# Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis

Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. A steel link, with no internal stresses, is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link, the link will attemp to expand. However, since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such, stress is created in the link. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. Loads will not be applied to the link, only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa, a thermal conductivity of 60.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide, "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. For convenience, ...the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis, the analyses are coupled." Thus, each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. However, it is important to note that a

single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment, and using it with any following coupled environments, the geometry is kept constant. For our case, we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment, where the thermal effects will be applied. Although the geometry must remain constant, the element types can change. For instance, thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. It is important to note, however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. For a listing, see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments, which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment, and write them to memory. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. Thermal Environment - Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ...
/title, Thermal Stress Example

/PREP7

3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS...
K,#,x,y,z

We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x,y,z) 1 (0,0) 2 (1,0) 4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord
L,1,2

Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2, representing a link 1 meter long.

5. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window, enter the following geometric properties: i. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4

This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. KXX: 60.5

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will use an element edge length of 0.1 meters. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears, enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK.

Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry, such as the element type, material properties, etc. It does not clear the geometry however, so it can be used in the next stage, which is defining the structural environment. Structural Environment - Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps, all that is required is to detail the structural variables. 1. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. In this case it is LINK 8. For more information on this element, see the help file. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. In this case, only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. ii. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3

Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. ALPX: 12e-6

Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears, enter the TITLE Struct

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static
ANTYPE,0

Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK.

If the Physics option is not available under Solution, click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. This should make it visible. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints

Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis.rth is the thermal results file. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link.rth. If this is not done. as expected. enter the file name File. this data can be found as file. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. . Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. to 348 Kelvin. you will get error messages. The thermal solution has now been obtained. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname.rth. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction.Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. were . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination.rth. the left-most point.

Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .

Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. the stress can't be listed in the normal way.CompStress. Instead.1 3.CompStr . 2. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below.1 ETABLE.As shown. List the Stress Data General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression. an element table must be created first.LS. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS.

The following list should appear. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.180e9 Pa. or 180 MPa in compression as expected. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. . Note the stress in each element: -0.

Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Width=1.PLANE55 For this example. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.0.0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Give example a Title 2. Quad 4node 55). . Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Height=1 BLC4.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Quad 4Node 55 ET. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Y=0..1 4.

ALL. Convection.10 Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Heat Flow. • • • Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. In this example. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.05 Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.05 AESIZE.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. or Radiation.KXX. . Heat Generation. Heat Flux.1.options cannot be selected.0 Apply Constraints For thermal problems.0.Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP. constraints can be in the form of Temperature.

The following window will appear: • • Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. . constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints.

then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. Thermal .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) .Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners... Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first. however. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Temperature TEMP Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. > DOF solution. followed by the side and bottom constraints. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100.

Height=1 BLC4.1. Give example a Title 2.Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Y=0. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.1 4. Width=1.0.0. Define the Type of Element . Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0 to solve simple thermal examples.

all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.05 AESIZE.05 Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.1.PLANE55 As in the conduction example. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.0.. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.1. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Quad 4Node 55 ET. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Quad 4node 55).ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C Apply Convection Boundary Conditions • • Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. • • • Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method.0 Apply Conduction Constraints In this example. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.ALL. The following window will appear: .KXX..

• Fill in the window as shown. Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: . This is because we have uniform convection across the line. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius. Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions • • • Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. thereby modeling an insulated wall. This will eliminate convection through the side.

Temperature TEMP ..Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. > DOF solution. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .

the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.040 kJ/kg*K. . It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. Also.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

920 Mesh Size .Transient Thermal Conduction 2.DENS. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0.1.04 MP.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.2..10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.1 4. Quad 4node 55).1.0.1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.1..C.. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Width=1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.KXX. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. /Title. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP.. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.1. Y=0.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title. Height=1 BLC4.PLANE55 For this example.

ALL. the model should look like the following: Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.05 Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.0.05 AESIZE.ALL At this point. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE.4 The window shown below will pop up. . We will use the defaults. so click OK.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.

of substeps to 20. Min no.Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown D) Set Line search to ON . Max no. of substeps to 100. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. .

The following window will appear: . Basically. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. Heat Flow. Heat Generation. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. In this example. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. Heat Flux. Convection. or Radiation. • Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes • Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK.For a complete description of what these options do. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. By writing the data at every step. • Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural.options cannot be selected. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. refer to the help file.

> DOF solution. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K • Using the same method. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints... Temperature TEMP . Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: • Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

from 100 to 500. specify the contour range..Animate Results Over Time • First. . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. Fill in the window as shown.. user specified. with 8 contours.

Auto contour scaling OFF. 0 ..300 Time Range.• Then animate the data.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames. DOF solution > TEMP) .

You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. Also. As can be seen. the curves are practically identical. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. Analytical Solution .

ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Creating the Temperature vs. . The following window should open automatically. Time Graph o Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.

select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer o o Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. node 261. o Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. Pick the center node on the mesh. Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK. . o The Time History Variables window should now look like this: 2.If it does not open automatically. Graph Results over Time o Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted.

increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. . Instead. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case.3. Indicate if the member is in tension or compression. From experience. the Young's modulus is 200x109 N/m2 and Poisson ratio is 0. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. The cross-sectional area of each member is 0. This is because the solution has not completely converged. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. so you must change them manually.o The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Problem Specification Determine the force in each member of the following truss. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. To cause the solution to converge. which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial.01 m. will cause the solution to converge. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis.

Specify truss as your Initial jobname. Step 1: Start-up & preliminary set-up Take a few minutes to review the conventions used in the tutorials which are given on the main page. Note that you'll need to follow these same nine steps for solving almost any problem in ANSYS or a comparable finite-element analysis package. Create a folder Create a folder called ansys at a convenient location. when you perform a save operation in ANSYS. C:\ansys as your working directory. For example.0 > ANSYS Product Launcher In the window that comes up. .db in your working directory.The solution in ANSYS for this and subsequent tutorials is divided into the nine steps listed above. all files generated during the ANSYS run will be stored in this directory. We'll use this folder to store files created during the session. say. it'll store your work in a file called truss. Start ANSYS Start > Programs > Lab Apps > ANSYS 10. If you specify. enter the location of the folder you just created as your Working directory by browsing to it. The jobname is the prefix used for all files generated during the ANSYS run.

Click on Run. You can resize the text in the browser window to your taste and comfort as follows: In Internet Explorer: Menubar > View > Text Size. To make the best use of screen real estate. In Netscape: Menubar > View > Increase Font or Menubar > View > Decrease Font. This way you can read instructions in the browser window and implement them in ANSYS. The ANSYS interface consists of the following: • Utility Menu: Note that the jobname truss appears in parenthesis in the title bar of the Utility Menu. then choose the appropriate font size. move the windows around and resize them so that you approximate this screen arrangement. ANSYS Main Menu: • We'll more or less work our way down the Main Menu as we go through the solution steps. . we'll use the default values for the other fields.For this tutorial. This brings up the ANSYS interface.

applied boundary conditions. . and results such as stress values are displayed. mesh. ANSYS Toolbar: The Toolbar contains shortcuts to often used commands such as save and can be customized by the user for convenience.• ANSYS Graphics • This is the window where the geometry.

ANSYS 10.0 Output Window:

This is the window to which output from ANSYS commands is written and which provides feedback on the actions taken by ANSYS as you navigate the menus. If, at some point, you are not sure you clicked the right button or entered a value correctly, this is where to look first to figure out what you just did.

Set Preferences
We'll more or less work our way down the Main Menu. Main Menu > Preferences

In the Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box, click on the box next to Structural so that a tick mark appears in the box.

The effect of selecting the structural preference is that only menu options applicable to structural mechanics are shown in the graphical user interface; options related to other disciplines such as thermal, fluid and electromagnetics are grayed out. This helps a little while navigating the vast menu options within ANSYS. Click OK to close the Preferences dialog box.

tep 2: Specify element type and constants
Enter the Preprocessor module
Main Menu > Preprocessor This is the module where you create the geometry, specify appropriate displacement constraints and loading, and mesh the geometry. We are more or less going to march down this menu to set up the problem. You will find yourself negotiating through a series of menus as you work off the Main Menu.

Specify Element Type
Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add... Pick Structural Link in the left field and 2D spar 1 in the right field. Click OK to select this element.

Now you will see the following in the Element Types dialog box:

LINK1 appears as the only defined element type in the Element Types dialog box. To view the help pages for this element type, click on Help in the Element Types dialog box. This brings up the Help window. Click on Search in the left pane and type in LINK1. (If the left pane is hidden, click the Show button in the toolbar) The first search result is the help page for the LINK1 element. Note that this is a two-dimensional spar element that supports uniaxial tension and compression but not bending, so it is appropriate for modeling a truss structure. There are two degrees of freedom at each of its two nodes: translations in the nodal x and y directions. The "1" in the element name is the internal reference number for this element type in ANSYS' list of available element types. Before proceeding, let's take a quick peek at the pictorial summary of the element types available in ANSYS. Click on Release 10.0 Documentation for ANSYS > Element Reference > Element Characteristics > Pictorial Summary in the left part of the Help

window. Our own humble LINK1 element is listed at the top of the pictorial summary. Clicking on the LINK1 box will take you to the help page for the element that we just visited. In general, you need to take the time to understand the element types and pick the appropriate one(s) for your problem. The pictorial summary is a good place to start for identifying the appropriate element for your problem. Your choice of element type has a significant effect on the speed and accuracy of the solution. Minimize the Help window. Close the Element Types window by clicking Close.

Specify Element Constants
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/ Edit/ Delete This opens up the Real Constants dialog box. Click Add.... This brings up the Element Type for Real Constants dialog box with a list of the element types defined in the previous step. We have only one element type, LINK1, defined and it's automatically selected. Click OK. We now enter the constants needed for the LINK1 element. For AREA, enter 0.01 which is the cross-sectional area of the element. We'll work in SI units. Leave the Initial strain field blank since it's not applicable to our problem.

It is the responsibility of the ANSYS user to make sure that the values entered are in consistent units. Click OK. We see in the Real Constants menu that the constant set that we just created is "Set 1". So, when we mesh the geometry later on, we'll use the reference no. 1 to assign this constant set.

Click Close in the Real Constants dialog box.

Step 3: Specify material properties
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models In the Material Models Available Frame of the Define Material Model Behavior window, double-click on Structural, Linear, Elastic, and Isotropic.

Enter 200e9 for Young's Modulus EX. Enter 0.3 for Poisson's Ratio PRXY.

Unfortunately. Each time you successfully finish a series of steps.Click OK. 2 and 3. db This saves all the relevant data into one file called truss. So we'll need three keypoints. ANSYS doesn't have an undo button (though that is the first thing I needed while learning ANSYS!) and one way to recover from mistakes is to resume from your last save. respectively. Step 4: Specify geometry Overview Since we are using the 2D Spar element. we can represent each truss member by a line. db or ANSYS Toolbar > RESUM_DB. Verify that ANSYS has created this "database file" in your working directory. Save your work Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. . located at A. we'll use the reference no. truss being taken from the jobname and db being an abbreviation for database. We'll locate the origin of the coordinate system at C and number the keypoints at A. B and C in the figure below. db in your working directory. B and C as 1. A line can be created by joining two keypoints (ANSYS terminology for vertices). You can restart from your last save at any time using Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname. you should save your work. When we mesh the geometry later on. This completes the specification of Material Model Number 1. 1 to assign this material model. Close the Define Material Model Behavior menu.

Create Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS The active CS (i. Enter 1 for Keypoint number Enter 0 for X and 2. ANSYS offers the capability to switch between various types of coordinate systems which will be necessary when you move on to solving super-duper problems. In the Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box.e. Coordinate System) is the global Cartesian system by default and we'll work only in this coordinate system in our friendly introduction.8 for Y (The Z value defaults to zero) Click Apply (which accepts the input and then brings back the dialog box for further input) Note that you can move to the next field using the Tab key. .

The keypoints will now be displayed in the Graphics window along with a triad that indicates the origin of the coordinate system (coincident with keypoint 3 in our case) and the axes.5 for X and 2. Verify that you have the following: .0 for Y Click Apply Enter 3 for Keypoint number Enter 0 for X and 0 for Y Click OK (which accepts the input and then closes the dialog box) Note the difference between Apply and OK which holds throughout ANSYS.Enter 2 for Keypoint number Enter 1. Check Keypoints To check if the keypoints have been created correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only This brings up a window listing the coordinates and rotation angles for the keypoints.

In case you need to delete a keypoint. . Close the Keypoints and Create menus. (Repeat for other keypoints as necessary. A square appears around that keypoint indicating that it is selected. To correct your mistake(s). Modifying Keypoints (If Necessary) If you are like me. you made a mistake while creating keypoints and cursed that there is no undo button. we don't need to rotate the keypoint coordinate system and so the rotation angles are identically zero. THYZ and THZX refer to.) Click OK in the pick menu. Close the window listing the keypoints. In our case.You can rotate the coordinate system associated with each keypoint and that is what the rotation angles THXY. Click on the keypoint you want to delete. you can delete keypoints and re-create them. do the following: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling >Delete > Keypoints This brings up the so-called pick menu.

Close the Lines in Active Coord pick menu by clicking on Cancel. save your work using Toolbar > SAVE_DB This is a short-cut for Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. You can also check that the keypoint has been deleted using Utility Menu > List > Keypoints.You should see the keypoint disappear in the Graphics window. Close the Lines and Create menus. click on keypoint 1 and then keypoint 3. create lines between keypoints 1 & 2 and keypoints 2 & 3. Save your work Once you have successfully created the keypoints. You can then recreate the keypoint. Check Lines Take a look at the list of lines that have been created: . Similarly. To create the line between keypoints 1 and 3. db Create Lines from Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >In Active Coord This will bring up the Lines in Active Coord pick menu.

select Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > MeshTool . click on Toolbar > SAVE_DB to save the database. Save your work Once you have successfully created the lines. We'll use the MeshTool to mesh the geometry with this element.e. Step 5: Mesh geometry Each truss member can be represented as a 2D Spar element. To delete a line: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Delete > Lines Only This brings up the pick menu.Utility Menu > List > Lines Click OK to accept the default output format. line l1 could go from keypoint k1 to k2 or equivalently. Modifying Lines (If Necessary) If a line doesn't look right. you can delete and re-create it. Click OK. Click on the line you want to delete in the Graphics window. Close the window listing lines. To bring up the MeshTool. This deletes the line. The first four columns in the list should be: The order of the keypoints for a line doesn't matter i. k2 to k1.

real constant set and material property set to be used in the meshing. Make sure Global is selected under Element Attributes and click on Set. . we can assign them to the entire geometry using the Global option under Element Attributes.The MeshTool is used to control and generate the mesh. Since we have only one of each. Set Meshing Parameters We'll now specify the element type.

material number and real constant set are already selected since we have only one of each. .This brings up the Meshing Attributes menu. You will see that the correct element type.

we will specify that we want only one element per line. This brings up the Element Sizes on Picked Lines menu. ANSYS will now use 1 element to mesh each line. In the pick menu that comes up. In the MeshTool. Click OK. of element divisions to be 1. . in most problems. ANSYS now knows what element type (and associated constants) and material type to use for the mesh. under Size Controls and Lines . Specify No. Set Mesh Size Since a LINK1 element is equivalent to a truss member. you want to subdivide your part into many elements. click Set. click Pick All (since we want the specification of mesh size to apply to all lines in the geometry). This is a subtle point and also very unusual.Click OK.

Close the window listing the elements. Utility Menu > List > Nodes In Sort NODE Listing menu. View Node Location In order to see where the nodes are located. element 3 can be attached to nodes 2 and 3 or equivalently. For example.Mesh Lines In the MeshTool. Since we want to mesh all lines. the order of element numbering is not important since it is for internal bookkeeping. nodes 3 and 2. click on Pick All. View Element List Utility Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes This table says that Element 1 is of material type 1 and element type 1 and is attached to nodes 1 and 2 and so on. as we'll see later). The lines have been meshed. make sure Lines is selected in the drop-down list next to Mesh. Click on the Mesh button. This is reported in the Output Window (usually hiding behind the Graphics Window): NUMBER OF LINES MESHED = 3 MAXIMUM NODE NUMBER = 3 MAXIMUM ELEMENT NUMBER = 3 Close the MeshTool. . click OK to accept defaults. the order of the two nodes for each element doesn't matter. This means the geometry components to be meshed are lines (as opposed to areas or volumes. you can look at the list of nodes. This brings up the pick menu. In this element list. Also.

Note that in ANSYS terminology.My list of nodes looks like this: From the node and element lists. Save your work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 6: Specify boundary conditions Next. the displacement constraints and loads. one can conclude that in this case: Node 1 is pin A Node 2 is pin C Node 3 is pin B Element 1 is member AC Element 2 is member AB Element 3 is member BC Your own node and element numbering might be different from this and you would have to account for this while interpreting results in the postprocessing step. Close the window listing the nodes. The advantage of the former is that one . namely. We can apply the loads either to the geometry model or to the finite-element model (that is to the elements and nodes directly). the displacement constraints are also "loads". we step up to the plate to define the boundary conditions.

You can see from the diagram that the pin at A is constrained in x and y directions. . to the keypoints. So we'll apply the constraints to the geometry i. keypoint 3 is constrained such that its UX displacement is zero.e. Similarly. Apply Displacement Constraints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints This brings up the Apply U. ROT on KPs pick menu. keypoint 1 is constrained such that its UX and UY displacements are zero.doesn't have to re-specify the constraints on changing the mesh. or equivalently.

leave that field empty. Since the Displacement value is zero by default. select both UX and UY from items in DOFs to be constrained list. click on keypoint 1. . In the pick menu. Click on Apply. Since we want to constrain UX as well as UY to zero at keypoint 1.In the Graphics window. click Apply. The following menu shows up. This will draw a small square around keypoint 1 to indicate that it's been picked.

click on keypoint 3. Next we apply the displacement constraint at keypoint 3. you can resume from your last save and continue from there. List Displacement Constraints You can verify the displacement constraints on the model by listing them. In the pick menu. If you made a mistake in applying a constraint. click Apply. Utility Menu > List > Loads > DOF constraints > On All Keypoints This brings up a window with the constraint information. You can delete a constraint using Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads >Delete > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints. You will see a triangle symbol appear indicating that only the UX DOF is constrained at keypoint 3. . Select only UX from items in DOFs to be constrained list. you can delete and reapply it. Click OK.You will see triangle symbols appear in the Graphics window indicating that both UX and UY DOFs are constrained at keypoint 1. Alternately. In the Graphics window. Close the Displacement and Apply menus.

you'll have to first resume from the jobname. Perform Solution Click OK in Solve Current Load Step menu. This is a summary of the problem that ANSYS is about to solve. To resume your work subsequent to exiting ANSYS. Close this window. exit the solution module by closing the Solution menu. The rst extension in the filename stands for results from a structural analysis.db file and then read in the results from the jobname. Verify that ANSYS has created a file called truss. This file contains the results of the (previous) solve. Close the yellow window. ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done!".rst file using Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > First Set . Congratulations! You just obtained your first ANSYS solution.Review the Problem Review the information in the /STAT Command window. In preparation for the postprocessing step to be undertaken next.rst in your working directory. The truss.db file contains only steps 1-6.

. The maximum displacement DMX is 0. The deformed shape is shown as a solid line and the undeformed shape as a dotted line. This plots the deformed and undeformed shapes in the Graphics window. Step 8: Postprocess the results Postprocessing is the step where we look at and analyze the results obtained from the ANSYS solution.This is one of the many ANSYS quirks you'll encounter as you work with the program. Enter the General Postprocessing module: Main Menu > General Postproc Plot Deformed Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Def + undeformed and click OK.583E-05m as reported in the Graphics window.

The file will be created in your working directory. To save the deformation plot in a file. use Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy > To File. Turn on Node numbers. The deformation of the structure agrees with the applied boundary conditions and matches with what one would expect from intuition. Animate the deformation: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape Select Def + undeformed and click OK. it's useful to turn on the node and element numbers in the Graphics window. You can print out this file as necessary. Note that the deformation is magnified in the plot so as to be easily visible. . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering The Plot Numbering Controls menu is used to control the numbering of the various entities in a finite-element model. Click OK. Select the file format you want and type in a filename of your choice under Save to: and click OK. Node 3 (Pin B) moves more or less in the direction of the applied force.This is small but plausible. Turn On Node and Element Numbers In order to interpret the results that ANSYS reports. Under Elem/Attrib numbering. Node 1 (Pin A) doesn't move and node 2 (Pin C) moves only in the vertical direction. Select Forward Only in the Animation Controller. select Element numbers.

This brings up a window listing the forces that the elements apply on each of their nodes: . select All Available force items . Click OK.The node and element numbers will now appear in the Graphics window. List Forces in Truss Members: Method 1 Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Element Solution From the list. under Element Solution.

Similarly.e. Note that your node and element numbers might be different from the above since they depend on the order in which the lines were created. So MFORX is basically the axial force in the element. select Release 10. not the converse. So it must be in tension. Element 2 (or member AB) applies a force of 1500 N in the x-direction and 800 N in the negative y-direction on node 1 (or pin A). The resultant acts from A to B i.These element forces reported by ANSYS are forces ON its environment BY the element. For example. . This means that the total force in AB is . scroll down to LINK1 Element Output Definitions.0 Documentation for ANSYS > Element Reference > Element Library > LINK1 In the LINK1 help page. List Forces in Truss Members: Method 2 Bring up the help page for LINK1 element: Utility Menu > Help > Help Topics Under the Contents tab. the force in Element 1 (AC) is 2000 N (tension) and in Element 3 (BC) is 2500 N (compression). Close the PRESOL Command window. You'll see the item MFORX: Member force in the element coordinate system X direction The figure at the top of the LINK1 help page shows that the x-direction in the element coordinate system is along the line. the member is pulling on pin A.

Click OK. To list MFORX values: Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Element Solution Under Element Solution. Do these values match what we got in method 1? . If you scroll down the help page further. you'll see the LINK1 Item and Sequence Numbers: MFORX SMISC 1 The output data is broken down into item groups with SMISC being one of the groups. select Miscellaneous Items > Summable data (SMISC. Since MFORX is sequence number 1 in the SMISC group. Minimize the help window. enter 1 next to Sequent number SMIS in the editable field.1). So MFORX is the item with sequence number 1 in the SMISC group. Click OK in the List Element Solution window. Each item within an item group has an identifying "sequence" number. Positive values indicate tension and negative values compression. This brings up a window with the axial forces in the elements.So how do we get the MFORX values for our three elements from ANSYS? ANSYS has a quirky way of doing this as we shall see.

this doesn't work and you'll get zero values for the stresses. This brings up a window with the reaction forces at the nodes. List Reaction Forces at Nodes Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu Select All struc forc F for Item to be listed and click OK. But for line elements like LINK1. In most cases. you plot stresses using Main menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot >Nodal Solu.You can also plot the items listed under Element Output Definitions using the sequence number. . So you'll have to use the sequence numbers to make stress plots for line elements.

This is done by refining the mesh and comparing results obtained with different levels of mesh resolution. This violates physical reality and is one of the few cases where we'll avoid refining the mesh since it leads to an incorrect result. however. Simple Checks • • Does the deformed shape look reasonable and agree with the applied boundary conditions? We checked this in step 8. If we use multiple LINK1 elements to model a single truss member. a truss member has to be modeled as a single LINK1 element. Refine Mesh The results obtained from FEA analysis depend on the mesh. Close the PRRSOL Command window. Step 9: Validate the results Do not assume that if you are able to obtain a solution from ANSYS. This section leads you through some of the steps you can take to validate your solution. It is very important that you take the time to check the validity of your solution. these elements can rotate freely with respect to each other since they are essentially linked through pin joints. Do the reactions at the supports balance the applied forces for static equilibrium? We checked this also in step 8. An important step in the analysis is to make sure that the mesh resolution is adequate for the desired level of accuracy. it is bound to be correct. . In our truss example.The sum of the reaction forces balances the applied load as should be the case for static equilibrium.

What can you say about how the x-component of the forces in the truss will change? . Once ANSYS comes up. You have a lot of years ahead of you to gain the experience necessary to harness the power of finiteelement analysis. it gets a lot easier to use with time. congratulations! you are a genius). I'd recommend that you take a few minutes during commercials on your favorite TV show to calculate the forces and compare them with your ANSYS results. In this case. All the ANSYS features including the underlying theory are documented online and can be accessed using Utility Menu > Help. Consider the case where the displacement constrains at A and C are interchanged i. Specify the same directory but use a different jobname. Exit ANSYS Utility Menu > File > Exit Select Save Everything and click OK. If it felt unfriendly or cumbersome. Problem Set 1 Resume the ANSYS Tutorial and make modifications to it as discussed below. however. one would use theory to obtain order-of-magnitude estimates rather than to make a head-to-head comparison since presumably FEA is being used because a theoretical solution is not available. To resume the ANSYS tutorial: Start ANSYS. only UX is set to zero at C. There are tutorials available in the documentation which are also useful. you are not alone. I went through this myself (otherwise.e. in the Utility Menu.db and click OK. Believe it or not. How would you expect the reaction forces at the supports A and C to change? 2.Compare with Theory Results should be compared with appropriate theoretical results whenever possible. • • at A. click on: Utility Menu > File > Resume from Choose truss. one can easily determine the forces in the truss members using the method of joints from statics. It takes some getting used to. This is just a quick introduction to ANSYS to give you a flavor of what a full-fledged engineering package looks like. both UX and UY are set to zero 1. In most cases.

Results
Determine the following: 1. Listing of the reactions from the ANSYS solution. 2. Listing of the element forces from the ANSYS solution. Calculate and determine the forces in each member and whether the member is in tension or compression from this ANSYS result. 3. Using your pencil-and-paper calculations verifying the ANSYS results for the member and reaction forces.

Problem Specification
Consider the square plate of uniform thickness with a circular hole with dimensions shown in the figure below. The thickness of the plate is 1 mm. The Young's modulus E =107 MPa and the Poisson ratio is 0.3. A uniform pressure p=1 MPa acts on the boundary of the hole. Assume that plane stress conditions prevail. The stress and displacement fields are to be determined using ANSYS. This problem is taken from section 6.14, p. 240-244 of Cook et al.

Step 1: Start-up and preliminary set-up
Create a folder
Create a folder called plate at a convenient location. We'll use this folder to store files created during the ANSYS session.

Start ANSYS
Start > Programs > Lab Apps > ANSYS 10.0 > ANSYS Product Launcher In the window that comes up, enter the location of the folder you just created as your Working directory by browsing to it. All files generated during the ANSYS run will be stored in this directory. Specify plate as your Initial jobname. The jobname is the prefix used for all files generated during the ANSYS session. For example, when you perform a save operation in ANSYS, it'll store your work in a file called plate.db in your working directory. For this tutorial, we'll use the default values for the other fields. Click on Run. For this tutorial, we'll use the default values for the other fields. Click on Run. This brings up the ANSYS interface. To make best use of screen real estate, move the windows around and resize them so that you approximate this screen arrangement. This way you can read instructions in the browser window and implement them in ANSYS. You can resize the text in the browser window to your taste and comfort. In Internet Explorer: Menubar > View > Text Size, then choose the appropriate font size.

In Netscape: Menubar > View > Increase Font or Menubar > View > Decrease Font.

Set Preferences
As before, we'll more or less work our way down the Main Menu. Main Menu > Preferences In the Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box, click on the box next to Structural so that a tick mark appears in the box. Click OK.

Recall that this is an optional step that customizes the graphical user interface so that only menu options valid for structural problems are made available during the ANSYS session.

Enter Parameters
For convenience, we'll create scalar parameters corresponding to the plate half-width a, hole radius r, pressure p, and material properties E and v. Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Enter the parameter value for a: a=10e-3 Click Accept. Similarly, enter the other parameter values and click Accept after each.

r=7e-3 p=1e6 E=1e13 nu=0.3

Close the Scalar Parameters window. We can now enter these variable names instead of the corresponding values as we set up the problem in ANSYS. This is also helpful in carrying out parametric studies where one looks at the effect of changing a parameter.

Step 2: Specify element type and constants
Specify Element Type
Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add... Pick Structural Solid in the left field and Quad 4 node 42 in the right field. Click OK to select this element.

You'll now see the Element Types menu with PLANE42 as the only defined element type.

Let's take a look at the online help pages to learn about the properties of this element. Utility Menu > Help > Help Topics Select the Search tab, type in pictorial summary as the keyword and click List Topics. You should see Pictorial Summary as one of the topics listed; double-click on this. This brings up the Pictorial Summary of Element Types help page. Scroll down to Plane42 under Structural 2-D Solid. Note that the PLANE42 element is defined by four nodes with two degrees of freedom at each node: translations UX and UY in the (nodal) x and ydirections. Click on the PLANE42 box to bring up the help page for this element. Read the Element Description and take a look at the figure of the element. Think about why this element is appropriate for the problem at hand. Minimize the help window. If you actually read the Element Description for PLANE42, you'd have noticed that this element can also be used for axisymmetric problems also. In the axisymmetric case, you would choose Options for the element in the Element Types menu. Note that in the PLANE42 element type options menu that comes up, under Element behavior, you have the option of Axisymmetric. For the current problem, we'll of course use the default of Plane stress. Click Cancel to exit the PLANE42 element type options menu retaining the defaults.

let's again take a look at the help pages for PLANE42. Click OK. You should get a note saying "Please check and change keyopt setting for element PLANE42 before proceeding. Specify Element Constants Main Menu > Preprocessor> Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add This brings up the Element Type for Real Constants menu with a list of the element types defined in the previous step. To see what this message implies. We have only one element type and it is automatically selected. ." Close the yellow warning window and the Real Constants menu.Close the Element Types menu.

Elastic." warning message. the documentation says that there are no real constants for this element when KEYOPT(3)=0... ... In the help page. To see what the value of KEYOPT(3) is. Cancel the PLANE42 element type options menu. 1. under PLANE42 Input Summary. Close the Element Types menu and close the Element Type sticky menu. you can check that plane stress corresponds to KEYOPT(3)=0. 2. That's why we got the "Please check and change keyopt settings. Thus. Of course. and Isotropic. Linear. Save your work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 3: Specify material properties Main Menu > Preprocessor >Material Props > Material Models . In the Define Material Model Behavior menu. bring up the Element Type menu again: Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Options K3 i. there are no real constants to be specified. the ANSYS warning could have been less cryptic but what fun would that be..Under PLANE42 Input Summary. KEYOPT(3) is set to Plane stress.e. double-click on Structural.

Enter E for Young's modulus EX. Cancel the Linear Isotropic Properties window. double-click on Linear Isotropic under Material Model Number 1 in the Define Material Model Behavior menu. nu for Poisson's Ratio PRXY. ANSYS substitutes the corresponding parameter values as soon as you click OK or Apply. When you enter parameter names. .We'll use the previously defined parameter names while specifying the material properties. To double-check the material property values. This will show you the current values for EX and PRXY. Click OK.

This will create and draw the circular sector. Theta-1 and Theta-2 are the starting and ending angles of the arc. move the cursor over the areas until the square is selected (it will change color) and release the left mouse button.Rad-2 is the (outer) radius of the arc. You'll see a white line denoting the circular sector. Since we had defined the hole radius as parameter r earlier. These angles need to be specified in degrees. Enter 0 for Theta-1 and 90 for Theta-2. . Click OK. Subtract Circular Sector from Square Main Menu > Preprocessor >Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas In the Input window. So we pick the square area as follows: Hold down the left mouse button. enter r for Rad-2. Click OK. respectively. ANSYS tells you to "pick or enter base areas from which to subtract".

In the Input window. If you did this correctly. you will see that the circular sector has been subtracted out from the square area. Click OK. ANSYS now tells you to "pick or enter areas to be subtracted". So select the circular sector by holding down and releasing the left mouse button. .

The cursor changes to a downward arrow during an unpick operation. Set Meshing Parameters We'll now specify the element type. you can unpick it by clicking the right mouse button and selecting the area. That's why I made you use the "holding-down-the-mouseand-releasing" technique. real constant set and material property set to be used in the meshing. Make sure Global is selected under Element Attributes and click on Set. Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 5: Mesh geometry Bring up the MeshTool: Main Menu > Preprocessor > MeshTool The MeshTool is used to control and generate the mesh. Since we have only one of each. Right-click to return to pick mode.You can also select areas during the Boolean subtract operation by simply clicking on them but it becomes difficult to select areas (and other components) in this fashion in more complicated geometries. . we can assign them to the entire geometry using the Global option under Element Attributes. If you picked an area incorrectly.

You will see that the correct element type and material number are already selected since we have only one of each. .This brings up the Meshing Attributes menu. Recall that no real constants need to be defined for PLANE42 element type with the plane stress keyoption.

Click on the Mesh button. We'll use quadrilateral elements. ANSYS now knows what element type and material type to use for the mesh. we'll use the SmartSize option which enables automatic element sizing. This brings up the pick menu. . make sure Areas is selected in the drop-down list next to Mesh. The element size level determines the fineness of the mesh. We'll also use the default of Free meshing. Mesh Areas In the MeshTool. So make sure the default option of Quad is selected under Shape. The only input necessary for the SmartSize option is the overall element size level for meshing. Set Mesh Size Instead of setting the mesh size at each boundary. Click on the SmartSize checkbox so that a tickmark appears in it.Click OK. Change the setting for the overall element size level to 5 by moving the slider under SmartSize to the left. This means the geometry components to be meshed are areas (as opposed to lines or volumes). Its value is controlled by the slider shown in the above picture.

NUMBER OF AREAS MESHED = 1 MAXIMUM NODE NUMBER = 104 MAXIMUM ELEMENT NUMBER = 79 Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 6: Specify boundary conditions Next.In the Input window. The geometry has been meshed and the elements are plotted in the Graphics window. The mesh statistics are reported in the Output window (usually hiding behind the Graphics window): ** AREA 3 MESHED WITH 79 QUADRILATERALS. Recall that in ANSYS terminology. Close the MeshTool. ANSYS tells you to "pick or enter areas to be meshed". 0 TRIANGLES ** ** Meshing of area 3 completed ** 79 elements. the displacement constraints are also "loads". we step up to the plate to define the displacement constraints and loads. As in the truss . click on Pick All. Since we have only one area to be meshed.

The symbol s appears along these lines indicating that the symmetry B. A single red arrow denotes the pressure and the direction in which it is acting.tutorial. This brings up the Apply Pressure on Lines menu.C. . is applied along these lines. Enter p for Value and click OK. we'll apply the loads to the geometry rather than the mesh.C. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B. Click OK in the pick menu. Apply Pressure Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines Select the circular arc and click OK. That way we won't have to reapply the loads on changing the mesh. Apply Symmetry Boundary Conditions ANSYS provides the option of applying a "symmetry boundary condition" along lines of symmetry. > On Lines Select the straight lines corresponding to the left and bottom edges (which are the lines of symmetry for this problem) by clicking on them.

Utility Menu > List > Loads > DOF constraints > On All Lines Symmetry BCs are applied on lines 8 and 9. Note that VALI and VALJ would be different if the applied pressure were linearly varying along the line. check that the pressure is applied correctly using Utility Menu > List > Loads > Surface Loads > On All Lines. Turn off Line numbers and click OK. .Check Loads Let's check that the displacement constraints have been applied correctly. Are lines L8 and L9 the ones on which you want the symmetry BCs? Similarly. Turn on line numbering: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering Turn on Line numbers and click OK. Turn off line numbering: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.

Click OK in Solve Current Load Step menu. In this problem also. there is only one load step. . Review the information in the /STATUS Command window. Congratulations! Close the yellow window. Close this window. ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done!". the current loading conditions. If the problem has been set up correctly. Verify that ANSYS has created a file called plate.Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 7: Solve! Enter solution module: Main Menu > Solution Enter check in the Input window and press Enter. This file contains the results of the (previous) solve. there will be no errors or warnings reported. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Recall from the truss tutorial that this solves the current load step (LS) i.rst in your working directory. If you look in the Output window. e. you should see the message: The analysis data was checked and no warnings or errors were found.

.. you just have to select this again. This plots the deformed and undeformed shapes in the Graphics window. The deformation would be better visible if the foreground and background were not of the same color.Step 8: Postprocess the Results Enter the postprocessing module to analyze the solution. Note that the deformation is magnified in the plot so as to be visible.232E-08m as reported in the Graphics window. Animate the deformation: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape. Main Menu > General Postproc Plot Deformed Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Def + undeformed and click OK. Turn off the background: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Background > Display Picture Background To get the background back. The maximum deformation DMX is 0..

Thus. The circular edge of the hole moves outward which is what one would expect from the outward pressure acting along it. The left and bottom edges move parallel to themselves which means that the full deformed plate is also symmetric about these edges. (Click picture for larger image) The contour plot will show you the locations of the maximum and minimum values with the labels MX and MN. Select Forward Only in the Animation Controller. select Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Select Nodal Solution > Stress > von Mises stress and click OK. Are these locations where you expect them? SMX and SMN values reported in the Graphics window are the corresponding maximum and minimum stress values. the deformation of the structure agrees with the applied boundary conditions and matches with what one would expect from intuition. respectively. Close the Animation Controller. The diagonal is an additional line of symmetry. This shows that the symmetry boundary condition at these edges is imposed correctly. Plot Nodal Solution of von Mises Stress To display the von Mises stress distribution as continuous contours.Select Def + undeformed and click OK. How symmetric is your result about the diagonal? Save this plot to a file: .

Within each element. (Click picture for larger image) Save this plot to a file: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy > To File Element solution contours are determined by linear interpolation within each element but no nodal averaging is performed. It determines the average at each node of the values of all elements connected to the node. Check that the file has been created in your working directory. Plot Element Solution of von Mises Stress To obtain results without nodal averaging. select Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot results > Contour Plot > Element Solu Select Element Solution > Stress > von Mises stress and click OK. This displays the von Mises stress results as discontinuous element contours. it linearly interpolates the average nodal value obtained in the previous step. . ANSYS obtains a continuous distribution as follows: 1. When you plot the "Nodal Solution". The inter-element discontinuities in our solution are relatively small compared to the stress levels.Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy > To File Select the file format you want and type in a filename of your choice under Save to: and click OK. This indicates that the mesh resolution is reasonably good. 2. The discontinuity between contours of adjacent elements is an indication of the gradient across elements.

Try querying the values at a few locations. You can click on any location in the geometry and ANSYS will print the sigma1 value at that location. Refine Mesh Let's repeat the calculations on a mesh with overall element size level under SmartSize set to 4 instead of 5 and compare the results on the two meshes. 1st principal S1 from the right list and click OK. This brings up the pick menu. select Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu Select All struc forc F for Item to be listed and click OK. Delete the current mesh: . select Main Menu > General Postproc > Query Results > Subgrid Solu This brings up the Query Subgrid Solution Data menu. Note that the coordinates of the picked location and the corresponding solution value are reported in the pick menu. This section leads you through some of the steps you can take to validate your solution. Select Stress from the left list. So the reaction cancels out the applied force in the x-direction. Applied force = (pressure) x (projected distance in x-direction of the line along which the constant pressure acts) = (p) (r) = 7000 N in positive x-direction. Step 9: Validate the results It is very important that you take the time to check the validity of your solution. Similarly. Simple Checks Does the deformed shape look reasonable and agree with the applied boundary conditions? We checked this in step 8. The total reaction force in the x-direction is -7000 N. you can check that this is true in the y-direction also.Query Results To determine the value of the first principal stress sigma1 at a selected location. Cancel the pick menu. Do the reactions at the supports balance the applied forces for static equilibrium? To check this.

In the Output window. Compare this with the von Mises contours for the previous mesh: . Set the overall element size level under SmartSize to 4 by dragging the slider to the left. check how many elements are contained in this mesh? Your new mesh should have 276 quadrilateral elements. Click on Mesh and Pick All. The mesh is deleted. Obtain a new solution: Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Plot nodal solution of the von Mises stress: Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Select Nodal Solution > Stress > von Mises stress and click OK.Main Menu > Preprocessor > Mesh Tool Select Clear under Mesh: and Pick All in the pick menu.

John Wiley and Sons. Compare the maximum stress and displacement values: . Coarser Mesh Finer Mesh 0..232e-8m SMX 3. Fourth Edition..64MPa The maximum displacement value changes by less than 1% and the maximum von Mises stress value by less than 3%. 2002. Exit ANSYS Utility Menu > File > Exit Select Save Everything and click OK. D. Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis.. R. M. Plesha.E..D.J..74MPa DMX 0. Reference Cook. Inc.S.234e-8m 3. Problem Set 1 . and Witt. Malkus. R. This indicates that the meshes used provide adequate resolution.The two results compare well with the finer mesh contours being smoother as expected.

deselect everything but Nodes and Elements.Problem Statement We used a 4-node quad element (PLANE42) in the tutorial. In the Graphics Window. you will now see the nodes in between the lines. notice the following changes: The number of nodes has increased! To see why. Click OK. There are 8 points for each quadrilateral area instead of the four we had before! . Hints Look at the steps and think about which ones you have to change. Re-solve the tutorial problem using the PLANE82 element. When you remesh the object.. ANSYS also offers a 8-node quad element (PLANE82). do: Main Menu > PlotCtrls > Multi-plot Ctrls . You may use either mesh for this problem (although the final results presented here are done using the coarser mesh). Click OK. Then on the Multi-Plotting Window that comes up. Compare plots of the nodal and element solution of the von Mises stress for the two cases..

Final Result Here are the Nodal and Element Solutions you should have gotten: Nodal Solution (Click picture for larger image) Element Solution (Click picture for larger image) .

Geometry

(click on image for full view)

Material Properties
E=2.8E7 psi v=0.3

Go to Step 1: Start-up and preliminary set-up

Step 1: Start-up and preliminary set-up
Create a folder
Create a folder called crank at a convenient location. We'll use this folder to store files created during the ANSYS session.

Start ANSYS
Start > Programs > Lab Apps > ANSYS 10.0 > ANSYS Product Launcher In the window that comes up, enter the location of the folder you just created as your Working directory by browsing to it. All files generated during the ANSYS run will be stored in this directory. Specify crank as your Initial jobname. The jobname is the prefix used for all files generated during the ANSYS session. For example, when you perform a save operation in ANSYS, it'll store your work in a file called plate.db in your working directory. For this tutorial, we'll use the default values for the other fields. Click on Run. This brings up the ANSYS interface. To make best use of screen real estate, move the windows around and resize them so that you approximate this screen arrangement. This way you can read instructions in the browser window and implement them in ANSYS.

You can resize the text in the browser window to your taste and comfort. In Internet Explorer: Menubar > View > Text Size, then choose the appropriate font size. In Netscape: Menubar > View > Increase Font or Menubar > View > Decrease Font.

Set Preferences
As before, we'll more or less work our way down the Main Menu. Main Menu > Preferences In the Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box, click on the box next to Structural so that a tick mark appears in the box. Click OK.

Recall that this is an optional step that customizes the graphical user interface so that only menu options valid for structural problems are made available during the ANSYS session.

Step 2: Specify element type and constants
Specify Element Type
Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add... Pick Structural Mass Solid in the left field and Brick 8node 45 in the right field. This is the mesh element we will be using to obtain our solution. Click Apply to select this element.

Pick Not Solved in the left field and Mesh Facet 200 in the right field. We will use this pseudo-element to help define our overall 3D mesh. Click OK to select this element.

The Element Types window should list two types of elements: MESH200 and SOLID45.

MESH200 comes in 12 different flavors; for our purposes, we will be using the 3-D quadrilateral with 4 nodes. This is selected by setting KEYOPT(1) = 6 (Refer to Figure 200.1 in the MESH200 reference for other MESH200 input geometry settings). Select Mesh200 and click on Options. In this window, select QUAD 4-NODE next to Element shape and # of nodes K1. Click OK.

Let's take a look at the online help pages to learn about the properties of these elements. Click Help in the Element Types window. Select the Search tab, type in pictorial summary as the keyword and click List Topics. You should see Pictorial Summary as one of the topics listed; double-click on this. This brings up the Pictorial Summary of Element Types help page. Scroll down to SOLID45 under SOLID Elements. This brick element is defined by 8 nodes with 3 displacement degrees of freedom. Return to the Pictorial Summary page and scroll down to MESH200 under MESH Elements. Click on the MESH200 link to view a description of this meshing element. We will use this element to create a 2-D mesh from which we will create an extrusion to define the mesh for the entire crank volume (analogous to creating a sketch and extrude in SolidWorks). Note that the MESH200 element does not contribute to the solution. We could have simply meshed the entire volume with SOLID45 elements. However, the advantage to first meshing an area with MESH200 is that it provides greater control over element sizes (this will become apparent in the meshing step). Close the Element Types menu.

Specify Element Constants
There are no real constants for our configuration.

Toolbar > SAVE_DB

Step 3: Specify material properties
Main Menu > Preprocessor >Material Props > Material Models .... In the Define Material Model Behavior menu, double-click on Structural, Linear, Elastic, and Isotropic.

double-click on Linear Isotropic under Material Model Number 1 in the Define Material Model Behavior menu. To double-check the material property values.8E7 for Young's modulus EX. Close the Define Material Model Behavior menu.We'll use the previously defined parameter names while specifying the material properties. we'll use the reference no. When we mesh the geometry later on. Save your work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 4: Specify geometry Since the geometry excluding the cutout region is symmetric with respect to the vertical centerline. 1 to assign this material model. This will show you the current values for EX and PRXY. Enter 2.3 for Poisson's Ratio PRXY. This completes the specification of Material Model Number 1. Click OK. Cancel the Linear Isotropic Properties window. Then we will create the cutout from a set of keypoints. . we will model half of the crank and then mirror the other half to complete the crank body. 0.

. It may be helpful to turn on area numbering to identify the different areas you create. Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Click OK. Click OK. .Create a Rectangular Area Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Enter the values as shown below. Check the box next to AREA Area numbers to turn on area numbering..

Create Circular Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle Enter the values as shown below. This creates the area for a hole. . Click Apply. Click OK. This creates the rounded end of the crank. Enter the new set of values shown below.

Your window should look something like the picture below. You can click Utility Menu > Plot > Replot or click on the Fit View button on the right toolbar (the button with a block under a magnifying glass) to refresh the view. .

you must click Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Delete > Areas Only and then pick each area you want to remove. and click OK again. Then pick the hole. (This is where the area numbering may come in handy) The result should look like the image below. Add Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas Pick the rectangular and large circular areas. The mouse pointer will show an up arrow for picking areas and a down arrow for un-picking areas. The result is shown below.To correct any mistakes. Click Utility Menu > Plot > Replot to refresh the view. Right-click to switch between pick and unpick mode. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas First pick the body of the crank and click OK. When you have made all your selections. Subtract Hole Area Now we create the hole by subtracting the round area from the rest of the crank. . Click OK. click OK.

To see a list of existing keypoints. you may specify your own number (as long as that keypoint isn't already taken). All that's left now is to add the two halves of the crank together. . we will reflect the current area about the Y-Z plane. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas Click on Pick All. Leave the keypoint number blank to let ANSYS automatically assign an ID number. The result is shown below. Alternatively. we will define some keypoints in order to create and subtract this area. Creating Keypoints for the Cut-out Region Since the material to be removed in the middle of the crank is an irregular shape. The Y-Z plane is selected by default. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Reflect > Areas Click on Pick All. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Enter the values shown below and click Apply.Reflecting the Area To create the other half of the crank. so click OK.

3248) (0.7972.go to Utility Menu > List > Keypoint > Coordinates Only. 0. The Z location is left blank because it is 0 by default.9744) (-0. 0.1368) The result: Creating Lines and Fillets from Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line .7972. 1.7972. Continue adding the following points: (0.

Enter a fillet radius of 0. You can zoom in and out by using the mouse wheel or clicking on the appropriate buttons on the right toolbar (magnifying glass with + or -). You will notice that after clicking on the first point. then click OK. we want to fillet the corners. . only areas are displayed. Select four lines to form a quadrilateral at the center of the crank. Compare results with image below.177. In the current view. Repeat for the other three corners of the quadrilateral. as specified in the drawing. ANSYS will predict where you want the line to be drawn to. then click OK. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Line Fillet Pick two lines that meet at a corner where you want to put a fillet. Don't panic if all the lines disappear.Select pairs of points by clicking on beginning and end keypoints. Switch to line view by: Utility Menu > Plot > Lines The result: Next. and click Apply.

then OK. Click on any of the line segments that we have just created and the entire cutout region should be selected. Finally. and then subtract it from the rest of the crank face. select Loop.Finishing the Crank Face All that's left now is to create a new area from the filleted quadrilateral region. select the new cut-out area. Move the pointer until the desired area is highlighted. It will be helpful to hold down the left mousebutton while picking an area. Switch back to area view by going to Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Subtract out the new area from the rest of the crank by the same procedure as before. then OK again. as an area changes color when it is selected. then release the button. The result: . Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > By Lines In the Pick window. Click OK. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the rest of the crank face.

go to Utility Menu > Plot > Volumes Then click on the isometric view button on the right toolbar. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Extrude > Areas > By XYZ Offset Click Pick All. change the DZ offset to 0. . In the following window.5. Click OK. To see your finished work. similar to modeling in CAD.Creating the Volume We will now make the face 3-D by extruding it by a given offset distance.

Creating the Pedal Shaft Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Cylinder > Solid Cylinder Enter the following values and press OK. .

as it can allow for different materials and meshes. Note that there are no visual indicators of whether or not the volumes have been glued. Your complete crank model should now look like this: . the two pieces will be independent of each other and the solution will be incorrect.We must now glue the shaft to the crank. This provides more flexibility in modeling. The reason for using "glue" instead of performing a boolean add on the volumes is to maintain two discrete parts. You should check the Command Window and look for the "GLUE VOLUMES" command. Note: If glue is not used. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Glue > Volumes Click Pick All to glue our two volumes together.

Check the box next to Smart Size and drag the slider to a size of 4.12 and click OK. Select Areas to be meshed with a Quad shape using the Free mesher. Enter an element edge length of 0.Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 5: Mesh geometry Bring up the MeshTool: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > MeshTool Click the Set button for next to Global Element Attributes. Pick the front face of the crank and click OK. Make sure that the TYPE is MESH200 and click OK. Click the Set button under Global Size Controls. You will now see: . Click Mesh.

Bring up the MeshTool again.12in are the result of a iterative process. and ANSYS will extend our previous mesh across the volume. Feel free to experiment with the mesh tool parameters.5 in / 4) = 0. Specifying an edge length provides a uniform size for the rest of the area being meshed. We want four layers of mesh elements to span the thickness of the volume. Selecting a smaller (finer) smart size will decrease element size close to the cutout curves. ANSYS uses a sizing algorithm that creates smaller mesh elements in areas of potentially high stress concentration (e. so we will enter a SIZE Element edge length of (0. and now Set the mesh type to SOLID45. Click OK. Make sure Auto Src/Trg is selected and click Sweep. curved regions) to improve solution accuracy. . In this case. Choose Volumes with a Hex Shape/Wedge to be meshed. we want at least two mesh elements in the vertical direction.The specified smart size 4 and edge length of 0.g. Under Global Size Controls.125. since the material above and below the cutout act as beams. Since we had created a MESH200 on the face of the crank. Now all we have to do is pick the crank volume. we can now simply sweep that mesh across the volume. click Set.

We're almost ready to solve the problem. Now repeat the procedure with the crank shaft.You can always see the rest of your model by selecting Utility Menu > Plot > Volumes. (You can ignore any errors that may pop up regarding element size. Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB . ANSYS is complaining because the shape of some of the quadrilateral elements in high stress areas have a non-ideal element shape) Your final meshed model should look like the following. Remember that the shaft element size must be the same as the crank so that the shaft elements and crank elements in the hole line up.

Now let's see some results!

Toolbar > SAVE_DB

Step 7: Solve!
Before we start the solution, we should check our model for errors. Enter check in the Input window and press Enter.

All warnings and errors found will be displayed in the Output Window. You might see warnings regarding the size of several mesh elements. These warnings can be ignored due to the large overall number of elements in our model. Now we're finally ready to kick back and let ANSYS do some of the work.

Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Click OK in Solve Current Load Step menu.

Again ignore any warnings that may pop up. ANSYS should cheerfully report "Solution is done!" Verify that ANSYS has created a file called crank.rst in your working directory. This file contains the results of the (previous) solve.

Step 8: Postprocess the Results
Plot Deformed Shape
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Def + undef edge and click OK. This plots the deformed and undeformed shapes in the Graphics window. The maximum deformation DMX is .026188in as reported in the Graphics window. We should check that our results make sense. It appears that the boundary counditions have been satisfied as the tip of the shaft moves downward and the other end of the crank is undeformed.

Animate the deformation
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape... Select Def + undeformed and click OK. Select Forward Only in the Animation Controller.

Plot Nodal Solution of von Mises Stress
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu For a quick refresher on von Mises stress, click Help. Search for von mises and click on the result 2.4 Combined Stresses and Strains. This can be useful if your MAE212 book isn't lying around. Select Nodal Solution > Stress > von Mises stress and click OK. To change the range of stresses displayed, go to Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours ... and select User specified. Specify a range of minimum 0 and maximum 25000. We can now see more color variation in the model, and easily pick out the red areas. When you plot the "Nodal Solution", ANSYS obtains a continuous distribution as follows: 1. It determines the average at each node of the values of all elements connected to the node. 2. Within each element, it linearly interpolates the average nodal value obtained in the previous step.

The stress concentration located at the tip of the shaft can be ignored as the force is applied as a point load. To hide the crank shaft, go to Utility menu > Select > Entities ... Select Volumes, By Num/Pick, From Full and click Apply. Pick the crank volume and click OK. After we've selected a volume, we must select all the elements in this volume to be plotted. In the Select Entities window, select Elements, Attached to, Volumes and click Apply. Click Replot to display the new selection. Notice the deformation is exaggerated, revealing that deformation is primarily caused by torsion. To see the whole model again, go to the Select Entities window and click Sele All and Replot. (If for some reason select all fails, you can always go to Utility Menu > Select > Everything)

Comparing the Sigma_xx Stress with von Mises Stress
To verify that the bending stress in the crank is relatively insignificant, we can compare the element sigma_xx solution with the elemental von Mises solution. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu Click on Stress, then X-Component of stress , then the Apply. Notice that the top-left and bottom-right corners of the cutout area are now blue, and that the scale has been readjusted to show that blue is now a large negative stress value. If this were a case of pure bending, we would expect the top of the crank to be in tension, not compression! (Note: if grey areas are appearing in your contour plots, you should go to Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours ..., select Auto calculated, and click OK.)

To find out information about specific points on the model, go to General Postproc > Query Results > Subgrid Solu Select Stress, X-direction SX, and click OK. The picking window will appear, and you can click on any point in the model. Click OK when finished.

Compare the stress values with the von Mises stress. (Click on von Mises stress, then OK)

Investigate the Stress Concentration
Let's zoom in on the red area. Use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out in the view area. Some other viewing functions: Holding down the Ctrl key and the left mouse button allows you to pan the view, while holding the Ctrl key and the right mouse button allows you to rotate the view. Hold down the right mouse button and draw a rectangle to zoom in on a specific region. Recall that the nodal solution shows average stress values. Let's compare the nodal solution with the element solution. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu Click on Stress, then von Mises Stress, then the OK button. The stress in adjacent elements appears to be fairly continuous, suggesting that we have selected a good mesh for this area. We will check this in the next step when we refine the mesh.

Refine Mesh Let's repeat the solution on a finer mesh with more divisions in the z-direction. but this time use smart size 3 and element size of 0. Repeat the mesh steps for the SOLID45 element and set the element edge length to 0. The forces in the X and Z directions are essentially zero and the total Y-reaction is 100. Repeat the mesh steps for the MESH200 element. check Yes and click OK to remesh. When warned that the picked volumes are already meshed. Simple Checks Does the deformed shape look reasonable and agree with the applied boundary conditions? We checked this in step 8. select Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu Select All struc forc F for Item to be listed and click OK. This section leads you through some of the steps you can take to validate your solution.Step 9: Validate the results It is very important that you take the time to check the validity of your solution.05 instead of 0.00 (lbf) as expected. Obtain a new solution and plot the elemental solution of the von Mises stress: .125.08. Do the reactions at the supports balance the applied forces for static equilibrium? To check this. This will create 10 divisions through the thickness of the crank instead of 4.

. We need to further refine the mesh to validate the solution. Coarser Mesh Finer Mesh 0. The geometry can nevertheless be described in cylindrical coordinates.. Problem Specification The problem considered here is the curved beam of uniform trapezoidal cross-section in example 6.026188in SMX 28883psi The maximum displacement at the tip of shaft is 1. The problem is not axisymmetric because displacements have circumferential as well as radial and axial components.0% less at the upper-left corner of the cutout. Exit ANSYS Utility Menu > File > Exit Select Save Everything and click OK. So we use 3D solid elements rather than axisymmetric elements.15 of Cook et al.8% greater and the maximum stress is 7.026652in 26862psi DMX 0. The beam is bent in its own plane by moments M.

C and D is a symmetry plane. we'll prescribe displacements such that radial plane sections remain plane and a pure moment load acts on the model i. Boundary Conditions The nodal d. The moment M can be computed from the stress distribution on the cross-section obtained from FEA.We would like to obtain the stresses for the trapezoidal cross-section AA shown above. The z-constant plane containing A.0001(rc-r)at all nodes .o. v=0. no net force acts on it. Stresses in the curved beam do not vary with θ.B. so we can reduce the model and analyze only a typical slice between two closely spaced radial planes as shown below. Stresses scale linearly with the applied moment. in the radial (u). as suggested by Cook el al. The angle between AB and CD is taken to be 5 deg.e. Instead. So the stresses associated with a prescribed moment Mp can be obtained by multiplying the computed stresses by the ratio Mp/M. The bending moment M must be applied indirectly in the reduced model since we don't know a priori the circumferential stress distribution it produces on the cross-section.f. So only half the crosssection needs to be modeled. and axial (w) directions are constrained as follows: Face 1 u=0 at node A v=0 at all nodes Face 2 . circumferential (v).

C and D but are displaced in the z-direction with respect to them. The keypoints will be created in the cylindrical coordinate system. Close the Define Material Model Behavior menu. clicking Accept after each.B.B. Check the figure of the geometry to see what dimension each parameter corresponds to. we'll create scalar parameters for the geometric dimensions in SI units. Click OK.C and D shown in the figure of the geometry. 0. Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 4: Specify geometry We'll first create keypoints corresponding to the eight vertices of the model and then generate a volume from the keypoints. Four of the keypoints are the vertices A. The other four keypoints have the same r and θ as A. Create Scalar Parameters For convenience.3 for Poisson's Ratio PRXY.Enter 200e9 for Young's modulus EX. R1=44e-3 R2=R1+88e-3 Z1=65e-3 Z2=14e-3 . Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Enter the following parameters.

Save your work: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Create Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS When the active coordinate system is set to cylindrical. and Z in the menus refer to the cylindrical coordinates r.Click Close. Remember to make this mental substitution as you enter the keypoint coordinates. X. respectively. θ (in degrees) and z. Don't forget to change the keypoint number as you enter the coordinates of the keypoints. Y. you can use the tab key to move the cursor to the next entry field. . Also. Switch to Cylindrical Coordinate System Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Check that ANSYS reports the active coordinate system in the Output window : The reference number that ANSYS uses for the cylindrical coordinate system is 1 (the Cartesian system is 0).

Y=90. Y=95. Z=0. Click Apply. Click OK. Click Apply. Y=90. Keypoint 5: X=R2. Z=0. Keypoint 3: X=R1. Y=90. Save your work: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Switch to the isometric view: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan. Click Apply. Z=Z2. Y=95. Keypoint 6: X=R2. Z=Z1. Z=0. Keypoint 2: X=R1. Click Apply. Zoom.Enter the keypoint locations (think about where each one lies as you enter its coordinates): Keypoint 1: X=R1. Keypoint 7: X=R2. Y=90. Rotate > Iso (Click Picture for Larger Image) . Click Apply. Z=Z2. Keypoint 4: X=R1. Y=95. Keypoint 8: X=R2. Click Apply. Y=95. Z=0. Click Apply. Z=Z1.

The lines (i. The order of the keypoints should be around the bottom first and then the top. the active coordinate system needs to be Cartesian rather than a curvilinear system like the Cylindrical. Click OK in the pick menu. as the name indicates. edges) connecting the keypoints that ANSYS generates during the volume creation are "straight" in the active coordinate system. zoom in and out and rotate the model. The PanZoom-Rotate menu. Switch to the Cartesian coordinate system for generating the volume: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cartesian ANSYS reports "csys=0" at the top of the Graphics window. Close this menu. can be used to change the viewing direction. Create Volume We'll next generate a volume from the 8 keypoints.e. csys referring to the coordinate system. Since we want these edges to be straight. Plot Lines Let's take a look at the lines that ANSYS generated in the volume creation process: .Note the orientation of the x-y-z triad at the bottom in the isometric view. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Arbitrary > Through KPs Pick the 8 keypoints in the order in which they are numbered. This is a quick way to check the current active coordinate system. ANSYS reports "csys=1" at the top of the Graphics window.

There is no real constant set required for the SOLID45 element with default options (which we haven't changed).Utility Menu > Plot > Lines Turn off the background (otherwise it looks like the line connecting keypoints 7 and 8 is missing): Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Background > Display Picture Background Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 5: Mesh geometry Bring up the MeshTool: Main Menu > Preprocessor > MeshTool The MeshTool is used to control and generate the mesh. make sure Global is selected under Element Attributes and click on Set. Set Meshing Parameters The element type and material property set to be used in meshing are automatically selected since we have only one of each. Click Cancel. To check this using the MeshTool. . You will see that the correct element type and material number are already selected in the Meshing Attributes menu.

The default spacing ratio is one i. we will use a spacing ratio of 0.3 (with the mesh spacing increasing from A to B and C to D). If positive. Curved beam theory predicts that the stress gradients will be highest on the edge nearest the center of curvature. We need to know the direction in order to determine which is the first division and which is the last. Of course. no mesh grading. the direction of line AB. Along lines AB and CD. So we want to use a graded mesh such that the radial length of elements increases as we go from edge AC towards edge BD. . can be from A to B or B to A. The spacing ratio parameter is used to control mesh grading in ANSYS.e. Turn on line and keypoint numbers: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering Turn on Keypoint numbers and Line numbers and click OK. for example.Set Mesh Size Two views of the FE mesh we want to use are shown in the figure below. the spacing ratio is the ratio of last division size to first division size. The way to determine the line direction is shown below.

the spacing ratio is 0.3 1/0.L3. L9 and L11. Let's make a table summarizing the number of divisions (NDIV) and spacing ratio (SPACE) for each line. we see that the line 7 (or L7) goes from keypoint 5 (vertex B) to keypoint 1 (vertex A).3 (rather than 1/0. determine the direction and spacing ratio for L5. Line no.L6. So the first division is that next to B and the last division is that next to A.3 .L11 L5 NDIV 1 5 8 8 SPACE 1 1 0.L9.L8. Similarly. L1.L12 L7.3).L4. Since we want the radial mesh spacing to decrease from B to A.Utility Menu > List > Lines > OK Looking at the table and figure.L10 L2.

This means the geometry component to be meshed is a volume. of element divisions and click Apply.L9. If you want to deselect a line. Pick line L5 in the Graphics window and click OK in the pick menu.L6. 1/0. This brings up a pick menu.3 for Spacing Ratio and click OK. right-click to go into deselect mode. click Set. Enter 5 for No.L3. Enter 8 for No. The volume is meshed.3 for Spacing Ratio and click Apply. Pick lines L7. Refer to the table while following the instructions given below for specifying no. Enter 8 for No. of element divisions and click Apply.Your keypoint and line numbers may be different from the above and you should make your own table to account for that. Click on Click on Pick All in the pick menu. Pick lines L1. .L4. 0. of divisions and spacing ratio for each line. hold down the left mouse button until the line is selected and then release the left button.) Pick lines L2. and L11 in the Graphics window and click OK in the pick menu. Make sure Volumes is selected in the drop-down list next to Mesh in the MeshTool. and L10 and click OK in the pick menu. In MeshTool. If you have trouble selecting the correct line below. of element divisions. (The Spacing Ratio field can be left blank since the default value is one. left-click on the line to be deselected and right-click again to go back into select mode. Enter 1 for No. Mesh Volume We'll mesh the volume using hexahedral elements (rather than tetrahedral elements). of element divisions. . under Size Controls and Lines. and L12 and click OK in the pick menu.L8. So choose Hex under Shape in the MeshTool.

Rotate Look at various views of the mesh and satisfy yourself that it looks right.Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan. Zoom. Save your work: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 6: Specify boundary conditions Recall that the BCs for face 1 are: u=0 at node A (keypoint 1) v=0 at all face 1 nodes w=0 along AB (line L7) These BCs are in the cylindrical coordinate system. Close the MeshTool. Switch to this coordinate system: . Click on Iso for the isometric view and then close the Pan-Zoom-Rotate menu.

Select Nodes on Face 1 ANSYS provides extensive capabilities. Click OK. Make sure By Num/Pick is selected below that. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Areas from the pull-down menu at the top. referred to as "select logic". We'll first select the area corresponding to face 1 and then select the nodes attached to this area. the boundary constraints are applied in the nodal coordinate system which by default is parallel to the global Cartesian system. for selecting a subset of the full model using various criteria. Since we want to apply the constraints in the global Cylindrical coordinate system. You'll see an arrow symbol in the Graphics window indicating that the node A is constrained in the radial direction. Apply u=0 at Node A Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Select node at A in the lower-right corner and click OK in the pick menu. Type nrotat. .Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical We'll work with areas while specifying the BCs.all in the Input window. type help.e. You can leave the Displacement value blank since the default is zero. So plot areas: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Rotate Nodal Coordinate System In ANSYS.nrotat in the Input window. We'll use select logic to select the nodes on face 1. Select UX for DOFs to be constrained. Cylindrical) using the nrotat command. Click Apply. To see the help page for nrotat. we need to rotate the nodal coordinate system into the active coordinate system (i.

. Select Areas.Hold down the left mouse button until face 1 is picked. Click Apply. select Nodes from the pull-down menu at the top and Attached to below that. All below that. Click OK in the pick menu. In the Select Entities menu. Next we'll select the nodes attached to the selected area. Only the area corresponding to face 1 is selected currently. Verify this: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas.

Check that only nodes attached to face 1 are currently selected: Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Apply v=0 on Face 1 Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Pick All nodes in the pick menu. . You'll see arrow symbols in the Graphics window indicating that the nodes on face 1 are constrained in the circumferential direction. Select UY for DOFs to be constrained and click OK.

Instead.func for the filename. For entering the spatial coordinates X and Y. The variables such as TIME. X.sqrt({X}^2+{Y}^2)) Note that variables are enclosed in squiggly brackets. The Table array can then be applied to the model. use the pull-down menu. Define Table from Function ANSYS doesn't allow the user to use functions directly while applying loads to a model. we need to define a function to apply this BC. Y etc. You can enter the function using the calculator buttons or type it in. Enter the function: Result = 1e-4*(72. Enter vface2 for Table parameter name. Bring up the function editor: Utility Menu > Parameters > Functions > Define/Edit. Close the function editor. Observe that ANSYS displays the equation that will be used in creating the Table array.2e-3 .. that are available for defining functions are in the pull-down list below the Result field. Save the function: Function Editor > File > Save Use vface2.func and click Open. The process is not exactly elegant but then we are engineers. Utility Menu > Parameters > Functions > Read From File Select vface2..0001(rc-r) at all face 2 nodes w=0 along CD (line L5) Since the BC on v is a function of the spatial coordinates. . one has to go through the additional step of using a "Function Loader" that retrieves the function and loads it as a Table array.Define Function Recall that the BCs for face 2 are: v=0. Click OK.

Close this window.Zoom. If you look in the Output window.Save your work:Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 7: Solve! Enter Solution Module: Main Menu > Solution Enter check in the Input window.rst in your working directory. Close the yellow window. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Review the information in the /STATUS Command window. von Mises SEQV from the right list and click OK. Step 8: Postprocess the results Enter the postprocessing module to analyze the solution. there will be no errors or warnings reported.Rotate > Right . If the problem has been set up correctly. ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done!". Verify that ANSYS has created a file called cbeam. This file contains the results of the (previous) solve. you should see the message: The analysis data was checked and no warnings or errors were found. Main Menu > General Postproc Plot von Mises Stress To display the von Mises stress distribution as continuous contours. select Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Select Stress from the left list. Click OK in Solve Current Load Step menu. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan.

Zoom. Activate the cylindrical coordinate system for results display (you need to do this even if you were working in the cylindrical system in the preprocessor): Main Menu > General Postproc > Options for Outp Select Global Cylindric for Results Coord System.Rotate > Right Main Menu > General Postproc > Contour Plot > Plot results > Nodal Solu Select Stress from the left list. Y-direction SY from the right list and click OK.(Click Picture for Larger Image) The maximum von Mises stress is 147 MPa and occurs at the bottom on the symmetry line. . To display theσθstress distribution over face 1 as continuous contours. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan. Plot Circumferential Stress σθis the SY stress component in cylindrical coordinates in ANSYS.

2E9. The circumferential stress is tensile (positive) and compressive (negative) on the inner and outer portions of the cross-section.2E9. To visualize the neutral axis. and choose User specified for Contour Intervals. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours Enter 2 for Number of contours. and Contour value incr=0. Is this what you'd have expected? Theσθcontours are more closely spaced at smaller r values. . Enter Min contour value=-0. Max contour value=0. Click OK.(Click Picture for Larger Image) Check where the maximum (MX) and minimum (MN) σθvalues occur in the plot. respectively.2E9. Plot Neutral Axis The neutral axis is the locus of points where σθis zero. we'll change the contour levels that are plotted. This agrees with the prediction of curved beam theory that the stress gradients will be highest on the edge nearest the center of curvature.

The FEA results indicate that the neutral axis is curved. . So the boundary between the two colors is the neutral axis.This plots the regions with positive and negative σθvalues in different colors. the radial stress is the SX stress component. contrary to the assumption in mechanics of materials theory. Plot Radial Stress In cylindrical coordinates. 0<σθ<200MPa and in the blue region. -200MPa<σθ<0. In the red region.

.. The maximum displacement DMX=0. This plots the deformed and undeformed shapes in the Graphics window. Plot Deformed Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Def + undeformed and click OK.Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot results > Nodal Solu. and choose Auto calculated for Contour Intervals. (Click Picture for Larger Image) The radial stress is tensile over the entire cross-section. . Change contour plot options back to original: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours Enter 9 for Number of contours. X-direction SX from the right list and click OK. Select Stress from the left list.230e-4 m. Click OK.

Thus. the deformation we gets looks reasonable. Outer corners are more flexible than the central portion. Animate the front view: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan.Animate the deformation: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape Select Def + undeformed and click OK. so the radial dimension becomes larger as expected.Rotate > Front Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape .Zoom. Circumferential tension on the inner portion pulls material toward the center of curvature. bottom corner moves inward with respect to central point A (Cook et al). to contract and expand in the z-direction as is observed. From the animation of the deformation of the cross-section. We saw that the circumferential stress is. You can check that the stress SZ parallel to the axis of revolution is small. The radial stress is tensile. respectively. Select Forward Only in the Animation Controller. (Note that the z-direction is from right to left in the above view). the Poisson effect should cause the inner and outer portions. So it makes sense that the outer. Therefore. w=0 along AB and CD. check that the following BCs are satisfied: u=0 at node A. tensile and compressive on the inner and outer portions of the cross-section. respectively.

L4. Refine Mesh Let's repeat the calculations on a mesh with twice the no. So the structure is in equilibrium to a reasonable degree of approximation. L2.L12 L7. select Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu Select All struc forc F for Item to be listed and click OK. Do the reactions at the supports balance the applied forces for static equilibrium? To check this.L11 L5 NDIV 10 16 16 SPACE 1 0.3 1/0. The total reaction force in the radial direction (FX) is 4.L8.3 Let's use a different jobname for the refined mesh case. We need to reset NDIV and SPACE on the following lines: Line no. . There are no applied forces in this problem. From this animation. so the total reaction force should be zero for equilibrium. of mesh divisions in the radial and axial directions while retaining a single division on AC and BD.L9. Select Forward Only in the Animation Controller. Save your work: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 9: Validate the results Simple Checks Does the deformed shape look reasonable and agree with the applied BCs? We checked this in step 8. This is possible because FX is small but not zero.Select Def + undeformed and click OK. We can lower it even further by refining our estimate of rc. The total reaction forces FY in the cirumferential direction and FZ in the axial direction are small but not zero. check that the BCs for v on both faces are satisfied. Change jobname: Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname Enter cbeam2 as the new jobname and click OK.6 N which is close to zero.

Exit ANSYS Utility Menu > File > Exit Select Save Everything and click OK. .. John Wiley and Sons.J. Similarly.17 on page 436 of Cook et al.E.. Inc. and Witt. Fourth Edition. Problem Specification The problem considered here is the vibration analysis of the right-angle frame in example 11. R. D. Reference Cook. M. Malkus.S. R.. Plesha. compare the von Mises stress results on the two meshes. Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis.D.. 2002..(Click Picture for Larger Image) Compare this result with the plot obtained on the coarser mesh. The results on the two meshes compare well indicating that the coarse mesh provides good resolution.

Start ANSYS Start > Programs > ANSYS Release 7.0 > ANSYS Interactive Specify directory and job name In the window ANSYS Interactive 7. C:\dynamics). . Specify raf as your Initial jobname. Click on Run.0 Launcher that pops up. The jobname is the prefix used for all files generated by the ANSYS run. enter the location of the folder you just created as your Working directory by browsing to it (for example. We'll use this folder to store files created during the session.Step 1: Start-up and preliminary set-up Create a folder Create a folder called dynamics at convenient location.

we'll create scalar parameters corresponding to v. click on the box next to Structural so that a tick mark appears in the box. Step 2: Specify element type and constants . Recall that this is an optional step that customizes the graphical user interface so that only the menu option valid for the structural problems are made available. Enter Parameters For convenience. and E.29 rho = 7860 I = (1e-4)/12 Close the Scalar Parameters window. p. I . This is also helpful in carrying out parametric studies.Set Preferences Main Menu > Preferences In the Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box. Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Enter the parameter values and click Accept after each. We can now enter these variable names instead of the corresponding values as we set up the problem in ANSYS. E = 200e9 nu = 0.

Close the Element Types dialog box and also the Element Type menu. Select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add. This brings up the Element Type for Real Constants dialog box with a list of the element types defined in the previous step. Select: Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add. Enter the following values: AREA = h*h IZZ = I HEIGHT = h .. Click OK. Pick Beam in the left field and 2D elastic 3 in the right field.Specify Element Type In the Preprocessor Menu... Specify the Constants In the Preprocessor menu. Click OK to select the BEAM3 element..

and Isotropic. double-click on Structural. . Linear. Elastic.Save your work by clicking on the Save_DB button in the ANSYS Toolbar. Step 3: Specify material properties Enter the Define Material Model Behavior menu Select Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models In the Define Material Model Behavior menu.

Double-click on Density under Structural. . nu for Poisson's Ratio PRXY.Specify Material properties Enter E for Young's modulus EX. Click OK. Enter rho for DENS.

This completes the specification for Material Model #1. Y=0 Keypoint 2: X=0. Step 4: Specify geometry Create Keypoints Select in Preprocessor menu: Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Enter: Keypoint 1: X=0. . Y=3 Click OK. Save your work Click on the SAVE_DB button in the ANSYS Toolbar. Close the Define Material Model Behavior menu.Click OK. Y=3 Keypoint 3: X=2.

.Create the Lines AB and BC Select in Preprocessor menu: Modeling > Create> Lines > Lines > In Active Coord Select keypoint 1 followed by keypoint 2. Select keypoint 2 followed by keypoint 3. Click OK. Click OK.

Step 5: Mesh geometry Generate the Mesh To bring up the MeshTool.Save your work Click on SAVE_DB in the ANSYS Toolbar to save the database. . Select: Main Menu > Preprocessor > MeshTool.

This brings up the Meshing Attributes menu. You will see that the correct element type. . material number and real constants are already selected since we have only one of each.Click on Set under Element Attributes in the MeshTool.

Under Size Control and Lines.Close this menu by clicking OK. Select line AB. click Set. Define Number of Elements for Each Line We'll use 20 elements for AB and 20 elements for BC to be consistent with Cook et al. .

. Select line BC. Click OK. Enter 30 for NDIV. Enter 20 for NDIV.Click OK. Click Apply.

The geometry has been meshed and the elements are plotted in the graphics window. click on Mesh. click on SAVE_DB in the ANSYS Toolbar to save the database. Creating the Mesh In the MeshTool. Click on Pick All. Close the MeshTool. Save your work Once you have successfully created the mesh. This brings up the pick menu. Go to Step 6: Specify boundary conditions Step 6: Specify boundary conditions Set Options Select in Main Menu: Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal .Click OK.

Click OK and then OK again to accept defaults for the Block Lanczos Method. .Then select in Main Menu: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options Enter 10 for No of modes to extract.

Enter 0 for Displacement value.Apply Displacement Constraints Select in Preprocessor: Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select keypoint at A. Select UY. Click OK. Enter 0 for Displacement value. Select keypoint at C. Select UX and UY. .

Specify Damping Ratio Select in Preprocessor: Loads > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Damping Enter 0.Click OK.02 for Constant damping ratio. .

.Click OK. Save your work Click on SAVE_DB in the ANSYS Toolbar to save the database. Close this window. Step 7: Solve! Enter Solution Module Select in Main Menu: Solution > Solve > Current LS Review the information in the /STAT Command window.

Compare with the values in the book. Step 8: Postprocess the results Enter Postprocessing module to analyze solution Main Menu > General Postproc Select Results Summary. This shows you the cyclic frequencies of the ten modes. ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done!" Save your work Click on SAVE_DB in the ANSYS Toolbar to save the database. View Mode Shape for Mode 2 Read Results > By Set Numbers Enter 2 for NSET. .Click OK in Solve Current Load Step dialog box.

for three nodes.17-1 gives amplitude values for selected d. Similarly. turn on node numbering. This plots the mode shape for mode 2.o. Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Def+undeformed. Find Mode Numbers Table 11. . To find the node numbers corresponding to the ones in the book.f.17-2 in the book. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering Turn on Node Numbers. Click OK. look at the other mode shape and compare them with figure 11.Click OK.

If you need to refresh the screen: Utility Menu > Plot > Multi-plots By comparing the node numbers.Click OK. General Post Proc > Read Results > By Set Number Enter 3 for NSET. we find: Cook et al. . 16 41 51 ANSYS 17 42 32 Node Numbers Determine the Displacement Amplitude To determine the displacement amplitude at node 17 for mode 3.

is 23. to use for the second row in the table is ROTZ.17-1 is 23. Note that the rotational d. From the list. .General Post Proc > List Results > Nodal Solution Select UCOMP. Save your work Click on SAVE_DB in the ANSYS Toolbar to save the database. The corresponding value in table 11. you can determine the other entries in the table.o. the displacement amplitude.f. Similarly.9e-3.8e-3. denoted as USUM.

select the appropriate menu path. Enter Parameters We'll play smart and create scalar parameters corresponding to the plate and stiffener dimensions. For convenience. only the menu options valid for structural problems will be made available. On my system. Units ANSYS leaves it to us to use a consistent set of units. Start ANSYS On Windows systems.Step 1: Start-up and preliminary set-up Create a folder Create a folder called shell at a convenient location. Set Preferences Main Menu > Preferences In the Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box. and N/mm2 for Young's modulus and pressures. Resize windows as shown in this snapshot so that you can read instructions in your browser window and implement them in ANSYS. Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Define a parameter for the plate length l1 in mm: . click on the box next to Structural so that a tick mark appears in the box. We'll use this folder to store files created during the session. we'll use the following set of units: mm for geometric dimensions. N for forces. This will later allow us to vary these parameters and perform optimization studies. the path is Start > Programs > ANSYS 10. don't take my word for it. Enter shell as your Initial jobname. The resulting stresses will be in N/mm2 or MPa. From now on.0 > ANSYS Product Launcher Enter the location of the folder shell that you just created as your Working directory by browsing to it. Convince yourself that this is a consistent unit system. Click on Run.

Problem Specification In this tutorial. we'll analyze the plane shell with stiffeners shown in the figure below. refer to the geometry specification to remind yourself what dimension that parameter represents. Before you specify a parameter.L1=750 Click Accept. NDIV_X=3 NDIV_Y=6 SIZE_Z=5 Close the Scalar Parameters window. Similarly. define other parameters corresponding to the dimensions and click Accept after each (parameter names are not case-sensitive). . We'll also define some parameters which we'll use in Step 5 to set the mesh size along edges. respectively. NSX=2 NSY=3 We'll use the above parameters when creating the geometry in Step 4. W1=250 W2=2 W3=2 H1=5 H2=15 H3=20 We'll play smarter and also specify the number of stiffeners in each direction as parameters so that these too can be varied easily in tradeoff studies. We'll employ the labels NSX and NSY for the number of stiffeners in the x and y directions.

. Since the geometry and loads are symmetric about both the x and y-axes. The dimensions of the plate and stiffeners are shown in the figure below which shows only one-quarter of the structure.(Click for enlarged figure.) All edges are clamped. A constant pressure of 0.e. we need to model only one-quarter of the structure. the pressure acts in the +z direction).05 N/mm2 acts on the underside of the shell (i.

enter W2 and click Apply. Linear. needs to be input. W2 and W3 for the stiffeners in the x and y directions. Save your work: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 4: Specify geometry Strategy for Geometry Creation The geometry of the structure has a repetitive pattern as can be seen in the schematic below. Click OK to specify the real constants for the SHELL93 element. This means we'll have to create three real constant sets.3e4 Enter Poisson's Ratio PRXY:0. Leave the other fields blank since they are not applicable to our problem. Elastic. Create the second set: For Real Constant Set No. and Isotropic. is set to 1.. we'll have to assign three different thickness values: H1 for the plate. Create the last set: For Real Constant Set No. enter 2. In this step. enter H1.33. the shell thickness at the first corner node. double-click on Structural. Click Apply. According to the SHELL93 help page. we'll mesh this sub-section and use it to generate the mesh for the entire structure in two steps: . In Step 5. Close the Define Material Model Behavior menu. we'll create the geometry for the sub-section AEFG only.. Click OK. one for each of these thickness values. For TK(I). enter 3.This brings up the Element Type for Real Constants menu. Save: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 3: Specify material properties Main Menu > Preprocessor >Material Props > Material Models In the Define Material Model Behavior menu. For TK(I). We'll exploit this feature in creating the finite-element mesh for the entire structure. Enter Young's modulus EX in MPa: 7. enter W3 and click OK. For TK(I). if the element has a constant thickness. Create the first real constant set: make sure Real Constant Set No. When meshing. respectively. only TK(I).

. the stiffener crossing is modeled correctly and a load applied to one stiffener will be transferred appropriately to the other one. so indulge me while I explain how we are going to proceed. At the end of the geometry step. A4).5 and 9. To this end. We'll copy parts of AEFG to create the sub-section ABCD. the stiffeners cross each other at F. (When we copy areas. Clever move. with the keypoint and area numbers turned on (different colors refer to different areas). eh? In sub-section AEFG above. the associated mesh is also copied.) 2. This will also yield a regular mesh as we'll see in the meshing step.1. We'll copy sub-section ABCD in both directions to generate the mesh for the entire structure. the isometric view of AEFG will look as below. we will divide the horizontal stiffener into two areas (A3. Modeling this correctly is tricky. If the stiffeners share keypoints 3.

Instead. Keypoints Coordinates Using the figure in the problem specification and the one above. something to keep in mind when you vary the stiffener dimensions in optimization studies. This would change the topology of the model. 1 2 3 4 x 0 W1/(2*NSX) W1/(2*NSX) 0 y 0 0 L1/(2*NSY) L1/(2*NSY) 0 0 0 0 z .Note that the horizontal stiffener has to be split into two areas A3 and A4 because it has a larger width than the vertical stiffener. if the vertical stiffener is the wider one. Recall that areas correspond to the mid-surface of the structure. using the parameters defined in Step 1. create a table of the keypoint coordinates required to create areas A1-A4. Are my keypoint coordinates below correct? No. it'd be the one that you'd have to split into two areas.

The two methods are equivalent but the latter is faster for more experienced users.0 .2. Create keypoint #1 at (0.0. make sure the preprocessor module is open.0): at the command prompt..L1/(2*NSY).W1/(2*NSX).0 K.0.0 K.. To access the K command.5 6 7 8 9 W1/(2*NSX) W1/(2*NSX) 0 0 W1/(2*NSX) L1/(2*NSY) 0 L1/(2*NSY) L1/(2*NSY) L1/(2*NSY) H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 Create Keypoints and Areas In previous tutorials. Scroll down to section 5. Note that when you type the command. select the Search tab.e.4. Since it is useful to track the keypoint and area numbers as we create the geometry. In the ANSYS documentation window. the format of the command pops-up as a reminder.0. in the left pane.3. we will instead use the command line to create keypoints. Here. The menu path also indicates that this command is part of the Preprocessor module.1. turn on keypoint and area numbering: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering Turn on Keypoint numbers and Area numbers and click OK. Double-click on 5. type K. create keypoints #2-#4 in the above table by entering the following at the command prompt: K.2 Creating Your . enter "keypoint" as the search term and click on List Topics.L1/(2*NSY).0 as below and hit Enter.0. Note that the corresponding menu path is what we have used in previous tutorials to create keypoints. Let's check the documentation to find the command for creating keypoints. The table near the beginning of this section indicates that the command for creating keypoints is K.2 has useful information on creating your solid model.0. Section 5. vertices) using menus. Similarly.W1/(2*NSX). Click on K to see the format of this command. we have defined keypoints (i.2.1.

Note that ANSYS automatically assigns the label A1 to this first area.0. Next create keypoints #5 and #6 followed by the area corresponding to the stiffener in the y-direction. select Utility Menu > Plot > Areas.5.2.H2 K. otherwise. If you change the value of any of these parameters after you have created the keypoints.e.1. It is important to remember this idiosyncracy of ANSYS. L1.H2 A. these keypoints will not be moved accordingly. To create an area from keypoints #1-#4.3.6 To bring up the isometric view.4 at the command line. NSX and NSY when creating the keypoints.3. it could come back to bite you in uncomfortable parts of your anatomy.5. You'll have to click on this button periodically to fit the entire geometry into your view.W1/(2*NSX). If the area disappears from the view.ANSYS uses the current value of the parameters W1.W1/(2*NSX).L1/(2*NSY). Enter K. i. The area is labeled A2. This area corresponds to the plate. click on the Fit View icon in the rightmost part of the GUI (see snapshot below). enter a. Is it safe to presume that you are cheating like I would and cutting-and-pasting the command line inputs? That's OK as long as you do them one-by-one so that you can track the effect of each command.2. To fit all the keypoints in your current view. click on the Isometric View icon in the right part of the GUI (see snapshot below). we can create the remaining keypoints and areas in our sleep (remember to wipe the drool off the keyboard): . Now that we have gotten the hang of this business.6. the keypoint coordinates will still contain the old values of the parameters.

0.H3 A.0. .H2 K.7.W1/(2*NSX).7.7.8.5 A.L1/(2*NSY).5.9 Utility Menu > Plot > Areas The geometry should look like this: Save your work: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 5: Mesh geometry As discussed in the previous step.3.9.K.4.L1/(2*NSY).L1/(2*NSY). we'll first mesh the subsection AEFG that we just created.8.H3 K.

. For instance. and click OK in the pick menu. the edge between keypoints #5 and #9 is smaller than that between keypoints #3 and #5. as should be apparent from the geometry display. The table below describes what each parameter is and the value we have assigned to it. repeat the above steps before saving. Next. If you want to deselect a line. Click OK. Under Size Controls and Lines. Enter SIZE_Z for Element edge length.Set Mesh Size Along Edges We'll use the previously-defined parameters NDIV_X. Make sure No. and tutorial simultaneously. pick all three lines in the y-direction and click OK in the pick menu. Last. If you made an error. of element divisions is blank. Pick all four lines in the x-direction. we can use the same parameter for both edge lengths. Bring up the MeshTool: Main Menu > Preprocessor > MeshTool We are going to continually use the MeshTool to generate the mesh. Enter NDIV_Y for No. of element divisions and click Apply. By setting the element size rather than the number of divisions. of divisions for edges along x No. right-click to go into deselect mode. left-click on the line to be deselected and right-click again to go back into select mode. Plot lines to see the element divisions along edges and check that they have been set correctly: Utility Menu > Plot > Lines. of element divisions and click Apply. If you have trouble selecting the correct line below. of divisions for edges along y Size of divisions for edges along z Edges along z are of two different lengths. hold down the left mouse button until the line is selected and then release the left button. NDIV_Y and SIZE_Z to set the mesh size along edges. Parameter NDIV_X NDIV_Y SIZE_Z 3 6 5 Value Description No. So resize and rearrange the windows slightly so that you can access the MeshTool. ANSYS GUI. click Set. Enter NDIV_X for No. pick all five lines in the z-direction and click OK in the pick menu.

We'll first mesh the plate using real constant set #1. Pick area A1 and click OK. Plot areas: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Click on Mesh in MeshTool. Jog your memory about which thicknesses have been assigned to which "real constant" sets in Step 2. These are the options we need for the plate.Generate Mesh for Plate Recall that the plate and the horizontal and vertical stiffeners have different thicknesses which have been assigned to different "real constant" sets. click on Set. Set Real constant set number to 2 and click OK. click on Set. so these don't need to be changed. You will see that the element type and material number are already set and the default real constant set is #1. Click Cancel. Generate Mesh for Vertical Stiffener Under Element Attributes in MeshTool. Under Element Attributes in MeshTool. The resulting mesh for the plate is displayed. .

At the command prompt. Generate Mesh for Horizontal Stiffener Under Element Attributes. (Note that commands are not case-senstive.Plot areas: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Click on Mesh in MeshTool. Set Real constant set number to 3 and click OK. Pick areas A3 and A4 and click OK. 1 and then select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot. type /eshape. When the /ESHAPE command in issued. The resulting mesh for the plate is displayed. Let's change the graphical display so that the geometry is displayed as a solid model with the shell thicknesses shown.) . ANSYS uses the real constants associated with each element to determine its shape. Pick area A2 and click OK. click on Set. Plot areas: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Click on Mesh in MeshTool.

Rotate > Dynamic Mode: Model. right. You can access different model views such as front. right-click on the icon and select Dialog Overview > Pan. Zoom. using the buttons to the right of the graphics window. To see the help page on this mode. Save: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Copy Mesh in x-Direction Turn off the element shapes to make the display less cluttered by entering the following commands: /eshape. At the bottom of this row of icons is the Dynamic Model Mode . you can hold down the Ctrl key). isometric etc.0 /replot . Clicking this icon allows you to manipulate the model using the mouse (alternatively.Do the relative thicknesses of different parts of the shell look correct? Feel free to manipulate the graphical display to check this.

enter W1/(2*NSX). . we'll undertake this after we are finished with the copy step.and Z-offsets blank and click OK. and A4 and click OK. For X-offset. (Hold down the left mouse button until the correct area is selected. It's key that we merge these coincident keypoints. A3. Since the associated keypoints are also copied over. Let's convince ourselves of this truism: • • Turn on node numbers (in addition to keypoint and area numbers) using Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering Display elements and nodes together: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Multi-Plot Ctrls > OK. leave Y.Plot areas: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Copy areas: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy > Areas Pick A1. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Multi-Plots.) Copy Areas menu: We want two copies including the original. you'll notice that there is a collection of two coincident but separate keypoints along shared boundaries where the original and copied entities overlap. Have the elements associated with the areas also been copied? Check this: Utility Menu > Plot > Elements Save: Toolbar > SAVE_DB As with keypoints (and lines too). there is a collection of two coincident but separate nodes along the shared boundaries. Leave only Nodes and Elements turned on and click OK. so leave Number of copies as 2.

2 and 172. (Note that your node numbers may be different from mine since numbering can vary on different computer systems. Copy Areas menu: Leave Number of copies as 2. Check the resulting mesh for sub-section ABCD: Utility Menu > Plot > Elements Turn-off node numbers to reduce clutter. . Node 2 is associated with the original area and node 172 with the copy. Copy areas: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy > Areas Pick A1.• Zoom into the bottom-center of the model as in the snaphsot below. delete X-offset. you should notice that there are actually two nodes. and A5 and click OK. enter L1/(2*NSY). A2. For Y-offset. At the bottom of the symmetry plane.) Copy Mesh in y-Direction Plot areas: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Click on the Fit View and Isometric View icons in the rightmost part of the GUI. We'll merge coincident nodes a little later. leave Z-offset blank and click OK.

Click OK. Check the resulting mesh: Utility Menu > Plot > Elements .and Z-offsets should be blank or zero.and y-directions? What are the values of X-Offset and Y-Offset in each case? Jot your answers down so that you can check the values below. Copy areas: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy > Areas > Pick All Copy Areas menu: Number of copies = NSX.Copy Sub-Section ABCD How many copies of sub-section ABCD do we need to make in the x. Y. Y-offset = L1/NSY. Repeat copy in y-direction: Select Pick All again in the pick menu. Copy Areas menu: Number of copies = NSY. Click Apply. X. X-offset = W1/NSX.and Z-offsets should be blank or zero.

. along shared boundaries. etc. We need to merge these coincident items so that separate portions of the model are combined into one.Merge Coincident Entities We saw earlier that the copy operations resulted in coincident nodes. Otherwise. the various portions will live as independent entities and loads applied to one portion will not be transferred to its neighbors. keypoints. The effect of the merge operation is shown schematically below.

Since we'd like to palm off as much work as possible to ANSYS. etc. individually or merge all coincident entities at once (with ANSYS ensuring that they are merged in the proper sequence). This will merge all coincident entities. What do you see? . Zoom in on this region again with node numbers turned on. Earlier we saw that nodes 2 and 172 were coincident. select All and click OK. Select Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Merge Items For Type of item to be merged. nodes.View documentation about the merge utility: ANSYS Help > Contents > Modeling and Meshing Guide > Number Control and Element Reordering > Number Control This section has useful information about merging entities. we'll use the latter option. It indicates that one can either merge keypoints.

): Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers For Item to be compressed . create unused slots in the numbering sequence for various items. Re-check the range of node numbers after compressing. . you can eliminate these gaps by "compressing" your numbering".2): "As you build your model. clearing. you might. To save data storage space (by eliminating otherwise empty numbers) or to preserve desired sequencing (by forcing newly-created items to be assigned numbers greater than those of existing items). etc.If you performed the merge operation correctly. These slots will remain empty for some items (such as elements) but will be filled in for other items (such as keypoints) as new items are created. elements. Close MeshTool. Check the range of node numbers before compressing the numbering: Utility Menu > List > Nodes > OK Compress numbering for all items (nodes. by deleting. Save: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Compress Item Numbers If you scroll down the help section on numbering that we've been peeking at.1. You should find that the range of node numbers is reduced since there are now no gaps in the numbering. you'll find a useful spiel on Compressing Item Numbers (section 11. or performing other operations. you'll see that the higher numbered node has been deleted and the two coincident nodes have been replaced by a single node. merging. select All and click OK.

Save: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 6: Specify boundary conditions The boundary conditions given in the problem specification are summarized in the schematic below. Select all edges along AH: Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering: Turn off area and node numbering. Apply Symmetry along AH We'll apply this BC in two steps: 1. Select edges along AH 2. Apply symmetry condition to the selected edges Plot areas: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Adjust the display: Click on the Isometric View and Fit View icons in the rightmost part of the GUI. Keep in mind that the edge conditions need to be applied to the plate as well as the stiffeners. turn on line numbering.

and the tutorial simultaneously.Max. Select Entities menu: Select Lines from the pull-down menu at the top. enter 0. This will select all lines whose centers lie at y=0. Choose Y coordinates. You should see that the edges along AH have been selected. Make sure From Full is selected so that we are selecting entities from the full model.We are going to continually use the Select Entities menu to apply the BC's. Under Min. . the ANSYS GUI. So resize and rearrange the windows slightly so that you can access this menu. Select By Location below that. Click Apply. Check which lines have been selected: Select Entities menu >Plot.

Select Entities menu: Leave Lines. By Location and X coordinates selections in place. enter W1. Make sure From Full is selected.Max. Select Entities menu > Replot Constrain all six nodal degrees of freedom (DOF) for the selected edges: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines > Pick All > All DOF > OK The (cluttered) display will show that all six DOF's have been constrained. Select Entities menu: Sele All and Replot . Under Min. Click Apply. This will select all lines whose centers lie at x=W1.

lgw by opening it in a text editor. . we'll start with the log file containing the commands from the first six steps that we just went through. Click OK. At the bottom of this menu. select Utility Menu > File > Write DB log file Under Write Database Log to. Review shell_step6. To save this log file.lgw.Save: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Create Log File In parametric studies to be undertaken later. select Write Essential Commands only. enter the filename for the logfile: shell_step6.

Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Review the information in the /STATUS Command window. You should see the following message in the Output window: The analysis data was checked and no warnings or errors were found. Main Menu > General Postproc > Results Viewer . Save: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 8: Postprocess the results Plot Deformed Shape The Results Viewer provides a convenient way to review results.Step 7: Solve! Enter Solution Module: Main Menu > Solution Enter check in the Input window. Close this window. there will be no errors or warnings reported. ANSYS performs the solution and a window should pop up saying "Solution is done!". Click OK in Solve Current Load Step menu. Close this window. If the problem has been set up correctly.

Click on the Plot Results icon. select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Displaced structure. Rearrange the windows slightly so that you can access the Results Viewer. Where do you think this occurs? We'll check this in a minute.rst file. Under Choose a result item.88 mm. Hold down the Ctrl key and use the mouse to manipulate the model view.The title bar for the Results Viewer indicates that the results are being read from the shell. Are the symmetry and clamped conditions satisfied at the corresponding edges for the facesheet as well as the stiffeners? Is the model deformation as you'd expect for a uniform pressure on the facesheet in the +z direction? The maximum displacement DMX=3. check that the BC's and loads have been imposed correctly. Animate the defromation and obsessively recheck the BC's: Results Viewer > Animate Results > Deformed Shape > OK > Def + undef edge > OK Select Forward Only in the Animation Controller. . ANSYS GUI and tutorial simultaneously. The snapshot below shows one view that is useful in checking the BC's.

For filename. As expected. Pick the node at X=0. This creates the file w_contours. choose Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Z-Component of displacement. select Results Viewer > Image Capture > Capture to file > OK.e.8 mm. . select the Query Results icon in the Results Viewer.png in your working directory. w displacement) are displayed in the Query Subgrid Results menu. Check that you can open this file using your pet image viewer.Plot w Displacement In the Results Viewer. The location of maximum deflection wmax is labeled MX. Cancel the Query Subgrid Results menu. The deflection at the center of the facesheet is 3. The coordinates of the picked node and the corresponding value of UZ (i. the deflection is zero along the clamped edges. This occurs not at the facesheet center but on the edge x=0. enter w_contours. Click on the Plot Results icon. at approximately y=L1/3. To save a copy of this plot. Y=0. Deflection at Facesheet Center To query the value of the deflection at the center of the facesheet. in place of Displaced structure.

Select the elements for the facesheet in two steps: 1. select Elements. let's first plot σxx for just the facesheet. Close the Results Viewer. . Attached to. Select areas corresponding to the facesheet. you are looking at the top of the facesheet. Hold down the Ctrl key and flip the model over so that you are looking at the bottom of the facesheet as in the snapshot below.σxx for Facesheet For clarity. like me. Click Apply. Click Apply and then Replot. Check the σxx value for the top face at the facesheet center: Results Viewer > Query Results Pick the node at X=0. Y=0.Max. 2. If. Utility Menu > Plot > Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Entities menu: Select Areas. Select elements attached to these previously selected areas. I get σxx=51 MPa at the center-top of the facesheet. Main Menu > General Postproc > Results Viewer > Nodal Solution > Stress > XComponent of stress Click Plot Results icon. Following this. By Location and Z coordinates. enter 0. Areas and From Full. What do you get? The negative sign indicates compression. Now the contours values correspond to σxx values for the facesheet bottom. Use Query Results to determine σxx at the center-bottom of the facesheet. Make sure From Full is selected. Under Min. then the contours values correspond to σxx values for the top face. This is illustrated in the help page for SHELL93 element. You should see that only elements for the facesheet are currently selected. Shell theory provides the stresses through the thickness of the shell. I get -56 MPa.

I get σxx=116 MPa at the edge point x=W1. at the facesheet center.(For an enlarged view. σyy for Facesheet Results Viewer > Nodal Solution > Stress > Y-Component of stress Click Plot Results icon. The snapshot below shows the σyy contours. σxx varies from a tensile stress of 51 MPa at the top to a compressive stress of 56 MPa at the bottom. Using Query Results. . Cancel the Query Subgrid Results menu. y=0 for the bottom of the facesheet (see snapshot above). What's the value you finagled out of ANSYS? Do these values look plausible? We'll investigate this in Step 9 when we compare the center and edge stress values to plate theory. click and maximize the browser window) Thus.

You might have to flip the model over. you can cycle through windows on the desktop by holding down the Alt key and repeatedly pressing the Tab key. This can be done using the Invert operation: Select Entities menu> Invert Select Entities menu> Replot (In MS-Windows. 2. the facesheet is selected and the stiffeners are unselected. exit the Results Viewer. σyy= 77 MPa. What are your corresponding values? σxx for Stiffeners Currently. Manipulate the view so that you are looking down on the top of the stiffeners as in the snapshot below.) Results Viewer > Nodal Solution > Stress > X-Component of stress Click Plot Results icon. bring up the Select Entities menu and re-enter the Results Viewer. y=L1). . we'll unselect the facesheet and select the stiffeners i.e. reverse the selection. I get the following values for the bottom of the facesheet (see snapshot above): 1. At the clamped edge location (x=0.Using Query Results. In case the Select Entities menu has disappeared. σyy= -28 MPa. At the center. To plot stress contours for the stiffeners.

we'll compare these values to plate theory in Step 9. What are your corresponding values? σyy for Stiffeners Results Viewer > Nodal Solution > Stress > Y-Component of stress Click Plot Results icon. y=L1/6). as expected. At the clamped edge location (x=W1/4. as expected. σyy= 38 MPa. 2. the load in the y-direction is carried by the stiffeners in that direction. y=L1/6). Let's determine σxx values at the top of the x-stiffener closest to the center. the load in the x-direction is carried by the stiffeners in that direction. At (x=0. σxx= 312 MPa. The σyy values for the stiffeners in the x-direction is virtually zero. Using Query Results. I get the following values at the top of the stiffener (see snapshot above): 1. σyy= -300 MPa. This means that. What are your corresponding values? . confirm this using Query Results.The σxx values for the stiffeners in the y-direction is virtually zero. At the clamped edge location (x=W1. σxx= -653 MPa. y=L1). Using Query Results. I get the following values at the top of this stiffener (see snapshot above): 1. y=0). At (x=W1/4. 2. confirm this using Query Results. This means that. Let's determine σyy values at the top of the y-stiffener closest to the center which we'll compare to plate theory in Step 9.

The head-to-head comparison of the edge stresses is given in the following table. Entity σxx Bottom Location FEA 116 MPa Theory 100 MPa . Do take the time to review this document. This solution can be modified to account for the presence of stiffeners using the parallel axis theorem. It might improve if solution for anisotropic plate were used. Comparison With Plate Theory An FEA analyst displays his mettle by going head-to-head with theory. page 202.Save: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 9: Validate the results We checked in the previous step that the BC's have been applied correctly and the deflection looks plausible. This calculation and the resulting stress and displacement values have been generously provided by Prof. Alan Zehnder and are sumarized in this pdf document.6 mm -50 MPa 350 MPa -20 MPa 105 MPa The deflection at the center is about 8% larger than the theoretical value due to shear deformation in the FEA model that is not accounted for in the analytical result. while maximum stresses in theory are calculated at the center. The theoretical solution for a clamped plate subjected to pressure is presented by Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger. The head-to-head comparison of the analytical values with the FEA values from Step 8 at the center of the structure is presented in the following table. Correlation of stresses in the center is reasonably good. Also. the stiffeners are not at the centerline of the model. Entity w σxx σxx σyy σyy Bottom Top Bottom Top Location FEA 3.8 mm -56 MPa 312 MPa -28 MPa 38 MPa Theory 3.

Compare the displacement and stress values for the new and old cases and comment on the differences and/or similarities. we had 2. increase the number of x-stiffeners to 3 as shown below. previously. For the quarter-plate. This is possibly due to the stiffeners not being at the centerline of the model while the maximum stresses in theory are calculated at the center. .σxx σyy σyy Top Bottom Top -653 MPa 77 MPa -300 MPa -704 MPa 78 MPa -403 MPa There is good correlation of the edge stress on the bottom of facesheet but the edge stress at the top of the stiffeners is overestimated by the theory. Problem Specification Consider the semi-monocoque shell problem analyzed in a previous tutorial. Redo the problem changing only the number of stiffeners in the x-direction.

To redo the original problem with a new set of parameter values. ANSYS assumes you'll be running in batch mode.You can run ANSYS in the interactive mode or batch mode (in which you do not use the GUI). By default. As you can imagine. We'll do this shortly. . this is an efficient way to explore the effect of key parameters on your design. A key thing to remember is that you have to be in the appropriate module (Preprocessor. At the bottom of the KEYW help page. you just change the values of appropriate parameters and read in the input file. The *SET command above is used to specify parameter values. Postprocessor. etc) to access the corresponding utilities. you can access its utilities such as specifying the element type (ET command). In the snippet above. so it'll put a couple of batch-mode commands at the top of your log file. To see what the KEYW command does. this is equivalent to selecting Main Menu>Preprocessor in the GUI. Since we are going to use the input file in the interactive mode.in the Postprocessor module and try to access a Preprocessor command such as ET. say.KEYW at the command prompt. you enter the preprocessor module using the /PREP7 command. If you are. Once you are in the Preprocessor. you can see that this command is equivalent to the menu selection Main Menu > Preferences. delete the first two commands above (/BATCH and /input) that pertain to the batch mode. type help.

Read Input File Create a folder called shell2 at a convenient location. repeat steps 1-6 with NSX=3. The Utility menu commands can be accessed from any module. Click on Run.. look for the line where the value of NSX is specified. Start ANSYS: .0 > ANSYS Product Launcher Enter the location of the folder shell2 that you just created as your Working directory by browsing to it.inp file and click OK. Set NSX=3 as shown below and save the input file. Go to Step 2: Modify and read input file Step 2: Modify and read input file Modify Input File We need to change the number of stiffeners in the x-direction. Utility Menu > File > Read Input from Select the shell_step6. Resize the ANSYS windows as shown in this snapshot so that you can read instructions in your browser window and implement them in ANSYS. Enter shell2 as your Initial jobname. .ANSYS won't recognize the command. > ANSYS 10.e. Plot elements and select the isometric view. ANSYS will run through the commands in shell_step6. In the input file.inp i..

. There is a part of the geometry that is not copied in the y-direction. Why is this so? We'll look into this in just a minute. For Surface Load Symbols. select All Applied BCs. select Pressures and under Show pres and convect as. Click OK.We see that there is a problem with the resulting geometry. Let's check what BC's have been applied. select Arrows. Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols Symbols menu: For Boundary condition symbol.

Fix Geometry Recall that originally we made two copies of subsection ABCD. Now we are making three copies of ABCD. However.We see that the symmetry and clamped BC's haven't been applied at the correct locations. this is inherited from the original case. We'll fix these mistakes below. the input file still insists on making only two copies. Let's dig a little further into this mystery and see how we can solve it. The pressure has been applied only over part of the facesheet. .

SYMM This corresponds to the application of the symmetry condition along the appropriate edges.P51X. In your input file. . This corresponds to the application of the clamped condition along the appropriate edges. while applying the BC's.0 The P51X in the above statement corresponds to our "Pick All" selection. Modify the AGEN statement in the input file as follows: AGEN.ALL. . We can again fix this by using "ALL" instead of "Pick All" in the BC commands.P51X. . . "Pick All" doesn't pick up the *&\$\$#\$#** additional components (pardon my language).0. Modify this to DL. .P51X. It turns out that when we increase the number of components to be selected.NSY.05 . "Pick All" mangles the selection when we change the number of components. Fix BC's Recall that. . you'll find two instances of the statement: DL. .PRES. . .SYMM Similarly. we selected the components to copy using "Pick All" in the pick menu.ALL.NSY. . Modify this to DL.0 Save the input file. This will fix the problem with the geometry. . . .ALL.ALL. As above. . we selected the approporiate subset of components and applied the BC's to the selected components using "Pick All" in the pick menu. you'll see the statement that imposes a pressure on the faceplate: SFA. At the very end of your input file.1. you'll find two instances of the statement: DL. Go to near the end of your input file and find the corresponding statement: AGEN.When we made the copies in the y-direction.ALL.L1/NSY.P51X. The "ALL" in the above statement implies that we are constraining all degrees of freedom at the clamped edges.L1/NSY. We can get around this by using "ALL" instead of "Pick All" in the command.

ALL. Plot elements and select the isometric view.inp > OK Select the shell_step6. .1.05 Save the input file. modify this to SFA.You know the routine now.inp file and click OK.0.PRES. Did ANSYS get it right this time? Check that the BC's have been applied correctly. Re-read Input File Main Menu > File > Clear & Start New > OK Utility Menu > File > Read Input from > shell_step6.

Utility Menu > Plot > Areas Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols Symbols menu: For Boundary condition symbol. Now repeat steps 7-9 in the original tutorial and compare the results for NSX=2 and 3. Zoom into the sides of the structure and carefully check the BC's. select All Applied BCs. select Pressures and under Show pres and convect as. Click OK. . For Surface Load Symbols. select Arrows.

go through steps 4-6 in the GUI and generate clean new lgw/input files. For instance. In addition. The plate is uniaxially loaded with a uniform pressure p=1 MPa.Then. the topology changes significantly. the plate is made of a Glass/Epoxy composite material with the fibers oriented in same direction as the applied load. In this case.96 GPa Major Poisson's ratio nxy = 0.A tip from a battle-hardened user: you have to be careful about recycling the log file when the topology of the geometry changes. you should be able to hone in on where step 3 ends and step 4 begins).3 GPa Young's modulus in the transverse direction Ey = 22 GPa In-plane shear modulus Gxy = 8. unless you are a power user. Step 1: Create Command Log file . Save: Toolbar > SAVE_DB Problem Specification Consider the square plate of uniform thickness with a circular hole with dimensions shown in the figure below.047 The circumferential stress concentration on the boundary of the hole is to be determined using ANSYS.26 Minor Poisson's ratio nyx= 0. it might be advisable to use the log file only for steps 1-3 (as you look through the log file. if you change H2 and H3 such that the y-stiffeners become wider than the x-stiffeners. The material properties are as follows: Young's modulus in the fiber direction Ex = 59.

Then save this file as plate2. Select the Write essential commands only option at the bottom..''.. so that only essential commands are included. After completing the Plate with a Hole tutorial. Search for the plate2. in two places: the session log file (Jobname. This is the name of the log/input file we will modify..lwg file in the directory you specified and open it using notepad.1 .txt.log) and in the database log...ANSYS records every command it executes.. create the Database log file. In the case of the Plate with a Hole tutorial. we will create a command log/input file based on the commands used to solve the Plate with a Hole tutorial and we will modify these commands to solve our problem. For this tutorial.. Given that the problem specification for the Plate with a Hole tutorial is very similar to the problem we are solving.tmp..log) and the internal database command log. The list of commands generated is shown below. /BATCH /input. This is the log/input file we will modify... Enter plate2 under Write Database Log to. for example.menust.... Click OK. Utility Menu > File > Write DB log file This brings up the Write Database Log window.. we will use the database log (vs the session log file) created in the Plate with a Hole tutorial as a starting point. all the commands used to generate the solution were recorded in the session log file (plate. This option will allow us to include only essential commands as part of the command log file. whether typed in directly or executed by a function in the Graphical User Interface (GUI)..

_Y2 FLST.1.0._Y AMESH..0.0 KEYW.10e-3 *SET.4.OFF.WPSTYLE..PR_ELMAG.E MPDATA.1._Y1 CMDELE.5 MSHAPE.S._Y1 CMDELE.1 KEYW.0 KEYW...1.0._Y1.7e-3 *SET.90 ASBA.'AREA' CMSEL.2 SMRT.2..2..0.2 FITEM.PR_CFD.AREA CHKMSH.PR_THERM.9 DL.r.PR_SET..SYMM FLST.2._Y CMDELE.ORDE.1.0 KEYW..0.a..r.0 KEYW.nu.PRXY._Y.2.a.ORDE.PLANE42 MPTEMP.PR_FLUID.0 KEYW.EX..0 /NOPR /PMETH....0.E.nu RECTNG.0 KEYW.0.2D MSHKEY...AREA ASEL.P51X.1 KEYW. MPTEMP...PR_STRUC..4.MAGHFE..3 /PREP7 ET.0 KEYW.1.5 .a.MAGELC.1e13 *SET.2..2.1.0 CM.0 KEYW.1e6 *SET.MAGEDG.0 MPDATA.1 FITEM.MAGNOD.0.8 FITEM.PR_MULTI. CYL4.3 CM.0 *SET.p.0 KEYW.

8. ANSYS generates certain commands which are either generated by default or intended for use in Batch mode (i..G12.. and material properties E and n. We'll do so by modifying the commands that start with *SET..0 /NOPR /PMETH.p... Step 2: Modify Log file ...1 WPSTYLE.. We will modify these commands to solve our problem.. FINISH /SOL SOLVE FINISH We can now use this file as a starting point... The scalar parameters created as part of the Plate with a Hole tutorial are the plate half-width a.tmp.OFF. Since we are not going be using the graphical user interface..1e6 *SET. no user interface).0.. hole radius r..part1 Delete Special Commands We'll start by deleting unnecessary commands.SFL.a... we'll ignore these commands.. Modify Specified Parameters We'll now modify the parameters specified in the Plate with a Hole tutorial.r.047 .e..''. We will redefine these parameters and add new ones to match the geometry and material properties of our problem: *SET.E1. we will ignore the following commands.22e9 *SET..3e9 *SET. Delete the following commands: /BATCH /input.59.. Since we are not going be working in batch mode.60e-3 *SET.7e-3 *SET. Delete commands that start with KEYW..menust.E2.nu21.0 The next eleven commands in the original input file start with KEYW.PRES.p.96e9 *SET.P51X.. This set of commands customizes the graphical user interface. applied pressure p.

specify the material properties by using MPTEMP and MPDATA.1.8. which was part of the original input file.9GPa and minor Poisson ratio nu21=0.22e9 *SET.E1 MP. accomplishes this task and we'll keep it for our analysis. For our analysis.G12 . For this tutorial. The following command.047.60e-3 *SET. /PREP7 The ET command defines the element type.E2 MP.EX.0.p. we need to enter the model creator preprocessor. This command allows us to add a title which will be shown in the various user interface windows. We'll also use the previously defined parameters.E2.1.3e9 *SET.a.EY. At this point.3GPa. Young's modulus in the transverse direction E2=Ey=22 GPa.NU21 MP. This is equivalent to entering the preprocessor tab in the ANSYS Main Menu. we used PLANE42.E1. Orthotropic Plate with a Hole command has been added.Note that the plate half-width a changed from 10e-3 to 60e-3 and the hole radius r remained unchanged. we will use PLANE82.1e6 *SET.59.GXY. however. MP.1. which is a 4-node 2D structural solid element. Specify Element Type Before specifying the element type.r. Orthotropic Plate with a Hole *SET. in-plane shear modulus G12=Gxy =8.PLANE82 Specify Material Properties The next set of commands in the original file.96e9 *SET. we will use the MP command instead.1.7e-3 *SET. the material properties were modified to include the orthotropic material properties: Young's modulus in the fiber direction E1=Ex=59. ET.1.G12.nu21. the modified input file should be as follows: /Title. For the Plate with a Hole tutorial.047 Note that the /Title. Also.NUXY. which is a 8-node 2-D structural solid element.

Since the geometry we want to generate is the same.a.r.0.EY.1.G12 RECTNG.GXY.NUXY.90 ASBA.Note that we have added two more commands: MP. material properties and loading of our problem are also all symmetric with respect to the horizontal and vertical centerlines. RECTNG.r.22e9 *SET.0. allows us to keep the same list of commands to create the desired geometry.1.EY. generate the geometry by creating a square area of side a and then subtracting a circular sector of radius r.2 .E2 MP.r.1. Create Geometry The next set of commands in the original file. we will use the same set of commands.E1.60e-3 *SET.p.E2 and MP.G12. Also. we will model only a quarter of the plate.96e9 *SET. CYL4.E2.G12.GXY.EX. the modified log file should be as follows: /Title.PLANE82 MP. CYL4.0.0.1.7e-3 *SET.1.0.8.2 Note that the list of commands is the same. These define the Young's modulus in the transverse direction and the in-plane shear modulus. In addition.a.a. At this point. The fact that we changed the value for the plate half-width when we modified the parameters. Orthotropic Plate with a Hole *SET.0.a.90 ASBA.0.0.3e9 *SET.1.0.1.1.0.047 /PREP7 ET. respectively.0.0. since the geometry.E1 MP.59.nu21.NUXY command.NU21 MP. note that we have specified the minor Poisson ratio rather than the major Poisson ratio by using the MP.1e6 *SET.0.1.a.

we will continue to modify the original file to mesh the areas and specify boundary conditions. If positive. Copy the list of commands we have generated so far and paste them in the ANSYS Command Input window. Restart ANSYS or go to Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New and select Do not read file (if you have been working on another file). Next. we want to create a mesh that gets finer in the region near the hole. To do this we'll use the LESIZE command. . To do this. The list of commands will generate the following.part2 Specify Line Divisions and Spacing Ratio Since we want to determine the stress concentration on the edge of the hole. Recall that the spacing ratio parameter is used to control mesh grading. you will need to start a new ANSYS session. Step 3: Modify Log file . the spacing ratio is the ratio of the last division size to first division size. which defines the number of divisions and spacing ratio of selected lines.Verify Progress Let's verify the list of commands we created have so far.

0 We will also divide the line that defines the hole into 40 divisions. This will be defaulted to one (no mesh grading).. but we will change the element size to 1. we can replace these four commands with two commands since we already know the lines (8 and 9) where the symmetry boundary conditions are to be applied..0 LESIZE. LESIZE.0.. specify symmetry boundary conditions along lines 8 and 9 of the original Plate with a Hole geometry.. The first command is SMRT. by selecting and grouping the area to be meshed into a component and then meshing the selected component (area in this case).. we can replace these nine commands with a single command to mesh the geometry.50. This command sets the overall element size level for meshing. We will use the same commands for our analysis. which correspond to lines 9 and 8 respectively. we will use grading on the left and bottom lines of the geometry.0.. SMRT. Recall that we used the SmartSize option and set the overall element size to 5 in the Plate with a Hole tutorial.5. However. since we already know the area number we want to mesh (3).. . We will also use 50 divisions for both lines.40.0 The next nine commands create the mesh.5. Since both lines are the same length.. we will use the same command..... The next four commands in the original file. For our problem. LESIZE.8.0...0 Mesh Geometry The next twelve commands in the original file generate the mesh. we will use the same spacing ratio=0.. In this case. As in the case of the meshing. AMESH.25.50.25.For this problem.25..9.2D MSHKEY.3 Specify Boundary Conditions We will now modify the next seven commands to specify the boundary conditions of our problem.. we'll not specify the spacing ratio. MSHAPE.1 The next two commands specify the element shape to be used for meshing (MSHAPE) and specify whether free meshing or mapped meshing should be used (MSHKEY).

..1e6 *SET.r.50. .1...a.DL...0 SMRT.3.0.E2 MP. we can replace these three commands with a single command since we already know the line (2) where the pressure is to be applied.NU21 MP.0.1.22e9 *SET.9..0. This is due to the pressure being applied away from the area and not towards the area.0 AMESH.40.SYMM DL.EY.GXY.0.nu21.E1..a..E1 MP.3e9 *SET.0 LESIZE..E2.PLANE82 MP.90 ASBA.8.0..25.1.0.-p.0 LESIZE... CYL4.60e-3 *SET..SYMM DL.EX.1.047 /PREP7 ET.3 DL.0.a.PRES.59. SFL.8.96e9 *SET.NUXY.p.G12.0.2D MSHKEY.SYMM The next three commands in the original file. apply a pressure load to line 5..2.1..9. which is the vertical line located on the right side of the area. which is the line that defines the hole.2 LESIZE.5.SYMM SFL.7e-3 *SET.r.1 MSHAPE.8.-p. At this point the modified log file should be as follows: /Title.3.8. Also note that the sign of the pressure changed from + to -.0.25.50.3. Again.G12 RECTNG.1.PRES.0.2.9. Note that the pressure is now applied to line 2. Orthotropic Plate with a Hole *SET.3..

To do this we will use command FINISH. Copy the list of commands we have generated so far and paste them in the ANSYS Command Input window. At this point. we need to exit the model creator preprocessor (/PREP7). which is also part of the original file. Restart ANSYS or go to Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New and select Do not read file.Verify Progress Let's verify the commands we have created so far. FINISH We can now enter solution module and solve: /SOL SOLVE FINISH This is equivalent to entering the solution tab in the ANSYS Main Menu and solving the current LS. The list of commands will generate the following: Step 4: Solve! Before solving. the modified log file should be as follows: . To do this. start a new ANSYS session.

..9. we need to enter the database results postprocessor.a..90 ASBA.8.047 /PREP7 ET. CYL4.p. This is equivalent to entering the postprocessing module.0 SMRT.0.0.EX.1.0....3. ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done!"..0..nu21.1.PLANE82 MP.2.E2.40.0 LESIZE. Copy the list of commands we have generated so far and paste them in the ANSYS Command Input window.G12.E2 MP.G12 RECTNG.NU21 MP...0.96e9 *SET.EY.2 LESIZE.3e9 *SET.22e9 *SET.8...3 DL..NUXY.GXY.0 AMESH. FINISH /SOL SOLVE FINISH Verify Progress Let's verify that a solution is generated with the list of commands we have created so far./Title.1.1.2D MSHKEY. Orthotropic Plate with a Hole *SET.SYMM SFL.-p.1 MSHAPE.8.50.0.PRES.1e6 *SET.r.E1 MP.. restart ANSYS or go to Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New and select Do not read file.25..5.SYMM DL.25. .9.0.50.a.1.a.0. Again..r.0..7e-3 *SET.3.59.1. Step 5: Postprocess the Results In order to access the results.0 LESIZE.E1.0.60e-3 *SET.

we will obtain a list of the circumferential stresses as a function of the node number.1 Sort Nodal Data If we were to list the nodal results now.Z. we need to change the options for output of results from cartesian to cylindrical. List Circumferential Stress The last step is to list the results..LINE. Recall that in step 3. LSEL. and XZ stress components at each node.S. Modify Output Options Since we are interested in obtaining the circumferential stress. Therefore.Y.COMP This command generates a list containing the X. NSORT.XY./POST1 To determine the stress concentration along the hole. we can determine the angle at each node. PRNSOL.Y. we are interested in the circumferential stress as a function of the angle (0 to 90 deg).S. we divided the line that defines the hole into 40 elements and that the elements were equally spaced (no grading). the circumferential stress is shown in the second column (Y component).. RSYS.1 Select Lines and Nodes We'll use select logic to first select the line that defines the hole (5) and then the nodes attached to this line. Since the y coordinate of the nodes along the hole increases as the angle increases.1. However.. since we know that the angle varies from 0 to 90 deg and that the line was divided into 40 elements.5 NSLL. . to obtain the circumferential stress as a function of the angle we can sort the results based on the y coordinate of the nodes. Since we changed the options for output of results from cartesian to cylindrical. YZ.LOC. we will first select the nodes attached to the line that defines the hole and then obtain the value of the circumferential stress at each of these nodes.

2 LESIZE.S.PRES.5.NU21 MP..1.2D MSHKEY.LOC.1 LSEL.1.The modified and final log file should be as follows: /Title.0.3 DL.2..r.047 /PREP7 ET..G12.40.nu21.E1.LINE..E2.9.0..GXY...1.0 AMESH.SYMM DL.1. Orthotropic Plate with a Hole *SET.a. CYL4..8..9.0..0.Y.r. .0 SMRT...8.p..0 LESIZE.PLANE82 MP..0.-p.50.3.0 LESIZE.90 ASBA.0.25.a.E2 MP.1.59.96e9 *SET.1e6 *SET.3e9 *SET. FINISH /SOL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 RSYS.a.1.0.COMP Verify Progress Restart ANSYS or go to Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New and select Do not read file..8.0.0.NUXY.0..G12 RECTNG.EY.EX...S.7e-3 *SET.E1 MP.5 NSLL..50.1 MSHAPE.3.. PRNSOL.60e-3 *SET.1 NSORT.25.SYMM SFL.1.22e9 *SET.

we need to import the results obtained into Excel or a similar application. Recall that the angle at each node can be determined based on the number of divisions (90deg/40div=2. L. You will need to create a new column to specify the angle. To do this.lis as the file name.Copy the list of commands and paste them in the ANSYS Command Input window. Open this file using Excel or a similar application and delete all columns except the SY column (circumferential stress). The file will look like this: .25 increments). The list of commands will generate the following: (Click picture for larger image) Analysis of Results We will use the theoretical solution developed by Greszczuk. Enter plate2. save the list generated (PRPATH command window). After the solution is performed. Go to File > Save as.B (see reference below) to verify the results obtained with ANSYS.

. Refer to the reference below for a detailed description of the theoretical solution and associated equations.txt file and plot them along with the theoretical solution.Create a text file (results.txt) with these results. Use Matlab or a similar application to import/read the results.

(Click picture for larger image) As we can see. . the solution obtained with ANSYS compares well with the theoretical solution. The principal radii of curvature of the surface of the upper disk at the point of contact are R1 and R1'. At this angle. Problem Specification Consider two semicircular disks made of elastic material which are pressed together by forces P as shown in the figure below. The highest variation between the theoretical solution and the results obtained with ANSYS occurs at 90 deg. R2 and R2' are the principal radii of curvature of the surface of the lower disk at the point of contact. Likewise. the value obtained with ANSYS varies by less than 3% with respect to the theoretical value. The disks are initially in contact at a single point. The line of action of force P lies along the axis that passes through the centers of curvature of the disks and through the point of contact.

Figure taken from p.29). Both disks are made of steel (E1=E2=200 GPa and n1=n2=0. 590 of Boresi et al. R1'=130mm.7. no friction force is present.5kN. therefore. The maximum principal stress and approach (total distance through which the two disks move towards each other as a result of force P) are to be determined using ANSYS. . 607-608 of Boresi et al. Assume that there is no tendency for one disk to slide with respect to the other and. R2=80mm. This problem is a modified version of the problem presented in section 17. The intersection of the planes in which the radii R1 and R2 (or R1' and R2') lie form an angle a as shown in the figure below. The angle a=0o and the applied force P=4. p. The radii of curvature are R1=60mm. R2'=200mm.

Step 1: Start-up and preliminary set-up Create a folder Create a folder called contact at a convenient location.Figure taken from p. Resize the ANSYS windows as shown in this screen arrangement so that you can read instructions in the browser window and implement them in ANSYS.1 > Configure ANSYS Classic Enter the location of folder contact as your Working directory. Set Preferences Main Menu > Preferences . Specify diskscontact as your Initial jobname. Click on Run. We'll use this folder to store files created during the ANSYS session. 591 of Boresi et al. Start ANSYS Start > Programs > ANSYS 7.

Enter Parameters For convenience. R1'. impractical and excessively large displacements may occur. Click OK. click on the box next to Structural so that a tick mark appears in the box. R2 and R2'. Similarly. n=nu and the initial interference between the disks. As a result.29 . Furthermore. in problems where rigid body motions are constrained only by the presence of contact.In the Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box. rigid body motion occurs when a body is not sufficiently restrained. Recall that this is an optional step that customizes the graphical user interface so that only menu options valid for structural problems are made available during the ANSYS session. we will define a scalar parameter (inter) to specify the amount of initial interference between the disks and build the geometry so that the disks are just touching. In other words. it is critical to ensure that the bodies (and contact pairs) are in contact in the initial geometry. inter. For this reason. In static analysis. Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Enter the parameter value for R1: R1=60 Click Accept. you want to build your model so that the bodies (and contact pairs) are "just touching. load p. R1p=130 R2=80 R2p=200 inter=1e-5 p=4500 E=2e5 nu=0. we'll create scalar parameters corresponding to the principal radii of curvature of the upper and lower disks R1." The definition of initial contact is perhaps the most important aspect of building a contact analysis model. material properties E. enter the other parameter values and click Accept after each.

Note that we have specified the radii in mm. the displacement results we obtain will be in mm and the stresses in N/mm2. Click OK. Step 2: Specify element type and constants Specify Element Type We will use SOLID92 elements to mesh the upper and lower disks.. the load p in N and the Young's modulus in N/mm2. Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add. This is a 3D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid element.Close the Scalar Parameters window. Therefore. This is also helpful in carrying out parametric studies where one looks at the effect of changing a parameter. . This brings up the Library of Element Types menu. Select Structural Solid in the left field and Tet 10node 92 in the right field. We can now enter these variable names instead of the corresponding values as we set up the problem in ANSYS..

as shown in the Contact Capabilities table (10. Think of the contact elements as the skin of the surface that is expected to come into contact. Close the Element Types menu. For our problem. However. and we'll use it to mesh the contact surface. there are two surfaces that are expected to come into contact. These are the curved areas that are initially in contact at the point of contact.1 summarizes the different elements available. Once the contact and target surfaces are identified. and group them into either "contact" surfaces or "target" surfaces.1). If you read the ANSYS Contact Capabilities help page. For our problem. Click on ANSYS Contact Capabilities which is the third topic from the top.In contact problems. the initial interaction between the disks is at a point. This brings up the Chapter 10 Contact help page. node-to-surface. The contact elements will overlay the solid elements (SOLID92) and will describe the boundary of the upper disk (contact surface) that is expected to come into contact with the lower disk (target surface). Utility Menu > Help > Help Topics Select the Index tab and type in contact analysis as the keyword. . We will define the curved surface of the lower disk to be the target surface (larger of the two). This element also supports 3-D structural contact analysis. Each type of model uses a different set of contact elements. One of them is size. the curved surface of the upper disk will be the contact surface. Note that ANSYS supports three types of contact models: node-to-node. As a result. Table 10. There are various guidelines for defining contact and target surfaces. Let's take a look at the different elements available. we expect the surfaces of the disks to come into contact once the force is applied. and surface-to surface. If one surface is larger than the other surface. you will find that CONTA175 is one of the node-to-surface contact elements that can be used to represent contact between a node and a surface or between two surfaces. the larger surface should be the target surface. one needs to identify the surfaces that are expected to come into contact. the next step is to select the contact and target elements. Double-click on Contact analysis which should be the first topic listed.

select Contact in the left field and 3D target 170 in the right field. we will use TARGE170 elements to mesh the target surface. This brings up the Library of Element Types menu.. Click OK. we can use either TARGE169 or TARGE170 elements. Close the Element Types menu.For the target surface. Select Contact in the left field and pt-to-surf 175 in the right field. . Specify Element Constants Main Menu > Preprocessor> Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete > Add This brings up the Element Type for Real Constants menu with a list of the element types defined in the previous step. Click Apply.. Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add. Since TARGE169 elements support 2-D analysis and TARGE170 support 3-D analysis.

Real constants R1 and R2 define the geometry of the target elements. Select TARGE170 and click OK. Now. ANSYS will default R1 and R2 to zero once the target elements are generated. Click on Add. For contact problems. it is recommended to first try using the default settings. let's look at the real constants for TARGE170. and then change them if difficulties are encountered or the analysis has special situations. Close the warning message. under SOLID92 Input Summary.Select SOLID92 and click OK. Click Cancel. We'll use the default values for our analysis. Take a look at the help pages for SOLID92. and you will find that there are no real constants to be specified for this element. You should get a note "The SOLID92 element type does not require real constants". .

Note that for some of the real constants. As in the previous case. Refer to the help page for CONTA175. Click Cancel and then Close the Real Constants menu. such as FKN and FTOLN. Save your work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Go to Step 3: Specify material properties Step 3: Specify material properties . As you can see. ANSYS interprets a positive value as a scaling factor and a negative value as the absolute value. you can specify either a positive or a negative value. select CONTA175 and click OK.Now. we'll use the default values set by ANSYS for our analysis. let's look at the real constants for CONTA175. for a detailed description of the real constants for this element. ANSYS uses several real constants to control contact behavior. Click on Add.

nu for Poisson's Ratio PRXY. Elastic. We'll use the previously defined parameter names to specify the material properties. Double-click on Structural. Enter E for Young's modulus EX. To double-check the material property values. Click OK.. Cancel the Linear Isotropic Properties window. . double-click on Linear Isotropic under Material Model Number 1 in the Define Material Model Behavior menu. Linear. This will show you the current values for EX and PRXY. and Isotropic.. This brings up the Define Material Model Behavior menu..Main Menu > Preprocessor >Material Props > Material Models .

angle between the planes in which radii R1 and R2 lie is zero). we'll perform the analysis on a quarter of the volumes only. We'll generate the volumes by first creating two base areas and then rotating them about an axis/line. the upper and lower volume have the same orientation. Save your work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 4: Specify geometry Because of the inherent symmetry of the model. ANSYS substitutes the corresponding parameter values as soon as you click OK or Apply. . when viewed from the top.When you enter parameter names. The base area for the upper disk is shown in purple and the axis of rotation in red in the figure below. We will define the origin of the coordinate system to be at the point of contact. Close the Define Material Model Behavior menu. As a result. Recall that a=0 (i.e. This completes the specification of Material Model Number 1.

Y=R1-inter. Keypoint 10: X=0. Y=R1p-inter. Y=R1-inter. Keypoint 6: X=R1. Y=-R2. Click Apply. Enter the keypoint locations: Keypoint 1: X=0. Z=0. Y=-inter. Keypoint 5: X=0. Z=0. Click Apply. . Z=0.Create Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS In order to build the geometry so that the disks are just touching. Click Apply. Keypoint 2: X=R2. Z=0. Y=-R2p. Click OK. Z=0. Z=0. Keypoint 4: X=0. to be displaced in the negative y direction by a distance inter. Z=0. Keypoint 7: X=R1. Z=0. we will use scalar parameter inter. Y=R1p-inter. Click Apply. Y=-R2p. Keypoint 9: X=0. Click Apply. We'll specify all the keypoints from which the upper base area will be generated. Keypoint 3: X=R2. Z=0. Click Apply. Z=0. Keypoint 8: X=0. Y=0. Click Apply. Y=-R2. Click Apply. Click Apply.

Start by creating the line between keypoints 2 and 3. Click OK. Click OK. Click on keypoint 2 and then keypoint 3. 4 & 1. Start by creating the arc between keypoints 6 and 5. end and center of curvature) are automatically selected and we don't need to change them. This is the keypoint on the center-of-curvature side and plane of arc. This brings up the Arc by End KPs and Radius menu. Click on keypoint 6 and then keypoint 5.Create Lines Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >In Active Coord This brings up the Lines in Active Coord pick menu. create lines between keypoints 3 & 4. . Then. click on keypoint 10. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Arcs > By End KPs & Rad This brings up the Arc by End KPs & Rad pick menu. These are the keypoints at start and end of arc. Similarly. Enter R1 for RAD Radius of the arc. The other parameters (keypoints at start. 6 & 7. Click Apply. 7 & 8 and 8 & 5.

using keypoint 9 as the center-ofcurvature and R2 as the RAD Radius of the arc. 3 and 8 to create the lower area. Create Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor >Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > By Lines This brings up the Create Area by Lines pick menu. 6 and 7 to create the upper area. create the arc between keypoints 2 and 1. select lines 1. 2. Similarly. Click Apply.Similarly. At this point we have all the lines and arcs needed to create the areas. 5. Click OK. Select lines 4. .

real constant set and material property set to be used in the meshing of the upper and lower volumes. Set Meshing Parameters We'll now specify the element type. Main Menu > Preprocessor > MeshTool This brings up the MeshTool. following the right hand rule. . Then.If you did this correctly. Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Step 5: Mesh geometry We'll start by meshing the upper and lower disks using SOLID92 elements . you will see that both areas are rotated 90 degrees in the negative z direction. we'll mesh the target and contact surfaces using TARGE170 elements and CONT175 elements respectively. Note that the key step here is to specify a rotation angle consistent with your selection of initial and final keypoints. Make sure Global is selected under Element Attributes and click on Set.

Click on the SmartSize checkbox so that a tickmark appears in it. Also. You will see that PLANE92 and material number 1 are already selected. Click OK. Set Mesh Size We'll use the SmartSize option which enables automatic element sizing. Click on the Mesh button. ANSYS tells you to "pick or enter volumes to be meshed". recall that no real constants need to be specified for PLANE92 element type. so make sure the default option of Tet is selected under Shape. Mesh Volumes In the MeshTool. Since both volumes are to be meshed. click on Pick All. This brings up the Mesh Volumes pick menu. We'll use tetrahedral elements. make sure Volumes is selected in the drop-down list next to Mesh. The geometry is meshed and the elements are plotted in the Graphics window. In the Input window.This brings up the Meshing Attributes menu. . Change the setting for the overall element size level to 1 by moving the slider under SmartSize to the left. We'll also use the default of Free meshing.

. Click Apply. Area 8 belongs to the lower disk and is the curved area that will come into contact with the upper disk once the force is applied. Several target elements comprise one target surface. You might need to rotate the view to be able to select this area. we need to select the nodes attached to the surface of the lower disk that are expected to come into contact with the upper disk. To do this we will use "select logic".Mesh Target Surface Before meshing the target surface. only a subset of the nodes located above the y=-2 plane actually come into contact with the upper disk. Hold down the left mouse button until area 8 is selected. we will select only the nodes near the point of contact and define the target surface with these nodes. Since only a small area of the lower disk is expected to come into contact with the upper disk. In contact problems. the target surface is modeled through a set of target segments/elements. Make sure By Num/Pick is selected below that. First. As we will see in the results. Click OK in the pick menu. Verify that area 8 has been selected: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Areas from the pull-down menu at the top. we'll select the target area and then the nodes attached to this area and located above the y=-2 plane. These target elements will define the surface of the lower disk that is expected to come into contact with the upper disk.

In the Select Entities menu. Select Areas.5 as the Min. All below that. make sure Nodes is selected in the pull-down menu at the top and select By Location below that. Then select Reselect below that since we want to select a subset of the already selected nodes. select Nodes from the pull-down menu at the top and Attached to below that. Click OK. In the Select Entities menu.Next we'll select the nodes attached to this area. Check that only nodes attached to area 8 are currently selected: Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Next we'll select the nodes located above the y=-2 plane. Select Y coordinates below that and enter -2. Check that only nodes above the y=-2 plane are currently selected: Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes .Max.0. Click Apply.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes This brings up the Element Attributes menu. Click OK. . We'll use the default settings. Click OK. Note that the material number is defaulted to 1 as this the only one available. recall that we did not define any real constants for this element. We have now specified the element type to be used for the meshing of the target surface. Also. Select 2 TARGE170 for Element type number.We'll now mesh the selected nodes using TARGE170 elements. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Surf /Contact > Surf to Surf This brings up the Mesh Free Surface menu.

Mesh Contact Surface We'll now mesh the contact surface. we'll select the contact area first and then the nodes attached to this area and located below the y=1. we'll start by selecting the nodes attached to the surface of the upper disk that are expected to come into contact with the lower disk. In this case. click Pick All. Contact problems are highly nonlinear and require significant computer resources to solve. In the Input window.5 plane.This brings up the Mesh free Surfaces pick menu. it is best to use an iterative approach in order to reach an appropriate number of nodes and build an efficient model. you want to keep the number of selected nodes as small as possible to reduce the time to generate a solution. where you expect large displacements or where you don't know where contact might occur between bodies. we need to undo the selections of areas and nodes we made in the previous step. Utility Menu > Select > Entities . you want to start by selecting as many nodes as possible to capture all regions where contact may occur. The target surface is meshed and the elements are plotted in the Graphics window. Select everything: Utility Menu > Select > Everything. First. Again. At the same time. Since we have already selected the nodes. In solving contact problems. In most cases. ANSYS tells you to "pick or enter node for contact elements ".

Next we'll select the nodes attached to this area.Select Areas from the pull-down menu at the top and By Num/Pick below that. Select From Full below that. Click OK in the pick menu. Click Apply.5. Then select Reselect below that since we want to select a subset of the already selected nodes.5 plane.5 plane are currently selected: Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes . Area 4 belongs to the lower body and is the curved area that will be in contact with the lower/target body once the force is applied. Select Y coordinates below that and enter -0. In the Select Entities menu. Select Areas. Click OK. make sure Nodes is selected in the pull-down menu at the top and select By Location below that. All and From Full below that. In the Select Entities menu.Max. Check that only nodes below the y=1.1. Verify that area 4 has been selected: Utility Menu > Plot > Areas. Click Apply. select Nodes from the pull-down menu at the top and Attached to below that. Hold down the left mouse button until area 4 is selected. You might need to rotate the view to be able to select this area.5 as the Min. Check that only nodes attached to area 4 are currently selected: Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Next we'll select the nodes located below the y=1.

Click OK. ANSYS has set the various real constants to their default values and created real constant set 1. Click OK. Close the warning message that appears. Select 3 CONTA175 for Element type number. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes This brings up the Element Attributes menu. Note that the material number and the real constant set number are both set to 1. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Surf /Contact > Node to Surf This brings up the Mesh Free Surface menu. .We'll now mesh the selected nodes using CONTA175 elements. We have now specified the element type to be used for the meshing of the contact surface.

. Select everything: Utility Menu > Select > Everything. The target surface is meshed and the elements are plotted in the Graphics window. Apply Symmetry Boundary Conditions We'll apply symmetry boundary conditions along the planes of symmetry. One important change to note is that instead of applying force P to the lower disk. ANSYS tells you to "pick or enter node for contact elements ". click Pick All. > On Areas Select the four areas that define the planes of symmetry by clicking on them.This brings up the Mesh free Surfaces pick menu. Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Go to 6: Specify boundary conditions Step 6: Specify boundary conditions As in previous tutorials. we'll constrain the lower surface of the lower disk in the vertical (y) direction in order to sufficiently constrain the model and avoid rigid body motion. In the Input window. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B. we need to undo the selections of areas and nodes we have made. Before we move to the next step. Since we have already selected the nodes. we'll apply the loads to the geometry rather than the mesh.C.

Apply Displacement Constraints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas .Click OK. The symbol s appears along these areas indicating that symmetry B.s have been applied.C.

Select the bottom area of the lower disk (x-z plane).Rot on Areas pick menu. Apply Force Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints This brings up the Apply F/M on KPs pick menu. Note that we have divided the total force P=4500N by four to account for the fact that only a quarter of the volumes are being modeled. Select keypoint 8 on the upper body and click OK.Rot on Areas menu. A single red arrow denotes the force and the direction in which it is acting. Enter -p/4 for Force/Moment value and click OK. Click OK. Select UY for the DOFs to be constrained and enter 0 for the Displacement value. . This brings up the Apply F/M on Keypoints menu. Click OK. Select FY for the Direction of force/mom. This brings up the Apply U.This brings up the Apply U.

Apply Coupled BCs We will apply a coupled boundary condition to the upper area of the upper disk to ensure that all nodes attached to this area move equally as a result of the applied load. Click OK. ANSYS tells you to "Pick or enter nodes to be coupled". Since we have already selected the nodes. In the Input window. Next we'll select the nodes attached to this area. click Pick All. Click OK. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Areas from the pull-down menu at the top and By Num/Pick below that. Select Areas. Select From Full below that. Click Apply. Area 6 is the upper area (x-z plane) of the upper disk. select Nodes from the pull-down menu at the top and Attached to below that. Verify that only nodes attached to area 6 are currently selected: Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes We'll now apply a coupled boundary condition to the selected nodes. . In the Select Entities menu. Hold down the left mouse button until area 6 is selected. All below that. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Coupling/Ceqn > Couple DOFs This brings up the Define Coupled DOFs pick menu.

Before we move to the next step. Enter 1 for Set reference number which is an arbitrary number. Click OK. the definition of initial contact is perhaps the most important aspect of building a contact analysis model. Issue the following command in the ANSYS Command Input window: cncheck . we need to undo the selection of nodes and areas we have made.This brings up the Define Coupled DOFs menu. Save Your Work Toolbar > SAVE_DB Go to Step 7: Solve! tep 7: Solve! As mentioned in step 1. we'll verify the initial contact status. Before we start the solution. Select UY for Degree-of-freedom label as we want to couple the movement of the nodes in the y direction. Select everything: Utility Menu > Select > Everything. This step ensures that all nodes on the upper surface will move equally as a result of the applied load.

This is consistent with the value of parameter inter=1e-5. enter 100 for Time at end of loadstep and select off from the Automatic time stepping drop-down menu. Click OK. Also. which we set up at the beginning of the tutorial. Select Large Displacement Static for Analysis Options. Under Time Control. To do this. Define Solution Control Options We'll specify the analysis option as a static analysis in which large deformation effects are to be included.This feature lists the initial status of contact pairs and provides a summary of the contact problem we have set up. Note that an initial penetration of 1E-5 has been detected. Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls This brings up the Solution Controls menu. we'll use the Solution Controls menu. note that 1 contact pair is selected. .

Close the yellow window. If the problem has been set up correctly. You should get the following screen. which shows that the solution has converged. Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Review the information in the /STATUS Command window. If you look in the Output window. Click OK in Solve Current Load Step menu. you should see the message: The analysis data was checked and no warnings or errors were found. there will be no errors or warnings reported. ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done!". Close this window.Solve We are now ready to solve: Main Menu > Solution Issue check in the ANSYS Command Input window. .

Go to Step 8: Postprocess the results Step 8: Postprocess the Results Enter the postprocessing module to analyze the solution. von Mises SEQV from the right list and click OK.Verify that ANSYS has created a file called diskscontact. Main Menu > General Postproc Plot Nodal Solution of Von Mises Stress Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu This brings up the Contour Nodal Solution Data menu. . Select Stress from the left list. Zoom in at the point of contact. This file contains the results of the (previous) solve.rst in your working directory.

respectively. The first three columns list the first. As you can see. . second and third principal stresses at each node. the upper and lower disks have deformed and come into contact. List Maximum Compressive Stress To determine the max principal stress we'll list the principal stresses.The contour plot also shows the locations of the maximum and minimum values with the labels MX and MN. Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution This brings up the List Nodal Solution menu. Select Stress from the left list. Principals SPRIN from the right and click OK. Scroll all the way down in this window.

the max compressive stress is located at node 4 (Third principal stress S3) which belongs to the lower disk and is the node initially in contact with the upper disk. the max principal stress has units of N/mm2. Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution This brings up the List Nodal Solution menu.As you can see. List Maximum Displacements To determine the approach (i. Select DOF solution from the left list. total distance through which the two bodies move towards each other as a result of load P) we'll list the displacements of all nodes in the y direction.9. This is also consistent with what one would expect based on the geometry and loading conditions. the maximum principal stress is -1574. Recall that the the applied force was specified in Newtons (p=4500N) and the geometry in mm. which tells us that the max stress is a compressive stress. . As a result. This is what one would expect based on the loading conditions. Also note that the value is negative.e. In addition. Translation UY from the right and click OK.

0252mm Max Prin Stress -1667N/mm2 -1574. Step 9: Validate the results Theoretical Results We will compare the solution obtained with ANSYS with the expected theoretical values.The approach can be determined by finding the total displacement of a node attached to the upper surface of the upper disk.0258mm 0.0252 mm. From the list above we can see that the displacement of these nodes is the same and has a value of -0. Nodes 7 and 10 are attached to the upper area of the upper disk.2525e-01. the approach or total distance through which the two bodies move towards each other is 0. As a result. Therefore. The max principal stress also compares well with the theoretical value (less than 6% variation). Recall that the geometry was specified in mm. Theory ANSYS Approach 0. Since all the nodes attached to the upper area will be equally displaced as a result of the coupled boundary condition. . . the displacement has units of mm. we can look at the displacement of any node attached to the upper surface.9N/mm2 As we can see. the value for the approach obtained with ANSYS compares well with the theoretical value (less than 3% variation).