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Name Course Roll No LC Name LC code
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KUMAR BHASKAR MBA- 4TH SEM 521106645 ZITE 01904
Q.1.Describe the types of Advertising copy. Answer: The primary job of advertising is to sell. If it is done with high literary skill and captivating visual beauty, that is great. But the trend now is to keep it as simple and brief as possible, making the offer or benefit as irresistible as possible, to rise above the clutter of competition. And that takes unusual ideas presented with fascinating treatment, or what the advertising industry calls THE IDEA. Types of Advertising copy are as follows: Consumer advertising: These are the prima donnas of advertising, the most visible, expensive, lavish, most frequently repeated in multiple media and the most entertaining of the genre, and naturally attracts the best of the professional creative talent. Since they have to be repeated endlessly to beat competition, the copy is designed to withstand the boredom of repetition. Corporate advertising: These ads do not try to sell the brands manufactured by the company, but build equity and image for the company itself. These are created when a company feels that it has reached a status when it is bigger than the sum total of its products. They talk about the integrity, quality consciousness, welfare programmes, social responsibility of the company, etc., and hope some of the prestige will rub off on its brands anyway. a) Advocacy advertising: Organizations use advertising to send a message intended to influence a targeted audience. In most cases there is an underlying benefit sought by an organization when they engage in advocacy advertising. b) Advertorial advertising: this is a tool to enhance the credibility of advertising copy. Consumers and readers alike have become very cynical about the hyperbole and intrusiveness associated with regular advertising and discounts it out of hand. c) Public service advertising: It is a corollary of corporate advertising and flourishes when economy does well. These are also released when a company can afford to talk about things other than its products. This genre gives information not ordinarily available to common man, such as where to find help or support group for
descriptive and no-nonsense business communication. cancer or HIV. g) Trade advertising: This type is strictly for selling within the trade and released only in trade magazines and newspapers. catalogues. These are released in special pages of daily newspapers. polio vaccination. in classified sections and online. several parties with same brands or products share the advertising expense. but an inalienable part of serving a client. These are highly technical ads written by copywriters specializing in finance. all pulling together to sell the brand or service. m) Tender advertising: This is not exactly exciting copy. one ad to familiarize the reader or investor with the products and brands of the company. e) Industrial advertising: These are not showy and glamorous. It can be anything from an ad for a lost cat to an obituary or birthday greeting. i) Retail advertising: The explosion of consumerism in India has crystallized this type. recruitment ads are nearly as important as consumer ads. flyers. educational information. cosmetics or garment brands. key chains. they have to be written very tightly and clearly to attract maximum response without being too telegraphic or expensive. f) Specialty advertising: This is a form of sales promotion but designed by the advertising agency.alcoholism. then an ad thanking the investors. to the point. domestic violence. caps. since it contains many pieces such as a personalized letter and envelope. They sell all the capital goods. jackets. busy shopping areas that sell similar products. etc. Usually these are released in industrial journals and magazines. B-to-B and intermediary industrial products. but occupy a huge amount of advertising space and budget. addiction. . retail advertising requires specialized copy strategy. lost & found to situations vacant. d) Financial advertising: a corporate ad that persuades an investor to trust the company. government funded services. brief. Since these are released by small people. response cards. Especially with fancy shopping malls even in small towns now. l) Classifieds and personal advertising: This class has grown into a huge segment in itself. school bags. A company can have its name and a slogan printed on glasses (for a manufacturer of alcoholic beverages) . pens. These ads inform a company’s suppliers about the goods and services it requires from time to time. etc. Sometimes just one ad combines all of it. h) Direct Mail (DM) advertising: This needs special kind of copywriting. and works as a kind of brand extension. a financial ad that describes the offer. basic health care. k) Recruitment advertising: India being a young and growing nation. It is an excellent tool for malls. maintenance and after care services. They are sometimes give-always and are designed to increase public awareness of the brand. j) Cooperative advertising: In this. They are highly technical. etc.
3. Rural areas tend to be less well served by mass media. change of telephone numbers and addresses. Nobody is reading in these situations. anything Outside Of Home. intention to buy property. The users may be habitual buyers with no great awareness of the distinctive features of the brand. lamp poles on the road…well. Q. radio. so copy is very brief. Social influences of media appear to vary by the context. An advertiser usually has one or several of the following objectives: Increase brand awareness: Sometimes even a brand selling well may have poor brand awareness. called OOH. placemats in bars and restaurants. posters. typically providing information. especially technological ones. More commonly. all the way down to employees absconding after embezzlement. often a serious problem. “the media” refer to television. tents. lit panels in railway stations and airports. may be just a slogan. legal termination of an employee. The campaign objective may be to strengthen the client’s brand image as the brand stands now. largely for economic reasons. Q. Discuss the Innovative use of media in rural areas. and persuasive messages. and magazines. and—increasingly— interactive computer channels and portable personal devices such as cellular phones. by reminding the target all its relevant benefits. mass media include those aimed at a more widespread audience. admission and recruitment notices. The campaign may aim to sharpen brand awareness by creating a focused brand personality and keep reinforcing it over a period of time. news. Enhance brand image: Even a successful brand may come under severe pressure from either new brand competition or another old brand introducing new features. each producer is constantly working to incrementally improve his product just to stay ahead of competition and only then to serve his customers better. Answer: A company does not release entertaining television commercials or colourful press ads spending millions of rupees for some entertaining or artistic reasons. which just mention the brand name and colour scheme of the company. newspapers.n) Notification and legal ads: This too is a bland but large category that must be released for information an individual or company may wish to communicate to the public.Briefly discuss about Advertising Objectives. marriage announcements.2. It approaches an advertising agency because it has an urgent need in hand. When a successful . side of buildings. p) Reminder and Point-of Purchase (PoP) media: These are all the in-store pieces like danglers. Answer: The means or channels of communication. entertainment. Introduce new features or improved version: In a competitive market. o) Outdoor advertising: This covers a big area and includes everything from hoardings. such as change of name. especially in FMCG products.
These are known as tools or techniques or methods of sales promotion. so that it will need less promotional expense and thus increase profit. huge launch campaigns are released to inform potential customers quickly about brand availability. North and east India drink tea. as indeed. yet the bottom line can tank. Damage control: A brand or manufacturer may get stuck with bad reputation. some use Pears and some use Mysore Sandal or Dove. Increase market share: Each brand in the same product class and price band sells only to some users and not others. Expand geographical market: Most products do well in one area of the country and not in others. the top line may keep growing due to many promotional activities and price wars. Answer: Tools and tecniques of Sales Promotion : To increase the sale of any product manufactures or producers adopt different measures like sample.4. The objective of the campaign may be to increase the market share of Pears by persuading users of Dove to buy it. But it does play a huge role. reducing Dove’s market share for no failure on its part at all. Especially in FMCG products.Describethe ToolsandTechniquesof SalesPromotionin brief. coffee can be made more popular in the north. and many more. a major campaign is necessary. Create corporate image: Often a corporate campaign mentions the brands only in the passing. bonus. due to thinning margins. The campaign may try to create better prestige or reliability for the brand. in bath soap market. So Dove’s loss is Pears’ gain. Announcing new outlets: When a major product line is introduced in a new city or part of the country. Increase profit: Increasing profit is different from increasing sale. RAttract the best professionals: Big companies may need to create very seductive corporate images for themselves as employers to ensure that the most qualified and experienced in the profession would want to join their company as a matter of pride. Let us know more about some of the commonly used tools of sales promotions. For instance. Q. gift. (i) Free samples: You might have received free samples of shampoo. the agency has to define clearly its role in this process. but focuses on the company’s image. washing . at least did until coffee prices shot up due to lucrative export. Kolkata serves instant coffee as a sophisticated guest drink now. The idea is that a great company by definition is expected to make great products which one can trust. South India drinks coffee. Each creates and protects its share of the market. Increase sale: As mentioned earlier.new feature or a new version altogether of the brand is introduced. advertising is only one component of the marketing mix and in itself cannot increase sale. the reason of which may not be its fault or in its control. Therefore. With sustained and clever local advertising.
This type of scheme is designed to boost up sales in off-season and sometimes while introducing a new product in the market. specimen copies are distributed among teachers. The reduced price under this scheme attracts the attention of the prospective customers towards new or improved products. which is held from 14th to 27th November every year.500' or 'exchange your black and white television with a colour television' are various popular examples of exchange scheme. demonstrate the products and to explain special features and usefulness of the products. in the case of medicine free samples are distributed among physicians. 30% extra in a pack of one kg. (viii) Scratch and win offer: To induce the customer to buy a particular product 'scratch and win' scheme is also offered. you might have come across coupons like. In this way customers may get some item free as mentioned on the marked area or may avail of price-off. is a wellknown example of Fairs and Exhibitions as a tool of sales promotion. 1000 off on cooler' etc. or sometimes visit different places on special tour arranged by the manufacturers. (vi) Fairs and Exhibitions: Fairs and exhibitions may be organised at local. (ix) Money Back offer : Under this scheme customers are given assurance that full value of the product will be returned to them if they are not satisfied after using the . national or international level to introduce new products. 'Bring your old mixer-cum-juicer and exchange it for a new one just by paying Rs. are some of the common schemes.powder. These coupons can be presented to the retailer while buying the product. Sometimes these free samples are also distributed by the shopkeeper even without purhasing any item from his shop. in the case of textbooks. Under this scheme a customer scratch a specific marked area on the package of the product and gets the benefit according to the message written there. toothbrush with 500 grams of toothpaste. 'Rs. regional. 'International Trade Fair' in New Delhi at Pragati Maidan. Rs. For example. while purchasing various items from the market. These are distributed to attract consumers to try out a new product and thereby create new customers. 15 off on a pack of 250 grams of Taj Mahal tea. products are sold at a price lower than the original price. 15 off on purchase of 5 kg. For example. etc. (iii) Exchange schemes: It refers to offering exchange of old product for a new product at a price less than the original price of the product. The customers are required to collect these stamps of sufficient value within a particular period in order to avail of some benefits. coupons are issued by manufacturers either in the packet of a product or through an advertisement printed in the newspaper or magazine or through mail. of Annapurna Atta'. This is also useful for encouraging and rewarding existing customers. 'show this and get Rs. mug with Bournvita. coffee powder. Goods are displayed and demonstrated and their sale is also conducted at a reasonable discount. Some businessmen distribute samples among selected persons in order to popularize the product. They are effective in inducing consumers to buy a particular product. (ii) Premium or Bonus offer: A milk shaker along with Nescafe. (vii) Trading stamps: In case of some specific products trading stamps are distributed among the customers according to the value of their purchase. This is useful for drawing attention to product improvement. (v) Coupons: Sometimes. 2 off on purchase of a lifebouy soap. are the examples of premium or bonus given free with the purchase of a product. Rs. The holder of the coupon gets the product at a discount. (iv) Price-off offer: Under this offer. This tool induces customers to buy that product more frequently to collect the stamps of required value.
An advertising agency is only one component of today’s bewilderingly complex marketing mix. This creates confidence among the customers with regard to the quality of the product. which. operating manuals. an advertising agency meets its clients’ needs for conventional mass communication in print. meaning they offered almost all of the above services. buying space and time – Correctly scheduling releases in appropriate time and publication – Printing publicity materials such as brochures. must act together to achieve a rising sales curve. specification sheets. or outdoor advertising. posters. hoarding flexes.product. folders.5. like in any other concerted activity. most good agencies were what were called full service agencies. photography and selecting appropriate vernacular languages – Media planning. It is difficult to list everything that an advertising agency does for its clients. technical literature. Now there are agencies which do only the creative work or filming of commercials. This technique is particularly useful while introducing new products in the market Q. Media space and time buying and selling is a multi-million rupee . Largely. The agencies provide everything that client does not have to approach anyone else. Until the late 20 th century. specialized and fragmented that advertising services also have become so. – Creating and shooting television and cinema commercials – Creating radio spots – Using all other minor media and devising unconventional and innovative ones to meet clients’ specific needs. catalogues. What is a full service agency? What are specialist agencies? Why are they needed? Answer: This kind of agency provides all types of services in advertising and also non advertising field. since it keeps changing to meet the rapidly shifting market needs today. There are very few agencies of this kind. radio and electronic media. Specialist agencies: Now communication is so complex. etc. These agencies offer very specialized services which include: – Interpreting market research and gathering of necessary information – Conceptualizing a campaign platform – Executing the creative work which includes copywriting and visualising of the advertisements. banners. or the still photography.
in some ways it has changed its character altogether. astral travel. Tai chi. Whole new lifestyles are in the market now. Lifestyle: India always had different lifestyles in different parts of the country. Technology: India has an amazing capacity to adopt the latest technology available anywhere in the world. Even full service advertising agencies themselves are specialized – some do only FMCG products. Even if combined with other factors such as social. gender. It is a grossly over rated class. yoga and meditation classes. this was an online survey. the specializations are necessary. aerobic dancing. 93% feel life will be really tough without text messaging. and Internet dependency is universal. etc. A country which did not have even television until late 1980s. What does it have to do with advertising? All the above as well as gyms. which cut across ethnic and local traditions. advertising also has not only grown in leaps and bounds and hasbecome far more effective. marked by language. 32% in 18-25 years age group said life would be hard without the music and camera features on a mobile. But then. Some 51% of urban Indians feel life will be difficult without a mobile. Answer: Like in every other area of life. Spirituality. or IT. are all ultimately products and services which have to be advertised and need careful promotion and niche marketing. Whole books and furious research projects are being written on this phenomenon. education levels. Young handsome rock star gurus like Vikas Malkani who runs a hep MTV style Soul Centre in New Delhi presenting Indian philosophy in easy to follow contemporary language to tarot card reader. healthy living …all have huge following. But there was uniformity within that segment at least.000 correspondents across India. Demographic segments and the obvious changes in them are easier to define and analyse. Not anymore. vegetarianism. personalized counselling and psychotherapy.6. naturally grown food. the interests are very different. Describe the Demographic influences on Advertising in brief. political or environmental. It is a highly competitive world and considering the proliferation of products. consumption volume and . migration of people. Q. Urban India’s lifestyle is changing very fast. services and explosion of media today. 90% cannot do without television. engineering. dynamic meditation. exercise. yoga. food. so on. The most important factor that directly or even indirectly influencing advertising is the demographic factors or the characteristics of the population.business in itself. in numbers. In a 2007 survey carried out by Economic Times – Dentsu on 3. recruitment or tender advertising and carry a whole team of highly skilled and specialized professionals who are the tops in their business. family structure. religion. Aggressive middle class:Indian middle class has become the object of keen observation for everybody from MNC consumer products to political campaign planners. dependence on technology is clearly defined. technical. they could be associated with demographic indicators like age. etc. today literally consumes the latest gadgets and gizmos with limitless appetite. so a biased one. which in turn sells it back to smaller agencies who do not have the media clout to get good bargains and positions.
and Indian Sharia compliant market capitalization at 61% in 2007 is higher than in some Islamic countries like Malaysia. Reliance. who do not invest in alcohol. When Indian economy was opened up. the laws for finance and commercial activities permitted to the believers of Islam. etc. Retail is a business with very thin margin of profit. entertainment. Open seven days a week. Mall culture is no different. After all. tobacco. Mall culture: Every technical. museums and public places. with increasing disposable income mall crawling has become a youth culture and part of urban life. The whole approach has to evolve to cater to more educated. in fully developed form without going through the evolutionary stages and then goes through exactly the same life cycle. childcare facilities or at least opportunity to leave children free safely. mouthwatering food courts. drugs and pharmaceuticals.desires. Pakistan and Bahrain. Retail outlets: India has over 15 million retail outlets. social or economic development in the west comes to India about ten years later. Sharia compliant banking and stock market : Sharia. big and small and huge domestic and international corporates are moving in to cash in on this visible result of rising incomes. Advertising abroad: As Indian companies go abroad and Indian products are sold all over the world more and more. Birla. India has the second largest Muslim population in the world. insurance. Wal-Mart are some of them. conventional banking that gives interest. careless grammar and Indian English or Hinglish have to make room for concise and clear copy and indirect approach. Now not only there are malls everywhere. is mandatory for Muslims. automobiles and ancillaries are all Sharia compliant and constitute 36% of Sharia compliant stocks on NSE. pork. pleasant ambience make these shopping complexes a leisure destination for people with money and time. individually the poor villager’s consumption is insignificant. a villager who buys a branded soap or cigarette occasionally is no different statistically than an upper middle class urban family who also buy those. not necessarily proven in reality. youth hangouts and meeting places. Yet. among other things. usually 2-3% only. sophisticated and subtle approach that will appeal to a different class of people. organized retailing and malls spread quite quickly across the country. instead of parks. malls are now favourite family outings. Rough estimate is that there are about 50 million families in India in middle class who really do buy branded products significantly. Retail mania assumes that huge supply will automatically create huge demand. Enough parking place. advertising too has to adapt to that. Long and tedious text. while the urban middle class consumer has a regular and rising purchase profile. Sectors such as computer hardware and software. weapons. India had around 450 malls and not all of them in the metro cities. As early as 2006. .