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**Or What are they really teaching in Astronomy courses these days?
**

3rd International Conference on Absolutes Houston, Texas, July 16-18, 2007

Motivation

“Perhaps no other subject in the history of science has had more distortions and misunderstandings than the development of ancient astronomy. For example, one of the most persistent canards is that Ptolemy's model of planetary motion required up to 80 epicycles which prompted the search for simpler models.”

Michael Nauenberg, University of California Santa Cruz http://physics.ucsc.edu/~michael/longbeach.html

Retrograde motion is when a planet begins to go backward (i.e.93 months (87. and goes forward again. retro). and later on.86 years 29. Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Retrograde 4 months 18 months 25.49 months (224.7 months Length 20-24 days 40-43 days 60-81 days 120 days 130 days Orbit Revolution 2. moon and stars do not retrograde.46 years .7 days) 1.97 days) 7.88 years 11. The Sun.Why Epicycles?: Wandering Planets The planets are called wanderers (Greek: planetai) due to their retrograde motion.

7 months with a length of 60 to 81 days. . Ptolemy (150AD) by using the Equant was the first Greek to mathematically fit Mars wandering motion.Wandering Mars Mars wanders (retrogrades) every 25.

plus 5 epicycles = 12 circles. Depending on how one counts. Sun(0). Moon. Mercury(1). Saturn(1). “A comparison between the Copernican and the classical Ptolemaic system is more precise if we limit the count of circles to the longitude mechanisms for the Sun (or Earth). Ptolemy requires 15.” The Eye of Heaven. Jupiter(1). Mars(1).The number of Ptolemy's Epicycles The number of longitudinal epicycles for Ptolemy are typically shown as this: Total epicycles are Moon(0). page 197. . Venus(1). and planets: Copernicus requires 18. it looks like 7 deferents.

Kepler's 1596 In 1596. Kepler shows the Ptolemaic longitudinal epicycles. continens Mysterium Cosmographicum. . Prodromus Dissertationum Cosmographicarum.

Professor of Astrophysical..astr. Astronomy 101: Introduction to Astronomy. compared to 40 in the Ptolemaic geocentric system” Astronomy 161: An Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Prof.edu/~pogge/Ast161/Unit3/copernicus. the epicycles need epicycles! Eventually the Ptolemaic model needed 16 levels of epicycles. Prof. Kathleen Flint. heaped upon deferents. Becker. http://www.gmu. 80. Professor of Astronomy The Ohio State University. heaps of Epicycles (2007) But to accurately account for the planets motions. Simon Singh. upon eccentrics.html “This ultimately required 80 circles and nested epicycles. Richard Pogge.edu/Academics/Astr221/Gravity/history. Chris Mihos. Peter A. Planetary. Department of Astronomy http://www.ohio-state. which was extremely complex and unwieldy” ASTR 111: Introduction to Modern Astronomy I. and Space Sciences. plus off-center orbits for the Sun and planets.pdf The system was very cumbersome with all those 80 arbitrary numbers needed to describe it. http://burro. 2004. replete with epicycles.sunysb.cwru.edu/~kflint/ast101/PDFs/lecture3.cc.astronomy. HarperCollins Publishers.edu/~pbecker/lecture4_handouts.htm “48 epicycles.” page 32. upon equants.pdf “This resulted in a horribly complex model.scs. BIG BANG. Astr 201 and Astr 221. Center from the National Science Foundation & Stony Brook Southampton http://ms.. George Mason University.40. Dr. 80+. . Case Western Reserve University.

Inc. 1966. he still found it necessary to introduce about 40 epicycles to account for observations. So there you have it. Motz was noted for having defeated Enrico Fermi in a tennis match. Esstenials of Astronomy. Wadsworth Publishing Company. a Professor at Columbia: teaching bad science! . page 135. California. earned a Ph.D. “This book is the expanded version of a two-semester introductory course in astronomy given at Columbia University over a period of years.”) Lloyd Motz (1909-2004) was an American astronomer.240 Epicycles “Although Copernicus introduced the heliocentric theory of the solar system.. (Preface says. Belmont.” Lloyd Motz and Anneta Duveen. in physics from Columbia University in 1936. but he considered this a great improvement since the Ptolmaic theory contained more than 240 such epicycles. He was the author of 21 books on astronomy.

Professor of Astronomy.” Professor Lawrence M. 1880 “But to accurately account for the planets motions. plus off-center orbits for the Sun and planets. Chris Mihos." Albert Einstein.edu/menu/sciencecenter/nobel_laureates. Case Western Reserve University. Krauss. 2004.cwru.edu/Academics/Astr201/Discovering/sky.astr.cwru.htm .astr. Scientific American interview. and through your marvelous experiment work paved the way for the development of the theory of relativity.Case School of Applied Science. Professor of Physics. Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics at Case Western Reserve University.” Astr201 and Astr 221. the epicycles need epicycles! Eventually the Ptolemaic model needed 16 levels of epicycles. "It was you [Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887] who led physicists into new path. July 26. Prof.case. http://www. Professor of Astronomy. and Director. http://burro.edu/Academics/Astr221/Gravity/history.html http://burro.htm “We all know how badly science is taught in many schools.

” . Venus on five. in the Commentariolus. ~1512. finally Mars.Copernicus' 34 Epicycles Astronomy textbooks deceptively show Copernicus' Model as nice and simple. thirty-four circles suffice to explain the entire structure of the universe and entire ballet of the planets. “Then Mercury runs on seven circles in all. including one epicycle! But in the Copernicus' own words. and Saturn on five each. the earth on three. and round it the moon on four. therefore. Altogether. Jupiter.

~1512 1 1 1 0 3 1 9 6 3 2 5 2 34 .1543 Earth Diurnal motion 1 Motions in longitude 3 Conic motion of axis 1 Fluctuations in rate of procession 4 Moon Motions in longitude 3 Motion in latitude 1 Three outer planets Motions in longitude (=3x3) 9 Oscillations in latitude (=2x3) 6 Venus Motions in longitude 3 Oscillations in latitude 6 Mercury Motions in longitude 5 Oscillations in latitude 6 Total 48 Commentariolus. The Sleepwalkers. he states. De Revolutionibus.Copernicus' 34 Circles (not epicycles) In Arthur Koestler's book. page 579.

427-347 BC) based his cosmology from the Pythagoreans: ● The heavens are divine. α is the angle α x The parametric equation of a circle is x=R cos α and y=R sin α z=Rcos α + iRsin α Plato (c.Pythagoreans' Circle y R The Cartesian equation of a circle is x2 + y2 = R2 where R is the radius. The earth (material world) is corrupt: characterized by broken circle (rectilinear motion). ● . and eternal: characterized by circular motion.

page 21. .Observationally Indistinguishable Models Planet Planet Planet Sun Sun Earth Earth Earth Ptolemy Geocentric Copernicus Heliocentric Tycho Brahe Geocentric These three models are observationally indistinguishable. 2002. including retrograde motion.” Howard Margolis. “It all started with Copernicus.

a world-renowned astronomer. there you have this amazing statement. Big Bang by Simon Singh. when improved by adding terms involving the square of higher powers of the eccentricities of the planetary orbits. After 400 hundred years of promoting Heliocentric education (including parallax). By the way. The late Sir Fred Hoyle (1915-2001). “Nicolaus Copernicus. Publishers.Ptolemaic versus Copernican Today. page 88. .” Harper & Row. Fred Hoyle was no friend of the Bible. the astronomers cannot honestly prove it. “The passionate frenzy with which the Big Bang cosmology is clutched to the corporate scientific bosom evidently from a deep-rooted attachment to the first page of Genesis. are physically equivalent to one another. 1973.”. is acknowledged to have been one of the most creative scientists of the 20th century.” Sir Fred Hoyle. we cannot say that the Copernican theory is “right” and the Ptolemaic theory “wrong” in any meaningful physical sense. page 439. The two theories. So. religious fundamentalism at its strongest.

r = −a β = twice the speed of α = 2α x=2a cos α − a cos 2α y=2a sin α − a sin 2α Cardioid R 2a r −a β 2α D ef er en t R .Cardioid derived from the Epicycle Epicycle r The Epicycle parametric equation x = R cos α + r cos β y = R sin α + r sin β The Cardioid curve Let R = twice of the radius r = 2a.

r=(a−b)/ 2. β= −α β= − (a/b +1) α β= −(a / b−1)α Epicycle Epicycloid Cardioid Nephroid β= )α +1 /b (a a=b a=2b c=−a c=b Epicycle parametric eqn. x=R cos α + r cos β y=R sin α + r sin β R a+b 2a 3a r −b −a −a β (a/b+1)α 2α 2α Epicycle Epitrochoid Tricuspoid Hypotrochoid Hypocycloid R a+b 2a a−b a−b r c −a c b β −(a/b+1)α −2α −(a/b−1)α −(a/b−1)α .Famous curves derived from the Epicycle R=(a+b)/2.

unibg. y=R sin α + r sin β will describe an ellipse. y = b sin θ Proof: x=R cos α + r cos β => (a+b)/2 cos(α) + (a−b)/2cos(−α) => a/2cos(α) + b/2cos(α) + a/2cos(−α) − b/2cos(−α) And since cosine is an even function.pdf . x=R cos α + r cos β. If we let R=(a+b)/2. sin(−α) => sin(α) => a/2sin(α) + b/2sin(α) − a/2sin(α) + b/2sin(α) => b/2sin(α) + b/2sin(α) => (b/2+b/2)sin(α) => b sin(α) http://www.Ellipse as an Epicycle Astronomy textbooks conveniently ignore the fact the epicycle can describe an ellipse. x = a cos θ. cos(−α) => cos(α) => a/2cos(α) + b/2cos(α) + a/2cos(α) − b/2cos(α) => a/2cos(α) + a/2cos(α) => (a/2+a/2)cos(α) => a cos(α) y=R sin α + r sin β => (a+b)/2 sin(α) + (a−b)/2 sin(−α) => a/2sin(α) + b/2sin(α) + a/2sin(−α) − b/2sin(−α) And since sine is an odd function. r=(a−b)/2 and β= −α then an epicycle.it/dati/bacheca/63/21692.

z(t) = (a0cos ω0t + a1cos ω1t) + i(a0sin ω0t + a1sin ω1t) z(t) = a0eiω0t + a1eiω1t And if we now extend the terms of the epicycle to a multilevel series.venusoptics. http://www. clearly.Multilevel Epicycles: Fourier Series First. change it to complex notation.ω0.ω1 are constants x = R cos α + r cos β => a0cos ω0t + y = R sin α + r sin β => a0sin ω0t + Then.com/AstroNotes/EpicycleFourier. we change the epicycle to a series type notation: Let α=ω0t and β=ω1t where a0.. it has the equivalent expressive power of a fourier series: z(t) = a0eiω0t + a1eiω1t + a2eiω2t + . a1..htm a1cos ω1t a1sin ω1t .

Equant and Keplers 2nd Law Ptolemy's equant. E. approximately sweeps areas as Kepler's ellipse does. and also implies Ptolemy was well aware of Kepler's 2nd law : slow D E C Fast motion . which adds non-uniform motion to the planet. which is a extension to the epicycle. D.

html . Freeth.com/nature/journal/v444/n7119/abs/nature05357.gr/ http://www. constructed around the end of the 2nd century BC.antikythera-mechanism.. particularly cycles such as the phases of the moon and a luni-solar calendar. Nature 444.” “Decoding the ancient Greek astronomical calculator known as the Antikythera Mechanism.” T.Sophistication of Greek Astronomy “The Antikythera Mechanism is a unique Greek geared device. Y. Bitsakis.nature. et el. 587-591(30 November 2006) http://www. It is known that it calculated and displayed celestial information.

11. page 231. 9. 6.. 13. Overview of Aristotelian cosmology and spherical trigonometry.”. . The Eye of Heaven. and the length of daylight. Daily motion attributed to the heavens. Owen Gingerich. Motion in latitude of planets and Sun from the ecliptic. Motions of Jupiter and Saturn. Motions of the fixed stars. 10. 12. Motions of Venus and Mars. Solar and lunar eclipses. Motion of the Sun. 7-8. 3. “The major post-Copernican ephemeris still based on the Alfonsine Tables. Stations and retrogradations.Textbooks: The Almagest. Motion of the Moon. as well as the motion of Mercury.. 2. 1252 The Almagest consists of thirteen books (Euclid's Elements also contain 13 books). Models for the five naked eye planets. Their subject matter can be summarized as follows: 1. and the sizes and distances of the Sun and Moon relative to the Earth. lunar parallax. 4-5. including precession of the equinoxes and a star catalogue. The Alfonsine Tables followed Ptolemy very closely and did not add any more epicycles to the Ptolemy model.

Mars Jupiter versus its ecliptic longitude. The blue and red curves indicate the prediction of the updated Almagest model. and the original data.A Modern Almagest: Richard Fitzpatrick Prof. Mercury Mars Jupiter . Shown below The ecliptic latitude of Mercury. respectively. Fitzpatrick did research comparing Ptolemy's model by using modern parameters of 1995 and 1996.

after the slight errors in Ptolemy's model are corrected.” “Hence.” “First. this simple system is able to account for the motion of the Sun and the planets visible to the naked eye to an accuracy which is more than adequate for naked-eye observations.” “Moreover.html .utexas.ph.A Modern Almagest: Conclusions Prof. Fitzpatrick in his conclusion states. it is an excellent approximation to represent planetary orbits as eccentric circles. it reduces to a remarkably simple system consisting of just nine circles (four deferents and five epicycles).” “Fourth. as is commonly supposed.” http://farside. Ptolemy's use of eccentric circles to represent planetary orbits in the Almagest is not a major source of error.edu/syntaxis/syntaxis/syntaxis.” “The popular myth that Ptolemy's model requires a plethora of epicycles in order to accurately represent the observational data is simply untrue. “A number of important points emerge from our examination of Ptolemy's model of the Sun and the planets.

“The Book Nobody Read.” 2003. “Questions That Plague Physics: A Conversation with Lawrence M. reprint 1989.” http://www. Edward Rosen.” 2004. Howard Margolis.” 1932. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1991. Scientific American interview. “Three Copernican Treatises. Ohio.cfm?articleID=0009973A-D518-10FA-89FB83414B7F0000 . American Institute of Physics.” 1992. Krauss. 2002.” McGraw-Hill. 2004. Copernicus. UK.” 1993. “The Sleepwalkers. New York. Fred Hoyle. C. July 26. Owen Gingerich. Harvard University Press. Penguin Books. Gerardus D. Bouw.” 1959.sciam. “From Eudoxus to Einstein. M.References Recommended Popular Reading Books Owen Gingerich.” 1973. A History of Mathematical Astronomy. Heath. “The Eye of Heaven Ptolemy. Dover Publications.” 2004. “Nicolaus Copernicus. Kepler. Arthur Koestler. Cambridge University Press. Kuhn.com/print_version. 2004. “The Alfonsine Tables of Toledo. Arkana Penguin Books. Cambridge. “Geocentricity. “Greek Astronomy. 1957. Cleveland.” 1959. Mass. “The Copernican Revolution. Thomas S. Sir Thomas L. Dover Publications. Goldstein. Linton. Harper & Row Publishers. Serious Academic Books Jose Chabas and Bernard R.“It all started with Copernicus.

Astronomy & Astrophysics Dept.Appendix: More Quotes “During this time the geocentric model of Ptolemy was still used but the Arab scholars found it necessary to continue to modify the model adding epicycle within epicycle. Ptolemy was able to give an approximate representation of the planetary motion – requiring 80 circles! But the accuracy was not good! (failed to predict dates of eclipses etc. but the new positions obtained with the accuracies achieved by the Arabs did not match the predictions. Candidate. Assistant Professor. University of California.html “During the years between Ptolemy and Copernicus. The Arab astronomers then.. Berkeley. Physical Science Dept. http://www.htm “In order to describe these finer details. At one point the geocentric model had as many as 80 epicycles within epicycles. Physics 101 http://www. Indiana University Northwest. many small epicycles had been added to the main epicycles to make Ptolemy's model agree with the observations. Introduction to General Astronomy. incorporated epicycles within epicycles and off-centered orbits in order to "correct" the model. Franco. Bryan J.pdf . http://cse.ssl.uchicago.D.edu/sstadler/PHYS_SP07/Lectures/Lecture1ca_nq. Shane Stadler. The Arabs also observed the sky and made ever more accurate measurements of the positions of celestial objects. Center from the National Science Foundation & Stony Brook Southampton http://ms.sunysb. Southern Illinois University.D.physics. The price to pay for retaining circular motion centered on Earth was large.html “At the hands of the Arabs.” Prof.edu/~kflint/ast101/PDFs/lecture3. University of Chicago http://astro.” Nick Strobel.” Astronomy 101: Introduction to Astronomy. Méndez. Dr. Quite ridiculous!” Astronomy 10.. Lucia M. The predictions of the original Ptolemaic model were accurate enough for the precision of observations of his time. Ptolemy's model was perfected.cc. Bakersfield College. more than 80 epicycles were required. and speed of revolution on epicycle and deferent. Department of Physics. Ph.edu/bmendez/ay10/2002/notes/lec6.com/history/s4.siu. Kathleen Flint.ppt “By varying the size of epicycle and deferent. Ph..berkeley.” Astronomy 100.astronomynotes.edu/home/web/lucia/a100/lectures/copernicus. still confined to use circles by their aesthetic principles.) The system was very cumbersome with all those 80 arbitrary numbers needed to describe it.

Slide 48. Planetary.edu/ess/philsci/PineCh4. of Physics & Astronomy http://astro.gmu.physics. Richard Brill.D. (New York Times Review.” Simon Singh. Professor of Astrophysical. the 48 of Copernicus. Published: February 20. Science/Physics 122. along with their epicycles. BIG BANG.edu/classes/a10594/notes/l05/l05.” Astro 346.edu/~higgins/teaching/astr1030/Lectures/Ch1_History_h3.uwec. Dept. University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. and equants to” Drury University.scs. sun.gmu. Middle Tennessee State University http://physics. Thomas Lockhart.edu/physics/lockhart/phys315/powerpoints/ancient_models. Peter A. http://www. Department of Physics and Astronomy. Becker. moon”. Springfield.Quotes “Ptolemy introduced a model of the solar system with 80 circles”.html “This ultimately required 80 circles and nested epicycles. Ph. George Mason University. Honolulu Community College “Ptolemaic system for its ''inordinately complex'' heaps of epicycles on epicycles. Martin Karl Wilhelm Pohl.pdf “Ptolemy required a series of 80 circles. deferents. Iowa State University http://cherenkov. eccentrics. Prof. Department of Physics and Astronomy. which was extremely complex and unwieldy” ASTR 111: Introduction to Modern Astronomy I. of Physics and Astronomy.” Physics 315. Physical Science.drury. The Real Creation Science By OWEN GINGERICH.html “used 80 epicycles to describe 5 planets.pdf “more than 80 circles needed. Associate Professor of Space and Computational Science Dept. Chuck Higgins.pdf “80 Uniform circles” ASTRO 1030.pdf “Kepler thus deftly reduces the 80 circles of Ptolemy. The Mysterious Universe Prof. http://www. 2005) . and Space Sciences.edu/~pbecker/lecture4_handouts.edu/~mkpohl/teach/346-s6/ch2.. Wallin. Astronomy 105 John F. but declares that in some respects it was more accurate than the Copernican system. of Computational & Data Sciences. MO http://www. HarperCollins Publishers.iastate.mtsu. Dept.

i.html “Perhaps no other subject in the history of science has had more distortions and misunderstandings than the development of ancient astronomy. they were essential to precise prediction and result in a model that uses 48 circles (deferents plus epicycles). For example.edu/~pogge/Ast161/Unit3/copernicus.Quotes “48 epicycles. Dr.edu/~michael/longbeach. Copernicus also used circular orbits and had to resort to epicycles and deferents to explain retrograde motions.” “However. University of Oregon http://abyss. University of California Santa Cruz http://physics. Department of Physics.ucsc. In fact. but as Evans pointed out this idea was the basis for celestial motions of Greek astronomy.html . Department of Astronomy http://www.” “Gingerich attributed to Copernicus the "aesthetic" idea that "celestial motions should be described in terms of uniform circular motion". Professor of Astronomy The Ohio State University. only 10 less than Ptolemy required.uoregon.ohio-state. “ Michael Nauenberg. James Schombert.astronomy. a more complicated system of circles on circles. compared to 40 in the Ptolemaic geocentric system” Astronomy 161: An Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Prof. Richard Pogge. Copernicus was forced to use more epicycles than Ptolemy. one of the most persistent canards is that Ptolemy's model of planetary motion required up to 80 epicycles which prompted the search for simpler models.e.edu/~js/ast121/lectures/lec02.html “Although these epicycles were much smaller than those in the Ptolemaic model.” Astronomy 121: The Formation and Evolution of the Solar System.

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