 for tension members. respectively. The point (P f . OL See Figure II-3.15. if required. OC 80 Column Design . however. the column is overstressed. is given by the ratio . Therefore P f must be less than j m Pc . the column capacity is adequate. the user can explicitly specify values of d s and d b .15.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual other case.

2. the column axial force.9. the forces for a particular load combination. namely. Determine Section Forces • In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. respectively.2.7. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling P f . For Ductile and Nominal moment resisting concrete frames.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23. P f . and M fy set and associated load combination number. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.2. M fx . Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. the column moment. If the reinforcing area is not defined. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section. that can be resisted by concrete alone. of the members in addition to the factored moments (CSA 21. M f . V f . SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. Column Design 81 . P f and V f . • Determine the shear stress. 21.3-94 • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. M f . Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.3). Note that M f and P f are needed for the calculation of v c . v c . and the column shear force. the shear design of the columns is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities.

2. is calculated. The design shear force.9. • In the design of Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic). V f . V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. M J- = L = For Ductile moment resisting frames a is taken as 1.+ M J+ . where L = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1. M I+ .3). V f . where V P1 = V P2 = M I. of the column in a parf f ticular direction under the influence of the axial force P f are calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.2. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the 82 Column Design .25 (CSA 21. in addition to the design checks required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. the factored axial load. M I- M J+ . In the design of Ductile moment resisting concrete frames.2.0).SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • In the shear design of Ductile moment resisting frames (seismic design) the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. and L M I+ + M J. is then given by Vf = V p + V D+ L (CSA 21. Then. Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.1). the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the nominal shear due to the nominal (j s = j c = 1. the design shear force.7. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 .0). For each load combination.2).7. it is zero. P f . M + and M . in a particular direction is also calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column (CSA 21.2) where. Therefore. For most of the columns.0) moment capacities and the factored gravity load (CSA 21. the positive and negative moment capacities. and Clear span of column.

b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to resist shear. In a similar procedure to calculate the b factor.9. the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces.4.1). v c is set to: v c = 1. Column Design 83 . is conservatively taken to be 0. See also Table V-2 for details.4): • For designing Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting concrete frames.6. The design shear strength is enforced not to be greater than the factored shear force with the seismic load doubled (CSA 21. v c . 8.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.3.4).5 V f cot q E s As = . It is a function of the current stress condition and its approximate value is 34 degrees with a range of 27 degrees to 45 degrees (CSA 11.2.9. The shear strength factor. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set M f . except that a is taken equal to 1 (CSA 21.3.002 (CSA 11. P f and V f .1) where. It is computed from CSA Table 11-1 through an iterative procedure.3 lb f c¢ . 21.3-94 same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Ductile moment resisting frames. It is a function of stress condition and its average value is 0.0) Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses. is calculated using the “General Method” or “Compression Field Theory” as follows (CSA 11.5 N f + 0. assuming normal density concrete (CSA 11.4.4.2 usually with a range of 0. q is also computed from CSA Table 11-1 using the parameters e x and v ratio through an iterative procedure.5).9d .9 d (CSA 11.4). In computing the b factor. (CSA 11. the following two parameters are used: M ex = f dv + 0.6) v ratio V f bw d v lj c f c¢ (CSA 11. is taken to be 1. dv = 0.5) In the above equations d v . the shear capacity provided by the concrete alone.1 to 0.0.4 (CSA 11. l.25. 0£ex £ 0.4.0) rather than 1.4.

3.4. the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces.1b.9 d (CSA 11.1 ). v = V f ( bw d v ) .4) 84 Column Design . Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as.9 times Acv . vc 2 . which is shown in Figure V-2.7.4.3) • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v £jc =0. a failure condition is declared.0) For other types of sections b w d v is replaced by 0.3. is conservatively taken to be 0.4. f c¢ cot q (CSA 11.1) vc 2 < Av s else if Av s else if Av s jc v £ j c v c + j s 0. v max .2.8.06 < v £jc v max .4) j c v c + j s 0.3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • For designing Ductile moment resisting concrete frames. Otherwise the procedure for computing v c is the same as that for Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting frames. • The average shear stress. 11.06 f c¢ b w f yh . (CSA 11. v c is computed based on the assumption that e x = 0. f yh cot q else if v > j c v max . (CSA 11.8.4. the effective shear area. (CSA 11.2.3.06 f c¢ cot q .2) = (v -j c js v c ) bw .5) In the above equation d v .9d for rectangular sections. = 0. is limited to a maximum limit. (CSA 11. (CSA 11.002 (CSA 21. given by v max = 0. dv = 0.25 f c¢ . v .

**Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.3-94
**

d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d

Acv

b

RECTANGULAR d' d

DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE

A cv

b

SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d

DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE

Acv

CIRCULAR

Figure V-2 Shear Stress Area, Acv The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c¢ f c¢

£ 80 £ 55

MPa MPa

(Ordinary) (Nominal and Ductile)

(CSA 8.6.1.1) (CSA 21.2.3.1)

**The limit of f yh is taken to be 500 MPa for all frames: f yh
**

£ 500

MPa.

(CSA 8.5.1)

Column Design

85

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual The maximum of all the calculated Av s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. For all columns and at any station, the minimum area of transverse circular hoop reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s

³ 0.45 é ù -1 ê ú ë Acore û

Ag

f c¢ h core f yh 4

(CSA 10.9.4)

In potential plastic hinge locations, as described later, of Ductile moment resisting frames, the minimum area of circular hoops and transverse stirrups is imposed as follows: Av s Av s Av s Av s

³ 0.12

f c¢ h core f yh 4

é ù -1 ê ú ë Acore û

(Hoops) f c¢ h core f yh 4

(CSA 21.4.4.2)

³ 0.45

Ag

(Hoops)

(CSA 21.4.4.2, 10.9.4)

³ 0.09

f c¢ h core f yh

é ù -1 ê ú ë Acore û

(Stirrups) f c¢ h core f yh

(CSA 21.4.4.2)

³ 0.30

Ag

(Stirrups)

(CSA 21.4.4.2)

For the definition of the potential plastic hinge, it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plastic hinge. The length of the plastic hinge, Lhinge , in a column is taken as follows: Lhinge

=

max h , b , l 6 , 450 mm

(CSA 21.4.4.5)

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

86

Column Design

Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.3-94

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement

**Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of design stations along the beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam for a particular section, the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel

**Determine Factored Moments
**

In the design of flexural reinforcement of Ductile, Nominal, or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M + and maximum negative M -f factored mof ments obtained from all of the load combinations. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or T-beam. Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.

Beam Design

87

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure V-3 (CSA 10. as shown in Figure V-3.and T-beams) is summarized below.60 (CSA 8. Also a 1 .1) (CSA 21.5.3. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. or the grade of concrete. Design for Flexure of a Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.e.2.1) The design procedure used by SAP2000 for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4). the width. In designing the beam flexural reinforcement. (i. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. (CSA 8. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. M f . designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a. a = d - d2 2 M a1 f fc ¢ jc b . and c b are calculated as follows: 88 Beam Design .1) The limit of f y is taken to be 500 MPa for all frames: fy £ 500 MPa.4. where. the limit of f c¢ is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c¢ f c¢ £ 80 £ 55 MPa MPa (Ordinary) (Nominal and Ductile) (CSA 8. b1 . hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.2) in the above and following equations.1. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.7). Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.1. (CSA 10.1) where the value of j c is 0.6.1.

Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.85 = 0. (CSA 10.5.1. .67 ³ 0.7) Figure V-3 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section • If a by As = £ a b (CSA 10.1.7) (CSA 10.1.5.3-94 a1 b1 = 0. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given M f js fyæ çd è - a 2 .7) (CSA 10.0015 f c¢ 0. Beam Design 89 .0025 f c¢ ³ 0.67 . ö ÷ ø This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M f is positive.2).2) cb = 700 d. 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by ab = b1 c b . and (CSA 10.97 - 0. or at the top if M f is negative.

and ö ÷ js ø the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is As 2 = M fy d fs .j ca 1 f c¢ )( d ú û . – So the required compression steel is given by As¢ f s¢ = M (j s f s ¢ fs .1. and vice versa. 2 ø – The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M fs = M f - M fc . where = 0.3) – The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1 = M f æ yçd è fc ab 2 .d¢ ù ê ë c £ fy . 90 Beam Design .1.5.2).7) the factored moment resisted by the concrete and bottom steel is M fc æ =C ç d è ab ö ÷.1. (CSA 10.d¢ ) . – Therefore.2 and CSA 10. As = As1 + As 2 . the total tensile reinforcement.0035 E s é c . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by C = j ca 1 f c¢ ba b . and (CSA 10.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • If a > a b (CSA 10. As is to be placed at the bottom and As¢ is to be placed at the top if M f is positive.d¢ j s . and total compression reinforcement is As¢ .

1. the contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored.7) (CSA 10.67 .60 (CSA 8. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.5. - = d d2 - 2M a1 f f c¢j c b f . . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously done for the rectangular section design. As1 = C fjc f yj s and the portion of M f that is resisted by the flange is Beam Design 91 . (CSA 10. (ii) Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M a f > 0.1.2) cb = 700 d.7) (CSA 10. As shown in Figure V-4. Cf =a1 f c¢ ( b f . in this case the width of the beam is taken as b f . (CSA 10.bw )d s . (i.1.0025 f c¢ ³ 0. C w . designing top steel).3-94 Design for Flexure of a T-Beam (i) Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.1.2) in the above and following equations.4. and c b are calculated as follows: a1 b1 = 0. the depth of the compression block is given by (see Figure V-4).7) Therefore.67 ³ 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. (CSA 10. b1 . calculation for As is done in two parts.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.85 = 0.0015 f c¢ 0. See Figure V-4.7) • If a £ d s . • If a > d s .1) where the value of j c is 0. and (CSA 10.97 - 0. C f . Also a 1 . The design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams except that in the corresponding equations b is replaced by b w . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a b . M f .e. 700 + f y The depth of the compression block under balanced condition is given by ab = b1 c b . However.

the balance of the moment. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As 2 = js M f fw æ y çd è a1 2 .2). for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d - d2 - 2M a1 fw fc ¢ jc bw .1) bf ds ε = 0. Therefore.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual æ ç è M ff = Cf d - ds 2 ö ÷ jc ø .0035 α1 fc' φc α1 fc' φc d' As' c d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw εs Strain Diagram Ts Tw Tf Beam Section Stress Diagram Figure V-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • If a1 £ a b (CSA 10. The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d . and ö ÷ ø 92 Beam Design . M f to be carried by the web is given by M fw = M f - M ff .5. (CSA 10.

As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 .d¢ ) .1. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The factored compressive force in the concrete web alone is given by C = j c a1 f c¢ ba b . and (CSA 10.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.5.d¢ ù ê ë c fy .3-94 As = As1 + As 2 . and total compression reinforcement is As¢ .3) – The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As 2 = M f æ yçd è fc ab 2 . • If a1 > a b (CSA 10. As is to be placed at the bottom and As¢ is to be placed at the top. and ö ÷ js ø the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As 3 = M f y (d fs .1. Beam Design 93 .2 and CSA 10.0035 E s é c . the compression steel is computed as As¢ f s¢ = M (j s f s ¢ fs -j c a 1 f c¢ )( d ú û £ .2). where = 0. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam. Total tensile reinforcement.7) the factored moment resisted by the concrete web and tensile steel is M fc = C çd è æ - ab ö ÷.1.d¢ ) j s . 2 ø – The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M fs = M fw - M fc . – Therefore. (CSA 10.

1) An upper limit of 0. As(min) ³ 1.04 b d £í î0.5.04 b w d Rectangular beam T -beam Rectangular beam T -beam Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Ductile moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).025 b w d .1) 94 Beam Design .2.3.3) In addition.5.4 bw d fy (CSA 21. (CSA 10. or (CSA 10.2 f c¢ fy b w h. 3 (CSA 10.1. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) . the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table V-2 for comprehensive listing): • The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and the bottom.2.2) As ³ 4 As (required ) .1) • The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As £ 0. (CSA 21.04 b d £í î0.04 b w d ì 0.3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel required for a beam section is given by the minimum of the two limits: As ³ 0.b w d s .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is arbitrarily imposed as follows: As As¢ ì 0.3.1.5. the minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a T-section with flange under tension is given by the limit: As ³ 0.004 b .

1.9. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1.2).2.2). f Beam Design 95 . Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. For Ductile and Nominal moment resisting frames. 21.7. M f and V f .1. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: • At any support of the beam.e. the beam positive moment capacity (i. that can be resisted by concrete alone. • Determine the shear stress.3).3.2. Note that M is needed for the calculation of v c . • Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section.2. • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (CSA 21.2. For Nominal moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).3-94 • At any end (support) of the beam.9. respectively (CSA 21.3.1). associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than ½ of the beam negative moment capacity (i. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. the shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members.e. associated with the top steel) at that end (CSA 21. • Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (CSA 21.2.2. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (CSA 21.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.1).9. v c .

The overstrength factor a is always taken as 1. in addition to the design checks required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. and L = Clear span of beam.= Moment capacity at end J. and L. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1. M J.0). • In the design of Ductile moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design). with top steel in tension. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1. Therefore. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the probable shear due to the probable moment capacities and the factored gravity load.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. with bottom steel in tension. The design shear force V f is then given by Vf =V p + V D+ L (CSA 21. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions.2. where M I+ = Moment capacity at end I.= Moment capacity at end I.0). with top steel in tension.+ M J+ M I+ + M JL . using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.0).1) where.0). M J+ = Moment capacity at end J. M I. See also Table V-2 for more details. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacities is the same as that described for a column in section “Column Design” on page 82. where V P1 = V P2 = M I. V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 .25 for Ductile moment resisting frames (CSA 21. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j s = j c = 1.7.1). 96 Beam Design . with bottom steel in tension.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set M f and V f .4.1). except that a is taken equal to 1 (CSA 21.2 usually with a range of 0. v c is set to: v c = 1. is conservatively taken to be 0.4). is calculated using the “General Method” or “Compression Field Theory” as follows (CSA 11.0) moment capacities and the factored gravity load (CSA 21. dv = 0. (CSA 11.5) In the above equations d v . It is a function of the current stress condition and its approximate value is 34 degrees with a range of 27 degrees to 45 degrees (CSA 11.9.002 (CSA 11. the shear capacity provided by the concrete alone. In computing the b factor.4.3-94 • In the design of Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic). v c .6) v ratio V f bw d v lj c f c¢ (CSA 11.3.4.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.9d .4.9.5 V f cot q E s As = . In a similar procedure to calBeam Design 97 . in addition to the design checks required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. See also Table V-2 for details.9 d (CSA 11.1) where. The design shear strength is enforced not to be greater than the factored shear force with the seismic load doubled (CSA 21. 0£ex £ 0.2.3. the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces.3 lb f c¢ .4 (CSA 11. 21. the following two parameters are used: M ex = f dv + 0. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Ductile moment resisting frames. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the nominal shear due to the nominal (j s = j c = 1.0) Here q is an angle of inclination of diagonal compressive stresses.1) rather than 1. It is a function of the stress condition and its average value is 0.3).25. It is computed from CSA Table 11-1 through an iterative procedure.4.9.2. b is a factor indicating the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to resist shear.1 to 0.4).4): • For designing Ordinary and Nominal moment resisting concrete frames.

3.5) In the above equation d v . (CSA 11. 8.9 times Acv .9d . which is shown in Figure V-2. q is also computed from CSA Table 11-1 using the parameters e x and v ratio through an iterative procedure.25 f c¢ .0. v . v max .2.5).6. is taken to be 1. v c is taken as zero. (CSA 11.06 f c¢ cot q . b is taken as zero.7. and q is taken as 45 degrees (CSA 21.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual culate the b factor.4.1 ).8. (CSA 11. • For designing Ductile moment resisting concrete beams.1) vc 2 < Av s else if Av s jc v £ j c v c + j s 0.4. assuming normal density concrete (CSA 11.3. • The average shear stress.0) For other types of sections b w d v is replaced by 0.8. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as.1a. = 0. dv = 0. 11.3) • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v £jc =0. is limited to a maximum limit. vc 2 . (CSA 11.9 d (CSA 11. is conservatively taken to be 0. the distance between the resultants of the tensile and compressive forces.2. v= Vf bw d v .4) 98 Beam Design . The shear strength factor.4. given by v max = 0. the effective shear area.06 f c¢ b w f yh . l.

Beam Design 99 .2) (v -j c js v c ) bw . a failure condition is declared. obtained from each load combination.2.3.1) The maximum of all the calculated Av s values. f yh cot q else if v > j c v max .1) (CSA 21.6.5.Chapter V Design for CSA-A23.3-94 else if Av s = j c v c + j s 0. The beam shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations.4.4) The limit of f c¢ is taken to be 80 MPa for Ordinary moment resisting frames and 55 MPa for Nominal and Ductile moment resisting frames: f c¢ f c¢ £ 80 £ 55 MPa MPa (Ordinary) (Nominal and Ductile) (CSA 8.3. (CSA 11. (CSA 8. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3.1) The limit of f yh is taken to be 500 MPa for all frames: f yh £ 500 MPa.06 f c¢ cot q < v £jc v max . is reported for the major directions of the beam along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. (CSA 11.1.

M u4 { { } } END END Beam Design Shear NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations or Nominal Capacity Shear (V p ) with α = 1.2 fc¢ fy + M uEND ³ + M uSPAN NLDa Combinations r £ 0.25 and ϕ = 1. Moment Override Check No Requirement M uSPAN - 1 M uEND 3 1 ³ max M u+ .0 and ϕ = 1.0 plus VD+L NLDa Combinations and Probable Capacity Shear (V p ) with α = 1. Ductile. fy + M uEND ³ Beam Min. r ³ 14 . M u4 1 ³ max M u+ .0 and α = 1. M u5 { { } } END + M uSPAN END M uSPAN - 1 M uEND 2 1 ³ max M u+ .002 Minimum hoop reinforcement Special reinforcement in hinge NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations Column Shears Minimum hoop Modified NLDa Combinations or Nominal Capacity Shear (V p ) ϕ = 1.0 Minimum hoop reinforcement Beam Design Flexure r £ 0.25 Strength based on ex = 0.04 r ³ 0. q = 45o a NLD = Number of specified loading Table V-2 Comparison of Ordinary. M u5 1 ³ max M u+ .2 fc¢ fy NLDa Combinations r £ 0.0 plus VD+L Strength based on b = 0 .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Type of Check/ Design Strength of materials Column Check (interaction) Column Design (Interaction) Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (non-Seismic) fc¢ £ 80 MPa Nominal Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) fc¢ £ 55 MPa Ductile Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) fc¢ £ 55 MPa fy £ 500 MPa NLDa Combinations fy £ 500 MPa NLDa Combinations fy £ 500 MPa NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 6% α = 1.025 r ³ 0.04 r ³ 0.0 NLDa Combinations and Probable Capacity Shear (V p ) ϕ = 1. and Nominal Moment Resisting Frame Design 100 Beam Design .0 and α = 1.2 fc¢ fy .

C h a p t e r VI

**Design for BS 8110-85 R1989
**

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the British limit state design code BS 8110 R1989 (BSI 1989). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VI-1. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted.

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, g f (BS 2.4.1.3). If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the design will need only one loading combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.6 LL. However, in addition to the dead load and live load, if the structure is subDesign Load Combinations

101

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

**Acv As As¢ Asc Asv a b b¢ bf bw C d d¢ Ec Es e min f cu fs fy f yv h hf K¢
**

¢

Area of section for shear resistance, mm2 Area of tension reinforcement, mm2 Area of compression reinforcement, mm2 Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, mm2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm2 Depth of compression block, mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Shorter section dimension, mm Shorter effective depth of biaxially bent column, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Compression force, N Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200000 MPA (BS 2.4.2.3) Minimum or nominal eccentricity, mm Characteristic cube strength at 28 days, MPA Compressive stress in a beam compression steel, MPA Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPA Characteristic strength of link reinforcement, MPA (< 460 MPA) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Mu Maximum for a singly reinforced concrete section taken as 0.156 bd 2 f cu by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10% Shear strength enhancement factor Concrete shear strength factor, f cu 25 Effective height of a column, mm Table VI-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS code

1/ 3

k1 k2 le

102

Design Load Combinations

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989

**l0 M M1 , M 2 M add Mi Mx ,M y N sv T V v vc vc ¢ v x ,v y x x bal z
**

b bb g f gm ec es ¢ es

Clear height between end restraints, mm Design moment at a section, MPA Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column, N-mm Maximum additional moment column, N-mm Initial moment at the point of maximum additional moment, N-mm Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column, N-mm Ultimate axial load, N Spacing of links, mm Tension force, N Shear force at ultimate design load, N Shear stress, MPA Design ultimate shear stress resistance of a concrete beam, MPA Design concrete shear stress corrected for axial forces, MPA Design ultimate shear stress of a concrete section, MPA Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Effective length factor Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Concrete strain Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel

Table VI-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS code (continued)

Design Load Combinations

103

4 EL 1.4.2 DL + 1.4. the following load combinations for ultimate limit state might have to be considered (BS 2.3): 1. the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional design ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level.0 DL ± 1.6 LL 1. and ï1.15.4. The values of g m used in the program are listed below (BS 2. ï g m = í1.50.3) (BS 2. can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. 104 Design Strength . for concrete in flexure and axial load. and considering that those loads are subject to reversals. It is recommended that the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000. the program checks the column capacity.4 WL 1.2 LL (BS 2. î (BS 2. The notional load should be equal to 0. g m .4. for reinforcement. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user.4 DL ± 1.4 WL 1.25.4. ì1.4 EL 1.015 times the dead load (BS 3.4.4. as allowed by some design codes. Live load reduction factors.4 DL + 1.2). However. the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user.1) Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. Design Strength The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial factor of safety.4 DL ± 1.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual jected to wind (WL) and/or earthquake (EL) loads. In addition to the above load combinations.4.4 DL 1.1).2 DL + 1. for shear strength without shear reinforcement.3) ± 1.1.2 WL 1.2 EL These are the default load combinations.0 DL ± 1.2 LL ± 1.

The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. Column Design 105 . The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column (BS 3. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1. at the extremity of the section. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity. See Figure II-2. e s E s and is limited to the design strength the steel. The formulation is based consistently upon the basic principles of ultimate strength design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular.4.4.1).12.3 and BS 3. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement from 0. or circular column section (BS 3. e c . The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model.12.8.1). f y 1.15 (0. square.2). A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1. to 0.4 to 6 percent (BS 3.4.8.5.4.1). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations (BS 3.0035 (BS 3.4. • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. When the steel is undefined.87 f y ). • Design the column shear reinforcement. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain.6.4). See Figure VI-1.

0035 d' εs1 εs2 1 Cs C x a = 0. • Determine total design moments by adding the corresponding additional moments to the factored moments obtained from the analysis. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give N .4.67 fcu/γm εc = 0.V y . defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. The interaction algorithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual 0. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location. See Figure VI-1.V x . Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each output station of each column. with a stress value of 0.4.45 f cu (BS 3.and M y . lies within the interaction volume. Compute moments due to minimum eccentricity. 106 Column Design .67 f cu g m = 0. Determine whether the point. • Determine the additional moments due to slender column effect.9 x 2 Cs εs3 εs4 3 Ts 4 Ts (i) CONCRETE SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VI-1 Idealized Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.1). M x .

• b¢ is the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered.8. The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to the load cases. In calculating the value of the effective length.8. giving N .3. and l 0 the unsupported length corresponding to instability in the major or minor direction of the element.5). • l e is the effective length in the plane under consideration. the b factor is conservatively taken as 1. M x and M y.V x .8.3). Determine Factored Moments and Forces Each load combination is defined with a set of load factors corresponding to the load cases.1) where.1) where b is the effective length factor. further calculation is required for stability of individual column members.8. Determine Additional Moments The determination of additional moments depends on whether the frame is “braced” or “unbraced” against side-sway (BS 3.3.8. In the above equations. For “unbraced” columns additional moment is automatically considered in the P-D analysis.1. a u is the deflection at the ultimate limit state which is obtained from au = be b e Kh and æ le ö ÷ ç è b¢ ø 2 (BS 3. However. (BS 3. M add = N a u .6. l x or l y in Figure II-4. It is obtained from le = b l0 .Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.V y . (BS 3.1) (BS 3. Braced Column The additional moment in a braced column in a particular plane is the product of the axial load and the lateral deflection of the column in that plane (BS 3. Column Design 107 .8. But for “braced” columns.1. SAP2000 allows the user to override this default value.1) 1 = 2000 .3.

2.2) (BS 3. M 1 is assumed to be negative.3.05 times the overall dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered but not more than 20 mm (BS 3.3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • h is also the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered.4) Unbraced Column In the case of the unbraced column. Therefore.8.3. (BS 3. and • K is the correction factor to the deflection to take care of the influence of the axial force and K is conservatively taken as 1. no additional computation is required. e min is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0.8.2.8. it is assumed that the SAP2000 analysis includes P-D effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional moments.2 LL (White and Hajjar 1991). M i is the initial moment in a column due to design ultimate loads at the point of maximum additional moment and is given by Mi = 0.8.2) (BS 3.6 M 2 ³ 0. Both moments are assumed to be positive if the column is in single curvature. it is recommended that for P-D analysis a factor be used to obtain a P equivalent to 1. However.4 (BS 3. 108 Column Design .2 DL + 1. then the maximum design moment for the column is taken as the greatest of the following: M2 M 1 + M add M i + M add / 2 N e min where.3.2) M 1 and M 2 are the smaller and the larger end moments respectively. If the column is in double curvature.2) M 1 + 0. e min = h 20 £ 20 mm (BS 3.8. That means moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. If M 1 and M 2 ( M 2 > M 1 ) are the initial end moments in a column member in a particular plane.3.8.2) (BS 3.4).4 M 2 . SAP2000 then calculates the total design moments by combining the factored moments obtained from analysis and the additional moments.8.

is given by the ratio . In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum about both the axes simultaneously. If the point lies within the interaction volume. a capacity ratio is calculated. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. M x . If the reinforcing area is not defined. The capacity ratio. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. M y ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3. • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. e min is the minimum eccentricity which is described in the previous section. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. The point ( N .and M y set and associated load combination number. OL See Figure II-3. the column capacity is adequate. and M y are obtained according to the previous subsections. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling N . however. the design forces N . the minimum eccentricity requirements are satisfied so the design moment should at least be Mu ³ N e min .Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 Also. (BS 3. M x . Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. Column Design 109 . SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity.3. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. CR.2) where. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. the column is overstressed.8. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. M x . OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity.

4.5. d ø (BS 3.75 N Vd .4.25 .6) v ¢ c = v c + 0.4. 0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction.4. Acv Acv = bd .12) 0.5.4. the following steps are involved (BS 3. the section area should be increased.5.4.4) (BS 3.12) (BS 3. 1.1) £ 1.4) (BS 3.4.5.8.5.4) (BS 2.12) ³ £ 110 Column Design . k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression and taken conservatively as 1. where (BS 3.15 400 d Vd M £ (BS 3. 3.8) k2 gm æ = ç è = f cu 25 1 ö ÷ ø 3 .4.79 k1 k 2 æ 100 As ç bd gm è ö ÷ ø 3 æ ç è 400 ö 4 ÷ .2) (BS 3.4. If v exceeds either 0.8. (BS 3. 100 As bd 1.4) where.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column.5.4.4. • Calculate the design concrete shear stress from (BS 3.5.5.4.6): • Calculate the design shear stress from v= v v £ V .8 f cu or 5 N/mm2. (BS 3.8 f cu .5.4.12) 1 vc = 0. with Ac M 1 (BS 3.5.4. and 2 £ 5 N/mm .

Effects due to any axial forces. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.87 f yv (BS 3.3) where f yv can not be greater than 460 MPA (BS 3. provide minimum links defined by ³ Asv sv 0. minor direction bending. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. load combination factors. provide links given by Asv sv ³ ( v . and other criteria described below.4 .v¢ c ) b .4.4 b . In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam at a particular section.4.87 f yv (BS 3.4. 0. • If v £ v ¢ c + 0. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Beam Design 111 .1). All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear.5.3) else if v > v ¢ c + 0.4 .5. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.4) As is the area of tensile steel.5. and shears.5.4. 0. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 f cu £ 40 N/mm2. and (BS 3.

the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4. Design of a Rectangular beam For rectangular beams. less than.e. the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. or equal to M single . 112 Beam Design . Negative beam moments produce top steel. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations at that section.4.4.1). the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1). or the grade of concrete.and T-beams) is summarized below. x d £ 0. The design procedure used by SAP2000. M single . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure VI-2 (BS 3. b b ³ 0. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. is obtained first for a section. the beam may be designed as a rectangular section. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. or T-Beam effects may be included.4. In addition.. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4).1 f cu Ag (BS 3. the width. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.4).4.5. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4.4. Furthermore it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. The reinforcing steel area is determined based on whether M is greater than.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete frame beams. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.4. to safeguard against nonductile failures (BS 3. In such cases. See Figure VI-2. hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.9) (BS 3.

b (BS 3.4) ε = 0. f cu bd 2 0.25 M .4) K ü ý 0. As .5 + 0. is obtained from (BS 3. M single = K ¢ f cu bd 2 .87 f y ) z ì î £ z = d í0.67fcu/γm A's fs' Cs d' c a=0.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 • Calculate the ultimate moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. where (0.4. where K ¢ = 0.9x d As (i) BEAM SECTION εs (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tc (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VI-2 Design of Rectangular Beam Section • If M As = £ M single the area of tension reinforcement.0035 0. and K= This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom steel if the section is under positive moment.156 .95d .4.4. Beam Design 113 .9 þ M .4.

776 887 d . Based on this assumption. From equilibrium. (i) Flanged beam under negative moment The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored. See Figure VI-3. the area of tension reinforcement is calculated as As = M single (0. The design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams except that in the corresponding equations b is replaced by b w . the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. As¢ . 1ê 2 ë 800 ú û = if fy ù d¢ 1é . where d¢ is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression face. 114 Beam Design .5 + 0.4.87 f y f s¢ 700 é1 ê ë if 2d ¢ ù d ú û d¢ d £ fy ù 1é . then the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. where (BS 3. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. the area of compression reinforcement.d¢ ) K¢ ü ý 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. See Figure VI-3.4) z = d í0. > 1 d 2ê 800 ú ë û This is the bottom steel if the section is under negative moment. and f s¢= 0.25 Design as a T-Beam = 0. (ii) Flanged beam under positive moment With the flange in compression. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b f . If the stress block extends beyond the flange width. is given by M - As¢ = M single f s¢ ( d .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • If M > M single .87 f y ) z ì î + M - M single f y ( d .4.9 þ .d ¢ ) .

and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by Kw = Mw f cu b w d 2 . In this case.z ) . f cu b f d 2 Then the moment arm is computed as z = d í0.5 h f ) . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. calculation for As is done in two parts. in this case the width of the compression flange. b.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. • If a > h f . C w . the depth of neutral axis is computed as x= 1 ( d .9 þ £ 0.25 î ì K ü ý 0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by M f = 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the normalized moment is computed as K= M . as shown in Figure VI-3. Beam Design 115 . b f . • If a £ h f . is taken as the width of the beam. However. C f . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether K > K ¢. for analysis.95d .9 x . and 0.45 the depth of compression block is given by a = 0. the balance of moment taken by the web is computed as Mw = M - M f .45 f cu ( b f - bw ) h f ( d - 0.5 + 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.

one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. where 0.87 f y z ü ý þ £ z = d í0.67 fcu/γm 0.9 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.95d .5 h f ) - + Mw .156.5 + 0. As = M 0.M uw .67 fcu/γm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VI-3 Design of a T-Beam Section – If K w £ 0.0035 0. The area of steel is calculated as the sum of two parts. The compression reinforcement is computed as 116 Beam Design .87 f y ( d ì î f - 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by M uw = K ¢ f cu b w d 2 .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual bf hf ε = 0. The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude M w .25 Kw 0. – If K w > K ¢.

5.Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85 R1989 As¢ = M w .8) Beam Design 117 . and f s¢ = 0.8 f cu .2) 0. d ¢ is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression face.4.4. if 2d ¢ ù .5.4.87 f y ê 0.5.4) where.5. and 2 £ 5 N/mm . if d ú û d¢ d £ fy ù 1é . > 1 d 2ê 800 ú ë û The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium As = Mf é M uw M . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction.0.M uw . and is conservatively taken as 1. • Calculate the design concrete shear stress from 0.4. k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. f s¢ ( d .d ¢ ) where.5): • Calculate the design shear stress as v= v v £ V .5 h f .2) (BS 3.777 ú ë û Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. (BS 3.2) (BS 3. where (BS 3.4.M uw ù 1 + + w ê ú .79 k1 k 2 æ 100 As vc = ç bd gm è 1 ö ÷ ø 3 æ ç è 400 ö 4 ÷ . Acv Acv = bd . the following steps are involved (BS 3.5. d d d .4. and 1ê 2ë 800 ú û f s¢= 700 é1 ê ë fy ù d¢ 1é .87 f y .d¢ 0. d ø 1 (BS 3.

4.5.5.25 . 0.5. provide links given by Asv sv ³ (v .5.87 f yv (BS 3. 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual æ = ç è k2 f cu 25 1 ö ÷ ø 3 ³ 1.4.4. (BS 3.1) gm = 1.4 b .5.15 400 d f cu £ 100 As bd 1 . and £ 3. However. and (BS 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.v c ) b .87 f yv (BS 3.5.4) (BS 2.4.4.3) else if v > v c + 0.4) (BS 3.4) (BS 3.5. As is the area of tensile steel. provide minimum links defined by ³ Asv sv 0.4.4. • If v £ v c + 0.4) ³ £ 40 N/mm2 (for calculation purpose only).4.4. 118 Beam Design .4.3) where f yv can not be greater than 460 MPA (BS 3.1).4.

But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. Design Load Combinations The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the load cases for which the structure is to be checked. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. However. For simplicity.5 LL. the design will need only one loading combination. If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only.35 DL + 1. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. namely 1. Design Load Combinations 119 . Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VII-1.C h a p t e r VII Design for Eurocode 2 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the 1992 Eurocode 2 (CEN 1992). English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.

mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement.2. mm Effective height of a column. mm Total eccentricity for a braced column. MPA Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. f y f s¢ f ywd f ywk . MPA Characteristic tensile strength of shear reinforcement. MPA Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days. MPA Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm2 Area of total longitudinal reinforcement in a column. mm Table VII-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2 120 Design Load Combinations . mm Flange thickness. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPA Design tensile strength of shear reinforcing steel = f ywk g s .2) Eccentricity of axial load in a column. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm2 Depth of compression block. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. f ys h hf l0 l col Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. mm Design concrete compressive strength = f ck g c . mm Clear height between end restraints. mm2 Area of tension reinforcement in a beam. MPA Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = f cwk g c . mm Minimum or nominal eccentricity. mm Width or effective width of flange. assumed as 200000 MPa (EC2 4. MPA Stress in a beam compression steel. f c¢ f cwd ¢ f cwk . MPA Characteristic tensile yield strength of reinforcement.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Ac Acv As As¢ Asw a b bf bw d d¢ Ec Es e e min e tot f cd f ck . mm2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. f cs f yd f yk . mm2 Area of section for shear resistance. MPA Design tensile yield strength of reinforcing steel = f yk g s . mm2 Area of compression reinforcement.2.3.

N Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading Effective length factor. Out of plumbness factor Tension reinforcement ratio. N-mm Normalized design moment.M y M Rd M Sd m N sv V Rd 1 V Rd 2 V Sd V x . mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone.15 by default Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing. N Shear force at ultimate design load in two directions. As bd Effective average compressive stress in concrete column. N-mm Design moment of resistance of a section N-mm Moment at a section obtained from analysis. 1. M bd 2 af cd Ultimate axial load. N Shear force from reinforcement.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 M M1 . MPA Normalized tensile steel ratio. N Shear force at ultimate design load. As¢ f yd af cd bd Normalized limiting tensile steel ratio g f gc gm gs d ec es e s¢ n r s cp w w¢ wlim Table VII-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2 (continued) Design Load Combinations 121 . Enhancement factor of shear resistance for concentrated load Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for concrete strength.V y V wd a b Design moment at a section. N Spacing of links. N-mm Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column. M 2 Mx . N-mm Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column. As f yd af cd bd Normalized compression steel ratio.5 by default Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for steel strength. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. 1.

and earthquake loads according to the simplified formula (EC2 2.3. wind.5*0.5. It is recommended that the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual However.3) (EC2 2.2) (EC2 2. Design Strength The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the materials by a corresponding partial factor of safety as shown below. Live load reduction factors.0 (EC2 2.35 DL ± 1.3.1) for ultimate limit states. .50 WL 1.00 DL + 1. the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional design ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level (EC2 2. gs = 122 Design Strength .35 LL ± 1.50 LL 1.00 EL 1.35 WL 1.3.2) = = f cwk f yk f ywk gc gs .3).3.00 DL ± 1.35 DL + 1.3.3. can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.3): 1. These default loading combinations are produced for persistent and transient design situations (EC2 2.3.50 WL 1.3 LL ± 1.2) . In addition to the above load combinations. where (EC2 2.3. live.3) (EC2 2.1.3.2. in addition to the dead load and live load.3.1. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) forces. f cd f cwd f yd f ywd = f ck gc . and considering that wind and earthquake forces are subject to reversals.35 DL 1.3) EL These are the default load combinations.35 DL + 1. the following load combinations might have to be considered (EC2 2.2) by combining load due to dead. (EC2 2.2) (EC2 2.3.3.00 DL ± 1. as allowed by some design codes.3.3.

If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user.1. However. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.3.003A c î (EC2 5. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 gs gc = Partial safety factor for steel = 1.4.5. min = max í f yd ï 0.2. the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.1).2.2) (EC2 2.3.15 As . (EC2 2. The minimum reinforcement is taken to be N Sd ì ï0.2) Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.3.15. and = Partial safety factor for concrete = 1. • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column.3. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete sections types of the model (EC2 4. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations as shown in Figure II-1. • Design the column shear reinforcing. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. When the steel is undefined.1) and the maximum reinforcement is taken to be 8 percent (EC2 5. The coordi- Column Design 123 . the program checks the column capacity. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1.4.1. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending.1.3.2).

The interaction algo- 124 Column Design . where f cd is the design value of concrete cylinder compressive strength and a is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. See Figure VII-1. e c . or circular column section.3).1. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder).3.3. See Figure VII-1. Figure VII-1 Idealized Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity.2). The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain.1.2.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual nates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. a is generally assumed to be 0.2.80 (EC2 4. f yd (EC2 4.0035 and at a depth of d from the most compressed face 7 to 0. and is limited to the design yield strength the steel. square. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular. The formulation is based consistently upon the basic principles of ultimate strength design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular.0020 (EC2 4. e s E s . See Figure II-2.3.3). at the ex3 tremity of the section to 0. with a stress value of af cd .

The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. Determine Code Total Moments The determination of code total moments depends on whether the frame is “braced” or “unbraced” against side-sway. and M y . • Check the column capacity ratio or compute the reinforcement for the column for resisting the factored moments.6.6 M 2 . (EC2 4.3. M x .2) M2 . M x . V x . V y . such that e tot = e0 = + ea + e2 . and the moments from minimum eccentricity. Compute moments due to minimum eccentricity. Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination of each column.2) Column Design 125 . and M y.5.3. where N M1 £ e0 0.6. giving N . Braced Column Eurocode specifies that for braced columns the total moment should be computed from a set of eccentricities. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give N .Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 rithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location.5. Determine Factored Moments and Forces Each load combination is defined with a set of load factors corresponding to the load cases.4 M1 N + 0. where M2 N ³ 0. the code total moments. V y . V x . • Determine the code total moments due to slender column effect. The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to the load cases.4 (EC2 4.

rG = the radius of gyration about the axis of bending.5. the minimum eccentricity requirement is satisfied such that M Rd N Sd > N Sd e min . k 2 is taken as 1. and k2 = N ud N ud N sd . however the user can override this value (EC2 2.5. where (EC2 4.5.3. for l > 35.5.05 times the overall dimension of the column in the plane of bending and is given by e min =h 20 . = The axial force obtained from analysis. (EC2 4.3. í ï î 20 1 for 15 < l £ 35.3) k1 = ïl . l x and l y in Figure II-4. However.5.5. (EC2 4.3) M Rd = Design moment resistance of the section.6. l 0 is the effective length of a column in a given plane and is obtained from l0 = b l col .3.0. (EC2 4. (EC2 4. (EC2 4.3) Finally the design moments are computed from the maximum of the three. for l £ 15. N Rd e min . b is conservatively taken as 1 for braced frames.4) is taken as 1/100. M factored ). M Rd = max( N Rd e tot .3. l = bl 0 rG .5.3.N bal - £ 1 . and l col is the unsupported length corresponding to instability in the major or minor direction of the element.5) where b is the effective length factor depending on the end conditions and resistance against side-sway. e2 = 2 k1 k 2 l 0 f yd 4. and e min is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0.5.6) 126 Column Design .5.5 E s d ì0 .1.0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual nl 0 ea n = 2 .3.3).3.75.

5. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. is given by the ratio .3) where. M x . the minimum eccentricity requirement needs to be satisfied so that the design moment should at least be M Rd ³ N e min . However. In addition.3. Unbraced Column In the case of the unbraced column. however. and M y are obtained according to the previous subsections. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. M x . the program calculates the design moments at any station about two axes. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. That means.35 LL for P-D analysis (White and Hajjar 1991). e min is the minimum eccentricity which is described in the previous section. the column capacity is adequate. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. Therefore. The point ( N . If the point lies within the interaction volume. it is assumed that the SAP2000 analysis includes P-D effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional moments.35 DL + 1. it is recommended that a factor be used to obtain a axial force P equivalent to 1. In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum about both the axes simultaneously. OL See Figure II-3. (EC2 4. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. the moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. The capacity ratio. the design forces N . if the point lies outside the interaction volume.5. any additional computation is not required. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. a capacity ratio is calculated. CR. the column is overstressed.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 In biaxial bending. Column Design 127 . M y ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure II-3.

Also.2. The effect of any variation of width in the column section on the concrete shear capacity is neglected. Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. • The effect of any torsion is neglected for the design of shear reinforcement.3(1)) 128 Column Design . • The effect on the concrete shear capacity of any concentrated or distributed load in the span of the column between two beams is ignored.and M y set and associated load combination number.2. V Sd = V2 or V 3 • Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. If the reinforcing area is not defined. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling N .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. • All shear reinforcement is provided through shear reinforcements which are perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. V Rd 1 = b t Rd k (1.2 + 40 r 1 ) + 0. the effect of the direct support on the columns provided by the beams is ignored. where (EC2 4.3. the following steps of the standard method are involved (EC2 4. M x .3. The assumptions in designing the shear reinforcement are as follows: • The column sections are assumed to be prismatic.15 s cp Acv .1): • Obtain the design value of the applied shear force V Sd from the SAP2000 analysis results.

2(4)) (EC2 4.7 f ctm .2.1.3.3.1(9)) b is taken as 1.3.2. it is taken as Acv which is shown in Figure VII-2. (EC2 4. taken as half of total longitudinal reinforcement.3) Ac = the total gross area of concrete cross-section. 2 3 0. s cp (EC2 4. V Rd 2 . 05 f ctm k = = 0. 2 Column Design 129 .3) f ctk 0. N Sd is taken as positive for compression and negative for tension.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 b = enhancement factor for shear resistance for members with concentrated loads located near the face of the support.2. red 0 = 1.3) Ac N Sd = the design value of the applied axial force in section.3.3 f cwk . and (EC2 4.2. (EC2 4.3) (EC2 3.05 gc = t Rd = . red . • Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing of the notional concrete compressive struts.3. V Rd 2 1 n f cwd 0.2.3) (EC2 4.3) (EC2 3.1.2.3. and is considered to be 1. As 2.3) = average stress in concrete due to axial force = N Sd . tension reinforcement ratio = As1 Acv £ 0.2.3. (EC2 4.25 f ctk 0.2.3.3. (EC2 4. strength magnification factor for curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement and depth of the section.2. red £ V Rd 2 = .67 V Rd 2 ç 1ç è æ s cp .2.3) Acv = the total area of concrete cross-section. 0.3(3)) £ V Rd 2 .9 Acv . For a rectangular section Acv equals b w d . V Rd 2 .02 .2.2.3. in a column.3) r1 = As1 = area of tension reinforcement.2.2(4)) (EC2 4. where (EC2 4. basic design shear strength of concrete.3. (EC2 4. eff ö ÷ f cd ÷ ø .

2. 200 N Sd - (EC2 4.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv b RECTANGULAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE Acv CIRCULAR Figure VII-2 Shear Stress Area.3) s cp .2) 130 Column Design . eff = f yd As 2 Ac .2. the effectiveness factor.3.7 - f ck ³ 0. effective average stress in concrete.5 .(EC2 4.3. Acv n = 0.

3.3.3. obtained from each load combination.4.2. (EC2 4. in a column.2.3. else if V Sd ³ V Rd 2. (EC2 4. red . is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.2(4)) f yd = the design yield stress of compression steel. Column Design 131 . (EC2 4.2(4)) Ac is the gross total area of concrete cross-section.2(4)) As 2 is the area of reinforcement in the compression zone.3) f ywd is the design yield strength of the shear reinforcement.2(4)) The maximum of all the calculated Asw s values.2.3. As 2 is taken as half of total longitudinal reinforcement.3. red .2.3) else if V Rd 1 < V Sd Asw s = < V Rd 2.4.3.2(4)) f yd £ 400 MPa.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 N Sd = the design axial force.2.2. a failure condition is declared.2. where V Sd . and (EC2 4. s (EC2 4.4. it is taken positive for compression and negative for tension.9 f ywd (EC2 4. (EC2 4.2. b w . As 2. Asw =0. • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed following the Standard method as follows (EC2 4.3): If V Sd £ V Rd 1 .3.V Rd 1 Acv 0.

0011 0.2.0013 Table VII. and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span.0007 0.0024 0.0016 fywk > 400 0. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement 132 Beam Design . Effects due to any axial forces. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. r w Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.0016 0.0013 0. Concrete Strength (MPA) fcwk £ 20 20 < fcwk £ 35 fcwk > 35 Steel Strength (MPA) fywk £ 220 0.4.5). shears. r w is determined from the following table (EC2 Table 5.0009 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • For all columns and at any station. the minimum area of shear reinforcement is imposed as follows: Asw s ³ r w bw (EC2 5. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. It is taken based on ¢ the concrete compression strength for shear use f cs which is the same as f cwk and the shear rebar yield strength f ys which is the same as f ywk . minor direction bending.2 Minimum shear reenforcement ratio. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. load combination factors.2(5)) In the above equation r w is the shear reinforcement ratio.0030 220 < fywk £ 400 0.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at the design stations along the beam span.3. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code specified limiting value. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement. hence all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. The design procedure used by SAP2000. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.1. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.2). In designing the flexural reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular section.3. The beam sec+ tion is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maximum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. In such cases. or the grade of concrete.3.2). It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.4. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure VII-3 (EC2 4. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 2.and T-beams) is summarized below. the beam may be designed as a rectangular section. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Furthermore. When the applied moment exceeds M u .5. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.08 f ck Ag (EC2 4. or T-Beam effects may be included. Beam Design 133 . for the beam major moment. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2). the width.

of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate d limit state after redistribution to the effective depth. (EC2 2. are obtained first. where is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression.2. mlim . as follows: æ ç è æ ç è d xö ÷ d ø lim xö ÷ d ø lim = d .0.0. or equal to mlim . .4 æ ÷ ç ÷ ê ú d ø lim ë è d ø lim û x where the limiting value of the ratio. (EC2 4. See Figure VII-3.80 for assumed rectangular stress block.4. if > 35 .4. • Calculate the normalized design moment. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.1) is assumed to be 1. The reinforcing steel area is determined based on whether m is greater than. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.44 1. d. with a stress value of af cd .1) = 1.25 .56 . m. where f cd is the design concrete f strength and is equal to ck .3. less than.5. 1 .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design as a Rectangular Beam For rectangular beams. mlim . mlim æ =ç è xö é xö ù . if f ck f ck £ 35 . 134 Beam Design .3).25 d . a is generally assumed to be 0. See also page 124 for a . and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1. m.5. (EC2 2. gc • Calculate the normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. the normalized moment.3.0. m= a M bd 2 af cd .

8x d h As (i) BEAM SECTION εs (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tc (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VII-3 Design of a Rectangular Beam • If m £ mlim . 0.807 æ ç xö ÷ . the beam will not suffice as a singly reinforced beam.2m . Calculate the normalized steel ratio. As .0035 αfck/γc b A's fs' d' x Cs a=0. and w . This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom steel if the section is under positive moment. Calculate the area of tension reinforcement.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 ε = 0. • If m > mlim . a singly reinforced beam will suffice. from As = w ê ê ë é af cd bd ù ú ú û f yd . Both top and bottom steel are required. – Calculate the normalized steel ratios w¢. è d ø lim Beam Design 135 . wlim = wlim . w =1 - 1 .

(ii) Flanged beam under positive moment With the flange in compression. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b f . If the stress block extends beyond the flange. m.d ¢/ d .1. and As = é af bd ù cd wê ú f ê ú yd ë û where 2d ¢ ù d ú û fy gs f s¢ = E s e c . the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. m= a M . b w . w¢ = w = wlim + w¢ – Calculate the area of compression and tension reinforcement. Based on this assumption. (EC2 4. • Calculate the normalized design moment. a is generally assumed to be 0. as follows: As¢ = w¢ é af cd bd ù ê f s¢ ú ë û . See Figure VII-4. the width of the web. Design as a T-Beam (i) Flanged beam under negative moment The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored if the flange is in the tension side. See 136 Beam Design . However. A¢ s and As . See Figure VII-4. The design procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2.80 for assumed rectangular stress block. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. and 1 .3). additional calculation is required.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual m . is taken as the width of the beam. max é1 ê ë £ .mlim . where b f d 2 af cd is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression.

if f ck f ck £ 35 .1) is assumed to be 1.56 . w =1 - 1 .5.0.0035 α fck/γc α fck/γc bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = 0.8x Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure VII-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • Calculate the limiting value of the ratio. d.1) = 1.4.3.25 . with a stress value of af cd .5.4.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 also page 124 for a . (EC2 2. (EC2 2.25 d . which is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.3.2m . ε = 0. if > 35 . • Calculate the normalized steel ratio. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.0. of the neutral axis depth at the d ø lim ultimate limit state after redistribution to the effective depth. Beam Design 137 . as follows: æ ç è æ ç è æ ç è d xö ÷ d ø lim xö ÷ d ø lim = d . xö ÷ .44 1.

As 2 .0. ö ÷ ÷ ø x ö æ hf ÷£ç dø ç è d .M 2 . as follows: As = xö ÷ dø é af cd b f wê ê ë dù ú ú û f yd ö ÷ ÷ ø . as follows: m1 = M1 b w d 2 af cd . the neutral axis lies below the flange. and é af ê ê ë cd – If m1 w1 = 1 - As1 = w1 bw d ù ú ú û f yd . Calculate steel area required for equilibrating the flange compression.2m 1 .807 . x d • If æ ç è = w 0. As 2 = (b f . As . the neutral axis lies within the flange. M 1 = M . and the corresponding resistive moment is given by M2 = As 2 f yd ç d ç è æ - hf 2 ö ÷ ÷ ø . 1 . and mlim æ =ç è £ xö é xö ù . 1 . Calculate steel area required for rectangular section of width b r to resist moment. as follows: d • Calculate the ratio.bw )h f af cd f yd .4 æ ÷ ç ÷ ú d ø lim ê d ø lim û è ë mlim . Calculate the area of tension reinforcement.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual x . • If æ ç è æ > ç ç è hf d . 138 Beam Design .

• The effect on the concrete shear capacity of any concentrated or distributed load in the span of the beam between two columns is ignored. • All shear reinforcements are assumed to be perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement.2. As = As1 + As 2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination at various check stations along the beam span. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. The effect of any variation of width in the beam section on the concrete shear capacity is neglected. è d ø lim .d ¢/ d 0.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 – If m1 > mlim . the effect of the direct support on the beams provided by the columns is ignored. The assumptions in designing the shear reinforcements are as follows: • The beam sections are assumed to be prismatic. and ù ú ú û wlim = w1 = wlim + w¢ As¢ = w¢ é af cd bd ù ê f s¢ ú ë û As1 = f s¢ é af b d cd w w1 ê f yd ê ë where fy gs = E s e c . the following steps of the standard method are involved (EC2 4. max é1 ê ë 2d ¢ ù d ú û £ . 1 . . w¢ = m1 . Beam Design 139 .mlim . – Calculate total steel area required for the tension side.807 æ ç xö ÷ . Also. • The effect of any torsion is neglected for the design of shear reinforcement.3.1).

2 + 40 r 1 ) + 0. red = 1.3.2. (EC2 4.3(1)) = enhancement factor for shear resistance for members with concentrated loads located near the face of the support.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • Obtain the design value of the applied shear force V Sd from the SAP2000 analysis results.3) f ctk 0.3. where (EC2 4.2.3) (EC2 4. (EC2 4. (EC2 4.7 f ctm .2. strength magnification factor for curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement and depth of the section. 0. and is considered to be 1.05 gc = t Rd = . and (EC2 4.3) • Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing of the notional concrete compressive struts. 05 f ctm k = = 0.3. red .3 f cwk .3) Ac N Sd = the design value of the applied axial force in section. V Rd 1 b = b t Rd k (1. where (EC2 4.2.2. V Sd = V2 • Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement. N Sd is taken as positive for compression and negative for tension. (EC2 4.25 f ctk 0.2. eff ö ÷ f cd ÷ ø .3.2.3. V Rd 2 . s cp = average stress in concrete due to axial force = N Sd . basic design shear strength of concrete.2. tension reinforcement ratio = As1 bw d £ 0.3.2(4)) 140 Beam Design . V Rd 2 .3. 2 3 0. (EC2 4.3) Ac = the total gross area of concrete cross-section.2.1.3.2.3) r1 = As1 = area of tension reinforcement in the beam.2.1.3) (EC2 3.2.15 s cp b w d .67 V Rd 2 ç 1ç è æ s cp .02 .3.3.3) (EC2 4.1(9)) b is taken as 1.3) (EC2 3.

5 . obtained from each load combination.2. it is taken positive for compression and negative for tension. eff = f yd As 2 Ac .3. where (EC2 4.2(4)) (EC2 4. The maximum of all the calculated Asw s values.3. As 2 is the area of the compression reinforcement.3. is reported for the major directions of the beam along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.3.2(4)) (EC2 4.3) < V Rd 2.2.4.2(4)) a failure condition is declared.3.(EC2 4.3. red else if V Rd 1 < V Sd Asw s = .9 Acv . (EC2 4.3) V Sd . red £ V Rd 2 = .3): If V Sd Asw s £ V Rd 1 =0. effective average stress in concrete.3.2. f yd £ (EC2 4.9 f ywd f ywd is the design yield strength of the shear reinforcement.2. b w .4.3) V Rd 2 1 n f cwd 0. else if V Sd ³ V Rd 2. 2 f ck ³ 0. the effectiveness factor.3. (EC2 4. • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed following the Standard method as follows (EC2 4.2.2(4)) 400 MPa.2.2.3.4.2.2(4)) (EC2 4.Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2 0 £ V Rd 2 . (EC2 4.2.2(4)) f yd = the design yield stress of compression steel. red . (EC2 4.2.7 - s cp . .3.3. Beam Design 141 . and Ac is the gross total area of concrete cross-section. 200 N Sd - n = 0.3.3(3)) (EC2 4.V Rd 1 Acv 0.2.2) N Sd = the design axial force.2.

It is taken based on ¢ the concrete compression strength for shear use f cs which is the same as f cwk and the shear rebar yield strength f ys which is the same as f ywk .2 according to the EC2 Table 5.2. r w is determined from Table VII. 142 Beam Design .2(5)) In the above equation r w is the shear reinforcement ratio.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • For all beams and at any station. the minimum area of shear reinforcement is imposed as follows: Asw s ³ r w bw (EC2 5.5.4.

all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. respectively. the frame should be identified as Ordinary. NZS 310195 (NZS 1995). English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. SAP2000 provides options to design or check all types of moment resisting frames as required for regular and seismic design. frames with Limited ductility. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. and Elastically responding frames. 143 . or Elastic to represent Ductile moment resisting frames.C h a p t e r VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the New Zealand code. Limited. For Seismic design. the frame has to be identified as either Ductile. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VIII-1. For simplicity. For regular design. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in the following sections. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units.

mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions.000 MPa (NZS 3. MPA Dimension of beam or column. mm Maximum depth of compression block. used to calculate moment magnification factor Depth to neutral axis. MPA Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Width of web (T-Beam section). MPA Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-mm Depth of compression block. mm Effective width of flange (T-Beam section). mm Thickness of slab (T-Beam section). dependent upon column curvature. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. mm Width of member.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Acv Ag As As¢ As (required ) Ast Av a ab a max b bf bw Cm c cb d d¢ ds Ec Es f c¢ fy f yt h Ig k L Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. sq-mm Gross area of concrete.3. sq-mm Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. assumed as 200.3) Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. neglecting reinforcement. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Table VIII-1 List of Symbols Used in the New Zealand code 144 . mm4 Effective length factor Clear unsupported length. mm Coefficient.8. mm Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. MPA Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.

Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 M1 M2 Mc M ns Ms M* M* x M* y Nb Nc N max N0 N* vb vc Vc VD +L Vp V* Vs a a1 b1 bd db ds ec es jb Smaller factored end moment in a column. N Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. N-mm Factored moment at section about Y-axis. N Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Larger factored end moment in a column. MPA Shear stress resisted by concrete. N-mm Factored moment at section. N-mm Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. N Shear force from span loading. MPA Shear force resisted by concrete. N Factored axial load at section. N Shear force at a section resisted by steel. N Maximum axial load strength allowed. N-mm Factored moment to be used in design. N Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Average stress factor in equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of the ratio of the maximum factored axial dead load moment to the maximum factored total load moment Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Moment magnification factor for sway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor for bending Table VIII-1 List of Symbols Used in the New Zealand code (continued) 145 . N Critical buckling strength of column. N-mm Sway component of factored end moment. N-mm Factored moment at section about X-axis. N-mm Nonsway component of factored end moment. N Basic shear stress resisted by concrete. N Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity.

9 DL ± 1.3) (NZS 4203-92 2.2 DL + 0.4 DL 1.4.0 DL ± 1.2.3) EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the NZS 3101-95 code is used. live load (LL). overwrite them.4.3.4. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.2 DL + 1.4.3): 1. is taken as jb jc js = 0.2) (NZS 3.0 (NZS 4203-92 2.2. other types of loads are present.2.85 for bending and = 0.2 DL ± 1.0 WL 1.75 for shear. (NZS 3. however.6 LL 1.0 EL 1. and earthquake (EL) loads.0 WL 1.3. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).4. then the following load combinations may have to be considered for design of concrete frames (NZS 4203-92 2. Strength Reduction Factors The default strength reduction factor.0 DL + 0.3.2) The user can.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.2) (NZS 3. For this code. or pattern live loads are to be considered.4.4 LL ± 1.4. j . and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.85 for compression and = 0. 146 Design Load Combinations .3) (NZS 4203-92 2.4 LL ± 1.0 WL 0. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. wind (WL).

1. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending. at the extremity of the section. the program checks the column capacity. The coordinates of these points of the interaction diagram are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. Column Design 147 . e c . to 0. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure II-1. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure II-1.4.008 to 0. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (NZS 8. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations.3).Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Column Design The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. square. When the steel is undefined.3). The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: • Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model.1) and 0.2).3. See Figure II-2. and Elastic) moment resisting frames (NZS 8.4. However. or circular column section.003 (NZS 8.008 to 18 f y for Seismic (Ductile. and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.6. the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.5. • Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. Limited. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain. if the area of reinforcing is not provided by the user. • Design the column shear reinforcement. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user.08 for Ordinary moment resisting frames (NZS 8. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement ratios 0.

where a 1 = 0.7) (NZS 8. with a stress value of a 1 f c¢ (NZS 8.1.7) 0.55). and and In designing the column longitudinal reinforcement.3. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). the following limits are imposed on the steel tensile strength and the concrete compressive strength: 148 Column Design .30).SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual εc = 0.1.4). and is limited to the yield stress of the steel.85 .85. e s .3.3.008 ( f c¢ f c¢ .3. f y (NZS 8. See Figure VIII-1. and the steel modulus of elasticity.003 α1 f'c 1 Cs C 2 Cs a= 1c d' c εs1 εs2 εs3 εs4 Ts3 Ts4 (i) Concrete Section (ii) Strain Diagram (iii) Stress Diagram Figure VIII-1 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain.1.85 .75 £ a 1 0.65 £ b1 £ 0.1.3.1.7) and a depth of the stress block of b1 c.3. E s .1.0.7) (NZS 8. .004 ( b1 = 0. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular. £ 0. (NZS 8.85.0.7) (NZS 8.

(NZS 8.8. The factored moments are further increased.1.4. where the maximum factored axial load resistance is given by: N max = 0. The effects of the strength reduction factor.8. • Determine the dynamic moment magnification effect.4) 70 MPa The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.1) (NZS 3. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and * the specified load combination factors to give N * .1) (NZS 3.4. to obtain minimum eccentricities of (15 + 0.70 j c [a 1 f c¢ ( Ag .03 h ) mm.8. Determine whether the point. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to N max . Elastic).5) (NZS 8.5).1.2. • Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored loads obtained in the first step.85 j c [a 1 f c¢ ( Ag N max = 0. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (NZS 8. j . are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces.4. M * x . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps.4) Check Column Capacity The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station of each column.5. M * x .Ast . defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 fy f c¢ f c¢ £ 500 £ 100 £ MPA MPA (Ordinary and Elastic) (Ductile and Limited) (NZS 3. and M y . • Determine the moment magnification factors for stability. The computed moments are further amplified by us- Column Design 149 . lies within the interaction volume. giving N * . if required.1. Limited). and M y . ) + f y Ast ] (Ductile. Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the * corresponding load factors to all the load conditions. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular station.11.Ast ) + f y Ast ] (Ordinary.

In SAP2000. therefore. d sx and d sy . obtained from the analysis and a magnified factored moment. the user can explicitly specify values of d sx and d sy . If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member.85. The user is reminded of the special analysis requirements. M = M ns +ds M s The moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway in the major and minor directions. the EI values are computed based on gross cross-section areas.4 LL)/j c with the loading standard NZS 4203. d sx and d sy . the moment magnification factor for lateral drift effect is applied only to the “sway” moment in SAP2000.4. taken as 1. N * .0 DL + 0. These amplified moments are further amplified for individual member stability effect. can be different. M c . SAP2000 treats all frames uniformly to amplify non-sway components of moments. Lateral Drift Effect For all frames. Member Stability Effects All compression members are designed using the factored axial load.0 if a P-D analysis is carried out. The non-sway components are amplified for lateral drift effect.5). The program assumes that the SAP2000 analysis models P-D effects. The moment magnification factors.11. d sx and d sy are 150 Column Design . Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are applied in two different stages. especially those related to the value of EI used in analysis (NZS 8. It is suggested that the P-D analysis be done at the factored load level (White and Hajjar 1991).0. where j c is the strength reduction factor for compression and is equal to 0. First the moments are separated into their “sway” and “non-sway” components. Although this amplification may be avoided for “braced” frames according to the code.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual ing “Moment Magnification Factors” to allow for “Lateral Drift Effect” and “Member Stability Effect”. The magnified moment is computed as. The user has the option to reduce the EI values for analysis purposes using a scale factor on a section-by-section basis. can be taken as 1. The necessary factors for a P-D analysis for the NZS 3101-95 code should be (1.

1) C m = 0.5).4. Maximum factored total axial load Ma Mb ³ 0.0 . Therefore N * must be less than j c N c . however the user can override the value.11. for moments not causing sidesway is given by db = 1- Cm N* j c Nc p ³ 1.40 E c I g 1 + bd .5) Nc = EI .4 (NZS 8.11.5) bd = Maximum factored axial dead load . The above calculations use the unsupported lengths of the column. d b . or the length is overwritten.6 + 0.4.5) where M 2 is the column maximum end moment obtained from elastic analysis after considering minimum eccentricity and lateral drift effect. The two unsupported lengths are l 22 and l 33 corresponding to instability in the minor and major di- Column Design 151 .4 . EI is associated with a particular column direction given by EI = 0. C m = 1 (NZS 8. (NZS 8.4.11.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Mc =db M 2 . The moment magnification factor. If transverse load is present on the span. d b . and (NZS 8.11.4. The above expression of C m is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. or for any other case. and M c is the maximum moment associated with the major or minor direction of the column occurring either at the end or at an interior point within the span of the column. The magnification factor. ( kL) 2 2 k is conservatively taken as 1.5) M a and M b are the moments at the ends of the column. must be a positive number and greater than one. If N * is found to be greater than or equal to j c N c . a failure condition is declared.11. M a M b is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.4. (NZS 8. where (NZS 8. C m can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis. and M b is numerically larger than M a .

2) R m = the moment reduction factor which is taken as a function of axial force and the dynamic magnification factor. NZS 8. the reduction due to the design shear force is taken as zero. Dynamic Moment Magnification For seismic design of Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility. V col = Rm j 0 w M col. and w can be overwritten. See Figure II-4. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.elastic .1. It is taken as 1 for frames with Limited ductility. j0 = an overstrength factor. The user can overwrite this.2.1. joint.5. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. M * = the design moment for column. joint. The user can model this using end-offsets in SAP2000. the three parameters R m .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual rections of the element. and h b = the overall dimension of the beam at the beam-column joint.elastic = the column moment at the center of the joint obtained from linear elastic analysis. * = the design shear for column. It is taken as 1.1. for Ductile moment resisting frames (NZS Table A3).3 h bV col * (NZS A7.5. 152 Column Design . and the user can overwrite this.3): M* where. the moment is further amplified for dynamic effects of higher modes as follows (NZS 8. M col. w.0.25 j b (NZS A4. w = the dynamic magnification factor. j 0 . in the current implementation. a capacity ratio is calculated. However. In the current implementation of SAP2000. which is based on a conservative assumption that h b is equal to zero. and the user can overwrite this.6). respectively. and is taken as 1.

Note that N * is needed for the calculation of v c . OC • If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that will give an interaction ratio of unity. OL See Figure II-3. M * x . CR. • If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. If the point lies within the interaction volume. M * x . This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface. and M y . the column capacity is adequate. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling N * . and * M y set and associated load combination number. • Determine the reinforcing steel required to carry the balance. the moment * magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain N * . M y ) is then placed in the interaction space.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. • Determine the shear stress. • If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. M * x . v c . In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction. N * and V * . If the reinforcing area is not defined. The capacity ratio. Column Design 153 . is given by the ratio . the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored forces acting on the section. however. Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. the column is overstressed. * The point ( N * . that can be resisted by concrete alone. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. shown as point L in Figure II-3.

+ M J+ .3. the + and M u . V * . the column axial force. 17. N * . in a particular direction is also calculated from the overstrength moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column (NZS 8. and L M I+ + M J. is calculated. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. M u ticular direction under the influence of the axial force N * is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. V * . Determine Section Forces • In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. The design shear force.5. The design shear force. NZS 17. and the column shear force. where V P1 = V P2 = where M I.3. N * . V * .4. of the column in a parpositive and negative moment capacities.4.5.7.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual For Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility.7.4.3). the forces for a particular load combination. Then. For each load combination.1. Therefore.7. • In the shear design of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames of Limited ductility (NOT Elastically responding frames) the following are checked in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames (NZS 4. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 .1) where V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. namely.1) V* = V p + V D+ L (NZS 4. the shear design of the columns is based on the overstrength moment capacities of the column (NZS 4.1. L 154 Column Design .1). the factored axial load. is then given by (NZS 4.1).7.4.3. NZS 17.

Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.08 f c¢ vb £ For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv .2. the concrete shear capacity for columns is taken as follows: Column Design 155 . For most of the columns.0). and £ (NZS 9.4.07 + 10 ë é Ast ù bw d ú û f c¢ (NZS 9.1) 0. it is zero.2.8). See also for more details. For Seismic moment resisting frames.25 for both Ductile moment resisting frames and frames with Limited ductility (NZS A4.6).3.2. • For Ductile moment resisting frames. (NZS 9.3. The factored shear force is based on the specified load combinations which are regular load combinations except the earthquake load factor is taken to be 1. which is shown in Figure VIII-2. v c .3. f c¢ £ 70 . j is taken as 1 (NZS 4.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 M I+ .2 f c¢ .5.3). is calculated as follows: • The basic shear strength for a rectangular section is computed as.3. • For Ordinary and Elastically responding moment resisting frames.0). V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.4.7 (NZS 4. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear capacity provided by the concrete alone.1) where. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for additional factored loads. the effective shear area. M J- = L = Clear span of column. v b = ê0. M I= Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. is taken as 1. in addition to the checks required for capacity design and factored loads.1) 0. and M J+ .1. a .

N * is negative for tension. (NZS > 0.5 +1. vc = 0. 156 Column Design .7.10 f c¢ Ag . (NZS 9.5 v b 0. v c is not taken less than zero.3.3 and NZS 17. N * < 0.5 + 6 N* f c¢ Ag N f ¢ * ö ÷ ÷ ø vb if under axial tension.7. vc = (NZS 9. v c is not taken less than zero. N* N* = 0.7. the shear strength of a column section is taken as zero if the axial force is tensile or compression is very small. if under flexure only.7. > 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual ìæ ïç 1 +12 ç ïè ï í ï æ ï ç 1 +3 ç ï è î N* f c¢ Ag vb N* f c¢ Ag ö ÷ ÷ ø vb if under axial tension. In any case. N* N* = 0.2) If the axial compression is higher than the above limit. the concrete shear capacity for columns is taken as follows (NZS 17.3. • For Seismic moment resisting frames with Limited ductility.2. N * is negative for tension. • For Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames.10 f c¢ Ag .4) vb if under compression.0.4.4. the concrete shear capacity for columns is taken as follows: vc = 4v b N* Ag f c¢ .4): ìæ ïç ç ïè ï í ïæ ïç ç ïè î 0.1) ö ÷ ÷ ø vb if under compression. In any case.1 if N * > 0.3.3. N * < 0.2.2.3.4).2) In any case. if under flexure only. This is given as v c = 0 if N * £ 0. v c is not taken less than zero (NZS 17.5 ö ÷ ÷ c Ag ø 17. (NZS 9.

(NZS 9. v max = min 0. • The average shear stress. f yt £ 500 (NZS 9.4.35b w . v * . v max .Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular section as.1) For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv .1 f c¢ . which is given for Ordinary frames and Elastically responding seismic frames as.4.6. is limited to a maximum limit.1) Column Design 157 .4. 0. MPa .35 < f yt v* £ 500 MPa . (NZS 9.16 f c¢ . v max = min 1.1. (NZS 9. js v* £js vc + 0.3.6.3.8) and for Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility as. 9 MPa js (NZS 9. 0.3. .3. the effective shear area which is shown in .3.1) vc 2 < =0.1.8.1.3.85 f c¢ . 9 MPa js .2) • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v * Av s else if Av s else if Av s £js vc 2 . v* = V* .2 f c¢ .8) In calculating the design shear reinforcement.3.35 .4. f yt vc + 0. bw d (NZS 9.2. . (NZS 3. (NZS 9. js £ j s v max = (v* -j svc js ) bw f yt .3) = 0. a limit is imposed on the f yt as f yt £ 500 Mpa.1 and NZS 9.3) else if v * > v max a failure condition is declared.

5.r m t ³í î 2.4.0. of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility.3 .1) In potential plastic hinge locations. the following limits are imposed on the concrete compressive strength: f c¢ f c¢ £ 100 £ MPA (Ordinary and Elastic) (Ductile and Limited) (NZS 3. it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plas- 158 Column Design . the minimum area of transverse stirrup and circular hoops is imposed as follows: Av s Av s ì1.7 and NZS 8.8.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual The maximum of all the calculated Av s values.0.4.4) 70 MPa For all columns and at any station.4.4.5.4.r m t ³í î 3.0065ý þ ü .0.4 f yt £ 800 For the definition of the potential plastic hinge.5.2) ì1 .7 and NZS 8.0084ý þ h core (Stirrups) h core (Hoops) 4 (NZS 8.3) MPa (NZS 8.2 (NZS 8.0084ý þ h core (Stirrups) h core (Hoops) 4 (NZS 8.3 Ag f c¢ Ac f yt Ag f c¢ Ac f yt N* ¢ j c f c Ag N* ¢ j c f c Ag ü .4.4.4 (NZS 8.8. is reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. obtained from each load combination.3) ì1.4.7.3) r t m £ 0.3 Ag f c¢ Ac f yt Ag f c¢ Ac f yt N* ¢ j c f c Ag N* ¢ j c f c Ag ü . the minimum area of transverse stirrup and circular hoop reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s Av s ì1 .4.3) (NZS 8.4.1) (NZS 3.3) In the above four equations for calculating minimum shear reinforcement.7.r m t ³í î 3.r m t ³í î 2.5.4 (NZS 8.0.5. the following limits are imposed: Ag Ac ³ 1.0060ý þ ü . as described later.3 .4.7 and NZS 8. In designing the column shear reinforcement.1.

Lhinge .1) The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations.50 (NZS 8. Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user. in a column depends on the level of axial compression in it and it is taken as follows: ì h if if if N* 0.4. Acv Column Design 159 .5. d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d Acv b RECTANGULAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE Acv CIRCULAR Figure VIII-2 Shear Stress Area.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 tic hinge.50 ³ 0. The length of the plastic hinge.25 £ N * N * ï Lhinge = í2h ï 3h î jc jc jc f c¢ Ag f c¢ Ag f c Ag ¢ < 0.25 < 0.

1) (NZS 3.2. minor direction bending. All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. the following steps are involved: • Determine the maximum factored moments • Determine the reinforcing steel Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Ordinary and Seismic (Ductile.1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span. 160 Beam Design .8. the following limits are imposed on the steel tensile strength and the concrete compressive strength: fy f c¢ f c¢ £ 500 £ 100 £ MPA MPA (Ordinary and Elastic) (NZS 3. and Elastic) moment resisting frame concrete beams.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. load combination factors and other criteria described below.4) 70 MPA (Ductile and Limited) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of design stations along the beam span.8. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam for a particular section. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: • Design beam flexural reinforcement • Design beam shear reinforcement In designing the beam flexural and shear reinforcement. Effects due to any axial forces. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Limited. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. shears.4.1) (NZS 3.8.

e. 0. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Also a 1 is calculated as follows: a1 = 0. (NZS 8. the width. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.3.55) . When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.1.2).4. and (NZS 8.85 .85 - 0.85 .65 £ b1 £ 0.85 (NZS 3. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.1.008( f c¢ - 30) . Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is 0. 0.7) Also b1 and c b are calculated as follows: b1 = 0.and T-beams) is summarized below. M * . In such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular.2. (NZS 8.3. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1. The design procedure used by SAP2000.3.7) Beam Design 161 . or the grade of concrete. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4.004( f c¢ .Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. Negative beam moments produce top steel. (i.6).85 - 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 8.3. designing top or bottom steel) the depth of the compression block. All the beams are designed only for major direction flexure and shear. Design for Flexure of a Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. a (See Figure VIII-3). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. is computed as.75 £ a1 £ 0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in (NZS 8.2) in the above and the following equations.or T-beam. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1) where the default value of j b is 0. a = d - d 2 2 M* a1 f c¢ jb b .

the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given M* f æ y çd è a 2 .1.1.75 b1 c b £ . or at the top if M * is negative.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual 600 d.2).4. (NZS 8.2) The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max • If a by As = jb = 0. 600 + f y cb = (NZS 8.7) a max (NZS 8.3. ε = 0. ö ÷ ø This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M * is positive.003 b α1 f'c Cs A's d' c a= 1c d As εs Beam Section Strain Diagram Ts Tc Stress Diagram Figure VIII-3 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section 162 Beam Design .4.2 and NZS 8.4.

7) the moment resisted by the concrete and bottom steel is M* c æ =C ç d è a max 2 ö ÷j b ø . and (NZS 8. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 8. As = As1 + As 2 .3. – The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M* s = M* - * . and vice versa. Mc – So the required compression steel is given by As¢ f s¢ = * Ms ( f s¢ . where = 0.3) – The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is As1 = M* c .2).4.1. (NZS 8.d¢ ) j b . Beam Design 163 .3. f y ( d .3.2 and NZS 8. As is to be placed at the bottom and As¢ is to be placed at the top if M * is positive.4.1.3) and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by C =a1 f c¢ ba max .1.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 • If a > a max (NZS 8.d¢ ) j b – Therefore. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ .d¢ ù ê ë c ú û £ fy . and a max ) jb f y (d 2 the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is As 2 = * Ms .003 E s é c .1.a 1 f c¢ )( d . the total tensile reinforcement.

- = d d 2 2 M* a1 f c¢ jb bf . i.1.75 b1 c b . (NZS 8.. M * £ 0.2). M * to be carried by the web is given by * M* w = M - M *f .2 and NZS 8. As1 = given by M *f = C f æ ç è Cf fy ds 2 and the portion of M * that is resisted by the flange is d - ö ÷ jb ø . (NZS 8.4. (NZS 8. the balance of the moment. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a max . the depth of the compression block is given by (see Figure VIII-4). Therefore. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as 164 Beam Design . As shown in . C f . (i.4. • If a > d s (NZS 8.bw )d s .7) Therefore. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cf =a1 f c¢ ( b f . However. designing top steel). the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above.e.4. no T-Beam data is to be used.7) • If a £ d s (NZS 8.3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. in this case the width of the beam is taken as b f .3. The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b w and d . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously done for the rectangular section design.2).1.3. (ii) Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M * a > 0.1) The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by a max = 0. C w . calculation for As is done in two parts.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design for Flexure of a T-Beam (i) Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.e.

and ö ÷ ø As = As1 + As 2 .3. This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.003 α1 f'c α1 f'c bf ds d' As' c d fs' Cs a= 1c Cf Cw As bw εs Ts Tw Tf Beam Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram Figure VIII-4 Design of a T-Beam Section • If a1 > a max (NZS 8.2).1.2). f c¢ j b b w a1 = d - d2 - (NZS 8.3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: – The compressive force in the concrete web alone is given by Cw = a1 f c¢ ba max . and (NZS 8. ε = 0.1) a1 • If a1 £ a max (NZS 8.4. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As 2 = jb * Mw f æ y çd è a1 2 .7) Beam Design 165 .4.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 2M * w .

– Total tensile reinforcement.4.1. or (NZS 8.3) 166 Beam Design . – Therefore.3.2 and NZS 8.d¢ ù c ú û £ fy . As = As1 + As 2 + As 3 .1. (NZS 8.d¢ ) j b .3) – The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As 2 = * Mc a max f yæ çd 2 è . – The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M* s = M* w - M* c .3. Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary and Elastic moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two limits: As ³ f c¢ 4f y b w d .1) As ³ 4 As (required ) .4. 3 (NZS 8. the compression steel is computed as As¢ f s¢ = M* s ( f s¢ .003 E s ê ë .3.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual the moment resisted by the concrete web and tensile steel is M* c = Cw æ çd è - a max 2 ö ÷ jb ø .3. and total compression reinforcement is As¢ .d¢ fy jb . where = é c .a 1 f c¢ )( d 0. As is to be placed at the bottom and As¢ is to be placed at the top. and ö ÷j b ø the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As 3 = * Ms d .

2.4). As(min) ³ f c¢ 4f y bw d .5.025 b w d and f c¢ + 10 bw d .5.5.4). shall not be less than1 2 of the tension reinforcement area. the following additional conditions are enforced for beam design (NZS 8. (NZS 8.5.04 b d £í î0.2. As .2) • The beam flexural tensile steel is limited to a maximum given by As As £ 0.5.04 b w d Rectangular beam T -beam Rectangular beam T -beam Additional Consideration for Seismic Design For Seismic moment resisting concrete Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility (not Elastically responding structures). NZS 17. 17.3.3. at the same section (NZS 8.5.3.5. as defined later on page 171.5.3. the compression reinforcement area.3.4) (NZS 8.3.5.2). Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As (min) if tensile reinforcement is required. Beam Design 167 . • The minimum tensile longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top and bottom for both Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility.3.2 and NZS 17. • At least1 4 of the larger of the top flexural reinforcement required at either end of the beam in a Ductile frame or in a frame with Limited ductility shall be continued throughout its length (NZS 8.2. At any section of a beam within a potential plastic hinge region for moment resisting frames with Limited ductility.5.3. NZS 17. As¢ .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: As As¢ ì 0.4). the compression reinforcement area shall not be less than 3 8 of the tension reinforcement area at the same section (NZS 17. See Table VIII-2 for comprehensive listing.5.3.04 b d £í î0.3.04 b w d ì 0. 6f y (NZS 8.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 An upper limit of 0.4) £ • At any section of a beam within a potential plastic hinge region for Ductile moment resisting frames.3.

For Seismic moment resisting frames. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear. is then given by (NZS 4.3. however. V p is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated overstrength moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. • In the shear design of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames of Limited ductility (NOT Elastically responding frames). V * .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span. V p is the maximum of V P1 and V P2 .1).1. and L 168 Beam Design . the shear design of the beams is also based on the overstrength moment capacities of the members.1) where. • Determine the reinforcing steel required to carry the balance. where V P1 = M I.+ M J+ . V * .4. Therefore. NZS 17. V * .3). The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from overstrength moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Column Design” on page 154 (NZS 8.3.4. and the gravity shear forces (NZS 4.4. The design shear force.7.1. v c . that can be resisted by the concrete. NZS 17. • Determine the shear stress.1) V* = V p + V D+ L (NZS 4. See also for more details.5. the following steps are involved: • Determine the factored shear force.7. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the above-mentioned steps. is calculated from the overstrength moment capacities of each end of the beam. the shear force.

3. a . using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.2.2.0). with top steel in tension.6).3.0).1) 0.1) 0.4.0). M J. M I. with bottom steel in tension. For Seismic moment resisting frames.2 f c¢ .1) Beam Design 169 . f c¢ £ 70 .3.3.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 M I+ + M J. with top steel in tension.3). Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear capacity provided by the concrete alone. L V P2 = where M I+ = Moment capacity at end I. and L = Clear span of beam.08 f c¢ vb £ • For Ordinary and Elastically responding moment resisting frames. v b = ê0. with bottom steel in tension. V D + L is the contribution of shear force from the load in-span distribution of gravity loads. (NZS 9.25 for both Ductile moment resisting frames and frames with Limited ductility (NZS A4. j is taken as 1 (NZS 4.2. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. the concrete shear capacity for beams is taken as follows: vc = vb.07 + 10 ë é As ù bw d ú û f c¢ (NZS 9. v c . and £ (NZS 9. M J+ = Moment capacity at end J.= Moment capacity at end J.1) where.3.1.= Moment capacity at end I. is calculated as follows: • The basic shear strength for a rectangular section is computed as. is taken as 1.0). using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1. (NZS 9.2. using a steel yield stress value of af y and no j factors (j = 1.

4. • The average shear stress.2. v max .35 . 0.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • For Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames.3. the shear strength of a beam section is taken as zero since the axial force is considered to be very small or tensile.3.16 f c¢ .1. the concrete shear capacity for the beam is taken as follows: v c = 0. 9 MPa js .3. which is given for Ordinary frames and Elastically responding seismic frames as.1) For other types of sections b w d is replaced by Acv . (NZS 9. v* = V* . (NZS 9.3.1. (NZS 9. 0.8) and for Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility as. v max = min 0.2) • The shear reinforcement per unit spacing is computed as follows: If v * Av s else if Av s £js vc 2 . the effective shear area which is shown in Figure VIII-2. This is given as vc = 0 .3.7.2 f c¢ .1 f c¢ .3) Determine Required Shear Reinforcement • The average shear stress is computed for a rectangular beam section as. bw d (NZS 9. (NZS 9. f yt f yt £ 500 MPa 170 Beam Design .85 f c¢ .35b w .5 v b .1) vc 2 < =0. 9 MPa js (NZS 9.4.4. v * . v max = min 1.4.4.1) • For Seismic moment resisting frames with Limited ductility. js v* £js vc + 0. (NZS 17. is limited to a maximum limit.3) = 0.

the following limits are imposed: Ag Ac ³ 1.6.3) In the above two equations for calculating the minimum shear reinforcement. a limit is imposed on the f yt as f yt £ 500 Mpa.8) In calculating the design shear reinforcement.7 and NZS 8.r m t ³í î 3. f yt £ 500 else if v * > v max a failure condition is declared.4 f yt £ 800 For the definition of the potential plastic hinge.2) In potential plastic hinge locations.3) r t m £ 0.7 and NZS 8.3) = (v* -j svc js ) bw f yt .3 .1) The maximum of all the calculated Av s values. obtained from each load combination.1 and NZS 9.2. Lhinge .0065ý þ h core (NZS 8.4. the minimum area of transverse stirrup is imposed as follows: Av s ì1.r m t ³í î 3.5. For all beams and at any station. is reported for the beam along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. as described later.3) (NZS 8.7. it is assumed in the current version of the program that any beam and column segment near the joint is a potential plastic hinge.3) MPa (NZS 8.5.3.4.4.2 (NZS 8.0060ý þ h core (NZS 8.0. of Seismic moment resisting Ductile frames and frames with Limited ductility.4.3 Ag f c¢ Ac f yt N* ¢ j c f c Ag ü . (NZS 9. The length of the plastic hinge.7 and NZS 8. (NZS 3.5.3.3 Ag f c¢ Ac f yt N* ¢ j c f c Ag ü .35 < v* .4.5.4.3. MPa (NZS 9.4.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 else if Av s js vc + 0.8.0. the minimum area of transverse stirrup reinforcement is imposed as follows: Av s ì1 . in a beam is taken as follows: Beam Design 171 .4.6. £ j s v max .1.

Any other minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1) The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely upon the above considerations. 172 Beam Design .SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Lhinge = 2h (NZS 8.3.5.

008 < ρ < 0.25 and ϕ = 1.Chapter VIII Design for NZS 3101-95 Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Ordinary (non-Seismic) or Elastically Responding (Seismic) Moment Resisting Frames with Limited ductility or Elastically responding (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Rm = 1 NLDa Combinations α = 1. Moment Override Check fc¢ 4 fy 3 AsEND 8 1 ³ max AsEND 4 r³ fc¢ 4 fy 1 AsEND 2 1 ³ max AsEND 4 + AsEND ³ + AsEND ³ + AsSPAN No Requirement + AsSPAN { } { } NLDa Combinations Beam Design Shear vc = vb a NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (V p ) with α = 1.25 NLDa Combinations r £ 0.0 plus VD+L vc = 0 NLD = Number of specified loading Table VIII-2 Comparison of Ordinary and Seismic Moment Resisting Frame Design Beam Design 173 .008 < ρ < 18 fy (Elastic only) Column Shears NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations r £ 0.08 0.0 plus VD+L vc = vb / 2 NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (V p ) with α = 1.008< ρ < 18 fy Rm is from NZS Table A3 NLDa Combinations and Column Capacity Shear (V p ) Extra Combo with 1.0 0.25 NLDa Combinations Ductile Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Rm is from NZS Table A3 NLDa Combinations α = 1.0 0.025 f ¢ + 10 r£ c 6 fy NLDa Combinations Column Design (Interaction) NLDa Combinations 0.0 and α = 1.7 VE j = 1.0 and α = 1.008 < ρ < 18 fy Rm = 1 Modified NLDa Combs Column Capacity Shear (V p ) ϕ = 1.025 f ¢ + 10 r£ c 6 fy r³ Beam Min.25 and ϕ = 1.

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This is generated for added convenience to the designer. All graphical output can be printed. tabular output. live load reduction factors. it can also show the position of the current state of design forces on the column interaction diagram. and other design parameters. K -factors. The output design information includes longitudinal reinforcing. and some intermediate results for all the load combinations at all the design sections of a specific frame member. shear reinforcing.C h a p t e r IX Design Output Overview SAP2000 creates design output in three major different formats graphical display. reinforcement. The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information. For a column member. The tabular output includes most of the information which can be displayed. The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view. Overview 175 . Input design information includes design section labels. It shows the design forces. The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed. design section dimensions. and member specific detailed design information. and column capacity ratios.

Some of the design information is specific to the chosen concrete design codes which are available in the program and are only described where required.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual In the following sections.. The graphics can be displayed in either 3D or 2D mode. the active screen display can be sent directly to the printer. and • Column Capacity Ratios. d b -factors. • • d s -factors. For example. The SAP2000 standard view transformations are available for all concrete design output displays. Then clicking the OK button will show the longitudinal reinforcing in the active window. For all other codes. This will pop up a dialog box called Display Design Results. The ACI 318-99 design code is described in the latter part of this chapter. Then the user should switch ON the Design Output option button (default) and select Longitudinal Reinforcing in the drop-down box. Input design information. and The output design information which can be displayed is • Longitudinal Reinforcing. The graphical displays can be accessed from the Design menu. the longitudinal reinforcement can be displayed by selecting Display Design Info. some of the typical graphical display. • C m -factors. • Live Load Reduction Factors. • Unbraced Length Ratios. includes • Design section labels. • K -factors for major and minor direction of buckling. tabular output. for the ACI 318-99 code. Graphical Display of Design Output The graphical output can be produced either as color screen display or in grayscaled printed form. the design outputs are similar. Moreover. from the Design menu. For switching between 3D or 2D view of graphical displays. there are several buttons 176 Graphical Display of Design Output .. and member-specific detailed design information are described. The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information. • Shear Reinforcing.

To send the graphical output directly to the printer. the view can be set by choosing Set 3D View. All tables have formal headings and are self-explanatory. • Load Combination Multipliers – Combination name. – Beam dimensions. The printed form of tabular output is the same as that produced for the file output with the exception that for the printed output font size is adjusted. and – Load factors. – Top and bottom concrete cover. the tabular output includes the following. A screen capture of the active window can also be made by following the standard procedure provided by the Windows operating system.Chapter IX Design Output on the main toolbar. The graphical display in an active window can be printed in gray scaled black and white from the SAP2000 program. • Concrete Beam Property Data – Material label. – Column dimensions. and – Bar area. Input design information includes the following: • Concrete Column Property Data – Material label.. For the ACI 318-99 code.. The tabular design output includes input and output design information which depends on the design code of choice. – Reinforcement pattern. Tabular Display of Design Output 177 . Alternatively. Tabular Display of Design Output The tabular design output can be sent directly either to a printer or to a file. – Load types. – Concrete cover. so further description of these tables is not given. click on the Print Graphics button in the File menu. from the View menu. and – Top and bottom reinforcement areas.

This will pop up a dialog box. – K -factors for major and minor direction of buckling.. a file list can be obtained by clicking 178 Tabular Display of Design Output . – Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination. d b -factors. By default. The default filename can be edited. – Framing Type.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • Concrete Design Element Information (code dependent) – Design Section ID. – Bottom reinforcement and the governing load combination. – Station location. – Station location. • Concrete Moment Magnification Factors (code dependent) – Section ID. – Top longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination. and – Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination. • Beam Design Information – Section ID. The tabular output can be accessed by selecting Print Design Tables.. Then the user can specify the design quantities for which the results are to be tabulated. This will provide a default filename. from the File menu. Alternatively. – C m -factors. – Element Type. and The output design information includes the following: • Column Design Information – Section ID. If the user wants the output stream to be redirected to a file. he/she can check the Print to File box. – – d s -factors. – Total longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination. and – Minor shear reinforcement and the governing load combination. – Unbraced Length Ratios. – Live Load Reduction Factors. the output will be sent to the printer.

design forces.Chapter IX Design Output the File Name button to chose a file from. For beams additional information can be accessed by clicking on the ReDesign and Details buttons in the dialog box. – Top reinforcement area. and – Minor shear reinforcement area. and – Shear reinforcement area. If the selected member is a column. The detailed design information can be accessed by right clicking on the desired frame member. design section dimensions. and some of the intermediate results for a member. it can also show the position of the current state of design forces on the column interaction diagram. Then clicking the OK button will direct the tabular output to the requested stream the file or the printer. The design detail information can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific station of a frame member. It provides an access to the geometry and material data. If the selected member is a beam. Additional information can be accessed for column members by clicking on the ReDesign. the dialog box includes – Load combination ID. – Station location. – Bottom reinforcement area. – Major shear reinforcement area. the dialog box includes – Load combination ID. reinforcement details. This will pop up a dialog box called Concrete Design Information which includes the following tabulated information for the specific member. Additional information that is available by clicking on the ReDesign button is as follows: Member Specific Information 179 . – Station location. For a column member. other input data. Details. and Interaction buttons in the dialog box. – Longitudinal reinforcement area. Member Specific Information The member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view.

– Live Load Reduction Factors. the information includes: • Frame. • Section geometric information and graphical representation. and 180 Member Specific Information . • Material properties of steel and concrete. • Longitudinal reinforcing areas. • Moment factors. If the member is a beam. – Unbraced Length Ratios. If the member is a column. • Design shear forces. • Material properties of steel and concrete. • Minimum design moments. for major and minor direction of buckling. Station. • Section geometric information and graphical representation.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual • Design Factors (code dependent) – Effective length factors. the information includes: • Frame. Station. – – d s -factors. • Top and bottom reinforcing areas. and • Shear capacities of concrete and steel. • Shear reinforcing areas. Section. – C m -factors. and • Element Section ID • Element Framing Type Additional information that is available by clicking on the Details button is given below. d b -factors. • Minimum design moments. and Load Combination IDs. • Design axial force and biaxial moments. • Shear capacities of concrete and steel. and Load Combination IDs. The details of this information depends on whether the selected member is a beam or a column. Section. • Design moments and shear forces. K .

Clicking on the Interaction button displays the interaction diagram in a three dimensional space for the column section.Chapter IX Design Output • Shear reinforcing area. The design axial force and the biaxial moments are plotted on the interaction diagram to show the state of stress in the column. The interaction diagram can be printed for hard-copy output. The interaction diagram can be viewed in any orientation and the view can be manipulated from the interaction dialog box. Member Specific Information 181 .

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ACI. BSI. American Concrete Institute. UK. 1989 BS 8110 : Part 1. Part 1. Belgium. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Basis of Design. Issue 2. British Standards Institution. Michigan. 1997 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications — U. Part 1. 1997 Interim Edition. London.O. 1985. June 1999. General Rules and Rules for Buildings.References AASHTO. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Brussels. Structural Use of Concrete. Box 9094. Belgium. P.S. European Committee for Standardization. European Committee for Standardization. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. 1994 ENV 1991-1. 1992 ENV 1992-1-1. 183 . Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Action on Structures Part 1. 1989. Brussels. Units. 1992. CEN. 1997. 1999 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-99) and Commentary (ACI 318R-99). 1994. CEN. Farmington Hills.

California.. Code of practice for General Structural Design and Design Loadings for Buildings. Canadian Standards Association. 1995 New Zealand Standard NZS 3101. Berkeley. Concrete Structures Standard. 1998. 1998. Standards New Zealand. 1997. Design of Concrete Structures. California. Standards New Zealand. Vols. Computers and Structures. NZS. Skokie. Illinois. Portland Cement Association.. 1998a SAP2000 Getting Started. I and II. CSI. 1995. New Zealand. Rexdale. Wellington. 1992 New Zealand Standard NZS 4203. with Design Applications. California. New Zealand. 1994 A23. 184 . 1997 Uniform Building Code. 1996 Notes on ACI 318-99. Berkeley. Whittier. ICBO.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual CSA. 1998b SAP2000 Quick Tutorial. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. Computers and Structures. 1997 SAP2000 Analysis Reference. Inc. NZS. Ontario. 1997. Part 1 — The Design of Concrete Structures. California. Computers and Structures. Inc. CSI. CSI. 1994.3-94. Inc. Wellington. 1992. Berkeley. PCA. International Conference of Building Officials. 1996. Canada..

White and J. Inc. 185 . 1991. No. 4.Chapter X D. Vol. W. American Institute of Steel Construction. 28. F..” Engineering Journal. 1991 “Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Hajjar.

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109 Canadian. 104 Canadian. 113. 26 British. 160 Beam shear design. 107 Canadian. 47 ACI. 117 Canadian. 61. 162. 111 Canadian. 138 New Zealand. 53 ACI. 147 Column shear design. 139 New Zealand. 52 ACI. 125 New Zealand. 91 Eurocode. 24 British. 135. 168 Braced frames AASHTO. 21 British. 23. 127 New Zealand. 89. 107 Balanced condition AASHTO. 152 Column flexural design. 77. 110 187 . 123 New Zealand. 87 Eurocode. 95 Eurocode. 30 British.Index Additional moment British. 149. 50. 66 ACI. 7 Code total moment Eurocode. 35 BS. 77 Eurocode. 165 Beam flexural design. 106. 11 AASHTO. 80 Eurocode. 125 Column capacity ratio. 59 ACI. 63 ACI. 125. 116 Canadian. 11 AASHTO. 51 ACI. 132 New Zealand. 9 AASHTO. 2. 8 AASHTO. 38 British. 33. 25 British. 75 Eurocode. 150 Check station. 8 AASHTO.

8 Interaction diagram. 165 Concrete shear capacity AASHTO. 12 Factored moments and forces AASHTO. 138 New Zealand. 75 Eurocode. 160 Flexural reinforcement AASHTO. 66 special. 48 ACI. 87 Eurocode. 94. 143. 77. 154 . 116 Canadian. 74 Eurocode. 149. 62 ACI.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Canadian. 23. 160 Generation of biaxial interaction surfaces. 96. 59 ACI. 48 ACI. 8 Identification of columns. 136 New Zealand. 146 Design of T-beams AASHTO. 28. 101 Canadian. 147 Graphical output. 143 nominal. 133 New Zealand. 105 188 . 17 British. 97 Eurocode. 27. 39 limited. 33.91 Eurocode.155. 143 intermediate. 53. 119 New Zealand. 81 . 117 Canadian.168 elastic. 153 Compression reinforcement AASHTO. 71. 63 ACI. 169 Design load combinations. 31 British. 105 Canadian. 21 British. 37 . 125. 67 ACI. 164 Detailed output. 135. 21 British. 114 Canadian. 1. 110. 95. 81 Eurocode. 59 ACI. 39 shear in special frames. 167 . 91 Eurocode. 55. 123 New Zealand. 128. 9 AASHTO. 167 Earthquake resisting frames ductile. 35 British. 83. 112 Canadian. 155. 114.112 Canadian. 40 British. 133 New Zealand. 107. 17 shear in intermediate frames. 10 AASHTO. 37. 31 British. 163. 111 . 95 New Zealand. 87 Eurocode. 140 New Zealand.82. 66. 17. 28.38 Element unsupported length. 90 . 6 AASHTO. 50. 37 Canadian. 97 ordinary. 180 Ductile detailing ACI. 17. 54. 26. 176 Identification of beams. 46 ACI. 61. 128 New Zealand. 34 British.

Index Canadian. 20. 47 ACI. 74. 82 Rectangular beam design AASHTO. 126 . 75 Eurocode. 154. 51 ACI. 94 New Zealand. 107 Canadian.127 New Zealand. 77 Eurocode. 166 Moment magnification AASHTO. 179 tabular. 105 Canadian. 60 ACI. 75 Eurocode. 168 P-Delta analysis. 125 New Zealand. 150 Output. 65 ACI. 51 ACI. 21 British. 36 Canadian. 127 New Zealand. 108 Canadian. 181 member specific. 175 . 150 Nominal moment capacity. 1 Lateral drift effect. 7. 82 Nonsway frames AASHTO. 32 British.176 interaction diagram. 77 Eurocode. 105 Canadian. 175. 78 See also P-Delta analysis Live load reduction factor. 12 AASHTO. 23 British (additional moment). 146 Maximum column reinforcement AASHTO. 96 Overstrength moment capacity. 123 New Zealand. 50 ACI. 47 ACI. 107 Canadian. 24 British. 125 New Zealand. 149 Minimum tensile reinforcement AASHTO. 122. 75 Eurocode. 150 Probable moment capacity. 161 189 . 88 Eurocode. 123 New Zealand. 180 graphical. 1 details. 23 British. 23 British. 78 Eurocode. 26. 104. 175. 177 Overstrength factor. 134 New Zealand. 147 Member specific output. 108 Canadian. 147 Interactive environment. 46. 179 Minimum column reinforcement AASHTO. 123 New Zealand. 12. 147 Minimum eccentricity AASHTO. 77 Eurocode (total moment). 112 Canadian. 21 British. 51 ACI.

43. 14 AASHTO. 1 AASHTO. 118 Canadian. 17 British. 146 Supported design codes. 62 ACI. 131. 77 Eurocode. 127 New Zealand. 66 ACI. 84. 8. 14 AASHTO. 177 T-Beam design AASHTO. 107 Canadian. 25. 141. 5. 43 ACI. 71 Eurocode. 101 Canadian. 34 British. 125 New Zealand. 104 Canadian. 114 Canadian. 51 ACI. 37 . 150 Units. 47 ACI. 157. 43 ACI. 91 Eurocode. 119 New Zealand. 40 British. 5.SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual Redesign. 56. 170 Special considerations for seismic loads. 143 Unsupported length. 122 New Zealand. 24 British. 17. 5. 136 New Zealand. 54.38 Canadian. 168 Strength reduction factors AASHTO. 143. 164 Unbraced frames AASHTO. 108 Canadian. 98 New Zealand. 150 Tabular output. 17 British. 30. 143 Sway frames AASHTO. 5. 96 New Zealand. 5. 71 Eurocode. 52 190 . 2. 101 Canadian. 154. 110. 179 Shear reinforcement AASHTO. 5. 119 New Zealand. 74 Eurocode. 51 ACI. 82. 24 British. 20 British. 71. 27. 68 ACI. 77 Eurocode.

Concrete Design Manual

Concrete Design Manual

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