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The  Abbasids  (749-­‐1258)  

Introducing  

HISTORY  OF  THE  ABBASIDS  

     Spread  &  Influence  

The  longest  lived  dynasty  of  the  Islamic  caliphate.   Divided  into  two  main  periods:  749-­‐945  (founding  of  empire)    and  aBer   945  (disintegraCon  of  empire)  into  smaller  independent  rules.  

 Iran  &  Egypt   Capital:  Baghdad  and  Samarra  (836-­‐892)   .Brightness   Area  of  influences:  Iraq.

IMPORTANT  RULERS:     •  Abu  ‘Abbas  al-­‐Saffah  (749  –  754)   •  Al-­‐Mansur  (754  –  775)   •  Al-­‐Mahdi  (775  –  785)   •  Harun  al-­‐Rashid  (786  –  809)   •  Al-­‐Ma’mun  (813  –  833)   •  Al-­‐Mu’tasim  (833  –  842)   .

THE  BREAK-­‐UP  OF  ‘ABBASID  CONTROL     North  Africa  &  Egypt     •  Aghlabid  (800  –  909)   •  Tulunid  (868  –  905)   •  Shi’ite  (909  –  1171)   .

 Impact  on  the  Change  of  Capital   Baghdad:     •  city  for  huge  volume  trade   •  Located  near  sea-­‐going  traffic   •  Diverse  influence  from  East  and  West   •  The  spread  of  Arabic  language  as  the  lingua  franca   .

 China  and  Eurasian  were  absorbed  and   transformed  into  unique  features  of  Islamic  arts   .Baghdad  became  the  Islamic  Rome  where  ideas.  artefacts   from  India.

  arts   developments   of   the   Abbasid   periods   were   disCnguished   for   their   “Eastern”   or   “Oriental”   sophisCcaCons.     .   Islamic   arts   were   marked   by   Graeco-­‐ Roman   classicism   and   ByzanUne-­‐ChrisUan   characters   of   Mediterranean   cultures.In   the   early   periods.

SimilariUes  with  Umayyad  Arts   •  •  •  EclecCc   Experimental   Propagandist   .

Major  disUnguishingfeatures  of  Abbasids   •  •  •  Palace  built  in  the  concept  of  Palace-­‐City   Square  plan   Use  of  ProporConing  3:2   .

  symmetrical  and  repeCCous   Decorated  bands.SAMARRA              Surface  DecoraCons   Beveled  abstracted  forms.  naturalisCc   Three  methods  of  surface  decoraUons   using  stucco  techniques  on  baked   brick  construcUons   Plain  bands.  stylised  flowers  and   leaves   .

  Dimension  239  x  156  meters  in  3:2  proporCon   .  bujressed  by  semi-­‐circular  towers.            GREAT  MOSQUE  OF  AL-­‐MUTAWAKKIL   Built  by  Caliph  Al-­‐Mutawakkil  in  baked  bricks.

 decorated  with  frieze   recessed  squares   .GREAT  MOSQUE  OF  AL-­‐MUTAWAKKIL   Exterior  walls  with  semi-­‐circular  towers.

  SAMARRA   Malwiya  –  the  spiral  minaret.            GREAT  MOSQUE  AL-­‐MUTAWAKKIL.  oBen  linked  to  Mesopotamian  ziggurats   .

Baghdad   .

A  view  of  Firuzabad.  Iran  c.  224  -­‐241   .

 BAGHDAD   SERVED  AS  GARRISON  OF  SOLDIERS  FROM  KHORASAN  –  BUILT  IN  MUD-­‐BRICKS   .            GREAT  MOSQUE  AL-­‐RAFIQA.

 IRAN   .Built   under   the   Seljuks   in  the  11th  century              GREAT  MOSQUE  ISFAHAN.

           GREAT  MOSQUE  OF  ISFAHAN  .  with   ripple  of  small  domes  covering   hypostyle  prayer  halls   .  IRAN   The  four-­‐iwan  courtyards.

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           GREAT  MOSQUE  ISFAHAN     Extra-­‐ordinary  ribbed  structure  at  the   back  of  the  iwan  supporCng  large   honey-­‐comb  vaults  (muqarnas)   .

  .            OTHER  MOSQUES:  MOSQUE  OF  NAYIN     (MID  10TH  CENTURY.  DAMGHAN)   N A Y I N   w a s   a n   important   trading   point   in   central   Iran.   this   mosque   built   by   the  Buyids.

MOSQUE  IBN  TULUN.  CAIRO  (876  –  879)   .

           TOMBS   .

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TOMB  OF  QABUS  IBN  WUSHMGIR  (1006/7)  –   RULER  OF  ZIYARID  DYNASTY   .

           PALACE  OF  UKHAIDIR   .