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Part 2: Magnetism

Chapter 4: Magnets , magnetic field, magnetic field lines and magnetic force

4.1. Ferromagnets and Electromagnets

4.2. Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines

4.3. Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic

4.4. Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications

4.5. The Hall Effect

Chapter 5: Ampere Law & Magnetic Force

5.1. Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

5.2. Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters

5.3. Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors

5.4. Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic induction

6.1. Electromagnetic induction

6.2. Faraday’s Law

6.3. Lenz’s Law

6.4. More Applications of Magnetism

Chapter 4 Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Ferromagnets Ferromagnets

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Properties of magnets Properties of magnets

• If a material is magnetic, it has the ability to

exert forces on magnets or other magnetic

materials nearby.

• A permanent magnet is a material that keeps

its magnetic properties.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Properties of Magnets Properties of Magnets

• All magnets have two

opposite magnetic

poles, called the north

pole and south pole.

• If a magnet is cut in

half, each half will

have its own north

and south poles.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Properties of magnets Properties of magnets

• Whether the two magnets attract or repel

depends on which poles face each other.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic force Magnetic force

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic force Magnetic force

• Magnetic forces can pass through many

materials with no apparent decrease in

strength.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic force Magnetic force

• Magnetic forces are used

in many applications

because they are relatively

easy to create and can be

very strong.

• Large magnets, such as

this electromagnet, create

forces strong enough to lift

a car or a moving train.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic field Magnetic field

• Reminder: electric field surrounds electric charge

Magnetic field surrounds any moving

electric charge (current)

Magnetic field surrounds a magnetic

material (permanent magnet)

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic field Magnetic field

• A vector quantity, Symbolized by

• Direction is given by the direction a north pole of a compass needle

• Magnetic field lines show how the field lines, as traced out by a compass

B

¸,

B

¸,

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

How a magnetic field affects another magnet How a magnetic field affects another magnet

• Magnets A and C feel a net attracting force toward the source magnet.

• Magnets B and D feel a twisting force, or torque, because one pole is repelled

and the opposite pole is attracted with approximately the same strength.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Field Lines, Bar Magnet Magnetic Field Lines, Bar Magnet

• The compass can be used

to trace the field lines

• The lines outside the

magnet point from the

North pole to the South

pole

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Field Lines, Bar Magnet Magnetic Field Lines, Bar Magnet

• Iron filings are used to

show the pattern of the

electric field lines

• The direction of the field

is the direction a north

pole would point

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Field Lines, Unlike Poles Magnetic Field Lines, Unlike Poles

• Iron filings are used to

show the pattern of the

electric field lines

• The direction of the field

is the direction a north

pole would point

– Compare to the electric

field produced by an

electric dipole

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Field Lines, Like Poles Magnetic Field Lines, Like Poles

• Iron filings are used to

show the pattern of the

electric field lines

• The direction of the field

is the direction a north

pole would point

– Compare to the electric

field produced by like

charges

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnets and Magnetic Fields Magnets and Magnetic Fields

A uniform magnetic field is constant in

magnitude and direction.

The field between

these two wide poles

is nearly uniform.

Chapter 4 Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

A long and straight wire

creates field lines forming

circular loops

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

a circular current loop is

similar to that of a bar magnet

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetism in materials Magnetism in materials

Electron orbits a nucleus ·a

closed-current loop producing a

magnetic field with a north pole

and a south pole like a tiny magnet

Electrons have spin ·forming a

current produces a magnetic

field with a north pole and a south

pole like a tiny magnet

• Atoms act like tiny magnets

with north and south poles.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetism in materials Magnetism in materials

• Atoms act like tiny

magnets with north and

south poles.

When permanent

magnets have their

atoms aligned, we

observe the magnetic

forces.

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetism in materials Magnetism in materials

• In many materials, the magnetic fields of

individual electrons in each atom cancel

each others magnetic effects.

• Lead and diamond are materials made of

these kinds of atoms and are called

diamagnetic.

• It takes either a very strong magnetic field to

cause the effects or very sensitive

instruments to detect them.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetism in materials Magnetism in materials

• Aluminum is paramagnetic.

• In an atom of aluminum, the

magnetism of individual

electrons do not cancel

completely.

• This makes each aluminum

atom a tiny magnet with a

north and a south pole.

• Solid aluminum is

“nonmagnetic” because the

total magnetic field averages to

zero.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Nonmagnetic materials Nonmagnetic materials

• The atoms in non-

magnetic materials,

like plastic, are not

free to move or

change their magnetic

orientation.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic materials Magnetic materials

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Ferromagnetic materials Ferromagnetic materials

• A small group of ferromagnetic

metals have very strong

magnetic properties: Fe, Co, Ni.

• Atoms in ferromagnetic

materials align themselves with

neighboring atoms in groups

called magnetic domains.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetism in solids Magnetism in solids

• If you use the north end of the

magnet to pick up a nail, the nail

becomes magnetized with its south

pole toward the magnet.

• Because the nail itself becomes a

magnet, it can be used to pick up

other nails.

• If you separate that first nail from

the bar magnet, the entire chain

demagnetizes and falls apart.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

EE--field and B field and B--field field

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field

,

v

¸,

B

¸,

F

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field

¸,

B

-q

¸,

F

velocity component v

±

± B

circular motion

Cyclotron Period

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field

ì = v

//

T

r

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field

when a magnet comes in contact with a computer monitor or TV screen: Electrons moving toward

the screen spiral about magnetic field lines, maintaining the component of their velocity parallel to

the field lines. This distorts the image on the screen.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field

When a charged particle moves along a magnetic field line into a region where the field

becomes stronger, the particle experiences a force that reduces the component of

velocity parallel to the field. This force slows the motion along the field line and here

reverses it

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Hall effect Hall effect

H

V EW A =

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Hall effect Hall effect

BALANCE

H

V EW BW A = = v

AV

H

is Hall effect voltage across conductor of width W and charges move at a speed v

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Hall effect Hall effect

Applications: Measurement of magnetic field strength B

Hall probes

i nqA =

d

v

i

nqA

¬ =

d

v

i

nqA

¬ =

d

v

H

V

B

W

A

¬ =

d

v

with A = Width (W)x thickness (t)

H

V BW A =

d

v w

t

H

nqt

B V ¬ = A

i

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

Current = many charges moving together

¸

Total number of

force on one charge carrier

charge carrier

.

d

F q B n A L ( = ×

¸ ¸

¸¸, ¸,

¸¸_¸¸

v

i nqA =

d

v

F i L B ( ¬ = ×

¸ ¸

¸, ¸, ¸,

( ) direction of is the direction of current

d

L ÷

¸, ¸¸,

v

For an small segment dl

,

dF i dl B ( ¬ = ×

¸ ¸

¸, , ¸,

sin F ilB u =

sin dF idlB u =

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

Right Hand Rule 1 (RHR-1)

• The thumb in the direction of the current I

• The fingers in the direction of B ,

=> perpendicular to the palmpoints in the

direction of F

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

Example 1

Force on a semicircle current loop

d F i dl B ( = ×

¸ ¸

¸, , ¸,

( )

ο

, 90 dF idlB dl B = =

¸¸, ¸,

dF idlB ¬ =

z

Symmetry consider vertical forces sin dF dF u ¬ =

z

0

Total Force:

sin sin F dF dF iB dl iBR d

t

u u u = = = =

} } } }

2 F iBR ¬ = (downward)

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

Example 1

Current loop in B-field

=> applications: Motor, Generator

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

Multiple loop of N turns, we get

N times the torque of one loop

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

`

Unit vector to represent the area-vector (using right hand rule) n

u

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

As the angular momentum of the

coil carries it through θ = 0

The current reversing each half revolution

to maintain the clockwise torque.

Applications: Motors

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

Applications: Motors

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents

Applications: Meters Similar to motors but only rotate through a part of a

revolution => Deflection against the return spring is

proportional current I

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Magnetic Field Magnetic Field

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Field due to moving charge Magnetic Field due to moving charge

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Field Magnetic Field

charges => E-field

Currents => B-field

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Field due to current segments Magnetic Field due to current segments

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic Field Magnetic Field

Created by a Long Straight Current-Carrying Wire: Right Hand Rule 2

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Electric & Magnetic Electric & Magnetic

Electric Magnetic

Basic element dq

E/B-field Coulomb's Law: Biot-Savart Law

Electric/Magnetic

Dipole

Torque

id s

,

2 e

dq

d E k r

r

=

¸,

`

2 m

id s r

d B k

r

×

=

,

` ¸,

e

P qd =

¸¸, ¸,

`

m

P iAn =

¸¸,

e e

P E t = ×

¸, ¸¸, ¸,

e m

P B t = ×

¸, ¸¸, ¸,

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field

Example 1 : Magnetic field due to straight current segment

I

d z

,

a

P

( )

o

1 2

cos cos

4

I

B

a

µ

u u

t

= ÷

u

1

u

2

Special case:

Infinitely long, straight wire

o

2

I

B

a

µ

t

=

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field

Example 2 : Magnetic field at point O due to current wire segment

ds Rdu =

o

4

i

B

R

µ

u

t

=

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field

Example 3 : Magnetic field on the axis of a Circular current loop

R

I

( )

2

o

3/ 2

2 2

2

iR

B

R z

µ

=

+

Direction determined from right-hand rule

Limiting Cases :

(1) At center of loop

2

o

2

iR

B

R

µ

=

(2) For z >> R

2

o

3

2

iR

B

z

µ

=

2

o

3

2

iR

B

r

µ

=

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field

Example 3 : Magnetic field on the axis of a Circular current loop

R

I

( )

2

o

3/ 2

2 2

2

iR

B

R z

µ

=

+

Direction determined from right-hand rule

Limiting Cases :

(1) At center of loop

o

2

i

B

R

µ

=

(2) For z >> R

2

o

3

2

iR

B

z

µ

=

o

3 3

1

~

2

iA

B

z z

µ

t

=

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field

Example 3 : Magnetic field on the axis of a Circular current loop

Field line pattern likes around

bar magneti

Field line pattern around

circular current

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field

Example 4 : Magnetic field produced by a solenoid

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field

Example 4 : Magnetic field produced by a solenoid

( )

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Magnetic force between Parallel currents Magnetic force between Parallel currents

A current produces magnetic field

Magnetic force acts on a current

=> Two current exert magnetic forces on each other

=> Force on wire 1

d F i dl B ( = ×

¸ ¸

¸, , ¸,

Currents in same directions repulsive each other

Currents in opposite directions repel each other

=> Force per unit length

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Gauss’s Law Gauss’s Law

in

Ed A q =

¿

}

¸, ¸,

??? Bd A =

}

¸, ¸,

0

There is no magnetic monopole

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Ampere’s Law Ampere’s Law

No current is present in the

wire, all the needles point in the

same direction

(Earth’s magnetic field)

The wire carries a strong, the

needles all deflect in a direction

tangent to the circle

?

C

Bds =

}

¸, ,

0

C

Bds =

}

¸, ,

o

C

Bds i µ =

}

¸, ,

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Ampere’s Law Ampere’s Law

ο

1

N

i

C

Bds i µ =

¿

}

¸, ,

( )

ο 1 4

C

Bds i i µ = +

}

¸, ,

**Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
**

Ampere’s Law Applications Ampere’s Law Applications

Rectangular path: the field along the length

inside the coil is the dominant contribution

and the other parts is negligible.

rectangular

path ο

1

N

i

C

Bds i µ =

¿

}

¸, ,

Ampere’s Law

ο

0

l

Bds Ni µ ¬ =

}

ο

0

l

B ds nli µ ¬ =

}

Constant field:

(n – density of turns)

ο

B ni µ ¬ = | | ( )

7

0

4 10 T/Am µ t

÷

= ×

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Ampere’s Law Applications Ampere’s Law Applications

Magnetic along the straight wire

r

ο

1

N

i

C

Bd s i µ =

¿

}

¸, ,

Ampere’s Law

2

ο

0

r

Bds i

t

µ ¬ =

}

ο

2 B r i t µ ¬ =

ο

2

i

B

r

µ

t

¬ =

| | ( )

7

0

4 10 T/Am µ t

÷

= ×

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Ampere’s Law Applications Ampere’s Law Applications

Magnetic Field of Toroid

Circular path

ο

1

N

i

C

Bd s i µ =

¿

}

¸, ,

Ampere’s Law

2

ο

0

r

Bds Ni

t

µ ¬ =

}

ο

2 B r Ni t µ ¬ =

ο

2

Ni

B

r

µ

t

¬ =

| | ( )

7

0

4 10 T/Am µ t

÷

= ×

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Chapter 6 Chapter 6

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Experiments Experiments

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Experiments Experiments

Movement of a magnet relative to a coil produces emfs as shown.

The same emfs are produced if the coil is moved relative to the magnet.

The greater the speed, the greater the magnitude of the emf

The emf is zero when there is no motion

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Experiments Experiments

Electric generator

Rotate a coil in a magnetic field =>

produces an emf.

Mechanical energy done is converted to

electric energy.

Note the generator is very similar in

construction to a motor

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Experiments Experiments

cos d Bd A BdA u u = u = =

} } }

¸, ¸,

Magnetic flux, Φ , given by

B - magnetic field strength over an area A

θ angle between the perpendicular to the

area and B

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Faraday’s law of induction Faraday’s law of induction

B

d

dt

c

u

= ÷

The emf induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the time

rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit

Faraday’s law of induction

If the circuit is a coil consisting of N loops

B

d

N

dt

c

u

= ÷

( ) cos d BA

dt

¢

c = ÷

By changing:

Magnitude of B

Area enclosed by the loop

Angle θ between B and normal of the

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Lenz’s law Lenz’s law

The polarity of the induced

emf is such that it tends to

produce a current that

creates a magnetic flux to

oppose the change in

magnetic flux through the

area enclosed by the

current loop

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Faraday’s law applications Faraday’s law applications

The ground fault interrupter (GFI)

safety device protects users of

electrical appliances against

electric shock

Two currents 1 and 2 are opposite directions

=> net magnetic flux is zero

If appliance gets wet, current leak to ground

¬the return current 2 changes

¬the net magnetic flux is no longer zero

¬inducing an emf in the coil

¬Trigger breaker stopping current before

harmful level

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Faraday’s law applications Faraday’s law applications

Production of sound in an electric guitar

Pickup coil placed near the vibrating guitar string can be magnetized.

A permanent magnet inside the coil magnetizes the portion of the string nearest the coil.

When the string vibrates at some frequency, the magnetized segment produces a

changing magnetic flux in the coil => Induces an emf in the coil that is fed to an amplifier.

The output of the amplifier is sent to the loudspeakers producing the sound wave

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Faraday’s law applications Faraday’s law applications

Generators

AC generator consists of a coil - or coils - of wire moving relative to a

magnetic field. With this arrangement, a voltage is induced and this

generates a current in a circuit.

In a bicycle dynamo, a magnet turns

inside a coil of wire when the back

wheel of the bicycle is turning.

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets

Faraday’s law applications Faraday’s law applications

Transformers

Transformers are used to change

the size of an ac voltage.

The secondary voltage depends on

the number of turns on both the

primary and the secondary coils and

on the voltage across primary coil.

s s

p p

V V

V V

=

• V

s

is the voltage induced in the secondary coil in volts

• V

p

is the voltage applied to the primary coil in volts

• n

s

is the number of turns on the secondary coil

• n

p

is the number of turns on the primary coil

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