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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM The circulatory system consists of the heart, a muscular cavitary organ, and the vascular

system, which is s system of vessels that transports the blood through the whole body: capillaries, arteries and veins.

The vascular system 1. The capillaries are small caliber vessels (with a diameter of 7-14 microns), which allow the pass of the red blood cells only in s single file. Structurally, the capillary wall is very thin, formed of an endothelium, which rests on a basement membrane. In between the layers of the basement membrane sometimes we can see an undifferentiated cell, named pericyte. Capillary, Masson-Goldner trichrome staining. -on low magnification: we will notice the general structure of a cross section through the tongue, and observe the dorsal surface of the mucosa, which covers the papillae of the tongue. This mucosa is formed of a stratified squamous epithelium, stained in brown, in some places with a keratin layer, stained in orange and lamina propria, in which the collagen fibers are stained in green. In the lamina propria we will find the capillaries in different sections with a narrow lumen, delineated by a very thin wall. -on high magnification: in longitudinal section, we will observe the capillary wall formed of a single layer of flattened squamous cells (endothelial cells) placed on a basement membrane. The endothelial cells have an oval, hiperchromic nucleus, oriented parallel to the basement membrane, stained in brown-black and which protrudes into the vessel’s lumen in an alternating pattern, like ”the teeth of a saw”. In some capillaries, inside the basement membrane we can see the nucleus of the pericyte, with a different aspect than the nucleus of the endothelial cell: it is larger and hipochromic. In cross section, the capillary has a small lumen, in which at most one nucleus protrudes (the nucleus of the endothelial cell). In some cross sections through the capillary we may also observe the nucleus of the pericyte at the periphery. Image Capillary 1 – cross section; 2 – longitudinal section; 3 – red blood cells; 4 – nucleus of endothelial cell. Differential diagnosis: with the arterioles and venules in the lamina propria of the mucosa. 2. The arteries. Arteries have the wall composed of three tunics or layers: -the tunica intima lines the lumen of the vessel and consists also of three layers: endothelium, subendothelial layer and internal elastic lamina. -the tunica media is the most developed layer, formed of smooth muscle fibers and elastic lamellae in various proportions in different types of arteries, concentrically arranged around the lumen.

-the tunica adventitia formed of the external elastic lamina, next to the tunica media and collagen fibers, elastic fibers placed longitudinally (along the vessels). In a cross section through the vessel’s wall, the concentrically arranged structures will be observed in longitudinal section, and those longitudinally arranged, in cross section. We will study two types of arteries: the large elastic arteries and the medium-sized muscular arteries. Large elastic artery, HE staining, aorta. -on low magnification: we will observe on cross section the large, round or oval, regular lumen of the aorta, with a thick wall, structured in three tunics: the tunica intima, which represents about 10%, the tunica media 80% and the tunica adventitia 10% of the thickness of the wall. In HE staining, the elastic structures in the arterial wall are colorless, and appear as empty or refringent spaces. -on high magnification: we will study the component elements of the three tunics: -the intima, with an obvious endothelium recognized through the hiperchromic nuclei that protrude in the lumen; the subendothelial layer formed of collagen fibers and fibroblasts concentrically arranged; and the internal elastic lamina like a narrow, wavy/sinuous, colorless space, which separates the tunica intima from the tunica media. -the tunica media consists mainly of elastic lamellae, which are colorless in HE staining and that appear as thick, wavy/sinuous, interrupted spaces because of their slightly spiral arrangement. Among them we will observe smooth muscle fibers (longitudinally sectioned) with their specific morphology, rare collagen fibers and ground substance, while the fibroblasts are missing, their function being performed by the smooth muscle fibers. - the tunica adventitia is formed of collagen fibers, elastic fibers which are not arranged in lamellae and fibroblasts placed longitudinally. Next to the tunica media we can find the external elastic lamina, poorly represented and hardly visible in this stain. At the periphery of the adventitia we observe vessels: vasa vasorum (arterioles and venules) and nerves (nervi vasorum). Image Large elastic artery, HE – overview 1 – intima; 2 – media; 3 – adventitia; 4 – vasa vasorum. Large elastic artery, HE 1 - endothelial cell; 2 - internal elastic lamina; 3 - elastic lamellae, 4 - smooth muscle cells.

Large elastic artery, Weigert resorcin-fuchsin staining (RF), aorta. Resorcin-fuchsin is a special staining for elastic fibers, which appear in a blue-violet color. Elastic elements are the only ones who stain on this slide. -on low magnification: the high amount of elastic elements (fibers and lamellae) colored in blue-violet is obvious;

a thinner and less organized wall than the artery ones. 2 – media. less sinuous and colorless. -on high magnification: in the artery. collagen fibers and a network of elastic fibers (invisible on this slide) distributed longitudinally. composed of three layers: intima (5%). formed of smooth muscle cells bundles. Media is made up of circular oriented smooth muscle fibers arranged in several layers with rare collagen fibers among them. In the media we will recognize the collagen fibers. .-on high magnification: we will study in each tunica the presence and arrangement of the elastic elements. at the intimal level we will recognize the endothelium after the oval.adventitia. dark. the very thin subendothelial layer and a well represented internal elastic lamina. consisting of intima (5-10%). Medium-sized muscular artery and vein. media (15%) and adventitia ( 80%). Media contains numerous elastic sinuous lamellae. In the adventitia the external elastic lamina is observed. 2 . regular lumen and a thick wall. 4 – vasa vasorum. The intima presents rare and fine elastic fibers in the subendothelial layer and thin. 3 – smooth muscle fibers colorless in RF stain. 5 . Image Muscular artery. fibroblasts and a few smooth muscle fibers placed in discontinuous and narrow layers. based on the proportion of the three layers and their structure. The elastic fibers of vasa vasorum are also stained. concentrically oriented around the lumen and linked together by oblique elastic fibers.intima with internal elastic lamina. The vein’s adventitia is the best represented tunica. that appears as a colorless. -on low magnification: we will observe on cross section the artery with a circular. Differential diagnosis of elastic type artery: with the medium-sized muscular artery (HE and RF staining). hiperchromic nuclei that protrude into the lumen. 3 . irregular and collapsed lumen. RF staining 1 . the external elastic lamina is highlighted as a condensation of elastic fibers hardly visible in HE staining.elastic lamellae. Nearby the artery we will observe the structure of the vein. with nuclei of the endothelium more distant than in the arteries. near the artery we will observe the vein with a large. The veins` adventitia also contains vasa vasorum and nervi vasorum. overlapping lamellae which form the internal elastic lamina. media (50%) and adventitia (40-45%). narrow and very sinuous linear space. vascular-nervous bundle. HE 1 . sinuous. Adventitia has a similar structure with the adventitia of the elastic artery. At the limit with the adventitia. HE staining. Image Large elastic artery. 4 . as a condensation of longitudinally placed lamellae and elastic fibers.external elastic lamina.internal elastic lamina.adventitia. with a very fine subendothelial layer and a very thin internal elastic lamina.

HE stain -on low magnification: we will recognize the typical aspect of a mucosa by the mandatory presence of the two layers (lining epithelium and lamina propria). Differential diagnosis: of the medium-sized muscular artery with the large elastic artery (HE and RF staining) and that of the vein. At the surface we may observe the epithelium. HE 1 – intima. blood vessels. The fixed mucosa is formed only by an epithelium and lamina propria that is firmly attached to the underlying periosteum. 2 . diffuse lymphoid infiltrations or lymphoid follicles. depending on its localization and degree of mobility may be of two types: fixed mucosa and mobile mucosa. based on the proportion of the three tunics and their structure. and thus is immobile (gums. the entry point to the digestive tube. a stratified nonkeratinized squamous epithelium. the submucosa. with the muscular artery. mucosa of the cheeks.media. giving it mobility (soft palate. It is composed of: -oral mucosa -lips -tongue -dental organ. It leans on a basement membrane that separates it from the next layer. The mobile mucosa presents an extra layer. plus a third layer represented by the submucosa. glands of the digestive system The oral mucosa The mouth or the oral cavity is lined entirely by a mucosa that. hard palate). The mouth/oral cavity The mouth. ALIMENTARY SYSTEM/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive system is formed by the oral cavity/mouth. represents the compartment through which the digestive tube communicates with the exterior at its anterior part. It presents two regions/ zones: .) The mucosa of the cheeks. -on high magnification: we will study the structure of each layer of the mucosa. nerves. the periodontium -salivary glands. the lamina propria or chorion. mouth floor etc.adventitia.Vein. and it attaches to the epimysium of the underlying muscles. The lamina propria is formed by connective tissue. 3 . formed by the teeth and the supporting system of them in the dental arch. digestive (gastrointestinal) tract and the associated digestive glands.

On a sagittal section through the lip one may observe that this is composed of a centrally located skeleton of muscle and connective tissue. Due the arrangement of the papillae and the low thickness of the epithelium. covered by the vestibular mucosa (part of the oral mucosa).-papillary layer with a structure of loose connective tissue that sends protrusions into the epithelium: the so called papillae (conical elevations) -reticular layer.Reticular chorion. 3 – Smooth muscle fibers Differential diagnosis: with other types of mucosa from other regions of the digestive tube. 1 – Small salivary glands. The red free margin does not present hair follicles. The surface epithelium is a stratified keratinized squamous epithelium with some particularities: it is thin and the surface keratinized layer is very fine. with a structure of a dense. The chorion of this zone presents numerous papillae which penetrate deeply into the thickness of the epithelium. covered by the three types of coatings. . In the papilla we observe numerous capillaries. 2 – Blood vessel. with the same structure like that of the mucosa of the cheeks. The lip. surrounded by connective tissue that contain small salivary glands in form of serous. HE stain -on low magnification: we will observe the general microscopic aspect of the section. reaching almost to its surface. sebaceous glands and sweat glands -the internal side. covered by a fine skin composed of epidermis and dermis. -the free margin that is a transition zone between the skin and the lip`s mucosa. II – Papillary chorion. mucous and mixed acini. between the two regions. covered by: -skin on the external zone/side -vestibular mucosa on the internal zone/side (oriented towards the oral cavity) -free margin or “lip red”. The lips The lips are two musculo-cutaneous folds that delineate the anterior opening of the mouth. sweat and sebaceous glands. with hair follicles. This morphological aspect explains the red color of the free margin. Image Mucosa of the cheeks I . blood vessels. the red color of the blood in the capillaries can be seen on the surface.Surface epithelium. III . -on high magnification: we will study the structure of each side and that of the central skeleton of muscle and connective tissue: -the external side. nerves and adipose tissue. The central skeleton of the lip is formed by bundles of striated muscle fibers belonging to the orbicular muscle of the lip. specific for the lips. fibrous connective tissue. IV – Submucosa. under the papillary layer. The submucosa is composed of a dense connective tissue and contains small salivary glands. with an axis in the centre formed by bundles of striated muscle fibers sectioned in different incidents and connective tissue.

1 – Stratified nonkeratinized sqaumous epithelium. The filiform papillae may be recognized on low magnification due to their flame shape. The tongue The tongue is a musculo-epithelial organ that occupies the greatest part of the oral cavity. and has different appearances on both surfaces of the tongue: smooth on the ventral (inferior) surface and with small projections on the dorsal surface. lined by a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. 6 – Sebaceous gland. with numerous short papillae. 4 – Sweat gland. hemispherical upper part. 2 – dorsal (upper) surface. Filiform papillae have no taste buds. They are covered by a nonkeratinized . This epithelium presents numerous projections. Image Tongue 1 – ventral (inferior) surface. nerves. slightly flattened. 5 – Hair follicle. Considering the shape. The tip of the papilla is covered by a hood of keratin. – External side. Differential diagnosis: with the eyelid. fungiform. HE stain -on low magnification: we will observe the general morphological feature of the section. adipose tissue and small salivary glands (serous and mucous) with excretory ducts extending through the lamina propria and opening on the surface of the epithelium -the mucosa with a typical aspect on both surfaces: Mucosa of the inferior surface of the tongue is thin and smooth and consists of: -a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium and -a lamina propria (chorion) formed by a loose connective tissue. the Meibomius glands. It consists of a core mass of connective and muscle tissue covered by a mucosa that is part of the oral mucosa. Mucosa of the dorsal surface of the tongue is thick and irregular and it is formed by: -a thick keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and a lamina propria. called lingual papillae.sagittal section I. 3 – Epidermis. 2 – Deep papilla in the free margin.Internal side. and so we may recognize: -the core mass consisting of bundles of striated muscle fibers with different orientations and surrounded by a connective tissue with blood vessels. structure and localization four types of lingual papillae can be distinguished: filiform. foliate and circumvallate papillae.Image Lip . The fungiform papillae are mushroom-shaped. 10 – Blood vessel. II. with a narrower base and smooth. 9 – Nerves. Each lingual papilla is formed by a vascular connective tissue core. The tongue. – Free margin III. 7 – Striated muscle fibers. 8 – Small salivary glands. from which differs due to the presence of the free margin and by the absence of the modified sebaceous glands. with a narrow superior pole.. typical for the eyelid.

pass through the entire thickness of the epithelium and reach its surface. They are covered by a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. supporting cells and basal cells. Image Circumvallate papilla with taste bud . The taste receptor cells and the supporting cells are spindle-shaped. -on low magnification: we will observe the taste buds that appear like small barrel-shaped structure. in front of the sulcus terminalis. arranged like the staves of a barrel. as they are sunk in the thickness of the lingual mucosa -they are surrounded by a circular furrow or trench called vallum that separates them from the rest of the lingual epithelium -the nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium that covers them contains numerous taste buds in the vicinity of the vallum -the connective tissue core of the papilla forms a lot of secondary papillae at the contact with the epithelium -the lamina propria around the papillae contains small. -the taste receptor cells are placed mainly in the centre of the taste bud. They have the aspect of parallel ridges (like the pages of a book). elongated and hiperchromatic nucleus. with a paler cytoplasm and a centrally located. The basal cells can be found only near the basement membrane. serous salivary glands (Ebner`s glands) with their excretory ducts opening at the level of the vallum. with a darker cytoplasm and a centrally located. The circumvallate papillae can be found only on the dorsal surface of the tongue. the lamina propria forms secondary papillae at its contact with the epithelium. They start at the basement membrane.stratified squamous epithelium that contains a few taste buds. bent. The taste buds are the receptors for taste. They have some special characters that distinguish them form the rest of the bud: -they are voluminous and that is why they do not fit into the microscopic field. -on high magnification: we will study in detail the histological structure of the taste buds. even examined on low magnification -they do not protrude from the surface of the tongue. located in the thickness of the epithelium of some lingual papillae. they have a long cytoplasmatic process with surface receptor role for taste -the basal cells are placed next to the basement membrane. In the interior of the papilla. that contains a few taste buds on the lateral sides. they extend from the basement membrane till the surface of the epithelium. oval. poorer in chromatin nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus. they can be observed on the lateral sides of the tongue. are smaller and do not reach the surface of the epithelium. next to the taste pore. stained paler. where they have a small opening called taste pore. On the histological sample we may recognize them after the following criteria: -the supporting cells are located towards the periphery of the taste bud. At their apical pole. A taste bud is formed by three types of cells: taste receptor cells. The foliate papillae are rudimentary in humans.

its wall consisting of four layers (tunics): 1. composed of: -surface epithelium (that might be stratified squamous or simple columnar. and the colon where the bundles of its outer muscular longitudinal layer fuse to form the three equidistant longitudinal strips. nerves. squamous cells (simple squamous epithelium) and a subserosal layer. Differential diagnosis of the tongue will be made with the lip. 3. 2 – Supporting cell. 3 – Basal cell. Meissner`s plexus. the innermost layer encircling and lining the cavity of the tube. 3 – Striated muscle fibers. 4 – Small salivary glands. from which it differs by the absence of the skin and of the free margin. has a common plan of organization. although it presents some structural particularities. glands and -muscularis mucosae (smooth muscle fibers arranged in two thin layers. an internal layer with circular oriented muscle fibers and an external layer with longitudinal oriented muscle fibers.Muscular layer (muscularis propria) consisting mostly of two thick layers of smooth muscle fibers.1 – Epithelium of the tongue. adipose tissue. The adventitia appears in the segments of the digestive tube located extraperitoneally and it is composed of loose connective tissue. lymphocytes diffusely located or in form of lymphoid follicles and. monomorphic or polymorph) -lamina propria (chorion) consisting of loose connective tissue with blood vessels. lymph vessels and nerves. in some segments of the digestive tube. an internal circular layer and an external. Taste bud 1 – Taste pore. Digestive tube The digestive tube. Also here we may find small nervous vegetative ganglia that form the plexus of the submucosa. formed by a small amount of loose connective tissue rich in blood vessels. 2. with large blood vessels. blood vessels and nerves. Mucosa. Exceptions form this arrangement represent: the stomach that presents a third layer of oblique oriented muscle fibers placed at the interior of the other two muscular layers. . composed of a denser connective tissue. 4.External layer. lymph vessels and nerves. nerves and the myenteric nerve plexus or Auerbach`s plexus can be found (small nerve ganglia and nerve fibers). The serosa covers at the exterior only the parts of the digestive tube located intraperitoneally and it is composed of: a mesothelium consisting of a layer of flattened. that can be serosal or adventitial layer.Submucosa. 4 – Taste receptor cell. called taeniae coli. by the presence of the lingual papillae and by the typical structure of the core mass of the tongue with connective. and glands. 2 – Taste bud. muscular and glandular (small salivary glands) tissue. Between the muscular layers a small amount of connective tissue with blood vessels. but only in some parts of the digestive tube (esophagus and duodenum). longitudinal layer).

defensive elements (lymphocytes. Thus.Chorion (lamina propria) 3 – Muscularis mucosae. lined by a thin stratified squamous epithelium. muscularis externa and the external layer. -muscularis mucosae with the characteristic structure described in the general part (an internal layer and external layer of circular and longitudinal oriented smooth muscle fibers). small lymphoid follicles. in the upper third the muscular layer is formed almost entirely by striated muscle fibers. 13 – Vein. on cross section. The external layer is represented mostly by adventitia and only in a small segment. 5 – Internal muscular layer (circular). before the gastroesophageal junction. Esophagus. 6 – External muscular layer (longitudinal). Meissner`s nerve plexus. giving the lumen. 4 – Submucosa. 8 – Mucous acini. the most important elements of diagnosis typical for the esophagus being the surface .) and mucous tubuloacinar glands. but with a different composition in different parts of the esophagus. -lamina propria with a structure that has been already described at the beginning and that lacks glands. by serosa (with the structure described in the general part). The mucous acini excrete their secretion product onto the surface of the epithelium through an excretory duct with a dilated lumen. -on high magnification: we will study the particular features of the four above mentioned layers of the esophageal wall. 14 – Nerves. HE stain -on low magnification: we will distinguish the wall of the esophagus consisting of four typical layers: mucosa. in the middle third by striated and smooth muscle fibers. tubular organ. muscular and epithelial. Mucosa in the empty esophagus exhibits numerous but temporary longitudinal folds. lymph vessels. serosa or adventitia. Image Esophagus 1 – Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The submucosa is formed by a loose connective tissue rich in blood vessels. 7 – Adventitia. separated from the underlying chorion by papillae that are similar to the dermal papillae.Esophagus The esophagus is a long. an irregular. submucosa. 10 – Blood vessels. 11 – Adipocytes in the adventitia. that links the oropharynx to the stomach. The mucosa itself has three layers: -surface epithelium corresponding to a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The muscularis externa of the esophagus differs from the general structure of the digestive tube being formed by two layers: an internal circular and an external longitudinal one. 2. that crosses the mucosal thickness. Differential diagnosis can be made with the other segments of the digestive tube. eosinophil granulocytes etc. hollow. star-shaped outline. 12 – Artery. while in the lower third the smooth muscle fibers predominate. 9 – Excretory ducts.

The fundus glands are lined by a simple columnar epithelium composed of different types of cells: -mucous neck cells just beneath the gastric pits. It is formed by a simple monomorphic columnar epithelium (composed of only one type of cells). polygonal (triangular on section) that rest on the basement membrane which they slightly push outwardly. located before the pyloric sphincter. consisting of neck. and pyloric antrum. tubular glands. HE stain -on low magnification: we will observe the arrangement and the structure of the four layers of the gastric wall. between the numerous glands present in the lamina propria. fundus region. Stomach. They open into the gastric pits and occupy the whole thickness of the chorion. From the histological and anatomical point of view the stomach has three distinct regions: the cardia situated under the gastroesophageal junction. -parietal cells (oxyntic cells) or oxyphil cells (acidophile) are more numerous in the upper part of the glands. They are columnar and delineate with their apical pole the lumen of the gland. The surface epithelium of the stomach forms the glanda membraniforma (membrane-like gland) that secrets mucin. and located in the lower third of the cell. perpendicular to the basement membrane. Glands in the chorion of the fundus region are called fundus glands (fundic or gastric glands) that are simple or branched. the histological structure of the other layers being identical. fundic portion. while the nuclei are oval. thus assuring protection to the surface of the stomach. a body and a basal. The mucosa: The surface epithelium of the mucosa is not smooth because from place to place it shows invaginations/indentations into the chorion forming the gastric pits or foveolae. columnar. having a wall formed by the characteristic four layers. -on high magnification: we will study the structure of each layer in detail. All these regions differ from one another only in the appearance of the glands in the mucosa.epithelium. They are large cells. The chorion is thick but contains a small amount of dense connective tissue. Their cytoplasm is basophilic. they show a similar aspect with the mucous cells of the surface epithelium. The role of these cells is to secrete the pepsinogen. Their apical pole is narrowing being compressed by the neighboring chief cells and so they seem not to reach the gland . with a paler stained and vacuolar apical pole due to its mucin content. The stomach It is a muscular and cavitary organ that extends from the cardia till the pyloric sphincter. and the presence of glands in the submucosa. the fundus located between the cardia and pyloric region. The cells have an oval nucleus. The cells are tall. -chief cells (peptic cells) or basophilic cells are the most numerous cells present in the lining epithelium of the fundus glands. but they are smaller and often difficult to observe in HE stain. of nonkeratinized stratified squamous type. located in the lower third of the cell. Lamina propria (chorion) has the characteristic structure described in the general outline of the digestive tube.

Using this method the cytoplasm of enteroendocrine cells appears stained brownish. The glands lumen is large due to the high viscosity of the secretion product (mucus). The nuclei of the parietal cells are rounded. in the glandular epithelium.lumen. some enteroendocrine cells exist which cannot be seen in HE stain. middle circular and external longitudinal. -on high magnification: we will study each layer in part. Image Fundus glands (detail) 1 – Fundus glands. based on the different structure of the glands in the chorion. -besides these cells. 3 – Fundus glands. 4 – Neck of the gland. 4. 9 – Parietal cells. 6 – Base or fundic portion of the gland. 10 – Chorion. delineated almost entirely by mucous cells. Image Stomach. 7 – Mucous neck cells. The submucosa has the structure already described in the general part and has no glands. The structure of the pyloric region of the stomach is identical with that of the fundus region. 2 – Chorion. The muscularis mucosae is composed of the two layers: internal circular and external longitudinal. Differential diagnosis will be made with the pyloric and cardial region of the stomach. The serosa of the stomach has the characteristic structure described above at the general outline of the digestive tube. 9 – Muscularis mucosae (external longitudinal layer). 5 – Body of the gland. 8 – Muscularis mucosae (internal circular layer). 5 – Submucosa. pyloric region. 12 – Muscularis mucoase (external longitudinal layer). 13 – Submucosa. Differential diagnosis can be made with the fundic and cardial glands of the stomach based on the different structure of glands in the chorion. 8 – Chief cells. They can be visualized by immunohistochemical reactions using monoclonal antibodies: for instance with anti-chromogranin antibodies. 11 – Muscularis mucosae (internal circular layer). Thus the muscular layer of the stomach is formed by three muscular layers: internal oblique. 2 – Gastric pits. Stomach. Differential diagnosis is based on the presence of pyloric glands that open in deeper and larger gastric pits than the fundus glands. 3. They secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the intrinsic factor. sinuous. HE stain -on low magnification: we will study the structure and arrangement of the four layers of the gastric wall. The muscularis propria of the stomach is a thick layer and it differs from the standard structure of the digestive tube by presenting a third layer of smooth muscle fibers oblique oriented. 6 – Parietal cells. 7 – Chief cells. They are branched. centrally located and their cytoplasm is intensely eosinophilic. . tubular glands. fundus region 1 – Monomorphic simple columnar epithelium.

each valve extending on half or three quarters of the lumens circumference. The intestinal villi are covered by the surface epithelium of the mucosa and have a core consisting of connective tissue. The duodenum. that protrude into the lumen are visible). jejunum and ileum. lined by a row of flattened. which is an extension of the lamina propria. visible on low magnification are the circular folds (plicae circulares) also known as valves of Kerckring and the intestinal villi. 3 – Pyloric glands. The surface epithelium is a simple columnar. The valves are permanent folds. longitudinal. These differentiations. -on high magnification: we will study the structure of the intestinal villi and also the structure of each layer. 4 – Chorion. Around the lacteal smooth muscle fibers that originate from the muscularis mucosae can be found. polymorph epithelium composed of several cell types: . In the duodenum the intestinal villi are leaf shaped. pyloric region 1 – Monomorphic simple columnar epithelium. 2 – deep gastric pits. squamous cells from which only the elongated. formed by foldings of the mucosa and submucosa of the duodenum. HE stain -on low magnification: we will study the structure and arrangement of the four layers of the intestinal wall. The mucosa Surface epithelium is both covering the intestinal villi and descending into the chorion forming the crypts of Lieberkuhn or Lieberkuhn (intestinal) glands (simple tubular glands that occupy most of the lamina propria and that are separated one form each other by thin septa of connective tissue). hiperchromic nuclei. Small intestine The small intestine is the longest portion of the digestive tube. In the centre of the villus we find the so called lacteal (a lymphatic capillary with a narrow lumen.Image Stomach. 5 – Muscularis mucosae. Duodenum The duodenum is the first segment of the small intestine after the pyloric region of the stomach and that continues with the jejunum. 6 – Submucosa. It consists of three segments: duodenum. The intestinal villi are finger-like projections of the mucosa oriented towards the interior of the intestinal lumen. We will observe that the lumen of the intestine is not smooth due to the presence of differentiations of the intestinal wall in order to enlarge the contact surface with the intestinal content.

or intraperitoneal localization of the organ. -Paneth cells that are cells typical only for the small intestine. It contains branched tubuloacinar mucous glands. 3 – Villi. Ileum . 6 – Lieberkhn glands (cross section). Image Duodenum 1 – Surface epithelium. The acini of these glands are formed by mucous cells and excretory ducts that open into the Lieberkuhn glands. 8 – Isolated smooth muscle fibers. lymph vessels. -the rest of the cells found in the lining epithelium and in the Lieberkuhn glands (enteroendocrine cells.-enterocytes that are tall columnar cells with rod-shaped nuclei. 2 – Intervillar spaces. depending on the extra. located in the lower third of the cell. with a thinner basal pole while the cell body and the apical pole are more prominent and paler stained in HE due to their content in mucus. The submucosa has the structure that has been already described in the general outline of the digestive tube. The external layer at the level of the duodenum is represented by the adventitia or serosa. perpendicular to the basement membrane. The lamina propria consists of connective tissue rich in blood vessels. 7 – Brunner`s glands. -goblet cells that are placed between the other cells of the surface epithelium. leaf-like shaped. At the basal pole a flattened. 5 – Lieberkuhn glands (longitudinal section). lymphoid follicles and nerves that surround and support the Lieberkuhn glands present here. a smaller number of goblet cells and presence of Brunner`s glands in the submucosa) and with the esophagus that contains also glands in the submucosa. At the apical pole these cells present the striated border (brush border) as a slightly striated eosinophilic band. hypochromic and basally located. They are tall. called Brunner`s glands. They are barrel-like or champagne glass like shaped cells. 9 – Auerbach`s plexus. From the muscularis mucosae smooth muscle fibers start that will pass through the lamina propria and will reach the axis of the villi. The muscularis mucosae it is composed of the two characteristic layers of smooth muscle fibers. The Lieberkuhn glands open at the surface of the mucosa at the base of the intestinal villi. stem cells and M cells) are harder to be visualized in common stains with HE. pyramid-shaped cells. The muscularis has also the structure described above (an internal circular layer and an external longitudinal layer). with a round or oval nucleus. hiperchromatic nucleus and a small amount of basophilic cytoplasm can be seen. They are found in groups of 4-8 cells in one gland and are located at the base of the Lieberkuhn glands. but has no intestinal villi. lymphocytes. 4 – Muscular fibers in the axis of the villus. Differential diagnosis will be made with the other segments of the small intestine (better developed villi.

The invaginations of the epithelium will form the crypts of Lieberkuhn or intestinal glands. The Peyer`s patches are located in that part of the ileum that is placed at the opposite of the insertion region of the mesentery. Differential diagnosis will be made with the other segments of the small intestine (based on the shape of the villi. -on high magnification: we will study the structure of each layer. appendix. the last ones being shorter and thinner (finger-like). . -on high magnification: we will study the structure of each layer. The general outline of the ileum is similar to that of the duodenum and of the jejunum. 3 – Submucosa. It is continues to the four segments of the colon.Villi.It is the last segment of the small intestine that continues with the large intestine at the ileocecal valve`s level. descendent and sigmoid). rectum and the anus. diffuse lymphoid tissue. transverse. HE stain -on low magnification: we will study the structure and arrangement of the four layer of the intestinal wall. The cecum is the first portion of the large intestine. In the region where Peyer`s patches are located the intestinal villi are infiltrated with lymphocytes. under the ileocecal valve. Cecum and colon The cecum and the colon have the same histological structure. -presence of the serosa. 4 – Muscularis. Image Ileum 1 . The surface epithelium of the mucosa is a polymorph simple columnar epithelium. the difference being represented by: -structure and shape of the intestinal villi -the number of the goblet cells that increases in the ileum -the presence in the lamina propria and submucosa of some large aggregates of lymphoid tissue (MALT type) consisting of some lymphoid follicles and an interfollicular. 5 – Peyer`s patch. colon (ascendant. Mucosa has a smooth appearance. without the circular folds and the villi. The ileum. We will observe the disappearance of the intestinal villi in the large intestine. Large intestine The large intestine is the end portion of the digestive tube and it is formed by the following segments: cecum. lack of glands in the submucosa and the presence of the Peyer`s patches). Here too the circular folds (Kerkring`s valves) and intestinal villi are present. 2 – Lieberkuhn gland. HE stain -on low magnification: we will study the structure and arrangement of the four layers of the intestinal wall. This structure is called the Payer`s patch. The colon. are atrophic and sometimes they even miss.

MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS The main or major salivary glands are: the parotid. pancreas with its double. Differential diagnosis will be made with the small intestine (based on the absence of the intestinal vili. Submucosa has the same structure with that of the above described one in the general outline of the digestive tube. Muscularis mucosae it is formed by the two characteristic layers of smooth muscle fibers. DIGESTIVE GLANDS The digestive glands that we will study are: the major salivary glands (parotid. enteroendocrine cells and M cells. submandibular and sublingual glands. 10 – Serosa. longitudinal) but the external longitudinal layer is divided into three longitudinally oriented ribbon-like bands. The external layer is represented by the serosa with its typical structure described above. 7 – Submucosa. 3 – Lieberkuhn glands. nerves. the last three types being visible only by complementary examinations (immunohistochemistry. Lamina propria (chorion) has in general the same structure with that of the whole digestive tube. that extend in the whole thickness of the lamina propria and that open at the mucosal surface. whose number increases as we approach the terminal part of the large intestine. adipose tissue. Image Colon 1 – Surface epithelium. 2 – Chorion. called taeniae coli. goblet cells. All major salivary glands have the same general plan of organization: -at the exterior they are surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. It is formed also by two layers of smooth muscle fibers (internal. Their role is to secrete saliva. submandibular and sublingual glands). The muscularis has a characteristic structure in the colon. The wall of the glands is lined by the same type of epithelium like that of the surface and it consists of the following cell types: enterocytes. electron microscopy). 5 – Blood vessel. In the submucosa of the large intestine we will not find glands. . but it shows a more increasing mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (of MALT type) – isolated lymphoid follicles and an interfollicular tissue. The capsule sends septa. presence of the taeniae coli). fundus part placed near the muscularis mucosae. while the lymphoid tissue is more abundant. with the same structure. into the parechyma dividing the gland into lobules. circular and external. 6 – Muscularis mucosae.These are simple tubular glands. stem cells. 4 – Lymphoid follicle. a body and a basal. blood vessels. consisting of fibers. They have a neck. 9 – Internal circular muscular layer. exocrine and endocrine component. 8 – External longitudinal muscular layer. and the liver.

The interlobular excretory ducts can be found in the interlobular septa. Between the basement membrane and the basal pole of the cells we can find some elongated cells with an oval. point-like lumen.-the parenchyma consists of secretory acini (serous. The serous acini are small and each of them consists of 6-8 columnar cells lined on a basement membrane. The lumen of this duct is well delineated and it is much more larger than that of the intercalated duct and of the acini. The cells` cytoplasm is eosinophilic above the nucleus (it contains zymogen granules) while subnuclearly it is intensly stained. columnar cells. centrally placed nucleus and an eosinophilic cytoplasm with striated subnuclear appearance. It is lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium and a row of discontinuosly lined myoeptithelial cells. With their apical pole cells delineate a very narrow. Their wall consists initially . represented by the intercalated duct or the Boll passage and the striated ducts. The parotid gland Its structure follows the above described general plan of organization of the salivary glands. The intercalated duct or the Boll passage. -on high magnification: we will study the aspect of the serous acini and that of the intraand extralobular excretory ducts of the parotid gland. with a round. sometimes hardly visible on histological sections. and it can be found in the glandular parenchyma (surrounded by serous acini). -the stroma of the salivary glands consists of all connective tissue septa that divide the gland into lobules. In these septa we can recognise blood vessels and the large. mucous and mixed) and an intralobular system of excretory canaliculi or ducts (intercalated ducts or Boll passage and striated ducts). hyperchromic nucleus. At the periphery we can see a connective tissue capsule. continues the lumen of the serous acini and consequently has a very small diameter. The nucleus is round. interlobular excretory ducts. This cells help the excretion of the secretory products from the cells into the lumen. The striated duct continues the intercalated duct. HE staining -on low magnificaton: we will observe the general architecture of the gland. nerves. and also of the intralobular stroma (surrdounding the acini) that includes: connective tissue. blood vessels. with a basophilic shade. that sends septa into the gland dividing the gland into lobules. with blood vessels and rich in adipocytes. a variable number of adipose cells that increase with age and lymphoid infltrates. It consists of a single layer of tall. called myoepithelial cells. In the connective tissue septa extralobular excretory ducts can be found. The parotid gland can be easily recognised because the parenchyma is formed exculsively by the serous acini. placed parallel to the basal lamina. Intralobular the parenchyma consists only of serous acini with an intense eosinophilic staining and of intralobular excretory ducts. being surrounded this time by the connective tissue and having a large lumen. Parotid gland. euchromic and centrally located.

2 – Intercalated duct. 10 – Interlobulary ducts. 7 – Interlobular septum.of a tall columnar epithelium. 11 – Parasympathetic ganglia. 3 – Striated intralobulary duct. and then of a bistratified epithelium as the lumen becomes larger and larger. 9 – Interlobular vein. surrounded by acini cuboidal Striated duct like an acinus intralobular. Differencial diagnosis between the excretory ducts Intercalated duct Size Location Epithelium very small intralobular. 6 – Intralobular adipose tissue. Parotid gland 1 – Serous acini. surrounded by acini tall columnar Extralobulary ducts large extralobular. 4. surrounded by connective tissue bistratified . 5 – Intralobulary capillary and venule. 8 – Interlobular connective tissue.

mucous and mixed acini. larger than that of the acini large. HE staining -on low magnification: we will observe the capsule and the septa that divide the gland into lobules. We will see the parenchyma of the submaxillary gland formed by three types of acini (serous. secretory gland. The submandibular (submaxillary) gland. forming the demilune of Gianuzzi. size and staining. The gland`s capsule is very thin. -on high magnification: we will study the histological features of the three types of acini. 7 – Intralobular adipose tissue.Lumen very small regular. The mucous acinus is larger and consists of columnar cells with a paler stained cytoplasm (it contains mucus that does not stain in HE) and a flattened nucleus pushed to the periphery. between the basement membrane and the . the structure of this elements has been described above. 6 – Interlobular ducts. irregular Submandibular (submaxillary) gland It respects the general organization of the major salivary glands. Submandibular gland 1 – Serous acini 2 – Mucous acini 3 – Mixed acinus. serous-mucous. The structure of the parenchyma is characteristic consisting of serous. 5 – Interlobular septum. 4 – Intralobular striated ducts. the serous acinus being already described. The mixed acini are made up by a mucous acinus capped at one of the poles by a group of serous cells. mucous and mixed) being different in form. In all types of acini. the submaxillary gland being a mixed.

with both exocrine and endocrine functions. The islets of Langerhans are delineated at the periphery by a fine connective tissue capsule. Differencial diagnosis: between the submandibular gland and the pancreas. dividing the gland incompletely into lobules. stained paler. -on high magnification: we will study the characteristic feature of the pancreatic acini. consisting completely of serous acini and excretory ducts. have a granular and pale cytoplasm. The cells cytoplasm present a double colorability: basophilic subnuclearly and eosinophilic supranuclearly. The endocrine component represents only a small percent of the parenchyma and consists of the totality of the islets of Langerhans. delta and F or PP (their number being in fact much higher. The striated duct is long and so it can be easily recognised on the histological section. -on low magnification: we will observe a very thin connective tissue capsule that sends into the interior fine septa. with a fine capillary network between them. lined by a bistratified epithelium and surrounded by the connective tissue of the septa. These secretory cells are small (comparative to the cells of the serous acini). Their cells are arranged in nests. These cells represent the lining cells of the smallest intercalated ducts that extend on small distances into the lumen of the acinus. The islets of Langerhans appear like round or oval islets. The supranuclear cytoplasm displays a granular aspect due to the presence of the zymogen granules secreted by the cell. The pancreas It is a parenchymatous organ forming a voluminous gland. The exocrine pancreas resembles with the parotid. It secrets an alcaline/basic fluid. Their differentiation in HE . dispersed between the pancreatic acini. The pancreas. In the islests of Langerhans four major types of cells can be described: alpha. and these cells being called after the hormone each one secrets).secretory cells. based upon microscopic appearance. In the centre of the acini we may notice 1-2 pale. It is responsible for the secretion of some hormones with a major role in regulating the glucidic metabolism. The exocrine component of the pancreas forms the most part of the glandular parenchyma and consists of serous acini and excretory ducts. HE staining.and extralobular excretory ducts have the same dispozition and structure like in the parotid gland. and these continue to the interlobular ducts. The intra. rich in enzymes that drains into the duodenum throug the pancreatic duct and has an important role in digestion. they are absent in all other acinous gland. myoepithelial cells can be seen. The intercalated ducts converge to form intralobular ducts placed in the pancreatic parenchyma. round or oval nuclei surrounded by a thin layer of cytoplasm (almost invisible in HE staining) that belong to the centroacinar cells. They consist of 6-8 tall columnar cells lining a basal membrane. beta.

These lobules have a polygonal shape and consist of hepatocyte plates convergent towards a vascular structure. parenchymatous organ. the central vein (centrolobulary vein). called hepatic sinusoids. Nowadays. called Kupffer cells. some triangular spaces can be observed. LIVER It is a lobulated. sinuous spaces can be observed. of different sizes. placed in the centre of the lobule. 2 – Islet of Langerhans. with a granular cytoplasm and a round. The liver. the central/centrolobulary vein (VCL). Differencial diagnosis: can be made with the parotid gland. -on high magnification: we will study the aspect of the hepatocytes: polygonal-shaped cells. At the convergence of 3-4 hepatic lobules. HE staining -on low magnification: we will notice the organization in lobules of the pigs` liver. Their wall consists of endothelial cells. The hexagonal-shaped lobules consist of plates of hepatocytes orientated radially towards a blood vessel placed in the core of the lobule. Between the hepatic lobules so called Kiernan portal spaces can be observed. and of irregular-shaped cells. these cells have . Between the hepatocyte plates narrow. called the Kiernans` portal spaces. 1 2 3 Pancreas 1 – Serous acini. 3 – Capillary. their identification can be made by using monoclonal antibodies. vascular elements and bile ducts. visible by their nuclei.staining is difficult. centrally located nucleus. In the liver stained only with HE. consisting of connective tissue.

with round nuclei. 4 – Plates of hepatocyte. 3 – Sinusoid capillaries. a vein. the thin and poorly structured wall -the artery has a regular. 6 – Portal space. embeded in a relative abundant connective tissue we will notice 4 components: an artery. In the Kiernan space. delineated by a simple cuboidal epithelium.oval. hiperchrom nuclei. 5. from which they cannot be differentiated. Liver 1 – Hepatic lobule. circular lumen. morphologicaly similar to the nuclei of the endothelial cells. placed in the direction of the blood flow. corresponding to that of a muscular artery . 2 – Centrolobulary vein. with no red blood cells in the lumen -the bile duct has a circular lumen. -the vein can be recognised after its collapsed lumen.the lymphatic vessels show the aspect of a cleft lined by an endothelium. and a wall with a visible structure. suggesting the aspect of a string of beads. . 1-2 bile ducts and lymphatic vessels.

The extrapulmonary component consists of: -nasal cavities -nasopharynx and oropharynx -larynx -trachea -major bronchi (primary) The intrapulmonary component consists of: -lobar bronchi (secondary) -segmental bronchi (tertiary) -bronchioles -terminal bronchioles. A – Arteriole.Portal space VP – Venule. B – Bile duct. RESPIRATORY SISTEM The respiratory system consists of two portions: an air-conducting portion. H – Hepatocyte. The air-conducting portion has two components: extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary. S – Sinusoid capillaries. consisting of all the structures that take part in gas exchange. and a respiratory portion. L – Lymphatic capillary. The respiratory portion is the segment where gas exchanges take place and includes: . represented by all the structures that conduct the air to the alveoli.

blood vessels and nerves. incomplete at the posterior side. In HE stain only 3 types can be identified: basal cells. The epithelium is of respiratory type. the free endings of the cartilage are united through bundles of smooth muscle fibers that form the trachealis muscle. The lamina propria consists of a loose connective tissue that may present a diffuse lymphoid infiltrate which belongs to the MALT system (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue). adipose cells. through a duct lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium. having the above described incomplete structure. At this level. This plan will be described at the structure of the trachea. -on low magnification: we will identify the 4 layers of the tracheal wall: mucosa. The adventitia consists of a loose connective tissue. columnar ciliated cells and goblet cells. the epithelium is more folded. its endings being united by the trachealis muscle. The cartilaginous layer is C-shaped. that is pseudostratified columnar ciliated. Because the section is made through the cartilage. like every other mucosa. -on high magnification: we will study in detail the structure of the 4 layers of the tracheal wall. The tracheal cartilage is of hyaline type. On the posterior side of the trachea. Therefore they will have a general organization plan. linked strictly to the functional aspect of the specific segment. These acini will drain their secretory product at the surface of the epithelium. with a round nucleus placed near the basement membrane.and extrapulmonary respiratory ways are tubular structures (ducts) morphologically adapted to the intake (inspiration) and outflow (expiration) conditions. They are longitudinally sectioned and show the characteristic structure of the smooth muscle fibers. of a surface epithelium and a lamina propria. The mucosa consists.-respiratory bronchioles -alveolar ducts -alveolar sacs -alveoli The intra. submucosa. the fibrous layer located between the cartilage rings cannot be seen. TRACHEA It is a tubular structure that will be studied on a cross section. HE staining. with the known structure. Trachea. with structural changes at the level of the different segments. consisting of 5 types of different cells. and adventitia. fibro-cartilaginous layer. The submucosa is a layer of loose connective tissue. . with tracheal glands consisting of mixed acini.

3 – Submucosa. It is covered on its outer side by the visceral . 5 – Tracheal glands. 8 – Perichondrium of tracheal cartilage. 7 – Tracheal artilage (hyaline). 4. 10 – Adventitia. 6 – Excretory ducts of the tracheal glands.Trachea 1 – Respiratory type epithelium. THE LUNG The lung has a structure determined by the distribution at this level of the bronchial tree and of the vascular system (intrapulmonary). 9 – Trachealis muscle. 2 – Lamina propria.

R – Respiratory bronchiole.layer of the pleura that insinuates at the level of the scissurae. the smallest structural units of the lung. The connective tissue. V – Blood vessel. The lung A – Alveoli. HE staining. intrapulmonary. The lung. bronchiole. On a cross section through the lung we may study the structure of different segments of the intrapulmonary bronchial tree (intrapulmonary bronchus. The pulmonary lobules are separated through very fine septa and each of them is supplied by a bronchiole. Every pulmonary lobule consists of pulmonary acini. in form of the septa. alveolar sac and pulmonary alveolus) and that of the pulmonary stroma. delineated by a wall with the following five layers: . CA – Alveolar ducts (canals). -on low magnification: we will notice the lace-like appearance of the lung. alveolar ducts. SA – Alveolar sacs. structural segments of the bronchial tree seen on the section. bronchiole. T – Terminal bronchiole. such as that of the intrapulmonary bronchus. respiratory bronchiole. and the segments in lobules. given by the pulmonary alveoli and we will follow the different. alveolar sacs and pulmonary alveoli. -on high magnification: we will study the elements of positive and differential diagnosis in case of the bronchial tree components The bronchi have a large lumen. respiratory bronchiole. divides the parenchyma of the lobes in segments. separating the pulmonary lobes. alveolar duct.

-the mucosa is folded. In this part. forming a ring around the openings of the alveolar sacs or the alveoli. continuous parts of the wall. Also the subepithelial glands and the islets of hyaline cartilage are missing. basal cells. Every alveolus has its own. Bronchioles are airways with a diameter less then 1 mm. The wall of the respiratory bronchiole is discontinuous. The alveolar sacs are cavitary/hollow structures with an irregular lumen. under that some smooth muscle fibers can be found. are missing in the smaller ones. with numerous openings of the alveoli. a characteristic feature of this segment. The pulmonary alveoli are separated one from each other by alveolar septa that consist of a very thin layer of loose connective tissue highly vascularized and pulmonary macrophages (dust cells). Where the wall is continuous an alveolar epithelium can be observed. goblet cells. In the epithelium we can recognize the same cells as in that of the tracheal epithelium: columnar ciliated cells. due to the numerous openings of the alveolar sacs or of the alveoli. -the muscularis with bundles of smooth muscle fibers. -adventitia that continues with the adventitia of the adjacent structures (arterial ramifications. Their initial part is lined by a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium that turns gradually into a simple columnar ciliated epithelium. lined by a cuboidal epithelium that still shows in its initial part some ciliated cells. The alveolar ducts are elongated tubular structures. The only visible segment of the alveolar ducts is the very short. with no muscle fibers underneath. consisting of an alveolar epithelium. constituting the Reisseissen muscle. arranged circularly. with muscle fibers arranged circularly and in a spiral pattern. -the submucosa consisting of a loose connective tissue and glandular acini. and consists of a respiratory type of epithelium (pseudostratified ciliated) and a lamina propria that reduces gradually in thickness as the bronchi diameter does. alveoli are opening in the lumen from place to place. polygonal spaces. The walls of the alveolar sacs are discontinuous. directly or through the alveolar ducts. The muscular layer is very well developed. the alveolar epithelium. a simple squamous epithelium. the ducts are lined by a simple squamous epithelium. interstitial tissue of the pulmonary parenchyma). -the cartilage layer is discontinuous and decreases continuously. with a discontinuous wall. In the wall of the respiratory bronchioles the muscle fibers are still present. unfolded lumen. The pulmonary alveoli are numerous and appear like small. The goblet cells. still present in larger bronchioles. as its diameter reduces. very thin wall. being represented by islets of hyaline cartilage. . The respiratory bronchioles have a narrow. surrounded by groups of pulmonary alveoli.

4 – Alveolar wall.A. 9 – Adventitia. Lobar bronchus 1 – Respiratory epithelium. 5 – Acini. C. Bronchiole 1 – Simple columnar ciliated epithelium. 2 – Alveolar duct. 3 – Capillary. 5 – Pulmonary alveoli. D. 3 – Reisseissen muscle. 2 – Reisseissen muscle. 3 – Adventitia. 2 – Lamina propria. 8 – Pulmonary alveoli. 2 – Interalveolar septum. Pulmonary alveoli 1 – Alveoli. 4. 3 – Submucosa. 4 – Simple cuboidal epithelium. 6 – Reisseissen muscle. B. . 7 – Cartilage. Respiratory bronchiole 1 – Pulmonary alveoli.