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This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).

Republic of India Bharat Ganrajya Flag Emblem

Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit) "Truth Alone Triumphs"[1] Anthem: Jana Gana Mana "Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[2] Menu 0:00 National song: Vande Mataram "I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][1] Menu 0:00 Area controlled by India shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green. Capital New Delhi 28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E Largest city Mumbai (population/area) Official languages Hindi · English [show] Recognised regional languages 8th Schedule[show] National language None[3] Demonym Indian Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic[1] President Pranab Mukherjee Vice President Mohammad Hamid Ansari Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (INC) Speaker of the House Meira Kumar (INC) Chief Justice Altamas Kabir[4] Legislature Parliament of India Upper house Rajya Sabha Lower house Lok Sabha Independence from the United Kingdom Dominion 15 August 1947 Republic 26 January 1950 Area Total 3,287,263 km2[b] (7th) 1,269,219 sq mi Water (%) 9.6 Population 2011 census 1,210,193,422[5] (2nd) Density 373.5/km2 (31st)

Nepal.711 trillion[6] (3rd) Per capita $3.967. India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi. illiteracy.851[6] (129th) GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate Total $1. and terrorism. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom from the mid-19th century. the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south.3/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate Total $4. corruption. It is the seventh-largest country by area. and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east. officially the Republic of India (Bharat Ganrajya)[c].2 billion people. Jainism. [d] China.554[9][10] medium · 136th (medium) Currency Indian rupee () (INR) Time zone IST (UTC+05:30) Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+05:30) Date format dd-mm-yyyy (CE) Drives on the left Calling code +91 ISO 3166 code IN Internet TLD . inadequate public healthcare. malnutrition. it continues to face the challenges of poverty.9[8] medium · 79th HDI (2012) 0. and Sikhism—originated here. it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. it is considered a newly industrialised country. Christianity.[11] Four world religions—Hinduism. India is a federal . it has the third-largest standing army in the world and ranks seventh in military expenditure among nations. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power. and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and also helped shape the region's diverse culture.[12] Following market-based economic reforms in other TLDs[show] India (i/ˈɪndiə/).592[6] (140th) Gini (2010) 33. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. is a country in South Asia. and Bhutan to the north-east. India became one of the fastest-growing major economies. the second-most populous country with over 1. and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. whereas Zoroastrianism. However.947 trillion[7] (10th) Per capita $1. Buddhism. in addition. In the Indian Ocean. and the most populous democracy in the world. the Arabian Sea on the south-west. The Indian economy is the world's tenth-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

3 Performing Arts 9.1 Art and architecture 9. which translates as "the people of the Indus".2 Subdivisions 6 Foreign relations and military 7 Economy 8 Demographics 9 Culture 9. prior to 1947.7 Science and technology 9.constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories.8 Sport 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Citations 13 References 14 External links Etymology Main article: Names of India The name India is derived from Indus. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu. which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. is used by many Indian languages in its variations.[13] The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί). and multi-ethnic society. Hindustan ([ɦɪnd̪ʊˈsta ̪ ːn] ( listen)) was originally a Persian word that meant "Land of the Hindus". which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country.4 Motion Pictures 9.2 Literature 9.3 Early modern India 2.1 Ancient India 2.[16][17] History Main articles: History of India and History of the Republic of India Ancient India . it referred to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan. It is occasionally used to solely denote India in its entirety.6 Cuisine 9.1 Government 5.5 Society 9.Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 2.4 Modern India 3 Geography 4 Biodiversity 5 Politics 5. which originates from the Old Persian word Hinduš. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. India is a pluralistic. a theological figure that Hindu scriptures describe as a legendary emperor of ancient India.[14] The geographical term Bharat (pronounced [ˈbʱaːrət] ̪ ( listen)).2 Medieval India 2. multilingual.[15] The eponym of Bharat is Bharata.

based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class.[24] The Vedas. Mahavira.[38] and both established long-lasting monasteries. including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. and relying on varied forms of subsistence. and free peasants.[25] were composed during this period. both religions held up renunciation as an ideal. the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.[30] as well as by nearby traces of agriculture. the Cholas. irrigation tanks.[24] In southern India.[22] it flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in Pakistan and western India. which created a hierarchy of priests.[31][32] The emerging urbanisation and the orthodoxies of this age also created the religious reform movements of Buddhism and Jainism. between 200 BCE and 200 CE. [21] the first urban culture in South Asia. the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire. Harappa.[22] During the period 2000–500 BCE.[31] The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south.000 years ago. but which excluded indigenous peoples by labelling their occupations impure. Dholavira.[41][42] The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that.[34] Buddhism. the small chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas.[23] Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro. 6th century In the late Vedic period. around the 5th century BCE.[31] Politically. in terms of culture. but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas. the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras. arose during this period.[33][35][36] Jainism came into prominence around the same time during the life of its exemplar.[18] Nearly contemporaneous Mesolithic rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent.[24] Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. Maharashtra.[30] Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad. archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation.[20] These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation. by the 3rd century BCE.[26] and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.The earliest anatomically modern human remains found in South Asia date from approximately 30.[39][40] The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.[33] both of which became independent religions. warriors. chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India. dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and . and craft traditions.[27][25][28] The caste system. and the Pandyas. and Kalibangan.[37] In an age of increasing urban wealth.[29] On the Deccan Plateau. the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.[19] Around 7000 BCE. many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. the first known Neolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other sites in western Pakistan. a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period.

attempted to expand southwards. The Indian early medieval age. which found patrons among an urban elite. who ruled much of the IndoGangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE. and artisans from that region into the subcontinent. as were new non-traditional ruling classes. Vietnam.[55] The sultanate was to control much of North India.[54] Indian merchants. artists.[49] When Harsha of Kannauj.[48] The renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture. who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission. they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south.[50] No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region. drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities. Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans. 600 CE to 1200 CE.[49] During this time. as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day Myanmar. Cambodia. the Gupta Empire had created in the greater Ganges Plain a complex system of administration and taxation that became a model for later Indian kingdoms.[54] After the 10th century. and mathematics made significant advances. pastoral peoples whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy were accommodated within caste society. Laos. the effects were felt in South-East Asia. Malaysia. he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal. astronomy. the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs.[53] By the 8th and 9th centuries.South-East Asia. setting the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers.[56][57] By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century. thereby .[53] Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation.[51] The caste system consequently began to show regional differences. he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan.[46][47] Under the Guptas. and the temples they patronised. a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself. the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language. mystics. [47] Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well. using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion.[47] Medieval India The granite tower of Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur was completed in 1010 CE by Raja Raja Chola I.[45][31] By the 4th and 5th centuries. is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains. South-East Asians took the initiative as well.[50] When his successor attempted to expand eastwards. learned men.[50] When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites. with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages. and Indian science.[52] They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent. big and small. Thailand. Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family. traders. which became economic hubs as well. medicine.[43][44] In North India. leading to increased subordination of women.[51] In the 6th and 7th centuries. the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia. and Java. scholars.[52] Indian royalty. and to make many forays into South India. leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206.

which. a number of European trading companies. and culture.[73] By this time. greater resources. and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite.[66] The Mughal state's economic policies. textiles. with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred.[66] leading to more systematic. and the Sikhs.[60] Early modern India Scribes and artists in the Mughal court.[62] fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors. such as the Marathas. but was instead supplying the British empire with raw materials.[67] Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity.[72] By the early 18th century.[67] The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion. the Rajputs. the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty. and uniform rule. literary forms. through collaboration or adversity. the Company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education.[75][73][76][77] Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s. to an emperor who had near-divine status. many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs. but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices[64][65] and diverse and inclusive ruling elites.creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north. gave them both recognition and military experience.[70] Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India. being then under mainly Muslim rulers.[71] As the empire disintegrated. had established coastal outposts. 1590–1595 In the early 16th century. northern India.[67] resulting in greater patronage of painting.[71] Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India.[60] Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate. gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule.[58][59] The sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire. the empire came to control much of peninsular India.[61] and was to influence South Indian society for long afterwards. especially under Akbar.[78] India was now no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had. expressed through a Persianised culture. including the English East India Company.[63] The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule. with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration. and architecture. both these factors were crucial in allowing the Company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies. [79] . [69] caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets. social reform.[73][74] The East India Company's control of the seas. deriving most revenues from agriculture[68] and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency. and many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period. centralised.