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Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian

countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, as well as many border skirmishes and military stand-offs. Additionally, India has accused Pakistan of engaging in proxy wars by providing military and financial assistance to violent non-state actors. The dispute for Kashmir has been the cause, whether direct or indirect of all major conflicts between the two countries with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, where conflict originated due to turmoil in erstwhileEast Pakistan (now Bangladesh). Contents [hide] • • o o o o • • • • • • • • • 1 Background 2 Wars 2.1 Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 2.2 Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 2.3 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 2.4 Indo-Pakistani War of 1999 3 Nuclear conflict 4 Other armed engagements 5 Incidents 6 Annual celebrations 7 Involvement of other nations 8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Background [edit] Further information: Indian independence movement, Pakistan Movement, and Partition of India

[4] Wars [edit] Refugees awaiting evacuation by IAF Dakota on Poonch Airstrip. Pakistan's PNS Ghazi. and Jawaharlal Nehru.000 to 1 million casualties. were also involved in Partition. such as Kashmir and Hyderabad. the Pakistani submarine which was claimed to have been sunk by the Indian Navy Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 [edit] Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 This is also called the First Kashmir War. which had a Muslim majority population.The Partition of India came about in the aftermath of World War II. joined India by signing the Instrument of Accession. The United Nations was invited by India to mediate the quarrel resulting in the UN Security Council passing Resolution 47 on 21 April 1948. Both India and Pakistan laid claim on Kashmir and thus it became the main point of conflict. the partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947 did not divide the nations cleanly along religious lines.[3] Inter-communal violence between Hindus. resulting in Maharajah signing the Agreement to the accession of the princely state to India.[1]:8[4] The ruler of Kashmir. Nearly one third of the Muslim population of British India remained in India. Rulers of these territories had the choice of joining India or Pakistan. according to leading politicians such as Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Sikhs and Muslims resulted in between 500.[1] It was the intention of those who wished for a Muslim state to come from British India to have a clean partition between independent and equal "Pakistan" and "Hindustan" once independence came. Sherman tanks of 18th Cavalry (Indian Army) on the move during the 1965 Indo-Pak War. The war started in October 1947 when it was feared by the Pakistan that Maharajah of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu might accede to India as choice was given to him on the matter to accede to any of the newly independent nations. when both Great Britain and British India were dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilisation.[1]:6 Princely-ruled territories. should have resulted in peaceful relations. The war ended in December . Tribal forces from Pakistan attacked and occupied the princely state. December 1947. leader of the Indian National Congress. However. leader of the All India Muslim League.[2] The partition itself.

this conflict between the two countries was mostly limited. but was rather precipitated by the crisis created by the political battle between Sheikh Mujib. Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the joint command of India and Bangladesh forces following which the People's Republic of Bangladesh was created.000 Pakistani military and civilians. about 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in neighbouring India.[9] This war saw the highest number of casualties in any of the India-Pakistan conflicts. The five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and was witness to the largest tank battle in military history since World War II. Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 [edit] Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 This war started following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar. so PAKISTANI PM Nawaz Sharif ordered Pakistani army chief PERVAIZ MUSHARRAF to return from india.[11] Due to increasing foreign diplomatic pressure. as well as the largest number of prisoners of war since the Second World War after the surrender of more than 90.[5] Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 [edit] Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Further information: Bangladesh Liberation War The war was unique in that it did not involve the issue of Kashmir. The Pakistani government believed that its nuclear weapons would deter a full-scale escalation in conflict but India asked UN to stop this before happening. Leader of East Pakistan and Yahya-Bhutto. The outcome of this war was a strategic stalemate with some small tactical victories for both sides but India suffered more loss.[5] .1948 with the Line of Control dividing Kashmir into territories administered by Pakistan (northern and westernareas) and India (southern. Pakistan was forced to withdraw its forces back across the LoC. Following Operation Searchlight and the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities.[10] Indo-Pakistani War of 1999 [edit] Main article: Kargil War Commonly known as Kargil War.[7][8] After a large scale preemptive strike by Pakistan.[6] India intervened in the ongoingBangladesh liberation movement. central and northeastern areas). Pakistani troops along with Kashmiri insurgents infiltrated across the Line of Control (LoC) and occupied Indian territory mostly in the Kargil district. leaders of West Pakistan brewing in erstwhile East Pakistan culminating to the declaration of Independence of Bangladesh from the state system of Pakistan. Within two weeks of intense fighting. full-scale hostilities between the two countries commenced. which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. India retaliated by launching an attack on Pakistan. The war concluded after diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and USA and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.

reacted with a celebration and heightened sense of nationalism for responding to India in kind and becoming the only Muslim nuclear power. it is widely believed that the tunnels were constructed sometime between 1979 and 1983. Great ire was raised in Pakistan. the tunnels at Kirana Hills had been bored and then sealed and this task was also undertaken by PAEC's DTD. The day was later given the title Youm-e-Takbir to further proclaim such. "We are in a headlong arms race on the subcontinent. on 30 May 1998. are reported to have been bored after the Chagai nuclear test sites. With jublication and large scale approval from the Indian society came International sanctions as a reaction to this test.Nuclear conflict [edit] The nuclear conflict between both countries is of passive strategic nature with nuclear doctrine of Pakistan stating a first strike policy.[20][21] • Chagai-II: Two days later.[16] • Kirana-I: In 1980s a series of 24 different cold tests were conducted by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission led by chairman Munir Ahmad Khan under extreme secrecy. • Pokhran-II (Operation Shakti): On 11 May 1998 India detonated another 5 nuclear devices at Pokhran Test Range.[17] The tunnels at Kirana Hills. while others were limited in scope.[21][22] Other armed engagements [edit] Apart from the aforementioned wars.[17] Later due to excessive US intelligence and satellite focus on the Kirana Hills site. like the Indian. As in Chagai. Some have bordered on all-out war. The countries were . Pakistan vowed to match India's nuclear capability with statements like. although the strike would only be initiated if and only if. Pakistan detonated a 6th nuclear device completing its own series of underground tests with this being the last test the two nations have carried out to date.[citation needed] it was abandoned and nuclear weapons testing was shifted to the Kala Chitta Range. there have been skirmishes between the two nations from time to time. the Pakistan Armed Forces are unable to halt an invasion (as for example in 1971 war) or a nuclear strike is launched against Pakistan[citation needed] while India has a declared policy of no first use. • Pokhran-I (Smiling Buddha): On 18 May 1974 India detonated an 8 Kiloton[12] nuclear device at Pokhran Test Range becoming the first nation to become nuclear capable outside the five permanent members of United Nations Security Council as well as dragging Pakistan along with it into a nuclear arms race[13] with the Pakistani prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto swearing to reciprocate India."[18][19] • Chagai-I: (Youm-e-Takbir) Within half a month of Pokhran-II. Pakistani public. which issued a severe statement claiming that India was instigating a nuclear arms race in the region. Sargodha.[14][15] The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Munir Ahmed Khan said that the test would force Pakistan to test its own nuclear bomb. The most vehement reaction of all coming from Pakistan. on 28 May 1998 Pakistan detonated 5 nuclear devices to reciprocate India in the nuclear arms race.

without success. but full-scale war did not break out. the provincial region was a part of Bombay Presidency of British India. the conflict. and Pakistani mobilisation in response. 1987 and 1995 as Pakistan sought. Before India's independence. conducted by India between November 1986 and March 1987. which India blamed on the Pakistan-based terrorist organisations. prompted the 2001–2002 India-Pakistan standoff and brought both sides close to war. India launched Operation Meghdoot capturing most of the Siachen Glacier. Sindh became a part of Pakistan while Kutch remained a part of India. Later a plebiscite was held and the accession was reversed for the state to join India. but obtaining their release is difficult and long-winded owing to the hostile relations between the two nations. Hundreds of fishermen are arrested by the Coast Guards of both nations.[31] • India–Pakistan maritime trespassing: frequent trespassing and violation of respective national territorial waters of India and Pakistan in peacetime occurs commonly by Pakistani and Indian fishermen operating along the coastline of the Indian state of Gujarat and the Pakistani province of Sindh.[30] • Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir: An insurgency in Indian-administered Kashmir has been a cause for heightened tensions.[5]:129[28] • Sir Creek: The dispute lies in the interpretation of the maritime boundary line between Kutch and Sindh. Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed. Following communal tensions Indian military entered the territory which was protested by Pakistan as a violation of International law. After India's independence in 1947. since accession of the state on 26 October 1947. • Siachen conflict: In 1984.[23][24][25][26] • Kashmir conflict: Other than the three wars mentioned in above section.[5] • Indian integration of Junagadh: The princely state of Junagadh.expected to fight each other in 1955 after warlike posturing on both sides.[5][27] • Operation Brasstacks: (the largest of its kind in South Asia). Pakistan lays claim to the entire creek as per paras 9 and 10 of the Bombay Government Resolution of 1914[29] signed between the then Government of Sindh and Rao Maharaj of Kutch. Pakistan's acceptance of theInstrument of Accession was seen as a strategy to get a plebiscite held in Kashmir which had a Muslim majority and a Hindu ruler. claiming a connection by sea. to oust India from its stronghold. raised tensions and fears that it could lead to another war between the two neighbours. Further clashes erupted in the glacial area in 1985. has been an on and off major cause for the tensions between the two nations.[32][32][33][34] . which had a Hindu majority and a Muslim ruler acceded to Pakistan on 15 September 1947. Most violations occur due to the absence of a physical boundary and lack of navigational tools for small fishermen. • 2008 India Pakistan standoff • 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff: The terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament on 13 December 2001.

but the Court dismissed the case in a split decision ruling the Court did not have jurisdiction. India's largest city. Foreign diplomats noted that the plane fell inside Pakistani territory. However. tensions heightened between the two countries since India claimed interrogation results alleging[37][38]Pakistan's ISI supporting the attackers while Pakistan denied it. resulting in one Indian soldier and three Pakistani soldiers being killed. due to the beheading of an Indian soldier.Incidents [edit] • Atlantique Incident: Pakistan Navy's Naval Air Arm Breguet Atlantique patrol plane. was shot down by the Indian Air Force for alleged violation of airspace.[36] • 2008 Mumbai attacks: Following ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai. although it may have crossed the border.[44][45] • 2013 India-Pakistan border incident in the Mendhar sector of Jammu & Kashmir. just a month after the Kargil War.[39][40][41] Pakistan placed its air force on alert and moved troops to the Indian border. each accusing the other of initiating the hostilities.[43] The tension defused in short time and Pakistan moved its troops away from border. accusing India for the incident. carrying 16 people on board. A total of 6 soldiers died (2 Indian and 4 Pakistani Soldiers . • The 2011 India–Pakistan border shooting incident took place between 30 August (Tuesday) and 1 September 2011 (Thursday) across the Line of Control in Kupwara District/Neelam Valley. Both countries gave different accounts of the incident.[35] Pakistan later lodged a compensation claim at the International Court of Justice. creating a tense atmosphere between India and Pakistan. The episode took place in the Rann of Kutch on 10 August 1999. voicing concerns about proactive movements of Indian Army[42] and the Indian government's possible plans to launch attacks on Pakistani soil. they also believe that India's reaction was unjustified.