You are on page 1of 8

Quarterly scientific, online publication of A’ Nursing Department, Technological Educational Institute of Athens

_REVIEW_

The importance of role-play in nursing practice
Fotoula P. Babatsikou1, Georgia K. Gerogianni2 1. Assistant Professor of Nursing, Laboratory of Community Heath Nursing, Department of Nursing A΄,
Technological Educational Institute (T.E.I.) of Athens, Greece Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece

2. Lecturer of Nursing, Laboratory of Community Heath Nursing, Department of Nursing A ΄,

ABSTRACT Background: A role-play situation is designed to reflect the interaction between a care provider and a patient in order to implement the expected therapeutic outcome. The most important themes derived from a role-play situation are understanding, self-disclosure and trust, respect, truth telling and honesty, power and interpersonal conflicts, empowerment and support, reflective thoughts. Method and Material: Literature review based on studies and reviews derived from international (Medline, PubMed, Cinahl, Scopus) and Greek (Iatrotek) data bases concerning nurse-patient relationship in the context of therapeutic communication, using the following key words: Role play, interaction, communication skills, patient, therapeutic outcome Results: The issue of understanding is present in each role-play situation. Self-disclosure is an important issue in a role-play situation, since it allows patients to trust nurses. Additionally, during a role play situation the nurse needs to respect the patient, while honesty is closely associated with trust and affects the credibility of the care provider. Also, care providers need to be tolerant during their interaction with their patients in order to avoid any interpersonal conflicts. Conclusions: The use of a role play situation between a nurse and a patient is very important, because it can contribute to the implementation of the expected therapeutic outcome. However, a theoretical basis is essential for an effective interaction between patients and nurses. Keywords: Role play, interaction, communication skills, patient, therapeutic outcome. CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Georgia K. Gerogianni Vakxilidou 8-10 Street Athens, 11528 Phone: 210-7710331 Mob: 6976209753 E-mail: g_gerogianni@hotmail.com

INTRODUCTION

C

ommunication

is

an

essential

gives them the opportunity to exchange opinions, thoughts and ideas.
Page | 4

component in people’s life, since it

The importance of role-play in nursing practice

HEALTH SCIENCE JOURNAL® Volume 6. A role-play situation is designed to reflect the interaction between a care provider and a patient in order to implement the expected therapeutic outcome. since people can affect or become affected through their interactions 1 use the appropriate listening skills in order to understand patients’ problems. since it enables nurses patients' and effectively support them . Self-disclosure is essential in the context of therapeutic communication. authentic. Nurses have to E-ISSN: 1791-809X Health Science Journal © All rights reserved www. Although a considerable number of health professionals use listening skills when communicating with patients. Understanding is of vast importance in the to context explore of therapeutic problems 3 . trusting. honest. strong. The last years nursing inquiry has been mostly focused on the nurse-patient relationship in the context of therapeutic communication 2. as it can contribute to the implementation of the expected therapeutic outcome.gr . People who self-disclose are open. It is very important that health professionals should have the ability to apply during effective their communication interaction with skills their communication. few of them use these effectively 4 . friendly. For this purpose. warm. while they have the ability to control the conversation and collect accurate condition 5. together. Effective communication is of great importance in the clinical area. since it allows patients to trust nurses. free. encourage them to express their fears and worries. nurses have to use active listening in order to let patients know that they hear and understand them and collect useful information about their condition. When they care providers use active listening during interaction with their patients. Self-disclosure and trust Self-disclosure is an important issue in a role-play situation. since it helps health professionals to gain patients' trust 6. Issue 1 (January – March 2012) Communication is transactional. The most important issues derived from the analysis of a role-play situation are as follows:        Understanding Self-disclosure and trust Respect Truth telling and honesty Power and interpersonal conflicts Empowerment and support Reflective thoughts 3. information about their Understanding The issue of understanding is present in each role-play situation.hsj. and maturing Page | 5 patients 3.

Honesty can contribute to therapeutic communication. nurses need to develop effective communication skills with their patients in order to gain their trust during a role play situation . So. Once a person is trusted. and is of great importance in the context of therapeutic communication3. Additionally. Apart from self-disclosure. Truth telling and honesty The issue of truth telling and honesty is present in a role-play situation. nurses need to respect their patients. his or her ability to influence others is greatly enhanced . online publication of A’ Nursing Department. since respect 3 9 8 and their psychological Power and interpersonal conflicts Page | 6 The importance of role-play in nursing practice . as they regard nurses as the most appropriate persons to help them. as it helps patients to be informed about their condition and deal better with their problem10. as it makes patient trust his providers need to disclose their emotions patients build therapeutic relationship with them. even if they feel the necessity to express their pain. promising that they will not break their confidentiality. For this purpose. In a role play situation the patient needs to be aware of what to expect from the care provider. Technological Educational Institute of Athens personally to and interpersonally7. Otherwise. honesty. breaking a promise is hurtful for them. The notion of respect has a close relationship with trust. nurses need to create a friendly relationship with their patients and gain their trust during a role-play situation. Respect During a role play situation. A considerable number of patients cannot fully trust their nurses.Quarterly scientific. nurses need to keep their promise and maintain a good relationship with their patients. in order to be willing to cooperate with him11. It is important that nurses should perceive emotions and attitudes of their patients in order to create an effective communication with them 6. it is important that nurses and other health professionals should be honest during their interaction with their patients. Trust plays an important role in human relationships. Consequently. Selfdisclosure helps patients to reduce their anxiety concerns . So. the credibility of the care provider. in order to Care a helps them to form a good opinion of nurses and open their heart. they need to encourage patients to speak freely. information can reduce anxiety and improve patients’ recovery process. Honesty is closely associated with trust and affects nurse 3. and understanding.

Similarly. Consequently. while health providers need to protect patients' rights and make them feel confident to make their own decisions 15 providers need to be tolerant and keep their temper during their interaction with their patients. The provision of accurate information and encouragement help care providers to create a therapeutic environment with their patients during a role play situation 17 . Issue 1 (January – March 2012) Interpersonal conflicts occur frequently in a health environment and health professionals effectively.hsj. to Reflective provide by thoughts assistance and help nurses . Reflective thoughts Reflecting is a kind of interpretation of what other to people their which say. care providers with aggressive patients need to play a conciliatory role in their interaction during a role play situation.HEALTH SCIENCE JOURNAL® Volume 6. On the other hand. Theoretical frameworks for the analysis of a role-play situation A variety of communication frameworks and processes can be used to guide the analysis of the interaction in a role-play situation. it is essential in human relationships conflict 13 12 . patients say Additionally. The Intersystem model serves as useful guide for nurses.gr . the use of power is a cause of . Moreover. there is a need to facilitate the patient in arriving at free choices in determining his progression through health or disease 16 . Patients need to participate in their own treatment 11 . and supports nursepatient collaboration in the provision of effective care 18 patients are understanding and confronting feelings emotions expressed reflective strategies to indirectly. as well as the environment affecting them. People who use power have the ability to control behaviors. them care this context of therapeutic communication. Communication frameworks have many different formats Page | 7 E-ISSN: 1791-809X Health Science Journal © All rights reserved www. psychological and spiritual subsystems of people. need For to manage purpose. since it is focused on the assessment of biological. and try not to show irritation 8. gain compliance and change beliefs. and thus. the nurse has to empower patient to deal better with his problem and provide him with accurate information about his condition. interact with them effectively during a role play situation Empowerment and support The issue of empowerment and support is the initial purpose of each nurse in the . and 14 thoughts help nurses to interpret what find . in a role-play situation.

Additionally. communication communication usually while he/she tries to information uncover previous repressed conflicts in use the means of control and conformity in terms of knowledge. attitudes. Disengagement counselling patient20. his life 20. understand and act. values. and behaviours. Problem-solving planning. Generation of insight-the patient’s life is viewed by them in a different light. Discussion of the surface issues. Furthermore. 2. role-play situation the nurse has to give patient the opportunity to express his opinion participate about in his decision problem making. strategies of supportive communication can guide the conversation between the nurse and the patient and result in a supportive solution23. To focus communication on specific behaviours 2. and The counselling relationship includes eight stages. for the analysis of the interaction patient. Additionally. 5. Technological Educational Institute of Athens but they all contain the following 1. to clarify problems. active . 4. which are as follows: The importance of role-play in nursing practice Page | 8 . To be congruent cognitive approach to communication opinion. to identify ways of action 8 and evaluate their effectiveness . while the helping relationship aims to establish warmth and rapport. This model helps the patient to explore. 6. Meeting the patient. nurses can use the three-stage model of the counseling process.Quarterly scientific. The message 4. 19 For the analysis of the interpersonal interactions of a role-play situation. Revelation of deeper issues. The sender 2. where the counselor intends to establish a clear picture of the patient's early development and life experiences. Moreover. 3. the interviewer needs: 1. to set goals. The feedback15. nurses can follow the psychoanalytical approach to counseling. 7. In a considering them participants in their learning20. For applying the principles of supportive communication. Action by the patient. 8. online publication of A’ Nursing Department. which focuses nurses on can people's to be 21 communication strategy for conformity diversity22. Ownership of feelings and possibly emotional release. The receiver 3. or between nurse a nurse and a the of views as the can This plan and utilize type from by the the relationship and future elements: 1.

B. Macmillan Press Ltd. maintain the therapeutic environment during a role play situation. Haddad A. In: Dahnke GL. 1992. For this purpose. Aranda SK. They also need to be honest and friendly in order to create a therapeutic relationship with patients. Belmont. Philadelphia. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Ragan SL. However. Baird SB. they can create the appropriate environment for the provision of effective counselling and support to their patients. 5. (Eds) Human communication: Theory and research. Faulkner A. In: Long A. To accept responsibility for his/her own prejudice 23. Northouse PG. To adopt supportive and active listening 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 6: 75-82. To be conjunctive 5. Being authentic and being a chameleon: nurse-patient interaction revisited. Churchill Livingstone. SAGE Publications Inc. B Northouse LL. Newbury Park. 6. 4. (5th edition).HEALTH SCIENCE JOURNAL® Volume 6. To be descriptive towards other people 4. Philadelphia. Purtilo R. In: McCorkle R. Conclusions Nurses need to have the ability to communicate effectively with patients in order to achieve the desirable therapeutic outcome. Saunders Company. New York. Effective Interaction with patients.hsj. nurses should be good counsellors in their interaction with their patients. Finally. London. Saunders Company. Pagano MP. Grant M. 1996. Use of presence in community health care nursing. (2nd edition). Nursing Inquiry 1999. W. 1990. theoretical basis is essential for an effective interaction between patients and nurses. Interpersonal communication. Frank-Stromborg M. 1999: 24-48. 1998. When nurses apply the above principles during a role play situation.B. 2. 7. Miller GR. Interpersonal communication systems. the use of a role play situation between a nurse and a patient can contribute to the implementation therapeutic of the expected a outcomes. Apart from good care providers. Slevin E. 3. Clatterbuck GW. 1211-1222. 1996. Health professional and patient interaction.gr . Issue 1 (January – March 2012) 3. W. Communication skills for professional nurses. (Eds) Cancer Nursing: a comprehensive textbook. (Eds) Interaction for practice in community nursing. Street AF. 91-122. it is very important that nurses should be able to deal effectively with different types of patients and Page | 9 E-ISSN: 1791-809X Health Science Journal © All rights reserved www.

Communicating beyond individual bias. 12. Delia JG. British Journal of Nursing 1996. Technological Educational Institute of Athens 8. In: Dahnke GL. 229-258.Baxter R. An introduction to planned communication. 50-69. Setting the scene. Kunimoto EN. (Eds) Interaction for practice in community nursing. Secrets and lies: Ethical communication. The importance of role-play in nursing practice Page | 10 . 15.Kreps GL. 1994. 21. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 11. 190-216.Slevin O. London. 1990. 1992. Effective communication in multicultural health care settings. In: Dahnke GL. 1995. 1999. 23. Living with dementia: Communicating with an older person and her family. In: Long A. Lying to patients: can it be justified? Nursing Standard 1993. 1994.O’Keefe BJ.Windahl S.Odell A. Nursing Ethics 1999. In: Long. 17. 16: 194-205.5 (21): 13231324.Newell R. Using communication theory. Knapp M. 7 (18): 29-31. online publication of A’ Nursing Department. (Eds) Interaction for practice in community nursing. SAGE Publications Ltd. 19. 16. Journal of Advanced Nursing1991. The development of the intersystem model. Miller MD.Burgoon M. London. A. (Eds) Human communication: Theory and research. 49-83. (Eds) Human communication: Theory and research. 9.Groogan S. Evans J. 1999. London. In: Long A. London. 9-23. 169-189. Professional interpersonal skills for nurses. London. (Eds) Interaction for practice in community Nursing. 1990. 20. Belmont. 14. Macmillan Press Ltd. Macmillan Press Ltd. 18. Cheltenham. 1999. (Eds) Human communication: Theory and research. The nurse patient relationship: Caring in a health care context. 1999. Routledge. 10. 22. SAGE Publications Inc.Quarterly scientific. Clatterbuck GW. 13. Slevin E. Stanley Thornes Ltd. 23-49. Clatterbuck GW. Belmont. Nonverbal communication. In: Long A. Thaousand Oaks. 6 (1): 23-36. Macmillan Press Ltd. London.Long A. Counselling for effective practice. Wadsworth Publishing Company. 133-168. Belmont. Language and communication. Interviewing skills for nurses and other health care professionals. Communication theory and the shift handover report. Signitzer B. (Eds) Interaction for practice in community nursing. In: Dahnke GL.Martin J. In: Long A. Communication and influence.Artinian BM. Macmillan Press Ltd. Wadsworth Publishing Company. and Clatterbuck GW.Tourish D. 1990. Macmillan Press Ltd. 1999. (Eds) Interaction for practice in community nursing. Olson T. Kagan C.Barr O. London.

download. However. or email articles for individual use. users may print. .Copyright of Health Science Journal is the property of Technological Educational Institute of Athens and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission.