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The 15th FSTPT International Symposium, STTD Bekasi, November 23-24, 2012

Aji Ronaldo Faculty of Engineering – UGM Magister of Transport System and Engineering - UGM Jln. Grafika 2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281 Telp : (0274) 545675 M.Taufiq Ismail Faculty of Engineering – UGM Magister of Transport System and Engineering - UGM Jln. Grafika 2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281 Telp : (0274) 545675 Sigit Priyanto Professor on Civil Engineering Gadjah Mada University Jln. Grafika 2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281 Telp : (0274) 545675

Abstract Indonesia is having an issue about the number of accidents which lead to the high number of casualities. In fact, based on Transportation Ministry of Indonesia’s recent homecoming-holidays season trip data, it is said that 4.065 public transport accidents occurred with 688 casualties in just 14-day period along this national holiday season (Transportation Ministry of Indonesia 2011) (Transportation Ministry of Indonesia 2011) (Transportation Ministry of Indonesia 2011). Despite happens every year, it still becomes national issue considering raised concerns of people about road in Indonesia. Increasing number of private vehicles indicates the low safety level of public transport which affected to high shift trend of road user to private vehicles especially motorcycle. In the term of Intelligent Transport System (ITS) there are some solution for those problems. Electronic stability control (ESC), Hill descent control, Emergency Braking Assist, and Driver monitoring system can help to prevent the traffic accident on the road. Key Words : ITS, Traffic Safety, Driver assistance

BACKGROUND Indonesia is an archipelago which has many islands, residents and systems. With 237,641,326 lives (BPS-Indonesia 2010), Indonesia became one of the most populated countries in the world. These huge numbers of people produce a lot of person-trip every year which almost always occur in certain time called "Lebaran Homecoming-Holiday". Nevertheless, the higher a number of trips needed the better level of transport safety, which unfortunately at this level has not been reached. Based on the recent 10-year official data (from 1999 to 2009) from BPS-Statistics Indonesia, there are average 39.258 accidents per year with 13.436 persons died every year (BPS-Indonesia 2010) which implicated to 68.245 million rupiahs average per year of material losses. In fact, based on Transportation Ministry of Indonesia recent homecoming-holidays season trip data, it is said that 4.065 public transport accidents occurred with 688 casualties in just 14-day period along this national holiday season (Transportation Ministry of Indonesia 2011). In this period and in almost in every year, bus accidents became the most high-casualties in number due to a low quality of service and safety. Table 1 shows the number of accidents and its casualities in Indonesia since 1999 until 2009. Despite repeatedly happens every year; it still became national issue considering raised concern of people about road in Indonesia. The high number of private vehicles indicates how low safety level of public transport affected to high shift trend of road user to private


762 2002 13. during the H-6 to H +6 on Lebaran Homecoming-holiday in 2011 there were about 4.827 55. 2012 vehicles.485 Slight Injured 9.955 2007 59.518 9. especially motorcycle (based on data from Directorate of Road Transportation Safety -Transportation Ministry of Indonesia.791 9. Worsen the problem.204 2004 91.553 16.142 8.694 12. about 745 people died.207 Rp 136.917 1999*) 12. Number of travelers using motorcycles has been increasing annually. the government makes intense campaign for public transportation quality improvement to re-shift private vehicles-user. 2008).281 Rp 37.100 6.617 Rp 41. 1.329 7. and Material Losses Suffered (1999-2009) Number of Causalities Accident 12.522 2001 12.912 Material Loss (Million ) Rp 32. either for train or bus. November 23-24.181 8. seriously Injured. with 815 deaths.317 52. people find alternatives by riding a motorcycle to solve the problem on Lebaran Homecoming-Holiday. .778 Rp 53.675 9. By the reason described above.656 6.796 Source : BPS-Indonesia (translated) Year Seriously Injured 7. From the total number of accidents.731 62. the number of accidents was about 3449.The 15th FSTPT International Symposium.267 people seriously injured and more than 3.188 2008 62. The problem of transport is dominated by a high enthusiasm of residents to get the tickets.848 Rp 103. Since the beginning of the 2000s.238 people slightly injured.762 2006 49.289 Rp 131. PUBLIC TRANSPORT CONDITION During the late 1990s.044 Rp 51. In 2010.267 8.440 23.556 Rp 81. the dominant transportation issue is about limited supply of transport on both rail and road-based.506 accidents that occurred in Indonesia.469 178.115 2005 87.030 Rp 45.399 9.164 20.385 9.084 51.833 147.536 2000 12. this high number of motorcycle generates high number of traffic accident and productive-age causalities.310 46. Table 1 Number of Accidents.929 8. causalities.285 Rp 750.181 23.960 19.282 20.979 2009 431. Lack of transportation modes also caused some operators to raise tariffs unilaterally.623 16. Accident in 2011 has slightly increased compared to the year 2010.755 Rp 36.012 6.649 9.732 11.936 326. STTD Bekasi.856 2003 17. Light Injured.983 35. Ticket brokering for freight trains occurred massively.891 33. exceeds the limit specified by the government.690 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION (EXISTING) STATISTICAL DATA OF ACCIDENT Based on the data which issued by the Ministry of Transportation Republic of Indonesia. 1077 people seriously injured and 2148 people slightly injured (Oktaviani 2011).020 15.

and roads and infrastructure at 3%. The electronic stability control usually integrates the functionalities of the ABS and TCS. STTD Bekasi. vehicles 4%. Both brake failure and car-spinning-out causing loosecontrol and difficulty of slowing down. In addition. typically in cars with automatic transmission solely-by-brake (without engine braking). but has the added feature of a “yaw torque control” – a functionality that prevents skidding. the condition of the driver. brakes malfunction. The basic function of such systems is to individually apply the brakes one or more wheels. and high-speeding (11%). such as violation of the road sign. and other causes.5 to 8%. the dominant causes of traffic accidents is human error as much as 85%. over steering or under steering. ITS APPLICATION Deprived condition of vehicles is also a factor in traffic accidents. in new systems stability is regained by acting on suspensions. traction and braking (for a technical description of ESC see van Zanten (2002)). drowsiness. and other (Sum 2011). defective parts of the vehicle resulting fatigues on them. the biggest cause of the collision was the driver inpatients (26%). It was stated that the dominant causes of traffic accidents during Lebaran Holiday was human/drivers error that took percentage for about 85%. The high percentage of accidents caused by human error is requiring a serious handling. While other causes ranged from 0. lead to the so-called dominated accident cause in Indonesia. All of these factors are strongly associated with technology used and maintenance performed on vehicles. Of 85% human error. from 23 August to 7 September 2011. The system helps to correct over steering and under steering. and excessive reaction when the car is out of control which causing spinning. and eating or chatting while driving lead to the decrease of driver concentration. in order to recover vehicle control in case of skid. Conditions that most often happen are a flat tire. It is designed to help drivers . Industrial and transport agencies at central and local governments are responsible for testing the worthiness of vehicles. worn out and not replaced equipment. using the phone. overtaking or preceding (17%). Based on the report Evaluation Study Road Map to Zero Accidents data of Police Department in 2009. This chapter is discussing about ITS implementation and also opportunities and challenge for the ITS implementation in the future. the application of ITS on the bus is one way applied in many countries to reduce the number of accident regarding bus drivers error. In early stability control systems loss of vehicle stability (skid) was counteracted by only braking. ITS IMPLEMENTATION ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC) Electronic stability control was introduced around 1997. human error factor became the main cause of traffic accidents. Some examples are the loss of riding ability. ANALYSIS One of some big problem mentioned in the previous chapter is about human behavior and user-interface. November 23-24. 2012 HUMAN BEHAVIOR Based on Metro Jaya Regional Police evaluation during the Operation of Ketupat. Among the many ways.The 15th FSTPT International Symposium.

gyro. and the number of accidents with serious/fatal injuries by 22% (Vägverket 2005) (Lie 2006)). Loss of vehicle control. wheel angle. In December 2006 91% of the new cars sold in Sweden were equipped with ESC. ESC can reduce the total number of traffic accidents by 17%. In the US. et al. The wheel decelerated is encircled in white and the turning direction is shown with a green arrow. and the positive traffic safety effects are proven. and suspensions are set to give more friction to the wheel to decelerate. yaw rate as well as lateral and longitudinal acceleration. has been demonstrated to be the dominant risk factor in the pre-crash phase. November 23-24. beside on wheel braking. . From the left to the right the pictures should be seen as a time sequence (symbolized by the large white arrow below the pictures). Variety of sensor inputs provide data to the ESC system. which have shown the effectiveness of ESC in reducing traffic accidents (Aga and Okada 2003) (Farmer 2004). An international comparison of the occurrence of skidding in the pre-crash phase proved beyond any doubt that at least 20 percent of all accidents resulting in injury are related to skidding of the vehicle in the pre-crash phase. such as steering angle. even on traction and suspensions. and urge all car manufacturers. (Vägtrafikinspektionen 2007). As these statistics are by nature global. The recommendation is based on several studies. 2012 maintain control of their vehicles in sudden maneuvers such as rapid steering and countersteering.The 15th FSTPT International Symposium. and in the case of fatal accidents this figure rises to 40 percent. In 2004 the installation rate for new car registrations was 36% in the European Union. ESC has proven to be one of the most safety-enhancing systems on the market. sudden lane changes. or skidding. the engine power is reduced to decrease speed. importers and resellers to stop selling cars without ESC (Vägverket 2004). they should be regarded as being at the lower limit. with Germany having the highest ESC adoption (64%) (Bosch 2006). New systems act. Table 2 shows about the application of ESC. (Tingvall 2004). (Langwieder 2003). For example. The obstacle is symbolized by the red object. an analysis of the German indepth accident study (GIDAS) data showed that the proportion of skidding in accidents resulting in severe injuries is as high as 48 percent. For example. 2007. ESC will become standard by government regulation in all cars from 2012. STTD Bekasi. The Swedish Road Administration (Vägverket) recommends that all new cars should be equipped with ESC. 3941). and obstacle-avoidance maneuvers. (Linder.

The hill descent control can also be integrated with ESC as an addition. 2007) HILL DESCENT CONTROL Considering in Indonesia the topography is not as flat as in most European country. Figure 1 Hill descent control . A hill descent control system helps drivers to drive on a steep downhill gradient (steep road) by keeping a constant very low speed. et al. STTD Bekasi. This system helps the driver to descent a gradient by braking individually on each wheel (including ABS system) and in some cars also by controlling engine power (figure 1). ESC prevents skidding by applying the brakes first on the rear right wheel. It then acts on brakes and engine (the figure is adapted from BMW press archive). and brake. 2012 Table 2. Car maintained stability during the obstacle avoidance maneuver. November 23-24. Driver starts to re-enter own lane after avoiding the object. ESC applied during obstacle avoidance on straight road.The 15th FSTPT International Symposium. Driver re-enters own lane. it is needed to apply this system in buses. Driver starts to avoid the obstacle (red object in picture) at high speed by turning first to the right. This can lead the driver to loss of vehicle control. Driver again in own lane finalizing obstacle avoidance maneuver. then the front left wheel (white circles around the wheel decelerated by ESC system). source : (Linder. as the system acts when a certain gradient is reached. ESC still decelerating front left wheel to prevent skidding. Hill descent control. Usually the driver would have to control the car by adjusting the gear into the lowest level. ESC decelerated front left wheel.

advanced systems try to monitor driver state in relation to impaired driving performance. et al. et al. The system adapts to the driver behavior by analyzing braking habits. steering characteristics.The 15th FSTPT International Symposium. Furthermore brake function is assisted by brake drying and priming to minimize stopping distance: Brake drying removes moisture that can accumulate on brake discs in wet conditions. can be classified as impaired driver. Much effort has been aimed on detecting drowsiness or other impairment in drivers. A driver which is tired. STTD Bekasi. The vast interest . so that the brake booster gain is increased (Mitsubishi 2011). 2007). These observations were the average of the findings from seven European countries (Linder. Figure 2. November 23-24. The comparison of braking action between cars which is using brake assist and not DRIVER MONITORING SYSTEM Driver monitoring is a wide field. under influence of drugs or alcohol. aiding the possible to weak brake pedal pressure of the driver. 2012 EMERGENCY BRAKING ASSIST Braking assist systems aid the driver in optimizing the vehicle retardation in emergency situations. Systems aimed at detecting driver impairment are under development. and priming positions the brake pads close to the brake disks as soon as the driver lifts the foot from the accelerator pedal. This is done by maximize the pressure in the braking circuits.5% seat belt use in cars with seat belt reminder compared to 85. 49-50).8% in cars without seat belt reminders. The comparison of braking action between cars which is using brake assist and not (Mitsubishi 2011) is shown on figure 2. A comprehensive list of references on drowsy driving is found in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (US) homepage (NHTSA 1998). 2007. distracted. 2007) with a 97. (Linder. Seat belt reminder has showed to substantially increase the seat belt wearing rate (Linder. This system is also can be integrated with another system like ABS. From passenger detection for seat belts reminder to be activated to airbag activation depending on the present passenger. or any other condition which endangers his or her role as traffic participant. etc. scanning of eye lid closure. The effectiveness of integration between ABS and emergency braking assist can be seen when brake force exceeds a certain level. and by acting faster than the driver. and calculates optimal braking assistance in emergency situations (Kerr 2006). (Englund 1982). scanning of facial features. et al. Methods to detect impairment include physiological measurements (such as electroculogram). Peters and Östlund 2000) . (Eriksson and Papanikolopoulos 1997) and several more). and here only a few publications are named: (Törnros.

et al. This camera monitors the exact position and angle of the driver’s head while the vehicle in motion. and this might be the reason why in the last years manufacturers have had limited success in developing systems to recognize impaired driving. in turn. (Batavia 1999. Many single vehicle roadway departure crashes take place in light traffic situations and good weather conditions.The 15th FSTPT International Symposium. and use this information to determine the vehicle’s position on the road. A LDWS uses sensors to look at the road. Figure 3 Driver monitoring system applied in Toyota Lexus (source: LEXUS. . LANE DEPARTURE WARNING Since lane changing become serious problem in Indonesia based on accident data from National Police Department. The patterns for “impaired driving behavior” are difficult to subjectively quantify. such as lane markings. The references above are related to research on impaired driving. 2012 which impaired driving has received from the research community and the governments shows its importance in the traffic safety area. 2007. It is using near infra-red technology. STTD Bekasi. mounted on top of the steering column cover. Lane departure warning (LDW) is a driver warning system designed to reduce the number of unintended lane departures. too (Linder. 35). Such crashes are often due to drivers’ inattention or drowsiness (Kozak. and do not review vehicles which already have such systems. If the driver is not paying attention to the road ahead and dangerous situation is occurred. or to actually predict when the driver is in danger of departing the road. 2006). November 23-24. These sensors track features on the road. then the system will warn the driver by flashing lights or a warning alarm. 2007) The first major car industry who developed this system is Toyota in 2006. to either warn when the vehicle is in a particular state (similar to rumble strips). which rumble strips cannot do. This vehicle state can then be used. et al. 2). Originally LDW system was developed for heavy trucks and found later their way into passenger vehicles. it is necessary to implement this feature on buses.

et al. including employers’ uninsured costs is US$28. for every work-related death that occurs. If the numbers of casualties are reduced. it is very good if the above ITS applications are applied to all motorized vehicles. For direct applications. It means accidents can reduce national productivity level and increase national expenditure.The 15th FSTPT International Symposium. “ (Abele. so that the cumulative cost of all accidents that are implied by a single recorded fatality. 2003) found that lane departure warning systems would decrease the number of accidents by 10% (the study involved 40 professional drivers and 36 heavy duty vehicles. the rain always falls throughout the year which can make the problem even worst. 2007. The United States National Safety Council estimates that. 2007. in bad weather like snowy.700. ESC is most suitable for buses which are passing the deadliest path in country . Java. 36)). November 23-24. almost all of the devices mentioned above are able to be applied. (as cited in (Linder. 2012 Figure 4 Vehicle drifting out of lane and receiving a LDW (Kozak. Especially for tropical countries. and Sulawesi may become the pilot project area for this kind application. For heavy trucks (Korse.000 (ILO 2007). many non-fatal injuries are suffered. In a report by Abele et al. 2005) as cited in (Linder. OPPORTUNITIES Considering Indonesia is a developing country. foggy or heavy rain condition the systems are unable to operate. 36)). Sumatra. With implementing ITS tools mentioned above. STTD Bekasi. 60% of reduction in the number of accidents and a 10% reduction in accident severity for side collisions. et al. The systems will only work if there are road markings. LDW may be an effective system to reduce the number of traffic accidents but there is some problem which can make the system do not work or even not work properly. et al. the authors estimate (based on crash statistics) the safety effects as : “25% reduction in accident number and 25% reduction of accident severity in head-on collisions. The other thing that can be considered as opportunities is the will of the Government to reduce casualties and victims of accidents. vehicle accidents rate can be reduced and life expectancy of society can increase. et al. 2006) There are several researches for calculating the effectiveness of LDW to reduce the number of accidents. Hill descent control can be used for buses which are going through mountainous areas with steep road. (2005) the effects of lane departure warning systems is seen in a much more positive light. the national productivity level will increase. et al. For example. 25% reduction in accident numbers and 15% of reduction of accident severity in left-roadway accidents.

2012 and because of its ability to stabilize the movement of the vehicle when disruptions occur. It is used to warn the driver for do not take any overtaking action. Traffic Injury Prevention 5 (2004): 317-325. et al. On Human-Behavior aspect.. M. M. Batavia. Bosch. ITS applications in human-behavior which described in this project are including Hill Descent Control. Analysis of vehicle stability control (VSC)'s effectiveness. http://www. Based on analysis taken in this project. As mentioned before. Lane Departure Warning and Driver Alert System.go. Ergonomics 25 7 (1982): 663-672. J. there are some ITS applications that can be considered as preventing step of accident. Parag H. 2010. The next challenge is the most of Indonesian bus drivers which are not well educated and their acceptance level to the new technologies maybe very low considering the language used on those devices are mostly in English. Farmer. A.. Driver-Adaptive Lane Departure Warning System. Occupational safety and health: Synergies beetwen security and pruductivity. ILO. 2003 .de/TBWebDB/enUS/Presstext. Proceedings of the 18th ESV Conference.cfm?CFID=1354040&CFTOKEN=&ID=2847. BPS-Indonesia. CHALLENGES The challenges which may appear in applying these devices are the high price of the devices. 2006. Englund.bps. Bosch. 2007. Spectral Analysis of heart rate variability as an indicator of driver fatigue. Eye-tracking for Detection of Driver Fatigue. Effect of electronic stability control on automobile crash risk. Lane Departure Warning suppose to be applied due to the second highest number of accident’s cause is coming from overtaking or preceded so that this device can be applied... 1999. Japan. 1982. SEiSS final report. 1997.php?tabel=1&daftar=1&id_subyek=17&notab=14. ESC. STTD Bekasi. M. CONCLUSIONS ITS-application provides safer condition to all users of transportation especially related to transport mode that involved a lot of passengers (bus).The 15th FSTPT International Symposium. http://www.N. dan P.. C. Although its function is very important. Papanikolopoulos. & Okada. Biro Pusat Statistik. Paper number 541. Aga. fleets owner will not using any devices which too 2004. 2005. http://www. Nagoya. Eriksson. IEEE Intelligent Transport System Conference. it is found that Lane Departure Warning became the most appropriate application with consideration of multiple occurrences of technical failure during overtaking from the bus driver REFERENCES Abele.pdf. If those devices are applied in the the rain on tropical countries always falls throughout the year which can make some of these new technologies do not work optimally. one big problem will occur is facing uncertain-weather condition. . November 23-24.

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