Assignment Cover Sheet Student Name: Syed Redwanur Rahman       Unit Name: Organisational Behaviour Student Number

:       s239377 Unit Code: s112 PRBM022       Lecturers Name: Jianhua(Jane)Zhang       Assessment Title       Critical Review and Evaluation Assignment       2 Due Date (dd/mm/yyyy):       25-05-2012 Lodgement Date (dd/mm/yyyy):       25-05-2012 Applied for Extension: N/A NO (dd/mm/yyyy) YES – to       Phone: (08) 8946 6830 Semester: 1 Year: 2012       School of Law and Business Charles Darwin University Casuarina NT 0909

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the each article has been related to a specific area of discussion of motivation and discussed accordingly. Ego and Self-actualization. Safety. Motivation has become so popular world wide as a worthy research topic now-a-days that a large range of theories and practices of motivaton has been evolved and some are still evolving.Introduction Productivity is one of the most important factors that a business takes into consideration.) delivers key motivating factors in the context of employee motivation theories. Three academic journal articles have been taken into consideration here in reviewing and analysing the ideas. Maslow argued that for motivating people.“Understanding Employee Motivation” (Lindner. comes the Herzberg’s theory . The article that has been taken into consideration is “Understanding Employee Motivation” (Linder. it is understood that the needs of the workers are divided into five different levels and they are – Psychological. taking “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs” theory into consideration. any lower level needs must be met before going to the higher level. Five major approaches have been prescribed here by the author who believes that these approaches may assist the managers to find out the decisive factors that can actually motivate the employees. the topic “motivation” has taken a central role of discussion all around the world. J. while analyzing its overall performance and in that regard. Motivation Concepts Motivation is seen as an endeavour to behave in a certain manner with intention to achieve specific. as motivation is seen as one of the most significant factors that influences the overall productivity of a business.R) which provides siginificant motivating factors relating these to the implications of employee motivation theories. People and businesses from all backgrounds have more or less started to understand the importance of motivation and have started to implement the thoeries of motivation in practice in every single possible way available.R. Social . J. concepts and theories of these articles and with a pupose of presenting the analysis of these articles more effectively. Secondly. unfulfilled needs. Firstly.

Thirdly. Again. the employee becomes highly motivated and naturally becomes less motivated with negative rewards. Vroom emphasized that employee effort is responsible for performance which fetches the employees positive or negative rewards. Good wage which is a psychological factor is the number two motivational factor. In response to that. Motivator is an esteem factor which is ranked at number three and then comes the number four motivation number in the form of job security which is a safety factor. promotions and growth in the organisation. Then in the second place comes “pay” in this study which ranks the full appreciation work done into next category and is followed by good working conditions. irrespective of the theories followed. According to the author. safety. Interesting work and high wage rate have been ranked as number one and number two in this study. Fourthly. job security. in his theory. according to Maslow’s Theory. With positive reward. The author of “Understanding Employee Motivation” categorized the motivation factors into following way: interesting work.which classifies motivation into two different groups of factors – intrinsic factors like achievement and recognition which produce job satisfaction and extrinsic factors like pay and job security which produce dissatisfaction. good working conditions. the author delivered some significant insights into employee motivation. in comparing the results to Maslow’s need-hierarchy . good wages. the theory of Skinner argues that there are certain behaviours of employees leading to positive outcomes are repeated and certain behaviours behaviours leading to negative outcomes are not repeated. Consequently the managers should encourage the behaivours that bring positive outcomes and discourage the behaviours that lead to negative outcome. interesting work is a self actualization factor which is the number one motivation. The most significant findings of the study nurtured the idea that the motivatonal factors of employees varies according to the perspectives and conditions in which they work. social and esteem factors must be met first before addressing the most important motivation factor which is interesting work. the psychological. personal loyalty to employees. full appreciation of work done. the author also emphasizes on . But at the same time . Lastly. the Adam’s theory is taken into consideration and this theory implies that workers always search for equity among themselves and other workers. tactful discipline and sysmpathetic help with personal problems.

Warren R. In the second place. However. The managers can effectively exploit the findings of this study to set up an effective system that can motivate their employees in the long run and can lead them to positive results. There are always opportunities for employees to determine their objectives and then plan.) has been taken into consideration and it describes the main components and actual system of empowerment and it also focuses on the fact that if the method of empowerment is correctly put into practice following specifiic guidelines.. job enlargement. In the next place. The article “Employee Empowerment” (Nykodym N. In this regard. by reaching their own goals. the author has mentioned the term “Goal Setting”. by getting to know about the most influential motivational and blending these factors with the reward system which may lead the organisation to its targeted productivity in bringing the very best out of the motivated workforce. design job and manage time accordingly so that they can reach the company goals.the fact of taking options like job enrichment. As the first remark of empowerment. promotions. promotions. self-thinking and self-control is widely associated with the word “Empowerment”. Welling N. the employees can go for the solution of problems that demand the task of identifying the issues first and coming up with all the . monetary and nonmonetary compensation into consideration. job enlargement. monetary and non-monetary compensation should be considered. there is always option for employees to choose from the available alternative ways to complete their day-to-day tasks.. The development of an individual’s self-motivation. Empowerment Empowerment is another widely discussed topic that has taken its place in the list of important success factors for a business. it can bring a huge amount of success into a business arena. the author has mentioned that other options such as job enrichment. Simonetti J..L.

The other study (Locke. must give employees an idea about the factors that the result will be measured on and about the possible rewards and benefits that the employees will enjoy after the successful completion. In addition to the criterias mentioned above .A) mentioned in the article implies that organisation must sort out the appropiate motivational mechanisms for participation to make it work in the best possible way. The authors of the article have emphasized on the fact that the managers must make their employees aware of the overall participation process right in the beginning. Motivational mechanisms include actions such as trust.possible alternatives. greater control of the work. The article also provides a clear picture about the possible margin of influence that employees may have in a certain decision making process. Lastly. The authors have finished their article. The participaion could be both formal and informal depending on the working environment and situation. by throwing a question to readers about whether the empowerment of employess has a positive influence on job stisfaction or not. the authors argue that the employees play an instrumental role in bringing organisational changes like hiring. The study focuses on the fact that when the employees have the “final say” about a certain decision. it tends to produce much more positive approach towards their managers and towards the company all together. E. the authors have emphasized on some systems that can be integrated with all the areas that are subjected to employee participation. Employee participation could be in any form. the setting of higher goals and more ego involvement in the job and increased identification with the organisations are some of the motivational mechanisms that the study suggested to work on. either as an individual or they can approach it by playing in a team with other employees. This step plays the ultimate role towards effective participation process. Infact Lock’s study mentioned in the article puts special emphasis on setting up specific goals that can play a big role in performance rise than the generalized goals and in regard to this the study argues that motivatonal effects of participation play a minimal role in performance. investment or layoff. The employees could take part in the decision making process. The study implies that the form of participation and people personalities and attitudes cause the .

job security. Because the monetary value of a reward can be very short lived. taking external environmental factors that lead employess to a position of uncertainty and insecurity. good working conditions. The research was conducted among employees in different Malaysan organisations in 2004. appreciation of work done. it can still be said that “pay” would be considered as the most .variation in effectiveness of the empowerment of the employees and there is no single specific way to determine the effectiveness of employee empowerment. Even though monetary reward can still be considered as a substantial rewarding and motivating method. high wages. Rewarding Employees It is argued all over the world that the rewarding methods and factors are not enough for providing employees their expected job satisfaction. The research tried to find out the ranking of motivators like empowerment. the managers. under present scenario. It argues that the importance of the motivating factors is decided by its effectiveness. the Article “Employee motivation: a Malaysian Perspective” (IslamR. promotion.. high wage is considered as number one motivational factor followed by good working conditions and promotion. In this regard. the money being the main motivator has several disadvantages as well..) has been taken into consideration. but no way the fact can be ignored that the rewards do motivate people. it can be argued that empowerment is another managerial approach that focuses on collaborative style of solving a problem by sharing responsibilty and making decision making process more open. At the end of the day. The findings of research show that. Ismail Hj. Even though the money has turned out to be the most influential motivational factor in Malaysian environment and if global perpective and continuous change of it is taken into consideration. On the other hand. Zakai A. as money can be spent very quickly and the weight of the reward and as a basis of motivation can be forgotten very soon. must find out more effective and longer lasting rewarding methods to motivate employees for better productivity.

as it can fulfil several needs at different levels. empowerment or promotion much higher than the money. the managers must consider certain motivational concepts and theories and take effective measures to put those theories into practice so that the practice can effectively motivate the employees. the authors of the article emphasized on the fact that employee participation does play an influential role in making a motivation program successful. irrespective of the industry background. If “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs” theory is taken into consideration. So. the managers must be careful and aware of the fact that different employees are motivated differently and the managers must take their steps while motivating employees. pay is indeed an important motivator. Infact. Rewarding system always has an all important effect in motivating employees and is completely critical to the productivity of a business. . money can be the ultimate motivator. while people from developed countries may rank motivaors like competition.influential motivator. Inspite of the Malaysian result. bring them greater job satisfaction. in this regard. So. So. the ranking of motivators quite naturally varies from situation to situation. Conclusion The success of an organisation largely depends on the productivity of its employess and it is beyond doubt that a motivated employee is the source of better productivity. a business must fine tune their rewarding policies from time to time to motivate the employees successfully based on different perspective and sort out the different motivators that can be integrated into certain motivating programs. For the people of developing countries. taking this very important issue into consideration. finally leading them to a situation where they will improve the productivity of the organisation and run towards the greater personal and organisational achievement.

vol. A. 12.joe. Markus. Nykodym. Empowerment in Organisations. vol. Merchant. Pearson Education Limited . ‘Employee motivation: a Malaysian perspective’. Lord. Robert L. G.202 – 212. ‘Traditional motivation theories and older engineers’. ‘Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Can Lower Recidivism’. ‘Understanding Employee Motivation’. Evaluation and Incentives. no. N. Iss: 4. vol. Engineering Management Journal. B. Bowon. & Wim A. 3. Guilford Press. Michael 2004. vol. Frederick J. J. Oldham & Anne Cummings 2003. 36. R. R. Journal of Extension. Cambridge University Press. vol. 14. vol. ‘Motivation and Job Satisfaction in one Government Research and Development Environment’. pp 19. Linder. Jones. vol. Iss: 4. E. Cambridge. vol. P. ‘Employee empowerment’. no. Linda Honold 1997. Van der Stede 2003. Baer. A. Ahmad Zaki Hj. 14. American Psychologist. & Latham. International Journal of Commerce and Management. Wong. 7. 1998. OMEGA – the International Journal of Management Science. Leach. pp 344 – 362.org/joe/1998june/rb3. Simonetti. pp 18-21. 18. Engineering Management Journal. ‘Rewarding Creativity: When Does It Really Matter?’..Reference: Rafikul Islam.php/index. Locke. Kim & Oh Heungshik 2000. pp 45-55. Emmons. no.N. New York. 2002. Kenneth A. Welling.php>. Corrections Today. < http://www. Management Control Systems – Performance Measurement. James R. R. 57. pp 3-7. 5. & Jerry D.. ‘An Effective R&D Performance Measurement System: Survey of Korean R&D Researches’. pp 569-586. viewed 22 March 2012.. pp 3-8. vol. Motivation: A biobehavioural approach. 2000. The Leadership Quarterly. vol. . 2002. England. 2. 30. 2003. Ismail 2008. The psychology of ultimate concerns: Motivation and spirituality in personality.L. ‘A review of the literature on employee empowerment’. pp 705-717. Empowerment in Organizations. Warren. 1994. 4. Greg R. ‘Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35 year odyssey’. pp. 4. Westbrook 2000.. 2000.

& Latham. Christina 2001. Work Motivation – Studies of its Determinants and Outcomes.Björklund. A.. ‘Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35 year odyssey’. EFI. . E. Stockholm. vol. G. pp 705-717. 57. P 2002. American Psychologist. Locke.

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