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Cooling Loau Calculation

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Cooling Load Calculation Cooling Load Calculation Cooling Load Calculation Cooling Load Calculation
Cooling Plant o¸5t ooctoogqæoo oæoo_ cooling load o æoo5o æ_tæoc _oco ¸c
cooling load software o æot_o_@oo qcoo oogæoo5oæ_t_oco ¸c Energy Audit
o o@o_tgqco_¡ Cooling Plant load o_ æoo5o æ_to Heat Gain oc_oco_¡
o_o_q_to o to__ococ cooling load ocoæ5o o` æo¸oo¸5to Heat Gain o¸5to`oco_¡
(o) Outdoor air load (Heat transferred into room with outdoor air: ventilation, infiltration.)
(o) System lossesfgains
(o) External gains (Heat transferred from building envelop: wall, window, ceiling, floor...)
(o) !nternal gains(Heat release by equipment: lighting, computer.)
(c) Occupancy (Heat generated by occupants, also release moisture to the room)
(c) Zone load
(o) Peak simultaneous building or zone loads o _oco_¡
Outdoor air load Outdoor air load Outdoor air load Outdoor air load
Outdoor air temperature o_ indoor air temperature Oo _ocoo5o_o5c cooling plant
o æoo_¡ æoo5o æ_tæoctg oo¸5toooo5ctoooqggq. !ndoor Air Quality (!AQ)
oo5ctoqocgq. co_ æo_o5cto¸5to_o5c æoo5o æ_t o ooo æoqtæoct _ocooo
(Outdoor air)O_ootgqoæoo_¡ Outdoor air temperature o_ indoor air temperature
Oo_ocoo5o_o5c Outdoor air oot_octo_ Heat Gain o _ococo5 cooling load
o_too¸5to5go_¡ Oo_o5c O_ooto_ Outdoor air æq_tæo¸5too5¬ooo@ cooling
load o_to¸5to5o_¡
System lossesfgains System lossesfgains System lossesfgains System lossesfgains
Fan oo5o5o O oo_ Heat o¸5to_o5c System Heat Gain _ocoo`o5o_¡ ooo¸5to_ Fan
o ooo blower o _oo _otoq5o æoo¸q o oog o g oog cco ogoæoct _ocoo qco_¡
Duct æoctg supply air temperature o_ Duct æ_ocg æoqt æoo¸qOoq o oqoo5o_o5c
Cooling Loau Calculation
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o_t System Heat Gain _ocoo`o_¡ O System Heat Gain o¸5to ooo¸5c5oo o¸oqcoo5
Cooling Plant load o_ oqoqooo oo_¡
External gains External gains External gains External gains
æoo5oæ_to oqg5(Location). o¸oa5og5oo(Orientation). o_oo5o O5to_
oc_tæo¸_tæc5t(material). _o_octoo`oo¸5toæo¸o(window to wall ratio). oooc O5to_
sun shade . walls . glazing . roofs ac floors o oo o@ External heat gains oqo tæq_t
æo¸5to_o5to_¡
!nternal gains !nternal gains !nternal gains !nternal gains
!nternal heat gain o¸5to_ o æogæoo(Occupancy ac activity details)¡ lighting oOo o_
heat gain ac o_o5too5 Equipment oOo oo5 heat gain o¸5to`oco_¡
Zone load Zone load Zone load Zone load
æoo5oæ_toco æoct_ æOoo¸5tc5. æoqto¸5tc5 gqco_¡ o oo5 æOoo¸5t æoqto¸5t o
o o@ o_o5too o¸o_octOo o(zone) o¸5tæ_oc oct_o5to5 o oo¸o_octo o o@ ocoo ¸5o_¡
æOooooto ooco æ_ocooooqco_¡ Set point æoo¸qoo_ æoqto¸5tæ5to to
oocoæ_ocooooqco_¡ External heat gain o o_ æoqto¸5tæ5to to oocoæ_oc
ooooqco_¡(_oo5 æOoocOoæo ctg æogoooqog5cæOtogoo5 æoqto¸5t
æ5toto oocoæ_ocoo ooqc o_¡)
ooco _go_ heat gain o Zone load æ_ocooooo_¡
Peak simultaneous building loads Peak simultaneous building loads Peak simultaneous building loads Peak simultaneous building loads oooo oooo oooo oooo zone load zone load zone load zone load
ooco_octc_ peak load _ocoo`o_ æo¸qo5 oo __ooo¡ æogoo oqog5cæOtogoo5o
(æoqto¸5t) o peak load o_ oqtoo_o_ocqco_¡ æoq5o oo oqog5c æOtogoo5
o(æoqto¸5t) o peak load o_ oqto_oto¸q__ocqco_¡ Oo_o5c oæ5totoo`ct_ot total load
o_ o_o_æo¸q _ æo¸5tot_oco_ (peak)o o gqoo_¡ peak simultaneous load
o o_too`o o_¡ sensible heat gain ac latent heat gain aco¸_toto O_c_ tc5tgqoo_¡
Design information required Design information required Design information required Design information required
Zones Zones Zones Zones
oo¸5tæ_ococtoct_oto_o5tO5t_octo_o5c ooco_octco oooo5ctoqc5 control ooqco_¡
(æOto_oc oocoac oco heat gain o¸5tc5o_o5t_oo_æo`o¸_toc oco_octc control
o ooco_¡)
_o_octoo`oo¸5t. qgo¸5t o æoæo¸oo5_oO5to_ architect's layout drawing o¸5to ooco_octco
æo¸o æoqtac oæogæoo o oooqco_¡ oocoo AHU oco t ooo o aco t
ooocootqco_¡ o ooo fan coil o¸5tc5o_tooocqco_¡
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Zone heat gains Zone heat gains Zone heat gains Zone heat gains
ooco_octco heat gain o o oo¸o gqo æoo_¡ oo¸5tæ_ococt_o5tO5to_ internal wall o_
æoo¸qoo_o_ oacoæ_o5tocgo¸c O wall __ocoo`o_ heat gain o o_t O_oogq
o æoo_¡
Hourly cooling loads Hourly cooling loads Hourly cooling loads Hourly cooling loads
zone load o¸5to q5gæoo(an hourly basis) oo go_¡ ogooo`o c zone load oqtoto¸5to
o¸@ogto_oct_oc load profile o gqco_¡ O load profile o peak simultaneous load o
ggqco_¡
approximate peak time of loads o o_otoq5o oæ5totæoo oco_octc o q5go ct
o oo gqo_t oo æooo¡ æoo@ peak time o_ 1+:00 hr ( oqto _q5g) _oco`o 13:00 hr
ac 15:00 hr og load ccootg_ocooo5o o_¡ peak time ac peak load o o oqoqc5
oo o¸o_oto5t_oco_o5ctoo oqco_¡ Computer Software o æot_o__otooo`o maximum
loads _ocoo`o_æo¸qo æooooo qco_¡
_oo5 _oo5 _oo5 _oo5
East Zones ac West Zones. oaco go_ æoo5o æ_tocoo qoq5æ_oco ogq_oco_¡
oocoo ¸c fan coil unit o_o t ooocO5to_¡ East Zone g FCU oco tco cooling capacity o5
1.5 kW _oco_¡ West Zone g FCU oco tco cooling capacity o5 2.0 kW _oco_¡
æoo5oæ_to total capacity o5 175 kW _oco_¡ primary cooling system æ_oc fan coil unit
æ5tot o capacity o 175 kW acæ__ocoæ5cooocgqoo æooo¡ æooo_o5cooo5 fan
coil unit o¸5tæ5to to_ full capacity _oc o_o_co_too5ctoqo_æo¸qogqcoo5o_o5c_oco_¡
ooco_octco c_ocoo`o_ cooling load o q5gæoo(hourly basis) oo5_oO5to_¡
east o ac west o oo c q5gæoo_ocoo`oo5 load o¸5tooo`ct_oct_oc æoo5o æ_toc
_ocoo`o_ building load oggqco_¡ O oq5o peak simultaneous load ooqco_¡
_oo5oc peak simultaneous load o5 1+5 kW _oco_¡
ogooo`oc æoo5o æ_t o peak simultaneous load Ocg5tc5o_ocqco_¡
æoo5oæ_tocooc æoqtoo`cto¸5tc5 ooo`cto¸5tc5gqcoo5o_o5c maximum simultaneous
load o o gq æoo oæ5toto cooling loads o o ogqoo_¡
Cooling Loau Calculation
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References: References: References: References:
C!BSE Guide A, Environmental Design, 2006, !SBN 1 903287 66 9
Lawrence Race G, Pennycook K, Design Checks for HvAC - A Quality Control Framework for
Building Services Engineers - sheets 19-23, BG +f2007, BSR!A 2007, !SBN 978 086022 669 7
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Design Watch Points Design Watch Points Design Watch Points Design Watch Points
1. Solar gains ocoo_to5 æo¸qooo@o_o5ctoo_ooo Occupancy rate ac
equipment oo_o_t æo¸qoo o@o_o5ctooq_oo_¡ equipment o¸5to_
o o¸5to tooqo_æo¸qoc oo oO5to standby mode _ocoqoo5o_o5c heat reject o o_oo_¡
æogt_otoo5æo¸o o5 heat gain o¸5to æo¸qacoo@oogqoo_¡
2. æo¸_ oo5 computer programmes o¸5tqc software o o_ cooling load oo5ooo¸o
oot_ot outdoor air load o O_octoo o¸o_octo_o_ooqc_ooo¡ æo¸_ oo5 software oo_
outdoor air load o O_octoo o¸oootqcoo5o_t oæoo_ information
o¸5toæo æo¸O_octoogqoæoo_¡
Cooling Load Cooling Load Cooling Load Cooling Load acooocoo5 acooocoo5 acooocoo5 acooocoo5 Rule of Thumb Rule of Thumb Rule of Thumb Rule of Thumb o¸5t o¸5t o¸5t o¸5t
People and Occupancy People and Occupancy People and Occupancy People and Occupancy
AC•v oo o¸oo_o¸5t_o_oog5oc Cooling load o ogqæoo Data o¸5tc5oæoo_¡ o æo¸
Data æ5totogggqæoo oco`ocg æoqoooo_¡ O o_o5c ooo_ æo¸q _
oggqcoo5 Data o¸5tæoo ocoo¸5o_oqoqto¸oo¸5t (Estimation) _o_o ogoogo_¡ Rule of
Thumb o o_o5 oooo æo oococ æoo æ_o _ æg oooO5too5. oooo o oOgoo5
ooooo¸o o¸5t. o oo¸oo¸5tac c_to¸_to¸5t_oco_¡ (Rule of Thumb € rule based on
experience or practice rather than theory. )
Occupancy Occupancy Occupancy Occupancy
Comfort air conditioning system æo¸5tæo o cooling load o oo¸c æoqt oooo
æoo5oæ_tæoc tg oo¸5to O oo_ Heat load o o_ocooqO_oogqoæoo_¡
æoæo¸oo gqæoo oo5o o¸5t. oqto ac oootco æogæoooogqoo_¡
æogæooæo æo¸o architect o o5 æqtcootoqoqtootqco_¡ æoo@
o æogæo oogooo5 cooling load oo gqæoo oæooo5 occupancy rate o
_ootoct•go5(floor area) o ooqco_¡ æoqtæo¸_tæc5tooo @ gqco_oæogæo oo_
o_o5cto oqo_¡ O o_o5c occupancy rate o æoqtæo¸_tæc5tac _ootoct•go5(floor
area)oooc Rule of Thumb _ocoqoqto qco_¡
æoqtæo¸_tæc5to¸5t æoqtæo¸_tæc5to¸5t æoqtæo¸_tæc5to¸5t æoqtæo¸_tæc5to¸5t
General 80-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Private 100-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Conference, •eeting Rooms 20-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Banks, Court Houses, •unicipal Buildings, Town Halls 50-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Police Stations, Fire Stations, Post Offices 100-500 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Precision •anufacturing 100-300 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Computer Rooms 80-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Restaurants 15-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Kitchens 50-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Cocktail Lounges, Bars, Taverns, Clubhouses, Nightclubs 15-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Hospital Patient Rooms, Nursing Home Patient Rooms 80-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Hospital General Areas 50-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
•edicalfDental Centers, Clinics, and Offices 50-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Residential 200-600 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Apartments (Eff., 1 Room, 2 Room) 100-+00 Sq.Ft.fPerson
•otel and Hotel Public Spaces 100-200 Sq.Ft.fPerson
•otel and Hotel Guest Rooms, Dormitories 100-200 Sq.Ft.fPerson
School Classrooms 20-30 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Dining Halls, Lunch Rooms, Cafeterias, Luncheonettes 10-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Libraries, •useums 30-100 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Retail, Department Stores 15-75 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Drug, Shoe, Dress, ‚ewelry, Beauty, Barber and Other Shops 15-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Supermarkets 50-100 Sq.Ft.fPerson
•alls, Shopping Centers 50-100 Sq.Ft.fPerson
‚ails 50-300 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Auditoriums, Theaters 5-20 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Churches 5-20 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Bowling Alleys 2-6 PeoplefLane
Lighting Lighting Lighting Lighting
Comfort air conditioning _ococ. industrial air conditioning _ococ æoctog5cggq
æot_o_O5too5 otot.otoo¸5ct(Lighting)o¸5to Ooo5o_ Heat load o o_ocooqO_oogq
o æoo_¡ æoo@ cooling load oo gqæoo o æooo5 Lighting Heat load ogooo5
_ootoct•go5(floor area) oooc o ooqco_¡ æoqtæo¸_tæc5tooo @ Lighting Heat load
oo5¬o_ o_o5ctooqo¡ O o_o5c Lighting Heat load o æoqtæo¸_tæc5tac _ootoct•go5
(floor area) oooc Rule of Thumb _ocoqoqtoqco_¡
æoqt æoqt æoqt æoqtæo¸_tæc5to¸5t æo¸_tæc5to¸5t æo¸_tæc5to¸5t æo¸_tæc5to¸5t
Offices, Commercial - General 1.5-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Offices, Commercial - Private 2.0-5.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Conference, •eeting Rooms 2.0-6.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Banks, Court Houses, •unicipal Buildings, Town Halls 2.0-5.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Police Stations, Fire Stations, Post Offices 2.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Precision •anufacturing 3.0-10.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Computer Rooms 1.5-5.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Restaurants 1.5-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Kitchens 1.5-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Cocktail Lounges, Bars, Taverns, Clubhouses, Nightclubs 1.5-2.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Hospital Patient Rooms, Nursing Home Patient Rooms 1.0-2.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Hospital General Areas 1.5-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
•edicalfDental Centers, Clinics, and Offices 1.5-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Residential 1.0-+.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Apartments (Eff., 1 Room, 2 Room) 1.0-+.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
•otel and Hotel Public Spaces 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
•otel and Hotel Guest Rooms, Dormitories 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
School Classrooms 2.0-6.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Dining Halls, Lunch Rooms, Cafeterias, Luncheonettes 1.5-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Libraries, •useums 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Retail, Department Stores 2.0-6.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Drug, Shoe, Dress, ‚ewelry, Beauty, Barber, and Other Shops 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Supermarkets 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
•alls, Shopping Centers 1.0-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
‚ails 1.0-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Auditoriums, Theaters 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft. (g)
Churches 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Bowling Alleys 1.0-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Notes:
1. The lighting values for most energy conscious construction will be the lower values.
2. Actual lighting layouts should be used for calculating lighting loads whenever available.
g. co ooæo oæot_o_O5too5ot o o5o ooto¸5t(theatrical lighting)o¸5too`oc o`¡
AppliancefEquipment AppliancefEquipment AppliancefEquipment AppliancefEquipment
A. Total AppliancefEquipment Heat Gain: 0.5-5.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
B. Computer equipment loads for office spaces range between 0.5 WattfSq.Ft. and 2.5
WattsfSq.Ft. (recommend 1.5 WattsfSq.Ft.).
!f actual computer equipment loads are available, they should be used in lieu of values
listed here.
Computer Rooms, Data Centers, and !nternet Host Facilities Computer Rooms, Data Centers, and !nternet Host Facilities Computer Rooms, Data Centers, and !nternet Host Facilities Computer Rooms, Data Centers, and !nternet Host Facilities
2.0-300 WattsfSq.Ft.
Telecommunication Rooms Telecommunication Rooms Telecommunication Rooms Telecommunication Rooms
50.0-120 WattsfSq.Ft.
Electrical Equipment Heat Gain Electrical Equipment Heat Gain Electrical Equipment Heat Gain Electrical Equipment Heat Gain
A. Transformers ægoæc5tooo @ Ooo5o_ æo(Heat load) o¸5tooo5_oO5to_¡
electrical load 1 KvA o Oo o5o_ æo(Heat load) o Watts _ocoo5_oO5to_¡
1. 150 KvA and Smaller 50 WattsfKvA
Cooling Loau Calculation
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2. 151-500 KvA 30 WattsfKvA
3. 501-1000 KvA 25 WattsfKvA
+. 1001-2500 KvA 20 WattsfKvA
5. Larger than 2500 KvA 15 WattsfKvA
B. Switchgear ægoæc5to oo@ Oo o5o_ æo(Heat load) o¸5to Watts _oc
oo5_oO5to_¡
1. Low voltage Breaker 0-+0 Amps 10 Watts
2. Low voltage Breaker 50-100 Amps 20 Watts
3. Low voltage Breaker 225 Amps 60 Watts
+. Low voltage Breaker +00 Amps 100 Watts
5. Low voltage Breaker 600 Amps 130 Watts
6. Low voltage Breaker 800 Amps 170 Watts
7. Low voltage Breaker 1,600 Amps +60 Watts
8. Low voltage Breaker 2,000 Amps 600 Watts
9. Low voltage Breaker 3,000 Amps 1,100 Watts
10. Low voltage Breaker +,000 Amps 1,500 Watts
11. •edium voltage BreakerfSwitch 600 Amps 1,000 Watts
12. •edium voltage BreakerfSwitch 1,200 Amps 1,500 Watts
13. •edium voltage BreakerfSwitch 2,000 Amps 2,000 Watts
1+. •edium voltage BreakerfSwitch 2,500 Amps 2,500 Watts
C. Panel boards:
1. 2 Watts per circuit (circuit o ctæo o 2 Watts _oco_¡)
D. •otor Control Centers
1. 500 Watts per sectionƒeach section is approximately 20 wide „ 20 deep „ 8+high.
20 æo¸o „ 20 æg_ „ 8+ æ_oc goo5 •otor Control Centers æoo 500 Watts
_oco_¡
E. Starters:
1. Low voltage Starters Size 00 50 Watts
2. Low voltage Starters Size 0 50 Watts
3. Low voltage Starters Size 1 50 Watts
+. Low voltage Starters Size 2 100 Watts
5. Low voltage Starters Size 3 130 Watts
6. Low voltage Starters Size + 200 Watts
7. Low voltage Starters Size 5 300 Watts
8. Low voltage Starters Size 6 650 Watts
9. •edium voltage Starters Size 200 Amp +00 Watts
10. •edium voltage Starters Size +00 Amp 1,300 Watts
11. •edium voltage Starters Size 700 Amp 1,700 Watts
Cooling Loau Calculation
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F. variable Frequency Drives:
2 to 6 percent of the KvA rating
G. •iscellaneous Equipment:
1. Bus Duct 0.015 WattsfFtfAmp
2. Capacitors 2 WattsfKvAR
Notes:
o) electrical equipment heat gain oqo to¸5to_ O oooo(manufacturer) o
o o@o_o5toogoo5o_o5c O oooo(manufacturer) ooo5_oO5too5 heat dissipation
oqo too5æot_o_oco_¡
_) electrical equipment o¸5tO5tg5æoqt _ overheating æoo¸q 95…F o 10+…F
æoctO qtO5tqcgq ooocooOooo5ctoæ5c(ventilation)_o_ooO5too go_¡ æoo¸q 90…F
Ooqo o_ electrical equipment o¸5tæoo Air Con ootoo go_¡ ooo5o_t equipment
o¸5toqco_ æoo¸q electrical engineer o¸5tOogoooo¸o oco_¡
g) electrical room o ventilation æoo _ocooo (outside air) o æot_o_o ¸c electrical
room æoo¸qo_ æ_ocot_oco æoo¸qoo 10…F o 15…F o5 _ococ_o_o_¡ _oo5 oaæo`_
_ocoæoo¸qo_ 100…F _oco ¸c electrical room æoo¸qo_ 100…F Ooooocg¡
†) æoo@ electrical room æ5t ootoooqto air con oo o æo_o_@ ventilation ooo¸c.
electrical room æoo¸qo_ ootoqt æoo¸qOo 10…F o 15…F o5 _ococ_o_o_¡
•otor Heat Gain •otor Heat Gain •otor Heat Gain •otor Heat Gain
A. •otors Only(oo5o5æo oo5_oco_¡) æoo5ctogo_ oq. oqo5 co_ooo`¡:
1. •otors 0 to 2 Hp 190 WattsfHp
2. •otors 3-20 Hp 110 WattsfHp
3. •otors 25-200 Hp 75 WattsfHp
+. •otors 250 Hp and Larger 60 WattsfHp
oæ5o ocoo5_oO5too5oo5to_ oo5o5acæoo5ctogo_ cooc_to o_
æoqtocoæoctocgo¸c O ogo_æooo5¬. oo5o5ocoo_to5 æoqtoco
æocto cgo¸c Oo go_æooo5¬ ac æoo5ctogo_ co oc_to_ æoqtoco
æocto cgo¸c Oogo_æooo5¬ o ooo5_oO5to_¡
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B. •otors and Driven Equipment are shown in the following table: B. •otors and Driven Equipment are shown in the following table: B. •otors and Driven Equipment are shown in the following table: B. •otors and Driven Equipment are shown in the following table:
æ_o5too5ooq5gqæo¸oo¸5t æ_o5too5ooq5gqæo¸oo¸5t æ_o5too5ooq5gqæo¸oo¸5t æ_o5too5ooq5gqæo¸oo¸5t
o) equipment loads o¸5to oo o¸og5oc Actual equipment layouts and information
o o5æo t_o_oco_¡
o) •ovie projectors, slide projectors, overhead projectors ac æo5to equipment o¸5to
Oo oo5 Heat load o O_oogqooæoo`¡ æooo_o5cooo5 O equipment o¸5t
æot_o_oqo¸qo c æoctog5cggqOqtO5too5oto¸5t (lights)oooO5too5o_o5c_oco_¡
o¸5too5æ5t_oc lighting load o_ O equipment o¸5to heat load Oooo¸5t_oo_¡
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o) equipment loads o oo o¸og5oc coffee pots, microwave ovens, refrigerators, food
warmers o¸5to heat oO_octooo¸o gq oæoo_¡
o) owner, architect, engineer, or consultant o Oo Kitchen, laboratory, hospital, computer
room, and process equipment oo æo¸oæooo¸5to oo5cto æot_o_gq oæoo_¡
æooo_o5cooo5 O equipment o¸5to_ æo¸_tæc5t ac o ooo5cooo __ooo5o_t
æoOo a_qto¸5tc5o_o5to_¡
Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors
Diversity Factors Diversity Factors Diversity Factors Diversity Factors
Diversity factor o o_o5 - oo¸5t. lighting o¸5t ac equipment o¸5t o æ_ocot load o
oco_octco oo _ot total load æ_ocoo`ctoo_¡ o oo5 O oc_octcoo O5too5 æ_ocot
load o¸5to_ æ5totoc_o_cqo oco¸qo_to_ocoo`qcoo¡ Ooo total loads ac actual usage
o_o5to¸oo_ Diversity factor _oco_¡ Diversity factor o_ æoo5o æ_tæo¸_tæc5t ac
occupancy o æoo`o c oo_@o_o5to_¡ oæ5o ocoo5_oO5to_ Diversity factor o_
gtæ_ocæo t_o_o_ æoo5o æ_t(office buildings)ac æo5to æoo5o æ_to¸5t æoo
_oco_¡
A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads: A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads: A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads: A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads:
1. People 1.0 x Calc. Load
2. Lights 1.0 x Calc. Load
3. Equipment 1.0 x Calc. Load‡
‡Calc. Load may have diversity factor calculated with individual pieces of equipment or as a
group or not at all.
B. FloorfZone Block Loads: B. FloorfZone Block Loads: B. FloorfZone Block Loads: B. FloorfZone Block Loads:
1. People 0.90 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace People Loads
2. Lights 0.95 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Lighting Loads
3. Equipment 0.90 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Equipment Loads
+. FloorfZone Total Loads 0.90 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Total Loads
C. Building Block Loads: C. Building Block Loads: C. Building Block Loads: C. Building Block Loads:
1. People 0.75 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace People Loads
2. Lighting 0.95 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Lighting Loads
3. Equipment 0.75 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Equipment Loads
+. Building Total Load 0.85 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Total Loads
Safety Factors Safety Factors Safety Factors Safety Factors
A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads 1.1 x Calc. Load
B. FloorfZone Loads (Sum of Peak) 1.0 x Calc. Load
C. FloorfZone Loads (Block) 1.1 x Calc. Load
D. Building Loads (Sum of Peak) 1.0 x Calc. Load
E. Building Loads (Block) 1.1 x Calc. load
F. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 10ˆ •aximum Safety Factor
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors
A. Lighting Load Factors:
1. Fluorescent Lights 1.25 x Bulb Watts
2. !ncandescent Lights 1.00 x Bulb Watts
3. H!D Lighting 1.25 x Bulb Watts
B. Return Air Plenum (RAP) Factors: B. Return Air Plenum (RAP) Factors: B. Return Air Plenum (RAP) Factors: B. Return Air Plenum (RAP) Factors:
1. Heat of Lights to Space with RAP 0.76 x Lighting Load
2. Heat of Lights to RAP 0.2+ x Lighting Load
3. Heat of Roof to space with RAP 0.30 x Roof Load
+. Heat of Roof to RAP 0.70 x Roof Load
C. Ducted Exhaust or Return Air (DERA) Factors: C. Ducted Exhaust or Return Air (DERA) Factors: C. Ducted Exhaust or Return Air (DERA) Factors: C. Ducted Exhaust or Return Air (DERA) Factors:
1. Heat of Lights to Space with DERA 1.00 x Lighting Load
2. Heat of Roof to Space with DERA 1.00 x Roof Load
D. Other Cooling Load Factors (CLF) are in accordance with ASHRAE Recommendations: D. Other Cooling Load Factors (CLF) are in accordance with ASHRAE Recommendations: D. Other Cooling Load Factors (CLF) are in accordance with ASHRAE Recommendations: D. Other Cooling Load Factors (CLF) are in accordance with ASHRAE Recommendations:
CLF x Other Loads
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989
A. Pick-Up Loads 10ˆ •aximum System Capacity Allowance for •orning Cool Down Cycles
B. Safety Factor 10ˆ •aximum
Offices, Commercial Offices, Commercial Offices, Commercial Offices, Commercial
A. General:
1. Total Heat 300-+00 Sq.Ft.fTon‰ (Range 230-520)
2. Total Heat 30-+0 BtuhfSq.Ft.‰ (Range 23-52)
3. Room Sens. Heat 25-28 BtuhfSq.Ft.‰ (Range 19-37)
+. SHR 0.75-0.93
5. Perimeter Spaces 1.0-3.0 CF•fSq.Ft.
6. !nterior Spaces 0.5-1.5 CF•fSq.Ft.
7. Building Block CF• 1.0-1.5 CF•fSq.Ft.
8. Air Change Rate +-10 ACfHr.
B. Large, Perimeter:
1. Total Heat 225-275 Sq.Ft.fTon
2. Total Heat +3-53 BtuhfSq.Ft.
C. Large, !nterior:
1. Total Heat 300-350 Sq.Ft.fTon
2. Total Heat 3+-+0 BtuhfSq.Ft.
D. Small:
Cooling Loau Calculation
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1. Total Heat 325-375 Sq.Ft.fTon
2. Total Heat 32-37 BtuhfSq.Ft.
Banks, Court Houses, •unicipal Buildings, Town Halls
A. Total Heat 200-250 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 160-3+0)
B. Total Heat +8-60 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 35-75)
C. Room Sens. Heat 28-38 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 21-+8)
D. SHR 0.75-0.90
E. Air Change Rate +-10 ACfHr.
Police Stations, Fire Stations, Post Offices
A. Total Heat 250-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 200-+00)
B. Total Heat 3+-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-60)
C. Room Sens. Heat 2 5-35 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-+0)
D. SHR 0.75-0.90
Precision •anufacturing
A. Total Heat 50-300 Sq.Ft.fTon
B. Total Heat +0-2+0 BtuhfSq.Ft.
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-228 BtuhfSq.Ft.
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
E. Air Change Rate 10-50 ACfHr.
Computer Rooms
A. Total Heat 50-150 Sq.Ft.fTon
B. Total Heat 80-2+0 BtuhfSq.Ft.
C. Room Sens. Heat 6+-228 BtuhfSq.Ft.
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
E. Air Flow 2.0-+.0 CF•fSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 15-20 ACfHr.
Restaurants
A. Total Heat 100-250 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 75-300)
B. Total Heat +8-120 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range +0-155)
C. Room Sens. Heat 21-62 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-80)
D. SHR 0.65-0.80
E. Air Flow 1.5-+.0 CF•fSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 8-12 ACfHr.
Kitchens (Depends Primarily on Kitchen Equipment)
A. Total Heat 150-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (At 85…F. Space)
B. Total Heat 3+-80 BtuhfSq.Ft. (At 85…F. Space)
C. Room Sens. Heat 20-56 BtuhfSq.Ft. (At 85…F. Space)
D. SHR 0.60-0.70
Cooling Loau Calculation
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E. Air Flow 1.5-2.5 CF•fSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 12-15 ACfHr.
Cocktail Lounges, Bars, Taverns, Clubhouses, Nightclubs
A. Total Heat 150-200 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 75-300)
B. Total Heat 60-80 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range +0-155)
C. Room Sens. Heat 27-+0 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-80)
D. SHR 0.65-0.80
E. Spaces 1.5-+.0 CF•fSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 15-20 ACfHr. (Cocktail Lounges, Bars,
Taverns, Clubhouses)
G. Air Change Rate 20-30 ACfHr. (Night Clubs)
Hospital Patient Rooms, Nursing Home Patient Rooms
A. Total Heat 250-300 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 200-+00)
B. Total Heat +0-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-60)
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-+6 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 25-50)
D. SHR 0.75-0.85
Buildings wf100ˆ OA Systems (i.e., Laboratories, Hospitals)
A. Total Heat 100-300 Sq.Ft.fTon
B. Total Heat +0-120 BtuhfSq.Ft.
•edicalfDental Centers, Clinics, and Offices
A. Total Heat 250-300 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 200-+00)
B. Total Heat +0-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-60)
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-+6 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 25-50)
D. SHR 0.75-0.85
Residential
A. Total Heat 500-700 Sq.Ft.fTon
B. Total Heat 17-2+ BtuhfSq.Ft.
C. Room Sens. Heat 12-20 BtuhfSq.Ft.
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
Apartments (Eff., 1 Room, 2 Room)
A. Total Heat 350-+50 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 300-500)
B. Total Heat 27-3+ BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 2+-+0)
C. Room Sens. Heat 22-30 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-35)
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
•otel and Hotel Public Spaces
A. Total Heat 250-300 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 160-375)
B. Total Heat +0-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 32-7+)
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-+6 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 25-60)
D. SHR 0.75-0.90
Cooling Loau Calculation
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•otel and Hotel Guest Rooms, Dormitories
A. Total Heat +00-500 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 300-600)
B. Total Heat 2+-30 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-+0)
C. Room Sens. Heat 20-25 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 15-35)
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
School Classrooms
A. Total Heat 225-275 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 150-350)
B. Total Heat +3-53 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 35-80)
C. Room Sens. Heat 25-+2 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-65)
D. SHR 0.65-0.80
E. Air Change Rate +-12 ACfHr.
Dining Halls, Lunch Rooms, Cafeterias, Luncheonettes
A. Total Heat 100-250 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 75-300)
B. Total Heat +8-120 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range +0-155)
C. Room Sens. Heat 21-62 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-80)
D. SHR 0.65-0.80
E. Spaces 1.5-+.0 CF•fSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 12-15 ACfHr.
Libraries, •useums
A. Total Heat 250-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 160-+00)
B. Total Heat 3+-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-75)
C. Room Sens. Heat 22-32 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-50)
D. SHR 0.80-0.90
E. Air Change Rate 8-12 ACfHr.
Retail, Department Stores
A. Total Heat 200-300 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 200-500)
B. Total Heat +0-60 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 2+-60)
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-+3 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 16-+3)
D. SHR 0.65-0.90
E. Air Change Rate 6-10 ACfHr.
Drug, Shoe, Dress, ‚ewelry, Beauty, Barber, and Other Shops
A. Total Heat 175-225 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 100-350)
B. Total Heat 53-69 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 35-115)
C. Room Sens. Heat 23-5+ BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 15-90)
D. SHR 0.65-0.90
Supermarkets
A. Total Heat 250-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 150-+00)
B. Total Heat 3+-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-80)
C. Room Sens. Heat 25-+0 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 22-67)
Cooling Loau Calculation
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D. SHR 0.65-0.85
E. Air Change Rate +-10 ACfHr.
•alls, Shopping Centers
A. Total Heat 150-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 150-+00)
B. Total Heat 3+-80 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-80)
C. Room Sens. Heat 25-67 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 22-67)
D. SHR 0.65-0.85
E. Air Change Rate 6-10 ACfHr.
‚ails
A. Total Heat 350-+50 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 300-500)
B. Total Heat 27-3+ BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 2+-+0)
C. Room Sens. Heat 22-30 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-35)
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
Auditoriums, Theaters
A. Total Heat 0.05-0.07 TonsfSeat
B. Total Heat 600-8+0 BtuhfSeat
C. Room Sens. Heat 325-385 BtuhfSeat
D. SHR 0.65-0.75
E. Air Flow 15-30 CF•fSeat
Churches
A. Total Heat 0.0+-0.06 TonsfSeat
B. Total Heat +80-720 BtuhfSeat
C. Room Sens. Heat 260-330 BtuhfSeat
D. SHR 0.65-0.75
E. Air Flow 15-30 CF•fSeat
F. Air Change Rate 8-15 ACfHr.
Bowling Alleys
A. Total Heat 1.5-2.5 TonsfAlley
B. Total Heat 18,000-30,000 BtuhfAlley
C. Air Change Rate 10-15 ACfHr.
All Spaces
A. Total Heat 300-500 CF•fTon Š 20…F. ‹T
B. Total Heat +00 CF•fTon Œ20ˆ Š 20…F. ‹T
C. Perimeter Spaces 1.0-3.0 CF•fSq.Ft.
D. !nterior Spaces 0.5-1.5 CF•fSq.Ft.
E. Building Block CF• 1.0-1.5 CF•fSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate + ACfHr. •inimum
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Total heat oqo to¸5to c ventilation o o`O_o ctooo¸oO5to_¡ (Total heat includes
ventilation.) . Room sensible heat oqto to¸5toc ventilation oo`oco`¡ (Room sensible heat does
not include ventilation.)
Cooling Load Calculation Procedure Cooling Load Calculation Procedure Cooling Load Calculation Procedure Cooling Load Calculation Procedure
A. building characteristics ooqcgqoæ5oo`æo¸o æooo¸5tgoo`¡
1. •aterials
2. Size
3. Color
+. Shape
5. Location
6. Orientation, N, S, E, W, NE, SE, SW, NW, etc.
7. Externalf!nternal shading
8. Occupancy type and time of day
B. outdoor design weather conditions o og•to¸oo`¡
1. Temperature
2. Wind direction and speed
3. Conditions in selecting outdoor design weather conditions:
a. Type of structure, heavy, medium or light
b. !s structure insulatedŽ
c. !s structure exposed to high windŽ
d. !nfiltration or ventilation load
e. Amount of glass
f. Time of building occupancy
g. Type of building occupancy
h. Length of reduced indoor temperature
i. What is daily temperature range, minimumfmaximumŽ
j. Are there significant variations from ASHRAE weather dataŽ
k. What type of heating devices will be usedŽ
l. Expected cost of fuel
+. Outdoor design conditions æooooq5gqoæoo_ code o¸5t æoct outdoor
design conditions o og•to¸o o`¡
C. æoqtoctoqg5o ctæoo ocoo¸5oo5.oæooo5 indoor design æoo¸q (temperature)
ooooo`¡
D. un-conditioned spaces o æoo¸qooqoqt (o) ooooo`¡
E. walls, roof, windows, doors, partitions, co_oo U-values o o oo`¡ go o`¡
F. walls, windows, floors, doors, partitions, co_ o o •go5o¸5to ooo`¡ go o`¡
Cooling Loau Calculation
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G. Heat gains for all walls, windows, floors, doors, partitions, skylights, co_oo heat gains
o¸5toooo`¡
H. Compute solar heat gains for all walls, windows, floors, doors, partitions, skylights, etc.
!. space temperature and humidity o æoæo¸_ocgqooo_ æoo5o æ_to¸5t æoo
!nfiltration heat gains o O_oogqoo¡
‚. ventilation heat gain o oo o`¡
K. lights, people, and equipment o o heat gains (internal heat gains o o_too`o_¡) o
oo o`¡
L. æOooc o o_otooo5 G, H, !, ‚, ac K o o heat gains æ5toto oo`cto`¡
O. actual cooling load o æoo¸o o industry ooooO5too5q_to¸5t (accepted methods)
_oco ogq actual cooling load requirements.
-End-