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CONCRETE ADMIXTURES

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Paper Presented By

MAHENDERAN (Final B.Tech civil) Mahi_andaman@yahoo.com

L.SIREESHA (Final B.Tech civil) sirichandan@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Admixtures are ingredients other than water, aggregates, hydraulic cement, and fibers that are added to the concrete batch immediately before or during mixing, in nominal

quantities. A proper use of admixtures offers certain beneficial effects to concrete, including improved quality, acceleration or retardation of setting time, enhanced frost and

sulphate resistance, control of strength development, improved workability, and enhanced

finishability. Admixtures vary widely in chemical composition, and many perform more than one function. Two basic types of admixtures are available: chemical and mineral. All admixtures to be used in concrete construction should meet specifications; tests should be made to evaluate how the admixture will affect the properties of the concrete to be made with the specified job materials, under the anticipated ambient conditions, and by the anticipated construction procedures.

Materials used as admixtures included milk and lard by the Romans; eggs during the middle ages in Europe; polished glutinous rice paste, lacquer, tung oil, blackstrap

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molasses, and extracts from elm soaked in water and boiled bananas by the Chinese; and in Mesoamerica and Peru, cactus juice and latex from rubber plants. The Mayans also used bark extracts and other substances as set retarders to keep stucco workable for a long period of time.

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CONTENTS
Abstract

Chemical Admixtures

• • • • • • • •

Air Entraining Water reducing Set retarding Accelerators Super Plasticizers

Mid range water reducing admixtures Corrosion inhibiting

Shrinkage reducing admixtures

Mineral Admixtures

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Fly Ash Silica Fume Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFD)

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STUDY ON CONCRETE ADMIXTURES
CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES:

Chemical admixtures are added to concrete in very small amounts mainly for the

entrainment of air, reduction of water or cement content, plasticization of fresh concrete mixtures, or control of setting time. • • • • • • • • Air-Entertainers Water-Reducing Set-Retarding Accelerators Super plasticizers

Mid-range water-reducing admixtures Corrosion-inhibiting admixtures Shrinkage reducing admixtures

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AIR ENTRAINMENT is the intentional creation of tiny air bubbles in concrete. The bubbles are introduced into the concrete by the addition to the mix of an air-entraining agent, a surfactant. The air bubbles are created during mixing of the plastic concrete, and most of them survive to be part of the hardened concrete. The primary purpose of air entrainment is to increase the durability of the hardened concrete, especially in climates subject to freeze-thaw; the secondary purpose is to increase workability of the concrete while in a plastic state. A water: cement ratio (w/c) of approximately 0.25 is required for all the cement particles to hydrate. Water beyond that is surplus and is used to make the plastic concrete more workable or flowable. Most concrete has a w/c of 0.45 to 0.60, which means there is substantial excess water that will not react with cement. Eventually

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the excess water evaporates, leaving little pores in its place. Environmental water can later fill these voids. During freeze-thaw cycles, the water occupying those pores expands and creates stresses, which lead to tiny cracks. These cracks allow more water into the concrete and the cracks enlarge. Eventually the concrete breaks off. The failure of RCC is most often due to this cycle, which is accelerated by moisture reaching the reinforcing steel. Steel expands when it rusts, and these forces create even more cracks, letting in more water. These air bubbles that are created improve the resistance of the concrete structure against Freeze and Thaw cycles. WATER REDUCERS or PLASTICIZERS

Water-reducers generally reduce the required water content of a concrete mixture for a given slump. These admixtures disperse the cement particles in concrete and make more efficient use of cement. This increases strength or allows the cement content to be reduced while maintaining the same strength. The basic role of water reducers is to

deflocculate the cement particles agglomerated together and release the water tied up in these agglomerations, producing more fluid paste at lower water contents. Water-reducers are used to increase slump of concrete without adding water and are useful for pumping concrete and in hot weather to offset the increased water demand. Some water - reducers may aggravate the rate of slump loss with time. Water-reducing admixtures are used to improve the quality of concrete and to obtain specified strength at lower cement content. They also improve the properties of concrete containing

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• • •

marginal- or low-quality aggregates and help in placing concrete under difficult conditions. Water reducers have been used primarily in bridge decks, low-slump

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concrete overlays, and patching concrete. Water-reducers should meet the requirements for Type A in ASTM C 494 Specification

for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete. Composition. Water-reducing admixtures can be categorized according to their active ingredients. There are the following: Salts and modifications of hydroxylized carboxylic acids (HC type); Salts and modifications of lignosulfonic acids (lignins); and Polymeric materials (PS type).

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RETARDERS or SET-RETARDERS They are chemicals that delay the initial setting of concrete by an hour or more. Retarders are often used in hot weather to counter the rapid setting caused by high temperatures. Most retarders also function as water reducers. Retarders should meet the requirements for Type B or D in ASTM C 494. Effect on Concrete Properties and Application. Because of retarding action, the 1-day strength of the concrete is reduced. However, ultimate strength is reported to be improved by using set-controlling admixtures. One of the most important applications of retarding admixtures is hot-weather concreting,

when delays between mixing and placing operation, may result in early stiffening. Another important application is in prestressed concrete, where retarders prevent the concrete that is in contact with the strand from setting before vibrating operations

are completed. Set retarders also allow use of high-temperature curing in prestressed concrete production without affecting the ultimate strength of the concrete. Accelerating admixtures or Accelerators

They are added to concrete either to increase the rate of early strength development or to shorten the time of setting, or both. Chemical compositions of accelerators include some of inorganic compounds such as soluble chlorides, carbonates, silicates, fluosilicates, and some organic compounds such as triethanolamine. Among all these accelerating materials, calcium chloride is the most common accelerator used in concrete.

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However, growing interest in using "chloride-free" accelerators as replacement for calcium chloride has been observed because they form the root cause for the steel corrosion in RCC. Calcium nitrite accelerates the hydration of cement, as shown by the larger amounts of heat developed in its presence. Super plasticizers or High Range Water Reducers (HRWR)

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These chemical admixtures can be added to concrete mixtures to improve workability. Strength of concrete is inversely proportional to the amount of water added or watercement (w/c) ratio. In order to produce stronger concrete, less water is added, which makes the concrete mixture very unworkable and difficult to mix, necessitating the use of plasticizers, water reducers, super plasticizers or dispersants. Super plasticizers are linear polymers containing sulphonic acid groups attached to the polymer backbone at regular intervals. Most of the commercial formulations belong to one of four families: • • • • Sulphonated melamine-formaldehyde condensates (SMF) Sulphonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates (SNF) Modified lignosulphonates (MLS) Polycarboxylate derivatives

Mid-range water-reducing admixtures

Water-reducing admixtures that provide moderate water reduction without significantly delaying the setting characteristics of concrete are also available. Because these admixtures provide more water reduction than conventional water-reducers but less water-reduction than high range water reducers, they are referred to as mid-range water-reducing admixtures. These admixtures can help reduce stickiness and improve inishability and pumpability of concrete including concrete containing silica fume, or manufactured or coarse sand. Mid-range water-reducing admixtures are typically used in

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a slump range of 125 to 200 mm and may entrain additional air. Therefore, evaluations should be performed to establish air-entraining admixture dosage for desired air content.

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Corrosion inhibiting admixtures Chlorides are one of the causes of corrosion of steel in concrete. They can be introduced into concrete from deicing salts that are used in the winter months to melt snow or ice, from seawater, or from the concrete mixture ingredients. There are several ways of combating chloride-induced corrosion, one of which is the use of corrosion-inhibiting admixtures. These admixtures are added to concrete during batching and they protect

embedded reinforcement by delaying the onset of corrosion and also reducing the rate of corrosion after initiation. There are several commercially available inhibitors include an inorganic formulation that contains calcium nitrite as the active ingredient and

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organic formulations consisting of amines and esters. Calcium nitrite and calcium thiosulphate usually increase the strength development of concrete at early ages. Shrinkage-reducing admixtures The loss of moisture from the concrete as it dries results in a volume contraction termed drying shrinkage. Drying shrinkage tends to be undesirable when it leads to cracking due to either internal or external restraint, curling of floor slabs, and excessive loss of prestress in prestressed concrete applications. Drying shrinkage can be reduced significantly by using shrinkage-reducing admixtures. These are organic-based formulations that reduce the surface tension of water in the capillary pores of concrete, thereby reducing the tension forces within the concrete matrix that lead to drying shrinkage. MINERAL ADMIXTURES

Mineral admixtures (fly ash, silica fume [SF], and slags) are usually added to concrete in larger amounts to enhance the workability of fresh concrete; to improve resistance of concrete to thermal cracking, alkali-aggregate expansion, and sulphate attack; and to enable a reduction in cement content. • • • Fly Ash Silica Fume

Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag(GGBFS)

FLY ASH

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Fly ash is comprised of the non-combustible mineral portion of coal consumed in a coalfueled power plant. Chemically, fly ash is a pozzolan. When mixed with lime (calcium hydroxide), pozzolans combine to form cementitious compounds. Concrete containing fly ash becomes stronger, more durable, and more resistant to chemical attack. Fly ash particles are glassy, spherical shaped “ball bearings” — typically finer than cement particles — that are collected from the combustion air-stream exiting the power plant. There are two basic types of fly ash: Class F and Class C. Both Class F and

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Class C fly ashes undergo a “pozzolanic reaction” with the lime to create the same binder (calcium silicate hydrate, C-S-H gel) as cement. The main benefit of fly ash in concrete is that it not only reduces the amount of non-durable calcium hydroxide (lime), but in the process converts it into calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), which is the strongest and most durable portion of the paste in concrete. Fly ash also makes substantial contributions to workability, chemical resistance and the environment. Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Durability and Strength There is a huge difference between durability and strength. Durability is the ability to maintain integrity and strength over time. Strength is only a measure of the ability to

sustain loads at a given point in time. Cement normally gains the great majority of its strength within 28 days. Concrete made with fly ash will be slightly lower in strength

than straight cement concrete up to 28 days, equal strength at 28 days, and substantially higher strength within a year’s time. Conversely, in straight cement

concrete, this lime would remain intact and over time it would be susceptible to the effects of weathering and loss of strength and durability. Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Workability

First, fly ash produces more cementitious paste. It has a lower unit weight, which means that on a pound for pound basis, fly ash contributes roughly 30% more volume of cementitious material per pound versus cement. The greater the percentage of fly ash “ball bearings” in the paste, the better lubricated the aggregates are and the better

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concrete flows. Second, fly ash reduces the amount of water needed to produce a given slump. Water demand of a concrete mix with fly ash is reduced by 2% to 10%, depending on a number of factors including the amount used and class of fly ash. Third, fly ash reduces the amount of sand needed in the mix to produce workability. Because fly ash creates more paste, and by its shape and dispersive action makes the paste more “slippery”, the amount of sand proportioned into the mix can be reduced. Since sand has a much greater surface area than larger aggregates and therefore requires more paste, reducing the sand means the paste available can more efficiently coat the surface area of the aggregates that remain.

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Fly Ash Protects Concrete Fly ash concrete is less permeable because fly ash reduces the amount of water needed to produce a given slump, and through pozzolanic activity, creates more durable CSH as it fills capillaries and bleed water channels occupied by water-soluble lime (calcium hydroxide). Fly ash improves corrosion protection. By decreasing concrete permeability, fly ash can reduce the rate of ingress of water, corrosive chemicals and oxygen — thus protecting steel reinforcement from corrosion and its subsequent expansive result. Fly ash also increases sulphate resistance and reduces alkali-silica reactivity. In reducing alkali-silica reactivity, fly ash has the ability to react with the

alkali hydroxides in Portland Cement paste, making them unavailable for reaction with reactive silica in certain aggregates. Fly Ash Reduces Heat of Hydration in Concrete

The hydration of cement is an exothermic reaction. Heat is generated very quickly, causing the concrete temperature to rise and accelerating the setting time and strength gain of the concrete. Warm weather will naturally raise the temperature of concrete aggregates, which make up the majority of the mass in concrete. This natural heating of the aggregates, coupled with solar heating at the construction site, can cause thin concrete slabs to suffer the damaging effects of thermal cracking, leading to reduced concrete strength and durability. In such cases, replacing large percentages of cement with fly ash can reduce the damaging effects of thermal cracking and provide the time needed for

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desirable finish.

Conclusions of using Fly Ash in Cement Ease of Pumping Reduced Bleeding Reduced Segregation Improved Finishing

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SILICA FUME

Silica fume, also known as micro silica, is a byproduct of the reduction of high-purity quartz with coal in electric furnaces in the production of silicon and ferrosilicon alloys such as ferrochromium, ferromanganese, Ferro magnesium, and calcium silicon. With an

of 15 percent, the potential exists for very strong, brittle concrete. It increases the water demand in a concrete mix; however, dosage rates of less than 5 percent will not

typically require a water reducer. High replacement rates will require the use of a high range water reducer.

Effects on Air Entrainment and Air-void System of Fresh Concrete. The dosage of air-entraining agent needed to maintain the required air content when using Silica Fume is slightly higher because of high surface area and the presence of carbon. This dosage is increased with increasing amounts of Silica Fume content in concrete. Effects on Water Requirements of Fresh Concrete. Silica Fume added to concrete by itself increases water demands, often requiring one additional pound of water for every pound of added Silica Fume. This problem can be easily compensated for by using

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HRWR.

Effects on Consistency and Bleeding of Fresh Concrete. Concrete incorporating more than 10% Silica Fume becomes sticky; in order to enhance workability, the initial slump should be increased. It has been found that Silica Fume reduces bleeding because of its effect on rheologic properties. Effects on Strength of Hardened Concrete. Silica Fume has been successfully used to

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produce very high-strength, low-permeability, and chemically resistant concrete. Addition of Silica Fume by itself, with other factors being constant, increases the concrete strength. Effects on Freeze-thaw Durability of Hardened Concrete. The use of Silica Fume has no significant influence on the production and stability of the air-void system. Freeze-

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thaw testing (ASTM C 666) on Silica Fume concrete showed acceptable results; the average durability factor was greater than 99%. Effects on Permeability of Hardened Concrete. Addition of Silica Fume to concrete reduces its permeability .Also, addition of Silica Fume (8% Silica Fume) significantly reduces the chloride permeability. This reduction is primarily the result of the increased density of the matrix due to the presence of Silica Fume. GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG (GGBFS)

It is a recyclable material created when the molten slag from melted iron ore is quenched rapidly and then ground into a powder. This material has remarkable cementitious properties. Several problems with GGBFS include slow strength gain and decreased surface quality. Countering these problems, GGBFS concrete has higher late strength and lower permeability.

Effect on Strength of Hardened Concrete. The strength development of concrete incorporating slags is slow at 1-5 days compared with that of the control concrete. Between 7 and 28 days, the strength approaches that of the control concrete; beyond this period, the strength of the slag concrete exceeds the strength of control concrete. Flexural

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strength is usually improved by the use of slag cement, which makes it beneficial to concrete paving application where flexural strengths are important. It is believed that the increased flexural strength is the result of the stronger bonds in the cement-slag-aggregate system because of the shape and surface texture of the slag particles. It is not suitable for Cold weather applications. Effects on Permeability of Hardened Concrete. Incorporation of granulated slags in cement paste helps in the transformation of large pores in the paste into smaller pores, resulting in decreased permeability of the matrix and of the concrete. A significant reduction in permeability is achieved as the replacement level of the slag increases from 40 to 65% of total cementitious material by mass.

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Effects on Freeze-Thaw Durability of Hardened Concrete.. The resistance of airentrained concrete incorporating Ground granulated blast furnace slag is comparable to that of conventional concrete. The results of freeze-thaw tests on concrete incorporating 25-65% slag indicate that regardless of the water-to- (cement + slag) ratio, air-entrained slag concrete specimens performed excellently in freeze-thaw tests, with relative durability factors greater than 91%. CONCLUSIONS Air-entraining and other chemical admixtures have become a very useful and integral component of concrete. Admixtures are not a panacea for every ill the concrete producer,

architect, engineer, owner, or contractor faces when dealing with the many variables of concrete, but they do offer significant improvements in both the plastic and hardened state to all concrete. Continued research and development will provide additional reliability, economy, and performance for the next generation of quality concrete. Overviews of the conclusions by usin admixtures in concrete are: •

Increase workability without increasing water content or decrease the water content at the same workability;

• • • • •

Retard or accelerate time of initial setting;

Reduce or prevent shrinkage or create slight expansion; Modify the rate or capacity for bleeding; Reduce segregation;

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• • • • • • •

Improve pumpability; Reduce rate of slump loss; Retard or reduce heat evolution during early hardening; Accelerate the rate of strength development at early ages; Increase strength (compressive, tensile, or flexural); Increase durability or resistance to severe conditions of exposure, including application of deicing salts and other chemicals; Decrease permeability of concrete; Control expansion caused by the reaction of alkalis with potentially reactive aggregate constituents;

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Increase bond of concrete to steel reinforcement; 13

• • • •

Increase bond between existing and new concrete; Improve impact and abrasion resistance; Inhibit corrosion of embedded metal Produce colored concrete or mortar.

The following table shows the various MIXES with the use of admixtures and their Compressive Strength after various days. Ingredients (kg / m3) Portland Cement Silica Fumes Fly ash GGBFS Fine Aggregate Mix A 534 40 59 623 B 315 36 137 745 1130 150 C 513 43 D 163 54 E

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Coarse Aggregate 1069 Total water 139

Water/cementitious 0.22 Slump (mm)

Strenth (Mpa)

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7 days 28 days 90 days

1 day

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1080 139

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46 182 800 1110 138 0.30 220 19 62 105 121

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67 83 93

119 145

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