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Games approach has advantages over traditional

In the past we have placed too much emphasis on learning skills and not enough on learning how to play skillfully — that is, learning how to use those skills in competition. The games approach, in contrast to the traditional approach, emphasizes first learning what to do, then how to do it. Moreover, the games approach lets kids discover what to do in the game not by your telling them but by their experiencing it. It is a guided discovery method of teaching that empowers your players to solve the problems that arise in the game, which is a large part of the fun in learning. The games approach, in time, helps to develop a soccer-savvy player. Being soccer savvy means that a player has an innate understanding of what is going on around her on a soccer field and has the talent to influence the game. Such an outcome can only occur if the soccer environment in which the player is trained is a rich one. The use of guided discovery by coaches will be a positive influence on this healthy soccer experience.

On the surface, it seems to make sense to introduce soccer using the traditional approach —by first teaching the basic skills of the sport and then the tactics of the game. This approach, however, has disadvantages. First, it teaches the skills of the sport out of the context of the game. Kids may learn to control, shoot, pass, dribble, and head the ball. But they find it difficult to use these skills in the real game, because they do not yet understand the fundamental tactics of soccer and do not appreciate how best to use their newfound skills. Second, learning skills by doing drills outside of the context of the game is downright boring. The single biggest turnoff in sports is overly organized instruction that deprives kids of their intrinsic desire to play the game. See table 5.1 for a comparison of the use of drills versus activities in soccer.

The games approach is taught using a four-step process: 1. Play a modified game. 2. Help the players discover what they need to do in order to play the game successfully. 3. Teach the skills of the game. 4. Practice the skills in another game. Step 1: Play a Modified Game

It’s the first day of training; some of the kids are eager to get started, whereas others are obviously apprehensive. Some have rarely kicked a ball, most don’t know the rules, and none know the positions in soccer. What do you do?

First, base all practices on the season and practice plans that you will learn more about in chapter 10. For example, if you used the traditional approach you would have players practice kicking by lining them up for a simple kicking drill. With the games approach, however, you begin by playing an even-sided game, such as 4v4, that is modified to be developmentally appropriate for the level of the players and is designed to focus on learning a specific part of the game (such as kicking). Modifying the game emphasizes a limited number of game situations. This is one way you guide your players to discover certain tactics in the game. For instance, you have your players play a 2v2 game in a 20-by-15-yard playing area. The objective of the game is to make four passes before attempting to score. Playing the game this way forces players to think about what they have to do to keep possession of the ball.

you’ll be tempted to tell you r players how to play the game rather than wasting time asking questions. because your players have little or no experience with the game. When you do so. and what specific skills they must use. For example. you will have led them to this discovery—a crucial process in the games approach. phrase your questions to let them choose between one option and another. This is the time when you temporarily use a more traditional approach to teaching sport skills—the IDEA approach. you help them better understand the objective of t he game. “What’s the fastest way to get the ball down the field?” and get answers such as “Throw it” or “Kick it. step in. Interrupt the action and ask the following questions:     What are you supposed to do in this game? What does your team have to do to keep the ball for four passes in a row? What do you need to do when you pass the ball to help your team keep the ball? Where would you move to when your teammate has the ball and you need to help him keep the ball? If your players have trouble understanding what to do.” then ask. Instead. Asking the right questions is an important part of teaching. look for the right spot to freeze the action. or you may need to further modify the game to make it even easier for them. Rather than having told them what the critical skills are. which we will describe in chapter 6. Resist this powerful temptation to tell your players what to do. what they must do to reach the objective. For example. If you’ve learned sport through the traditional approach. . You’ll be asking your players (usually literally). through the modified games approach and skillful questioning on your part. but they are having trouble doing so. if you ask. Although it takes longer to teach a ball skill or tactic to players in the discovery games approach to practice. This approach may take more patience on your part. what they learn sticks more permanently and develops more self-reliant players. your players should come to realize on their own that accurate passing and receiving skills are essential to their success in controlling the ball. and ask questions about errors that you’re seeing. “Is it passing or dribbling? Asking the right questions may seem difficult at first. but it’s a powerful way for kids to le arn. Step 3: Teach the Skills of the Game Only when your players recognize the skills they need to be successful in the game do you teach specific skills through activities that focus solely on the skill at hand. “What do you need to do to succeed in this situation?” Sometimes players simply need to have more time playing to discover what they are to do. assume your players are playing a game in which the objective is to make four passes before attempting to score.Step 2: Help Players Understand the Game As your players are playing a game.

you want your players to experience success as they’re learning skills. It is not uncommon for physical educators to advocate reducing competition. should be eliminated. 2. in a 3v1 game. on the other hand. The issue is not whether competition is all good or all bade. and celebrations. Using the rules to gain an advantage. to replace competitive activities with cooperative activities. when the competition is over. Good competition also means striving within the rules and traditions to do the best you can and then. understanding that the winning or losing have little meaning outside the competition itself. Once the players have practiced the skill as outlined in step 3. of a win-at-all -costs perspective. 3v1.. 3v2).g. Short essay on Good and Bad Competition A continuing concern within physical education is the proper role and level of competition. but rather is how we can eliminate bad competition and emphasize good competition.Step 4: Practice the Skills in Another Game As a coach. The only way they can do this is to have these things pointed out to them as they experience good competition. In its most extreme form. Good competition creates a forum within which children and youth can test themselves against accepted standards of excellence. Bad competition. but never the kind of rivalry in which one side can win only to the extent that the other side loses. Students in physical education should learn the differences between good and bad competition. assuming that the only way to win is to have the best score. and to modify competitive activities in ways that reduce competitiveness. and the best way to help them experience -success early on is to create an advantage for the players. The issue can be viewed from another perspective. with all the attending traditions. The prevailing notion is that this concept makes it more likely that. your three offensive players will be able to make four passes before attempting to score. rituals. for instance. Summary . disregarding the traditions and rituals of the activity. and letting the outcomes affect you after the competition is over are all indications of inappropriate competition. you can then put them in another game situation —this time an uneven numbers game (e. Good competition involves rivalry. this kind of criticism within the physical-education profession suggests that competitive activities are harmful for children. Many of the abuses associated with organized sport are assumed to be the result of an overemphasis on competition. Good competition creates a festival atmosphere.

and have a poor body image and low self-esteem (63. The prevalence of overweight among youths ages 6-17 years in the United States has more than doubled in the past 30 years. a sequential. female adolescents are at greatest risk for iron deficiency. These guidelines are based on a review of research. and may prevent long-term health problems. and voluntary agencies. and hyperinsulinemia) (60). and some very obese youths suffer from immediate health problems (e. and program evaluation. This report summarizes strategies most likely to be effective in promoting healthy eating among schoolage youths and provides nutrition education guidelines for a comprehensive school health program.. federal. and stroke. eating disorders. The guidelines include recommendations on seven aspects of a school-based program to promote healthy eating: school policy on nutrition. orthopedic conditions. staff training. social support. such as iron deficiency anemia. and impair intellectual performance (33. and another study indicated that many white female high school students who smoke report using smoking to control their appetite and weight (67).69). cancer.7 million. Approximately 4. family and community involvement. or 11%. most of the increase has occurred since the late 1970s (52). Increased physical activity and appropriate caloric intake are recommended for preventing and reducing obesity (35). This deficiency can increase fatigue. and environmental reinforcement they need to adopt long-term. decrease work capacity. obesity. integration of school food service and nutrition education.64). CDC's guidelines for school and community health programs to promote physical activity among youths address strategies for increasing physical activity among young persons (6). Overweight and Obesity * Overweight and obesity are increasing among children and adolescents in the United States (48-52). obese children and adolescents are often excluded from peer groups and discriminated against by adults.46). Obesity in young persons is related to elevated blood cholesterol levels (53-56) and high blood pressure (57-59). and intellectual development. appropriate instruction for students. Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron deficiency anemia is the most common cause of anemia in the United States (33).62). theory. which is needed to carry oxygen in the blood. Harmful weight loss practices have been reported among girls as young as 9 years old (68. To prevent iron deficiency. such as coronary heart disease. Iron deficiency hampers the body's ability to produce hemoglobin. Furthermore.g. and they were developed by CDC in collaboration with experts from universities and from national. growth. Being overweight during childhood and adolescence has been associated with increased adult mortality (61. and current practice. and dental caries. Deliberately restricting food intake over long periods can lead to poor growth and delayed sexual development (65). respiratory disorders. children and adolescents should eat adequate amounts of foods high in iron and in vitamin C. which helps the body absorb iron efficiently (33). prevent immediate health problems. Data from one study indicated that the rate of smoking initiation is higher for adolescent girls who diet or who are concerned about their weight than for nondieters or girls having few weight concerns (66). Among school-age youths.Healthy eating patterns in childhood and adolescence promote optimal childhood health. experience psychological stress. School health programs can help children and adolescents attain full educational potential and good health by providing them with the skills. Unsafe Weight-Loss Methods Many young persons in the United States practice unsafe weight-loss methods. coordinated curriculum. of youths ages 6-17 years are seriously overweight (52). Approximately 1% of elementary school-age children and 2%-4% of adolescent girls ages 12-19 years show evidence of iron deficiency anemia (47). healthy eating behaviors. Young persons involved in certain competitive sports and dancing are particularly at . reduce resistance to infection. shorten attention span.

In the six years since that program started. Persons who have eating disorders should receive immediate medical and psychological treatment. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa affect as many as 3% of adolescent and young adult females. promoting parent involvement was recently highlighted as one of the key recommendations in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Guidelines for School and Community Physical Activity Programs" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) are psychological disorders characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. Do the children of active parents tend to be more active? Many physical educators and scientists believe so (Freedson & Everson. and feelings of inadequacy. Dental caries is a progressive disease. Dental Caries Dental caries is perhaps the most prevalent of all diseases (1). More than 50 million hours of school time are lost annually because of dental problems or dental visits (76). and tooth loss. have dental sealants applied to the pits and fissures of their teeth. 3. there’s an innovative program to schedule PE right before their most c hallenging classes. Eating disorders can cause many severe complications. which. 22% fasted. 1991. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.risk for unsafe weight control practices (70). has embraced a culture of fitness: PE is a daily. in the Chicago suburbs. A national survey of 8th. To prevent dental caries. students who signed up for PE directly before English read on average a half year ahead of those who didn’t.. and the incidence of anorexia nervosa appears to have increased in recent decades (72). It affects 50. 2011 While physical education has been drastically cut back across the country — in response to budget concerns and test score pressures — Naperville Central High School. and bulimia nervosa is characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting (72). brush and floss their teeth regularly. Compared with adolescents who have normal eating patterns. and 3% used laxatives to lose weight (45).and 10th-grade students found that 32% skipped meals. a negative body image. anxiety. and consume sugars in moderation (1). if left untreated. 5% induced vomiting after meals. and moodiness (73). Eating Disorders Eating disorders (e. social dysfunction. costly treatment. And for one group of struggling students. A strong link exists between sugar consumption and dental caries (33). pain. can result in acute infections. 7% used diet pills. depression.1% of youths ages 5-17 years and 84. et al. children and adolescents should drink fluoridated water. 1991). and greater than 90% of cases occur among females (72). adolescents who have eating disorders tend to have lower self-esteem. and students who took PE before math showed dramatic improvement in their standardized tests. Because of the potential benefits for public health. and young persons need to develop a healthy body image (71).. The emphasis of society in the United States on thinness should be challenged. use fluoridated toothpaste.g. Moore. and mortality rates for these disorders are among the highest for any psychiatric disorder (74). 1997). Children and adolescents should learn about the dangers of unsafe weightloss methods and about safe ways to maintain a healthy weight. Eating disorders often start in adolescence. . graded requirement.4% of youths age 17 years (75). A physical education in Naperville By Mona Iskander February 8.

Adult encouragement indirectly influences a child's level of vigorous activity by enhancing his/her perception of competence (Biddle & Goudas. In addition. in one study. but direct support from significant others (parents. TYPES OF SOCIALIZATION INFLUENCE There are various ways that parents can socialize their children to be physically active. Kimiecik & Horn. 1996). playing catch. positive links were observed between parent and child activity levels. Others argue that parental encouragement. Thus. PARENTAL INFLUENCE: A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE A useful theoretical model to explain parental influence on physical activity is the expectancy-value model of Eccles and Harold (1991). For example. 1999). it offers clear and practical applications to the study of sport and physical activity. A child's perception of physical competency has consistently been found to correlate with physical activity involvement (Welk. In either case. Four different socialization variables especially influence physical activity behaviors in children: 1. Until recently. However. parents who believe that boys should be more involved in sports and physical activities than girls may work harder to promote activity among boys. There could be direct efforts to get a child to play outside or to reduce TV viewing. Parental Encouragement Parental encouragement refers to obvious verbal or nonverbal forms of encouragement for a child to be active. and beliefs may be more powerful influences than role modeling (Brustad. recent research suggests that the nature of parental influence may be much more complex. or indirect efforts to promote interest and involvement. 1997). support. In this model. & Horn. or practicing physical . the tendency for parents to accept gender-role stereotypes influences the nature and extent of socialization behavior. parental efforts to build competence and a sense of mastery are likely to promote physical activity involvement. Ebbeck. socialization behaviors are thought to be influenced jointly by parental expectation for the child's success in a given area and the value parents place on this success. Parents who expect that their children can be successful in sports or physical activity and who value success in this area will be more likely to influence their children to pursue this behavior. such as academic performance. parents may encourage an apparently gifted child and may de-emphasize activity with a lesser-skilled child. 1992). 2. For example. This could include family walks. the most common factor was thought to be role modeling--children with active parents want to emulate those same behaviors. close friends) exerted a much greater influence on a child's activity behavior (Anderssen & Wold. the resulting socialization process can become a self-fulfilling prophecy that tracks a child into patterns of physical activity or physical inactivity. 1996. While role modeling probably exerts some effect. 1998).The purpose of this Digest is to describe the various socialization factors that influence a child's interest and involvement in physical activity. According to this model. brothers and sisters. This model was originally developed to explain parental socialization behaviors in other achievement-related areas. Parental Involvement Parental involvement refers to direct assistance or involvement in the child's activity. Numerous studies have confirmed that young children rely heavily on adults (especially parents) as sources of information regarding their physical abilities (Weiss.

Many professionals have sought answers to why children become inactive with age. 1997) and by helping children obtain equipment (StuckyRopp & DiLorenzo. Parents may accept responsibility for socializing their child to have good manners and to be considerate of others but may not consider the physical domain as part of their responsibility. According to social cognition theory (a major theory of human behavior). or otherwise seeking opportunities to be physically active. In some ways. Parental Facilitation Parental facilitation refers to efforts by parents to make it easier for children to be physically active. & Dietz. While the activity itself has important benefits for physical development. Examples would be walking to the store. but it is really not a surprising trend. Children who may be naturally active at young ages learn (through a variety of socialization influences) to adapt to the sedentary patterns of living that our culture embraces.. they just become adults! Parents who encourage. Parental Role Modeling Role modeling refers to a parent's efforts to model an active lifestyle for their child. Parental concerns (real or perceived) about the safety of parks and playgrounds and an increasing reliance on after-school programs are two factors that contribute to physical inactivity in children. Because of these changing trends. and role model physical activity and who participate with their children can help them avoid the trend toward inactivity as they approach adolescence. doing yardwork. Many may assume that children receive their physical education through school. it is equally important for parents to model healthy activity patterns in their day to day life. In past generations. From this perspective. 4. it is likely that declining levels of physical activity exert a major influence. parents need to make a more concerted effort to help their child develop an active lifestyle. 3. 1997). facilitate. HELPING CHILDREN BECOME MORE ACTIVE Many concerns have been raised about the increasing levels of obesity among children in our population (Troiano & Flegal. parents need to accept responsibility for finding opportunities for children to be physically active on a daily basis. modeling promotes self-efficacy (confidence in one's ability to perform a behavior) and also informs the child of what is important or valued (Bandura. While physical education provides children with a variety of educational and behavioral experiences. While involvement in structured exercise or sport programs may spark a child's interest. 1993). 1996. While a variety of factors contribute to this effect. 1998). Trost et al.skills. children typically walked to school and played outside after school. Because these factors are out of a child's control. Examples of ways that parents facilitate physical activity in children are by providing access to facilities and programs (Craig. children don't really become less active with age. the majority of children are driven to school and are in extended day programs after school. Goldberg. Today. society has engineered physical activity out of our lives and made it easier for people to be inactive. Providing access to physical activity is an increasingly important responsibility because many aspects of society make it harder for children to be physically active. the involvement of the parents also demonstrates to their children that they feel physical activity is important. the limited amount of time in the .

To make use of this potential intervention target. it is important for them to receive activity-promoting messages and experiences at home. 1996). efforts to promote activity at a young age can have major public health benefits (Malina. For children to develop active patterns of living. . more work is needed to characterize and document the nature and extent of parental influence on physical activity behavior in children. Parents can clearly have a major impact on the development of active lifestyles in their children. Because activity patterns have been found to track over the lifespan.curriculum is not sufficient for promoting activity or fitness.