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Part 2: Magnetism
Chapter 4: Magnets , magnetic field, magnetic field lines and magnetic force
4.1. Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
4.2. Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
4.3. Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic
4.4. Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
4.5. The Hall Effect
Chapter 5: Ampere Law & Magnetic Force
5.1. Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
5.2. Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
5.3. Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
5.4. Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
Chapter 6: Electromagnetic induction
6.1. Electromagnetic induction
6.2. Faraday’s Law
6.3. Lenz’s Law
6.4. More Applications of Magnetism
Chapter 4 Chapter 4
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Ferromagnets Ferromagnets
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Properties of magnets Properties of magnets
• If a material is magnetic, it has the ability to
exert forces on magnets or other magnetic
materials nearby.
• A permanent magnet is a material that keeps
its magnetic properties.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Properties of Magnets Properties of Magnets
• All magnets have two
opposite magnetic
poles, called the north
pole and south pole.
• If a magnet is cut in
half, each half will
have its own north
and south poles.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Properties of magnets Properties of magnets
• Whether the two magnets attract or repel
depends on which poles face each other.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic force Magnetic force
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic force Magnetic force
• Magnetic forces can pass through many
materials with no apparent decrease in
strength.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic force Magnetic force
• Magnetic forces are used
in many applications
because they are relatively
easy to create and can be
very strong.
• Large magnets, such as
this electromagnet, create
forces strong enough to lift
a car or a moving train.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic field Magnetic field
• Reminder: electric field surrounds electric charge
Magnetic field surrounds any moving
electric charge (current)
Magnetic field surrounds a magnetic
material (permanent magnet)
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic field Magnetic field
• A vector quantity, Symbolized by
• Direction is given by the direction a north pole of a compass needle
• Magnetic field lines show how the field lines, as traced out by a compass
B
¸,
B
¸,
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
How a magnetic field affects another magnet How a magnetic field affects another magnet
• Magnets A and C feel a net attracting force toward the source magnet.
• Magnets B and D feel a twisting force, or torque, because one pole is repelled
and the opposite pole is attracted with approximately the same strength.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Field Lines, Bar Magnet Magnetic Field Lines, Bar Magnet
• The compass can be used
to trace the field lines
• The lines outside the
magnet point from the
North pole to the South
pole
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Field Lines, Bar Magnet Magnetic Field Lines, Bar Magnet
• Iron filings are used to
show the pattern of the
electric field lines
• The direction of the field
is the direction a north
pole would point
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Field Lines, Unlike Poles Magnetic Field Lines, Unlike Poles
• Iron filings are used to
show the pattern of the
electric field lines
• The direction of the field
is the direction a north
pole would point
– Compare to the electric
field produced by an
electric dipole
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Field Lines, Like Poles Magnetic Field Lines, Like Poles
• Iron filings are used to
show the pattern of the
electric field lines
• The direction of the field
is the direction a north
pole would point
– Compare to the electric
field produced by like
charges
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnets and Magnetic Fields Magnets and Magnetic Fields
A uniform magnetic field is constant in
magnitude and direction.
The field between
these two wide poles
is nearly uniform.
Chapter 4 Chapter 4
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
A long and straight wire
creates field lines forming
circular loops
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
a circular current loop is
similar to that of a bar magnet
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetism in materials Magnetism in materials
Electron orbits a nucleus ·a
closed-current loop producing a
magnetic field with a north pole
and a south pole like a tiny magnet
Electrons have spin ·forming a
current produces a magnetic
field with a north pole and a south
pole like a tiny magnet
• Atoms act like tiny magnets
with north and south poles.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetism in materials Magnetism in materials
• Atoms act like tiny
magnets with north and
south poles.
When permanent
magnets have their
atoms aligned, we
observe the magnetic
forces.
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetism in materials Magnetism in materials
• In many materials, the magnetic fields of
individual electrons in each atom cancel
each others magnetic effects.
• Lead and diamond are materials made of
these kinds of atoms and are called
diamagnetic.
• It takes either a very strong magnetic field to
cause the effects or very sensitive
instruments to detect them.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetism in materials Magnetism in materials
• Aluminum is paramagnetic.
• In an atom of aluminum, the
magnetism of individual
electrons do not cancel
completely.
• This makes each aluminum
atom a tiny magnet with a
north and a south pole.
• Solid aluminum is
“nonmagnetic” because the
total magnetic field averages to
zero.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Nonmagnetic materials Nonmagnetic materials
• The atoms in non-
magnetic materials,
like plastic, are not
free to move or
change their magnetic
orientation.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic materials Magnetic materials
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Ferromagnetic materials Ferromagnetic materials
• A small group of ferromagnetic
metals have very strong
magnetic properties: Fe, Co, Ni.
• Atoms in ferromagnetic
materials align themselves with
neighboring atoms in groups
called magnetic domains.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetism in solids Magnetism in solids
• If you use the north end of the
magnet to pick up a nail, the nail
becomes magnetized with its south
pole toward the magnet.
• Because the nail itself becomes a
magnet, it can be used to pick up
other nails.
• If you separate that first nail from
the bar magnet, the entire chain
demagnetizes and falls apart.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
EE--field and B field and B--field field
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field
,
v
¸,
B
¸,
F
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field
¸,
B
-q
¸,
F
velocity component v
±
± B
circular motion
Cyclotron Period
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field
ì = v
//
T
r
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field
when a magnet comes in contact with a computer monitor or TV screen: Electrons moving toward
the screen spiral about magnetic field lines, maintaining the component of their velocity parallel to
the field lines. This distorts the image on the screen.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field
When a charged particle moves along a magnetic field line into a region where the field
becomes stronger, the particle experiences a force that reduces the component of
velocity parallel to the field. This force slows the motion along the field line and here
reverses it
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Hall effect Hall effect
H
V EW A =
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Hall effect Hall effect
BALANCE
H
V EW BW A = = v
AV
H
is Hall effect voltage across conductor of width W and charges move at a speed v
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Hall effect Hall effect
Applications: Measurement of magnetic field strength B
Hall probes
i nqA =
d
v
i
nqA
¬ =
d
v
i
nqA
¬ =
d
v
H
V
B
W
A
¬ =
d
v
with A = Width (W)x thickness (t)
H
V BW A =
d
v w
t
H
nqt
B V ¬ = A
i
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
Current = many charges moving together
¸
Total number of
force on one charge carrier
charge carrier
.
d
F q B n A L ( = ×
¸ ¸
¸¸, ¸,
¸¸_¸¸
v
i nqA =
d
v
F i L B ( ¬ = ×
¸ ¸
¸, ¸, ¸,
( ) direction of is the direction of current
d
L ÷
¸, ¸¸,
v
For an small segment dl
,
dF i dl B ( ¬ = ×
¸ ¸
¸, , ¸,
sin F ilB u =
sin dF idlB u =
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
Right Hand Rule 1 (RHR-1)
• The thumb in the direction of the current I
• The fingers in the direction of B ,
=> perpendicular to the palmpoints in the
direction of F
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
Example 1
Force on a semicircle current loop
d F i dl B ( = ×
¸ ¸
¸, , ¸,
( )
ο
, 90 dF idlB dl B = =
¸¸, ¸,
dF idlB ¬ =
z
Symmetry consider vertical forces sin dF dF u ¬ =
z
0
Total Force:
sin sin F dF dF iB dl iBR d
t
u u u = = = =
} } } }
2 F iBR ¬ = (downward)
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
Example 1
Current loop in B-field
=> applications: Motor, Generator
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
Multiple loop of N turns, we get
N times the torque of one loop
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
`
Unit vector to represent the area-vector (using right hand rule) n
u
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
As the angular momentum of the
coil carries it through θ = 0
The current reversing each half revolution
to maintain the clockwise torque.
Applications: Motors
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
Applications: Motors
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Force on Currents Magnetic Force on Currents
Applications: Meters Similar to motors but only rotate through a part of a
revolution => Deflection against the return spring is
proportional current I
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Magnetic Field Magnetic Field
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Field due to moving charge Magnetic Field due to moving charge
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Field Magnetic Field
charges => E-field
Currents => B-field
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Field due to current segments Magnetic Field due to current segments
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic Field Magnetic Field
Created by a Long Straight Current-Carrying Wire: Right Hand Rule 2
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Electric & Magnetic Electric & Magnetic
Electric Magnetic
Basic element dq
E/B-field Coulomb's Law: Biot-Savart Law
Electric/Magnetic
Dipole
Torque
id s
,
2 e
dq
d E k r
r
=
¸,
`
2 m
id s r
d B k
r
×
=
,
` ¸,
e
P qd =
¸¸, ¸,
`
m
P iAn =
¸¸,
e e
P E t = ×
¸, ¸¸, ¸,
e m
P B t = ×
¸, ¸¸, ¸,
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field
Example 1 : Magnetic field due to straight current segment
I
d z
,
a
P
( )
o
1 2
cos cos
4
I
B
a
µ
u u
t
= ÷
u
1
u
2
Special case:
Infinitely long, straight wire
o
2
I
B
a
µ
t
=
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field
Example 2 : Magnetic field at point O due to current wire segment
ds Rdu =
o
4
i
B
R
µ
u
t
=
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field
Example 3 : Magnetic field on the axis of a Circular current loop
R
I
( )
2
o
3/ 2
2 2
2
iR
B
R z
µ
=
+
Direction determined from right-hand rule
Limiting Cases :
(1) At center of loop
2
o
2
iR
B
R
µ
=
(2) For z >> R
2
o
3
2
iR
B
z
µ
=
2
o
3
2
iR
B
r
µ
=
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field
Example 3 : Magnetic field on the axis of a Circular current loop
R
I
( )
2
o
3/ 2
2 2
2
iR
B
R z
µ
=
+
Direction determined from right-hand rule
Limiting Cases :
(1) At center of loop
o
2
i
B
R
µ
=
(2) For z >> R
2
o
3
2
iR
B
z
µ
=
o
3 3
1
~
2
iA
B
z z
µ
t
=
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field
Example 3 : Magnetic field on the axis of a Circular current loop
Field line pattern likes around
bar magneti
Field line pattern around
circular current
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field
Example 4 : Magnetic field produced by a solenoid
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Calculation of magnetic field Calculation of magnetic field
Example 4 : Magnetic field produced by a solenoid
( )
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Magnetic force between Parallel currents Magnetic force between Parallel currents
A current produces magnetic field
Magnetic force acts on a current
=> Two current exert magnetic forces on each other
=> Force on wire 1
d F i dl B ( = ×
¸ ¸
¸, , ¸,
Currents in same directions repulsive each other
Currents in opposite directions repel each other
=> Force per unit length
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Gauss’s Law Gauss’s Law
in
Ed A q =
¿
}
¸, ¸,

??? Bd A =
}
¸, ¸,

0
There is no magnetic monopole
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Ampere’s Law Ampere’s Law
No current is present in the
wire, all the needles point in the
same direction
(Earth’s magnetic field)
The wire carries a strong, the
needles all deflect in a direction
tangent to the circle
?
C
Bds =
}
¸, ,

0
C
Bds =
}
¸, ,
o
C
Bds i µ =
}
¸, ,

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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Ampere’s Law Ampere’s Law
ο
1
N
i
C
Bds i µ =
¿
}
¸, ,

( )
ο 1 4
C
Bds i i µ = +
}
¸, ,

Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Ampere’s Law Applications Ampere’s Law Applications
Rectangular path: the field along the length
inside the coil is the dominant contribution
and the other parts is negligible.
rectangular
path ο
1
N
i
C
Bds i µ =
¿
}
¸, ,

Ampere’s Law
ο
0
l
Bds Ni µ ¬ =
}
ο
0
l
B ds nli µ ¬ =
}
Constant field:
(n – density of turns)
ο
B ni µ ¬ = | | ( )
7
0
4 10 T/Am µ t
÷
= ×
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Ampere’s Law Applications Ampere’s Law Applications
Magnetic along the straight wire
r
ο
1
N
i
C
Bd s i µ =
¿
}
¸, ,

Ampere’s Law
2
ο
0
r
Bds i
t
µ ¬ =
}
ο
2 B r i t µ ¬ =
ο
2
i
B
r
µ
t
¬ =
| | ( )
7
0
4 10 T/Am µ t
÷
= ×
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Ampere’s Law Applications Ampere’s Law Applications
Magnetic Field of Toroid
Circular path
ο
1
N
i
C
Bd s i µ =
¿
}
¸, ,

Ampere’s Law
2
ο
0
r
Bds Ni
t
µ ¬ =
}
ο
2 B r Ni t µ ¬ =
ο
2
Ni
B
r
µ
t
¬ =
| | ( )
7
0
4 10 T/Am µ t
÷
= ×
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Chapter 6 Chapter 6
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Experiments Experiments
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Experiments Experiments
 Movement of a magnet relative to a coil produces emfs as shown.
 The same emfs are produced if the coil is moved relative to the magnet.
 The greater the speed, the greater the magnitude of the emf
 The emf is zero when there is no motion
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Experiments Experiments
Electric generator
Rotate a coil in a magnetic field =>
produces an emf.
Mechanical energy done is converted to
electric energy.
Note the generator is very similar in
construction to a motor
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Experiments Experiments
cos d Bd A BdA u u = u = =
} } }
¸, ¸,
Magnetic flux, Φ , given by
B - magnetic field strength over an area A
θ angle between the perpendicular to the
area and B
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Faraday’s law of induction Faraday’s law of induction
B
d
dt
c
u
= ÷
The emf induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the time
rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit
Faraday’s law of induction
If the circuit is a coil consisting of N loops
B
d
N
dt
c
u
= ÷
( ) cos d BA
dt
¢
c = ÷
By changing:
 Magnitude of B
 Area enclosed by the loop
 Angle θ between B and normal of the
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Lenz’s law Lenz’s law
The polarity of the induced
emf is such that it tends to
produce a current that
creates a magnetic flux to
oppose the change in
magnetic flux through the
area enclosed by the
current loop
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Faraday’s law applications Faraday’s law applications
The ground fault interrupter (GFI)
safety device protects users of
electrical appliances against
electric shock
Two currents 1 and 2 are opposite directions
=> net magnetic flux is zero
If appliance gets wet, current leak to ground
¬the return current 2 changes
¬the net magnetic flux is no longer zero
¬inducing an emf in the coil
¬Trigger breaker stopping current before
harmful level
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Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Faraday’s law applications Faraday’s law applications
Production of sound in an electric guitar
Pickup coil placed near the vibrating guitar string can be magnetized.
A permanent magnet inside the coil magnetizes the portion of the string nearest the coil.
When the string vibrates at some frequency, the magnetized segment produces a
changing magnetic flux in the coil => Induces an emf in the coil that is fed to an amplifier.
The output of the amplifier is sent to the loudspeakers producing the sound wave
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Faraday’s law applications Faraday’s law applications
Generators
AC generator consists of a coil - or coils - of wire moving relative to a
magnetic field. With this arrangement, a voltage is induced and this
generates a current in a circuit.
In a bicycle dynamo, a magnet turns
inside a coil of wire when the back
wheel of the bicycle is turning.
Chapter 4: Mangetism 4.1. Magnets
Faraday’s law applications Faraday’s law applications
Transformers
Transformers are used to change
the size of an ac voltage.
The secondary voltage depends on
the number of turns on both the
primary and the secondary coils and
on the voltage across primary coil.
s s
p p
V V
V V
=
• V
s
is the voltage induced in the secondary coil in volts
• V
p
is the voltage applied to the primary coil in volts
• n
s
is the number of turns on the secondary coil
• n
p
is the number of turns on the primary coil