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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Final Report

Report for the Environment Agency Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446 Final Report Date 19/04/2013

Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Customer: Environment Agency Customer reference: 111012MJG_GR Confidentiality, copyright & reproduction: This report is the Copyright of Ricardo-AEA Ltd and has been prepared by Ricardo-AEA Ltd under contract to the Environment Agency dated 22/11/2012. The contents of this report may not be reproduced in whole or in part, nor passed to any organisation or person without the specific prior written permission of the Environment Agency. Ricardo-AEA Ltd accepts no liability whatsoever to any third party for any loss or damage arising from any interpretation or use of the information contained in this report, or reliance on any views expressed therein.

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Author: Luca Petrarulo Richard Smithers Raphael Sibille Approved By: Lisa Horrocks Date: 19 April 2013 Signed:

Ricardo-AEA reference: Ref: ED58446- Final Report

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Executive summary
The Environment Agency Climate Ready service provides authoritative advice and information to help a diverse range of organisations in the public and private sector to adapt to a changing climate. A similar role was previously delivered by the UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) and some of the core UKCIP resources are being transferred into the Climate Ready website. However, the UK adaptation landscape also includes multiple other products from a very wide range of providers, in addition to UKCIP: many of these resources have the potential to support the Climate Ready audience at different stages of their adaptation journey. This project aimed to review advice, guidance, tools and resources currently available to users in the UK, and to offer recommendations to Climate Ready on their future provision of generic adaptation resources, and also the specific needs within two of the Climate Ready themes, Agriculture and Forestry, and Business and Services. The project began by researching and assessing generic adaptation tools and guidance to map out the landscape and identify gaps in current provision. We developed an assessment framework that could then be replicated for reviews in individual sectors or themes. Some limited stakeholder engagement with potential Climate Ready users in the Agriculture and Forestry and Business and Services helped to build the picture of their engagement in adaptation and their needs and preferences for support tools and guidance from the Climate Ready service. Sector-specific reviews informed by the responses of the interviews were used to map the tools landscape available within these themes. The outcomes of the project were presented and discussed at a final workshop with Environment Agency staff and selected others, and this included broader debate around the nature of the Climate Ready target audience and the options for signposting users to the most appropriate support. While the suite of UKCIP tools1 that forms the basis of the Climate Ready service offers fairly comprehensive generic support, there are gaps in the first two stages of the adaptation cycle, namely in raising awareness, identifying impacts and quantifying risks. We identified a small selected portfolio of third party adaptation resources which can adequately complete the coverage of the adaptation cycle, as shown in the resources map below.

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We considered Adaptation Wizard, AdOpt and AdaptME as “generic” tools, and covered BACLIAT, SpeedBACLIAT, and SWIMS/LCLIP within the Business and Services themed review.

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The appropriate balance between generic and sector-specific resources seems to be different for Climate Ready different themes, as a consequence of both the structure of each sector and the level of adaptation understanding already present among users. Overall, we suggest that there will be an ongoing place for a core set of generic resources to be maintained and offered by Climate Ready. These resources can act as a starting point for any user, and provide demonstration of core concepts and principles, as well as a tried and trusted framework and evidence base. However, Climate Ready will also likely increase its signposting and/or support of selected sector-specific resources and third party organisations to meet the distinctive needs of each sector / theme appropriately. Existing advice provision to the agriculture sector is extensive, but its structure is complex with more than 80 schemes and over 40 helplines available from industry and government. These schemes provide information and guidance on a wide array of topics, but available tools are only indirectly related to adaptation. The agriculture sector is not explicitly addressed within the current suite of UKCIP products, apart from a few mentions in BACLIAT and Speed BACLIAT. The review of external resources confirmed a number of gaps in the provision of adaptation guidance and highlighted a need for further work both to develop the content of good practice advice and guidance on agriculture adaptation, and to integrate this in efficient and effective ways within the current landscape of advice provision to this sector. Future effort by Climate Ready in the development of adaptation resources for agriculture could focus on raising awareness of the connection between climate change impacts and UK agriculture; providing practical and actionable examples in specific farm sub-sectors of measures that can increase farmers’ resilience to climate change, while also meeting other farm business objectives; mainstreaming adaptation along the supply chain to linked industry actors, e.g. chemicals, seeds, food processors, machineries, etc. Farmers have an overwhelming preference for sector-specific support provided mainly through trusted third party farming advisors and associations. The Climate Ready service should also look to disseminate adaptation support to the agriculture sector via such existing networks. Most of the key adaptation tools already provided to the forestry sector are hosted by the Forestry Commission’s website. Available resources range from general advice to very specific guidance and support, and there is coverage, to a greater or lesser extent, across the entire adaptation cycle. Foresters invariably look within their sector for advice, although external support can be helpful for the broader context. The most effective role for Climate Ready within this sector might therefore be to collaborate with Forest Research and the Forestry Commission to strengthen current tools, fill gaps and disseminate adaptation resources. Climate Ready would have an important role to help integrate advice on forestry with that for other sectors (e.g., agriculture, energy and water management), particularly in relation to the delivery of ecosystem services. For the business and services sectors, the UKCIP tools (BACLIAT and SpeedBACLIAT) provide a thorough and accessible support to the middle portion of the adaptation cycle. However, these focus on identifying and implementing actions, rather than raising awareness or winning the interest of senior management on adaptation. This is a serious gap in the present offer given that a key barrier to action in this sector is still around how to gain the necessary consensus within companies to address adaptation. Multiple third party resources provide some high level coverage across the whole adaptation process: it may be helpful for Climate Ready to supplement the Adaptation Wizard by signposting business users to some of these products that are more closely aligned with business language and drivers. In general, the sector would welcome further support from the Climate Ready service, across the entire adaptation cycle. Climate Ready is envisaged as a hub of adaptation guidance for the business and services sector, where own and selected third party resources are provided in a rational and business-friendly manner, so that users are able to find relevant and trusted tools. In addressing gaps in the support offered to this sector, raising awareness and measures to build support within senior management should have immediate priority;

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provision of tools and guidance suitable across the sector should then be followed by resources targeting specific business sub-sectors. Signposting to third party adaptation products appears to be inevitable in order to meet the needs of Climate Ready’s varied mix of users and to make use of the large number of existing resources covering different aspects of adaptation. The right balance between Climate Ready and third party provision of tools, as well as the strategic approach to the dissemination and delivery of tools and guidance, appears to be different for each sector. Similarly, each theme is likely to require a different balance between generic and sectorspecific tools within the Climate Ready offer. The project explored a number of options for smart signposting solutions: further development of these ideas will be undertaken by a newly-established Climate Ready Tools and Guidance steering group. There are a number of additional considerations if the Climate Ready website will host or signpost third party products. External resources will help Climate Ready to reach a wider audience and provide support on a wider range of topics and challenges. However, there is a danger that users may be confused by a large number of products on offer, and it would be difficult for Climate Ready to ensure that external products are maintained and updated. Moreover, the lack of control over the quality of third party resources could raise reputational risks for the Environment Agency. In future, and in the context of digital convergence to the GOV.UK portal, it may be worth reviewing a range of other portals and approaches in other countries or regions to inform the development of the Climate Ready service.

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Table of contents
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Background ........................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Objectives .......................................................................................................... 1 1.3 Approach ........................................................................................................... 2 Generic adaptation tools and guidance .................................................................... 3 2.1 Approach to the review ...................................................................................... 3 2.2 Summary of findings .......................................................................................... 4 2.3 ‘Smart’ Signposting ............................................................................................ 6 User needs for sector-specific guidance .................................................................. 8 3.1 Agriculture .......................................................................................................... 8 3.1.1 Main Vulnerabilities .................................................................................... 8 3.1.2 Sectoral Trends in Adapting to Climate Change ......................................... 8 3.1.3 Current Support on Adaptation ................................................................... 9 3.2 Forestry.............................................................................................................10 3.2.1 Main vulnerabilities....................................................................................10 3.2.2 Sectoral trends in adapting to climate change ...........................................11 3.2.3 Current support on adaptation ...................................................................12 3.3 Business and Services ......................................................................................12 3.3.1 Main Vulnerabilities and Support Needs....................................................13 3.3.2 Progress in Adapting to Climate Change ...................................................13 3.3.3 Current Support on Adaptation ..................................................................14 Tools and guidance for agriculture and forestry ....................................................16 4.1 Agriculture .........................................................................................................16 4.2 Forestry.............................................................................................................18 Tools and guidance for business and services ......................................................21 Conclusions and recommendations ........................................................................27 6.1 General support ................................................................................................27 6.2 Agriculture .........................................................................................................28 6.3 Forestry.............................................................................................................29 6.4 Business and Services ......................................................................................29 6.5 Cross-cutting issues ..........................................................................................29 6.5.1 Replicability in other Climate Ready themes .............................................29 6.5.2 Balance of generic and sector-specific resources .....................................30

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Appendices Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7 Task 1 Generic Tools Review Task 2 User Needs Report Task 3 Agriculture Tools Review Task 3 Forestry Tools Review Task 4 Business and Services Tools Review Task 5 – Final Workshop Report Presentation of Ideas for “Smart Signposting”

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1 Introduction
1.1 Background
This document is the Final Report of the project “Reviewing and signposting generic climate change adaptation guidance2 and sector specific adaptation guidance for the Agriculture and Forestry and Business and Services themes”. The project aimed to support the Environment Agency in its role within the Government’s national programme for adaptation, Climate Ready. The Environment Agency Climate Ready service provides authoritative advice and information to help a diverse range of organisations in the public and private sector to adapt to a changing climate. Climate Ready has a strong partnership approach and the support services are arranged into seven themes, based on the national Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA). When the Environment Agency first took on this role (previously delivered by the UK Climate Impacts Programme, UKCIP, to some extent), a set of UKCIP resources were made available through UKCIP to form Climate Ready's core tools and guidance offer. However, the UK adaptation landscape is much wider, and includes multiple resources from a very wide range of providers in addition to UKCIP: many of these resources have the potential to offer some support to the Climate Ready audience at different stages of their adaptation journey. As a result, there was a need for strong recommendations to shape the Climate Ready offering in terms of 1) where are there gaps in the current support and what products should be offered; 2) how much of this can or should be based on UKCIP; 3) where is there a need for other products; 4) how guidance and products should be delivered most effectively to users. The interim working arrangement has been that the UKCIP Adaptation Wizard, BACLIAT, Adopt, AdaptME, CLARA and LCLIP products will become an integral part of the Climate Ready provision, although their presentation may change as they are converted into Environment Agency web-ready tools. This study, therefore, set out to identify and other publicly available advice, guidance, tools and resources and to offer recommendations on generic provision to users of the Climate Ready support service. It then looked to address sector-based provision by applying a similar review approach to make recommendations for two specific sectors: Agriculture and Forestry, and Business and Services. In due course, this approach might be applied to other Climate Ready sectors, based on demand for bespoke theme or sector-specific adaptation journeys.

1.2 Objectives
The objectives for the project were: 1. Provide a strategic assessment on how the provisional tools portfolio offered by Climate Ready would support their users’ adaptation process. 2. Provide more clarity on where there are gaps in Climate Ready’s support provision and how these might best be addressed, particularly through the introduction of thirdparty-owned tools. 3. Suggest solutions for mechanisms for supplying or signposting these to target audiences.

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The adaptation resources considered by the project came in many different forms, from articles in prose to macro-enabled spreadsheets. However, the majority of the products covered were aiming to support specific activities linked to adaptation and therefore, for practical reasons, this report often refers to the entire range of adaptation guidance as ‘tools’.

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4. Develop a strategic framework or recommendations to help the Agency know how to deal with new tools and guidance which may appear in the future or that target other Climate Ready Themes not covered by the project. 5. Provide a strategic view on the balance between generic and sector-specific tools in the Climate Ready offering.

1.3 Approach
The project was carried out as five tasks, shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Project Tasks Breakdown

Task 1 Generic Tools Review

Task 2 Sectorial Interviews

Task 3 A&F Tools Review

Task 4 B&S Tools Review

Task 5 Final Workshop

In Task 1, we focused on researching and assessing generic adaptation tools. The Team also sought to develop an assessment framework that could then be replicated for the reviews in Agriculture and Forestry, Business and Services, and potentially in any other Climate Ready Theme. The framework comprised the following activities in sequence:        Horizon scanning for tools and guidance Production of a long-list of tools Preliminary check to produce a short-list Agreement of the short-list of tools with the Environment Agency Detailed review of shortlisted tools Mapping of tools against the adaptation stages and sectors covered Recommendations

The aim of Task 2 was to gain a better picture of the level of involvement in adaptation of potential Climate Ready users in the Agriculture and Forestry and Business and Services sectors. By means of telephone interviews, we explored: a) b) c) d) the specific needs of the sectors in terms of support to adaptation; where are organisations going to look for guidance; what kind of adaptation products are they using; whether users are in need of sector-specific tools or not.

18 stakeholders were interviewed and the responses of the interviews were used to inform the approach to the sector-specific reviews undertaken under Tasks 3 and 4. As explained in the sections which follow, we took slightly different approaches as appropriate to the different sectoral landscapes to develop recommendations for Climate Ready. To conclude the project, a Final Workshop attended by staff of the Environment Agency and other related organisations was held. The purpose of the workshop was to present the outcomes of the project and to use the findings to inspire useful discussion on how to develop the Climate Ready offering of tools and guidance in future.

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2 Generic adaptation tools and guidance
2.1 Approach to the review
A horizon-scanning for generic tools and guidance, starting from a previous review of adaptation tools carried out by Climate UK, and supplemented by a wider internet-based review, identified a long-list of 19 adaptation resources for consideration. The products on the list targeted 12 different types of organisations including international organisations, central government, local authorities, the private sector, and academia. A preliminary assessment of the long-listed products was undertaken based on criteria including the nature of the target audience, the availability of the tools to the public3, their geographical specificity and adaptability to the England/UK case, the generic character of the tools’ contents (e.g. whether the tools were setting frameworks or standards for enabling adaptation), and their coverage of the adaptation cycle. The outcome of this assessment was a short-list of 9 adaptation products (see Appendix 1). During our search and preliminary assessment we made the following observations:  There is a large number of publically available reports and documents on impacts and adaptation, but in general these have specific users or geographies in mind. It would have been hard to map them and difficult for Climate Ready to signpost them, and keep up to date with new reports that are published. Therefore, they were not included in the scope of the review. There is a plethora of material developed at local or council levels; much is targeted at local authorities and/or local stakeholders, businesses, etc. Products are often tailored to the local context, and may have local data underpinning them. We did not include any of these locally-focused resources in the short-list because of their limited geography (i.e. products were not considered to be sufficiently generic). It may be worth the Environment Agency considering with Climate UK and Climate Local whether/how to cover this locally and regionally focused material (if at all) in some form of review and product mapping. “Generic” was interpreted by geography, as well as audience; i.e. a generic product should ideally be usable anywhere in England. Nevertheless, we felt that Scottish and Welsh material was generic enough to be useful in England despite lacking geographic relevance. Products from outside the UK would have been interesting to review in terms of their approaches and principles, primarily to provide inspiration for future updates, additions or improvements to Climate Ready products and services; we did not envisage, for example, Climate Ready signposting users to Australian or Baltic products. Climate-ADAPT 4 was an exception to this, as it is explicitly panEuropean and therefore geographically relevant to Climate Ready users. In future, and in the context of digital convergence to the GOV.UK portal, it may be worth reviewing a range of other portals and approaches in other countries or regions to help design/develop the Climate Ready service/portal.

The products on the approved short-list were reviewed in more detail. Following discussion with the Environment Agency, the team agreed to omit UKCP09 as it is currently the subject of more detailed market research. Ultimately, we decided to include five key UKCIP products

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Commercial (“paid for”) products were omitted from the detailed review. The European Climate Adaptation Platform, at http://climate-adapt.eea.europa.eu/

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selected by the Climate Ready team in order to draw conclusions and recommendations on gaps. The result of the detailed review was the production of qualitative assessment tables for each UKCIP and non-UKCIP tool, and a Tools Map which placed the reviewed products against their target user group and coverage of the adaptation cycle (see Figure 2). The adaptation cycle was considered as five stages, based on the UKCIP Adaptation Wizard: 1. Raising awareness/defining objectives 2. Identifying impacts and quantifying risks 3. Identifying, assessing and implementing adaptation options 4. Monitoring and review 5. Overview of the whole adaptation process

Figure 2. Generic Resources Map

2.2 Summary of findings
Based on the review of generic tools and guidance, we identified three key findings.  As shown in the tools map, while the portfolio of tools migrated from UKCIP left gaps in the first two stages of the adaptation cycle (i.e. 1. Raising awareness/defining objectives and 2. Identifying impacts and quantifying risks), when these were supplemented by the shortlisted existing external products, there were no substantial gaps in the coverage of the adaptation cycle. 6 products out of 9 reviewed are complementary to and/or offer a useful supplement to the current suite of Climate Ready products. These are shown in Figure 2 in blue blocks. A summary of the reasons behind the selection are given in Table 1 below. Some of the adaptation resources may overlap in their aims and the stages of the adaptation cycle that they cover (e.g. Adaptation Scotland Communications Toolkit and Welsh Government Preparing for a Changing Climate Part 1). It will be important to consider how to signpost similar tools in the Climate Ready service in order to

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make users aware of overlaps and select the most appropriate product for their situation.

Table 1. Assessment of generic adaptation tools Adaptation Product Climate Adaptation Tool (Norfolk County Council) Could it prove superior to or complement the existing suite of Climate Ready resources? Yes. It provides a one-stop generic resource for organisations to implement the core part of the adaptation cycle. Within the analysed UKCIP portfolio, the closest Tool to the CAT is the Speed BACLIAT. The latter, however, is narrower in scope as it targets businesses. The CAT fills a gap as a more generic tool to address the central part of the adaptation cycle. Yes. There is currently a lack of case study material contained within the existing suite of Climate Ready resources therefore the GRaBS case studies are likely to prove informative and insightful for Climate Ready users, particularly because they discuss lessons learned and factors influencing the success of the development and implementation of adaptation responses. Yes. This Toolkit completes the range of UKCIP products analysed by providing users with a portfolio of instruments to communicate the business case for climate adaptation in organisations effectively, and starting with a vulnerability assessment. However, it partially overlaps the LCLIP exercise and this should be taken into consideration if and when adopted by Climate Ready. Nevertheless, this Toolkit brings the user one step further along in the adaptation cycle than LCLIP, and this could prove to be an advantage over the latter. Yes. The existing suite of Climate Ready resources does not contain a product specifically relating to communications, and so this toolkit is likely to be of interest and relevance to Climate Ready’s users. It offers a detailed resource to enable engagement with senior management and stakeholders on the subject of climate change adaptation. Yes. Climate-ADAPT could prove complementary to the existing suite of Climate Ready resources. It provides a whole host of guidance, tools and case studies on adaptation in Europe (observations and scenarios, vulnerability measures, options, etc.) and is relevant at the sectoral level, Member State level, including trans-regional and cities. Although the platform’s Adaptation Support Tool is less sophisticated than the Adaptation Wizard, the way in which the tools section of the portal is built offers some interesting solutions on how to ‘smartly’ signpost different kinds of audience to appropriate adaptation guidance. Yes. This product is highly complementary to other Climate Ready resources. It allows users to understand in more detail the form and function of their organisation, and therefore to play to its strengths and overcome barriers when

Adaptation to climate change using green and blue infrastructure: A database of case studies (University of Manchester)

Preparing for a Changing Climate Part 1: Starting and Part 2: Investigating (Welsh Government)

Adaptation Scotland: Communications Toolkit

European Commission, Climate-ADAPT

Alexander Ballard Ltd (2008) Adaptive Capacity Benchmarking Handbook and Toolkit. Project carried

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out for Hampshire County Council on behalf of the ESPACE (European Spatial Planning: Adapting to Climate Events)

developing an adaptation strategy. In theory this should save organisations time and money by ensuring they are on the correct path – and it should give users confidence to take forward their adaptation campaign. However, this toolkit has largely been superseded by the commercial PACT5 product.

We offer two recommendations for next steps:  Climate Ready should continue to develop its own core set of products to provide the basic support to users in the early stages of the adaptation cycle, while the offer on Climate Ready website should rely increasingly on supplementary/external products to meet the specific needs of users at further stages. Climate Ready should identify authoritative providers of sectoral adaptation guidance to work in partnership with in order to closely develop and control sectoral guidance.

2.3 ‘Smart’ Signposting
The existence of a large number of resources covering different aspects of adaptation in sometimes very different ways identified a need for a “smart filter” to help classify different types of users and their needs, and subsequently to present them with the most appropriate tools (internal and external to Climate Ready) to meet their requirements. To an extent, Climate Ready could be compared to a “personal shopper” that helps users find the right guidance. Some initial ideas were presented and discussed within the scope of this project (see Appendix 6). Two key aspects for consideration in the development of the Climate Ready website were proposed:  On the “Tools and Guidance” page: Use signposting solutions akin to those of the EU’s Climate-ADAPT platform to allow users to self-select the tools & guidance more freely. On the “Sectors” page: Use a more constrained questions-driven filter to guide users to more specific resources suitable to the ‘adaptation stage’ of most in a particular theme.

An additional advantage of such a search or filter approach is that it would provide users with differing amounts of knowledge and available time with a differentiated point of entrance to the adaptation journey. However, some further issues were also identified:  The signposting approach used on Climate-ADAPT works well for a large number of products, while Climate Ready is likely to have a much smaller number from which to select. The Climate-ADAPT approach can leave too many options open to the user, and cannot effectively guide/accompany the user to the right products. There is a different audience for tools and information: information should target users who want to understand the implication of climate change for their organisation, whereas tools should provide practical support to those at a more advanced stage of the journey. The filter would be more useful for tools than for information. An alternative approach to differentiating the support offer for different users could be to develop guidance for users who have: 10 minutes (e.g. information about what is

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The Performance Acceleration through Capacity-building Tool (PACT) was developed by Hampshire County Council and Alexander Ballard Ltd.

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adaptation); 1 hour (e.g. info about what does climate change mean for him); 1 day (e.g. tools to work on adaptation, like BACLIAT).  A peer-to-peer approach could also be developed, with organisations which have worked on adaptation and used Climate Ready tools providing “testimonials” about aspects of the Climate Ready service; these could then be presented to other similar organisations.

There are a number of additional considerations if the Climate Ready website will host third party products, or signpost users to third party products hosted elsewhere. In general, recognition of external resources will help Climate Ready to reach a wider audience and provide support on a wider range of topics and challenges. However, there is a danger that users may be confused by a large number of products on offer by Climate Ready, and it would be difficult for Climate Ready to ensure that any external products are maintained and updated. Moreover, the lack of control over the quality of third party resources could raise reputational risks for the Environment Agency (Climate Ready service). Further development of ideas for smart signposting solutions will be undertaken by a newly-established Climate Ready Tools and Guidance steering group.

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3 User needs for sector-specific guidance
The project team carried out a structured set of interviews across a cross-section of more than 20 organisations in the business and services and agriculture and forestry sectors, in order to establish the range of views and opinions about the provision of tools and guidance to support adaptation in these sectors. Trends and observations deriving from the interviews are provided below, by sector, while full summaries of single interviews can be found in Appendix 2.

3.1 Agriculture
3.1.1 Main Vulnerabilities
The principal vulnerability for the agriculture sector in the UK that emerged from the interviews is the increase in complexity of water management, due to projections of increasingly frequent and intense flooding and drought. This issue was recognised as the priority by a majority of interviewees and could affect arable, horticultural, and livestock sectors, though arable systems appear to be most vulnerable. Other vulnerabilities come from:    Heat stress for livestock Disease and pests for both cropping and livestock Change in seasonal patterns

The consensus among interviewees was that farmers are very adaptable to short-term changing weather conditions because farm planning is primarily undertaken on an annual cycle. The short planning cycle also means that they are likely to be able to cope with gradual changes to climate trends. However, larger farm businesses are likely to invest in fixed assets and can have 15-20 year plans which are more likely to be vulnerable to climate change.

3.1.2 Sectoral Trends in Adapting to Climate Change
The picture resulting from the interviews sees a UK agriculture sector that is still in the very early stages of the climate change adaptation cycle. In general terms, farmers possess only a limited understanding of climate change adaptation and raising awareness is still the focus. There also appears to be a certain resistance to change and existing scepticism in the farming community, especially in the older generation. While farmers are responsive to shortterm variations, their adaptive capacity is considered to be low, with climate change not generally considered explicitly during decision-making. Nevertheless, actions are being undertaken at the farm-level which will increase their resilience to climate change. The spread of new technologies and good practices (e.g. plant varieties, water efficiency and soil management) and legislative drivers (e.g. cross compliance and the single payments scheme) are acting to increase resource efficiency and resilience. For instance, on-farm water storage in horticulture is already wide-spread and is being driven by a need for security of supply. While farmers can implement a range of on-farm adaptation measures, they are also dependent on other organisations and the availability of products. Resilience can be increased through the supply chain, via, for example, the purchase of weather-resistant
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seeds or specific fertilisers and pesticides. Therefore, climate adaptation of the agriculture sector is reliant on mainstreaming adaptation into linked industry actors which can pass more resilient products to farmers. The distinction between big farming operations and small businesses seems, again, to be significant. Larger businesses were perceived by the interviewees as more able to undertake adaptation planning and are also more likely to be receptive to government advice and support with adaptation.

3.1.3 Current Support on Adaptation
From the interviews, it is clear that there is currently limited demand for external advice on climate change adaptation from UK farmers. This is due in part to a lack of awareness, but also to the fact that most farms operate on a shorter time-scale than is available from climate projections. As a result, responding to climate change does not necessarily require forward planning on the part of the individual farmer. Again, large farms, or those who are highly leveraged with longer planning periods, are more likely to benefit from considering climate change adaptation explicitly. At present the sector seeks advice direct from agronomists/agricultural consultants and also from the Farming Advice Service 6 ; trade associations like the Agricultural Industries Confederation (AIC7) and the Association of Independent Crop Consultants (AICC 8); and farmer controlled research organisations like the British Institute of Agricultural Consultants (BIAC 9 ). While most were not currently seeking advice on climate change adaptation, interviewees recommended that any information/advice be integrated with existing networks and be provided from trusted sources. Concerning the provision of current support in adaptation to the sector, interviewees highlighted the following gaps and weaknesses:       A lack of available climate projections that properly reflect farm planning cycles (seasonal and 1–10 year periods). The technical challenge of providing these is recognised; Advice to the sector needs to become more practical and actionable (it is currently perceived as too “high level”); More care must be taken when communicating science to farmers to avoid language which is too technical. Climate change terminology is unfamiliar. Farmers may benefit from targeted help to consider climate risks explicitly within farm business planning. Adaptation should be integrated with existing management processes and should not be considered as distinct. The limited existing guidance is fragmented and comes from different institutional sources (e.g. Environment Agency / Natural England / Rural Payments Agency) and the messaging is perceived as confusing and muddled; Support to the sector would be better disseminated by the Environment Agency via existing networks of sectoral associations, as their advisors understand the target audience and are a trusted third party.

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http://www.defra.gov.uk/farming-advice/ http://www.agindustries.org.uk/ 8 http://www.aicc.org.uk/ 9 http://www.biac.co.uk/

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3.2 Forestry
3.2.1 Main vulnerabilities
The forestry sector is not homogeneous; it includes organisations and individuals with a wide range of different perspectives and objectives. This means that whilst some foresters are planning ahead for climate change adaptation, particularly those who are already experiencing related impacts, e.g. Chalara (ash dieback), others question why there is a need to consider climate change now when markets will dictate adaptation. All interviewees highlighted the length of the forestry cycle, which spans many decades. It leads to a conservative mindset, as decisions have far-reaching consequences, and creates challenges quite unlike those in many other sectors. Woodland owners/managers are ‘stuck’ with the trees, woods and forests that they inherit; it may be many decades before they can change species or management. It is challenging for climate change adaptation, leads to long-term vulnerabilities and inevitably means that there are many imponderables. Some interviewees noted that vulnerabilities arise from:  The nature of the forest resource o Commercial plantations are even-aged, lack diversity, and are vulnerable to pests and diseases; o Semi-natural woods are fragmented due to past land-use change and the resource as a whole is predominantly at a similar stage of maturity; making it more vulnerable than if it was structurally diverse (not necessarily at a stand scale). Fragmented woodland ownership, which hampers coordinated action.

Pests and diseases are forefront of forester’s minds currently, due to the recent arrival of Chalara, hot on the heels of Phytopthora in larch, sudden oak death and a number of other high profile diseases. All interviewees highlighted UK forestry’s vulnerability to them in the face of climate change. It was noted that whilst the arrival of pests and diseases often results from free trade issues, they are exacerbated by climate change, and that pre-existing pests and diseases may also be favoured by climate change. Confor provided a long list of climate change impacts (agreed with the Institute of Chartered Foresters, UPM Tilhill, Woodland Trust and the Forestry Commission following a Ministerial meeting with Lord Taylor and Jim Paice MP on the 22 March 2012):               “Changing species suitability - particularly due to drought (in particular what can we grow in the dry east of the UK?); Loss of productivity and consequent impact on the UK forest industry; Changing planting windows; Impacts of heavy rain on forest infrastructure; Impacts of extreme weather, including wind; Increased prevalence of wildfire; Pests and diseases – arguably the greatest threat both as trees become stressed and as conditions become amenable to new pests and diseases many now in Europe but not yet established in UK; Changing rotation length; Rising deer (and squirrel) populations; Risk of invasive species affecting woodland condition; Impacts on business - in offices, outside and in vehicles/harvesting machinery; Inability to maintain woodland SSSIs in good condition; Inability to maintain UK Woodland Assurance Standard certification; Inability to support implementation of UK Forest Standard; and

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Breaches to reservoirs”.

3.2.2 Sectoral trends in adapting to climate change
Whilst different interviewees put emphasis on current work focusing on particular elements of the adaptation cycle, their combined input suggests that the long-term nature of forestry is leading to more general progress with all of the following issues. Raising awareness The England Woodland and Timber Partnership (EWTP) has shown interest in climate change adaptation but interviewees’ perceptions vary as to professional foresters understanding of the need for climate change adaptation. Chalara and other pests and diseases are focusing people’s minds, making them more prepared to listen and take an interest in climate change adaptation than a few years ago when the subject might have been dismissed by many foresters. Nevertheless, the Small Woods Association noted that the need for climate change adaptation is hardly registering with small woodland owners yet, although Chalara has provoked them to think about future. Defining objectives A number of key organisations (i.e. Forest Enterprise, Woodland Trust, Crown Estate, and National Trust) are wrestling with future production and biodiversity issues with reference to climate change adaptation. Natural England noted that objectives are different for productive non-native woods compared to native woods. The UK Forest Standard covers climate change mitigation and adaptation, species selection and management. Last year’s review of the UK Woodland Assurance Standard (used by the Forest Stewardship Council10 and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification11) led to inclusion of climate change considerations within the requirements of certification. Given that around 85 % of the timber harvested in the UK is certified, climate change considerations are now being mainstreamed, especially across commercial forestry and larger estates. Foresters inevitably want a simple stepwise plan for climate change adaptation that enables them to manage by numbers. This is not possible and would be undesirable since there is a need for managers to be responsive to the demands of individual sites, thereby promoting a diversity of adaptation approaches. Identifying impacts and quantifying risks Impacts and risks have been identified but there seemed some uncertainty from a number of interviewees as to whether risks have been quantified. There is general understanding within commercial forestry that if something came along that hit Sitka spruce it would have a substantial impact on the industry: in the uplands there are too few species options due to site limitations (soil, exposure, etc.), so many eggs are in the one basket; in the lowlands people have a broader range of species to choose from. Identifying, assessing and implementing adaptation options The Forestry Commission is already implementing adaptation actions on its own estate, as are larger forestry companies and estates, though most are probably at an early stage. However, most small woodland owners are probably yet to address the need. Confor noted that forestry is by nature an adaptation measure and reported that opportunities identified by forestry stakeholders at a Ministerial meeting in March 2012 (see above) include:    “Increasing forest cover (carbon sequestration); Increasing use of timber in construction (product substitution); Increasing use of wood for energy;

10 11

http://www.fsc-uk.org/ http://www.pefc.co.uk/

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Consequential benefits of additional drive for woodland creation (including flood alleviation, timber as a low carbon construction material and energy source, a new role for arboreta in global nature conservation)”.

Monitoring and review Interviewees made little mention of monitoring and review but it was noted that forests and actions are monitored on a reactive basis with regard to pests and diseases.

3.2.3 Current support on adaptation
Forest Research and Forestry Commission are regarded as the key sources of advice and a range of tools and guidance are available on their website. The UK Forest Standard is supported by Climate Change Guidelines, from which more specific documents are signposted. Forestry Commission is working with the Institute of Chartered Foresters, Royal Forestry Society, Confor and others to deliver knowledge transfer. The Institute of Chartered Foresters noted that more dissemination could be done by the private sector but it would need government funding (not necessarily from the Forestry Commission). Natural England noted that advice on forestry in relation to climate change adaptation would benefit from better integration with agriculture, where there are similar issues; especially given woods occur within an agricultural context and there are common links with ecosystem services, particularly water, carbon and energy. Similarly, the Woodland Trust suggested that it would be beneficial for the sector to be guided to linkages and relations with other land uses and issues. The forestry sector is not homogeneous and the wide range of objectives addressed by different woodland owners and managers creates some issues. The Small Woods Association noted that small woodland owners are turned off by messages aimed at commercial foresters. People are most likely to listen to messages where the objectives intersect with their own. People communicating messages need to be clear where they are coming from (i.e. objectives underpinning their messages). For example, Natural England noted that some information that promoted diversifying native woods is not necessarily helpful, as the performance of new species and their ecological impact is unknown. The Woodland Trust suggested that people are not always sure that the Forestry Commission will give the whole picture and that there can be some confusion as to which organisation provides the definitive point of contact on different issues, as Defra and Environment Agency are also recognised as having an interest in providing advice on adaptation. All interviewees noted that guidance and tools for climate change adaptation will always be a work in progress and that this is amplified by the long-term nature of the forestry cycle.

3.3 Business and Services
The synthesis below represents the views of interviewees who were largely engaged in Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility or Risk Management within their companies. The organisations spanned a number of business sectors, namely Food & Beverages, Manufacturing, Real Estate / Property Management, Services, Transport, and Logistics. Two initial observations set the context of the interview findings: a. None of the organisations currently recognised a job role with specific responsibility for climate change adaptation. Adaptation is usually included in broader concepts like ‘sustainability’, ‘CSR’, or ‘Risk Management’. b. Some of the interviewees were not very clear about the distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation, and they often confused the two concepts.
Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Climate change adaptation is still perceived as a low priority on the agenda of most businesses12.

3.3.1 Main Vulnerabilities and Support Needs
Vulnerabilities to climate impacts are very dependent on the nature of the business under consideration. However, some common factors were identified.    Extreme weather events tended to be the main driver of vulnerability for the interviewees. Within these, the impact of flooding on buildings and infrastructure is emerging as a common problem. Among the impacts related to climate change, short-term disruptions of both business operations and the supply chain, mainly due to extreme weather, were the main concerns of people interviewed. Sector-specific supply chain concerns were also recognised. For example, those businesses relying heavily on agricultural commodities were aware of potential climate impacts on crop productivity and pricing.

3.3.2 Progress in Adapting to Climate Change
Interviewees were asked about their organisation’s current engagement in adaptation. Figure 3 shows how the different interviewees were mapped to stages in the adaptation cycle. Figure 3. Current stage of adaptation actions of interviewed businesses

Current adaptation stage
4 3 2 1 0 Food & Beverages Manufacturing Real Estate Services Transport SME - Logistics

Adaptation stage
0 = No actions on adaptation yet 1 = Raising awareness/defining objectives 2 = Identifying impacts and quantifying risks 3 = Identifying, assessing and implementing adaptation options 4 = Monitoring and review

Most of organisations interviewed were still at the very early stages of acting on adaptation and cited reasons for their inaction as other higher-priority risks (mainly financial and
12

This was the conclusion of a survey of a larger sample of UK companies (400 units) commissioned by the Environment Agency, which showed that national businesses are more concerned by economic and political factors, rather than climate change impact. Blue Marble 2012, Adapting to Climate Change: Quantitative Market Research.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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operational) that are higher in their agenda, or that climate change timescales are too long term. However, in other Environment Agency research, targeting a much larger sample, some different experiences have been identified. Figure 4 gives a snapshot of the business and services sector’s position on the adaptation journey based on a self-assessment. This shows that 40% of companies state that they have already adequately planned and taken action against climate change risks. This result could be misleading since “the qualitative research revealed that self-reported position on journey does not always match an objective assessment; the more informed people are the more they are aware of what action is required and therefore moderate their assessments.” Furthermore, such a high figure could hide an incomplete understanding of adaptation, often confused with mitigation, which has been characterised by a high level of action in the sector for at least a decade. Finally, the sample included a majority of large organisations (62%), which generally are more aware of climate change (and other sustainability) issues than SMEs. Figure 4. Blue Marble’s research “Position on adaptation journey by sector”

Business & Services
40% Haven't thought and don't plan to Haven't thought but do plan to Just starting to look Have looked and are considering 14% 7% 8% 10% 3% Don't know Have planned and starting to act Have planned and taken action

18%

Source: Blue Marble 2012, Adapting to Climate Change: Quantitative Market Research.

3.3.3 Current Support on Adaptation
As a consequence of the low level of activity in adaptation, most of the companies interviewed were not currently seeking external advice on the issue. A recurrent theme was the feeling that there are too many resources from numerous organisations, often perceived to give conflicting advice, and therefore increasing confusion. For instance, one interviewee said: “People don’t understand what they are supposed to be doing. They need guidance on what they should be looking at and how to drive change within their organisation”. Interviewees did not identify any specific organisations or third parties to which their companies would generally go for advice on climate change adaptation, although interviewees did mention a wide range of potential sources of support or information and guidance, including the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), World Business Council for Sustainable Development, the Environment Agency, Met Office, ACI (Trade Body), Edie.net.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Regarding preferences for generic or sector-specific tools, the sample interviewed was divided. Some thought that sector-specific resources would be based on a better understanding of the sector’s problems, whereas others believed that a general overview linking adaptation and businesses at the UK level would be a better option, with the advantage of allowing learning from other sectors’ best practices. Ultimately, there was interest in both types of tools, starting with generic advice on business vulnerabilities to climate change and how to tackle them, followed by drilling down into sector-specific risks and adaptation options.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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4 Tools and guidance for agriculture and forestry
4.1 Agriculture
The interviews conducted with key industry stakeholders suggested that farmers are generally not seeking advice on adaptation. There are already a large number of advice schemes serving the agricultural sector but the accompanying tools that are available only relate to adaptation indirectly. For instance, Defra is undertaking a review of advice, incentives and voluntary/industry led approaches within the agricultural sector. The review is ongoing but the findings to date show that existing advice provision is extensive, and that its structure is complex. Their mapping of provision found more than 80 schemes and over 40 helplines, both operated by industry and administered by government. The schemes provide information and guidance on a broad range of subjects, including:         Biodiversity Land management Water quality Nutrient management Environment Animal welfare Best practice Cross-compliance

While we have not been able to review each of these schemes and services individually, evidence from the interviews suggested that current services are likely to be supporting a wide-range of measures, some of which will address adaptation indirectly. However, limited direct support for climate change adaptation is currently provided. A number of industry bodies have developed decision-making tools, available free online, that can be used to identify, assess performance improvements (ie. nutrient and soil management) or monitoring pest and disease risk. None of these tools reviewed were directly related to adaptation. Given the paucity of directly related adaptation tools aimed at the agricultural sector, below is a list of the indirectly related tools that the project team reviewed:  Farm Scoper: Downloadable spreadsheet-based decision-support tool that can be used to assess diffuse agricultural pollutant loads on a farm and quantify the impacts of farm mitigation methods on these pollutants. It also determines potential additional consequences of mitigation method implementation for biodiversity, water use and energy use. CropMonitor: Online pest and disease monitoring resource: Accessible website providing up to date spatial information on disease and pest risks. Users can sign up for free email alerts/twitter feed of developing disease and pest threats. Precision farming calculator: Online decision-support tool to help determine whether precision farming techniques might be suitable in a farmer’s individual context.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Fight against blight: Online disease monitoring resource: Accessible website providing up to date spatial information on blight risks. Users can sign up for free email / SMS alerts if blight risks are identified in your area. Aphid monitoring in potato crops: Online pest monitoring resource: Accessible website providing up to date spatial information on the spread of aphids risks. Users can sign up for free email / SMS alerts. Planet (Planning Land Applications of Nutrients for Efficiency and the environment): Free downloadable nutrient management planning tool that can be used to produce recommendations for arable, horticultural or grassland crops in each field, each year, taking account of the crop nutrient requirement as well as the nutrients supplied from the soil, and applications of organic manures and manufactured fertilisers. Planet – ENCASH: Nitrogen management tool that can be ordered on a CD-ROM for free. Can be used to estimate the nitrogen production in manure from pig and poultry depending on farming system and inputs. ENCASH can be used to calculate nitrogen production values for compliance with Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ) regulations in England, Wales and Scotland. Climate Resilience for Catchment Methods Guidance Tool: Free downloadable spreadsheet-based tool that can be used to consider whether land management measures that could be implemented as part of river basin management planning are resilient to climate change. Farming Futures Factsheets: Simple factsheets aimed at a range of sub-sectors including for livestock, pigs, beef and sheep , potatoes, peas and beans, beets, dairy, poultry, arable crops, horticulture, and orchards.

Figure 5 shows how the reviewed agriculture sector tools are distributed across the adaptation stages. Figure 5. Agriculture Resources Map

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Adaptation in the agriculture sector is not explicitly addressed within the current suite of UKCIP products, apart from a few sporadic mentions within BACLIAT and Speed BACLIAT. The review of external resources also identified clear gaps in the provision of advice on climate change adaptation. For instance, Farming Futures provides high-level guidance only, aimed primarily at raising awareness. This is still a priority for the sector but the lack of specific, practical and actionable advice is recognised as a key gap. The Farming Advice Service is capable of disseminating this support effectively, but is itself currently lacking the technical content of suitable advice packages. There is a need for further work both to develop the content of good practice advice and guidance on agriculture adaptation, and to integrate this in efficient and effective ways within the current landscape of advice provision to this sector.

4.2 Forestry
The project team identified all of the key adaptation tools already provided to foresters by forestry organisations (see Appendix 4). The majority of these were hosted by the Forestry Commission’s website. The feedback from the interviews suggested that foresters were more likely to turn to sectoral organisations (such as the Forestry Commission and Forest Research), rather than to the Environment Agency’s Climate Ready service, for advice and guidance on adaptation issues. We therefore envisage that the latter might work effectively in support of Forest Research and the Forestry Commission to develop and disseminate adaptation tools, advice and guidance to this sector. The identified adaptation products were mapped against the stages of the adaptation cycle and the specific issues that each resource addressed (e.g. Forestry Standard, pests and diseases, species selection and provenance etc.) as shown in Figure 6. This mapping could form the starting point for discussions between Climate Ready and the Forestry Commission and other relevant stakeholders on how it can best build upon existing adaptation guidance.

Figure 6. Forestry Resources Map

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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5 Tools and guidance for business and services
The project team identified a long-list of 34 adaptation products targeting the business and services sector. These were provided by a wide range of organisations, from central government (such as Defra or the Cabinet Office), to local authorities (such as the Kent or Somerset County Councils), sector associations (like the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants and the Confederation of British Industry), and commercial providers (such as AXA and Acclimatise). We carried out a preliminary assessment of these products based on criteria including the nature of the target audience, the availability of the tools to the public (e.g. commercial products were generally omitted from the detailed review), their geographical specificity and adaptability to the England/UK case, and the coverage of the adaptation cycle, and this reduced the list for more detailed review to 15 products. The SWIMS product was included in the review, even though it is currently designed for use by Local Authorities, since Climate Ready is considering whether the resource could be extended to business too. Qualitative assessment tables were developed for each product, and a tools map was produced to show how the different stages in the adaptation process are currently covered (Figure 7). UKCIP’s tools for business, i.e. BACLIAT and SpeedBACLIAT, were also mapped, and LCLIP was included for comparison with SWIMS. The review of these resources was also informed by the findings from the user requirement interviews (section 3). In general, the business sector would welcome further support from the Climate Ready service, across the entire adaptation cycle. Raising awareness and measures to gather consensus within senior management should have immediate priority; tools and guidance suitable across the sector should be followed by resources targeting specific business sub-sectors.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Figure 7. Business and Services Tools Map

A number of observations follow from our analysis: 1. As shown in the map of tools and guidance in the business and services sector, the two UKCIP business-specific tools provide a thorough and accessible support to a well-defined portion of the adaptation cycle, i.e. identifying impacts and quantifying risks, and identifying, assessing and implementing adaptation options. 2. This leaves three main gaps in the adaptation cycle: o Overview of the whole adaptation process: the UKCIP Adaptation Wizard can provide the overarching adaptation framework. However, since it is not developed with the business and services sector as its primary target, it might miss some important hooks, issues and advice. It may be helpful for Climate Ready to supplement the Adaptation Wizard’s support by sign-posting business users to some third party resources that specifically target this sector using concepts which are more intuitive for, and aligned with, business, such as business continuity or business standards. Alternatively, the Wizard could be translated into a language and framing which sits more naturally with this sector. Raising awareness/defining objectives: both BACLIAT and Speed BACLIAT focus on identifying and implementing actions, rather than raising awareness or winning the interest of senior management on adaptation 13 . This is a serious gap in the present offer of support given the importance of communication and making the case for adaptation that was indicated by the interviews. A key barrier to action is still around how to gain the necessary consensus within companies to take action. The ‘Be Climate Ready’ Guide will partially close this gap in the Climate Ready tools portfolio. However, the Guide is deliberately short and therefore cannot provide the depth of

o

13

It is acknowledged that BACLIAT has been successfully used to increase the awareness of businesses towards the impacts of climate change. Nevertheless, we think that both BACLIAT and Speed BACLIAT are primarily action-oriented and the awareness rising component is only marginal.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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information and evidence that can be useful at this stage in the adaptation process. Figure 7 shows that there are other resources which already provide more detailed information on the links between climate change and the needs and opportunities for UK business deriving from it. Nevertheless, although these present the business case for acting on adaptation, they do not provide advice on how to communicate it effectively. Climate Ready could develop a toolkit similar to the Adaptation Scotland Communications Toolkit, which provides a thought-through and ready-to-use approach and tools. o Monitoring and review: this is an important part of the cycle, but since there has been only limited progress of UK business on adaptation, it is not currently an area in high demand of support. Sign-posting users to other checklists which may be regularly updated, like AdaptME and the Business Resilience Healthcheck, could be an effective solution at this point in time.

3. 7 products out of 15 reviewed are complementary to and/or supplement the current suite of Climate Ready products for business. These are shown in Figure 7 in blue blocks. A summary of the reasons behind the selection and some comments concerning the suitability of each product for Climate Ready’s purposes are given in Table 2.

Table 2. Assessment of business and services adaptation tools Adaptation Product Business Resilience Healthcheck Could it prove superior to/complement the existing suite of Climate Ready resources? Yes. It requires less detailed effort compared to BACLIAT and Speed BACLIAT, while providing a tailored checklist to the user which can clearly show businesses the concrete links between climate change and business continuity and sustainability. The emphasis is on business continuity alone, which can help improve resilience to current weather, but does not necessarily help adapt to future climate change. Reference to detailed projections of future climate would need to be integrated to address this. No. This product is comparable with LCLIP. In fact, the information caught by SWIMS is already present within the LCLIP. The two Tools, however, are not quite the same and it would be possible to update LCLIP to capture the strong features of SWIMS. Some ameliorations to LCLIP could comprise:   Amend it in a way that it is applicable to business, rather than local authorities; Add the automatic production of a PDF report to summarise the past, current, and near future vulnerabilities of the organisation; Switch the emphasis of the tool’s goal from past severe weather events to the inclusion of current events as they occur as well;

SWIMS

Include the possibility to store online LCLIPs from

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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different organisations in the UK and share aggregate analysis on local impacts and responses with the public. Some large corporations could benefit from consolidating LCLIPs from different geographical sites or functions or business divisions. BusinessWizard No. BACLIAT and Speed BACLIAT already cover the kinds of impacts presented by BusinessWizard. So does the Business Resilience Healthcheck, which also includes several additional risks. In addition, there is potential for this tool to foster maladaptation since it presents only a fairly simple set of risks matched to solutions. If the advice were to be followed very literally by a business, then they may invest in solutions not appropriate to their specific location / circumstance and that were not effective or even counterproductive in the long term. Yes. This is an interesting example of the attempt to translate the Adaptation Wizard into sectorspecific guidance for the business and services sector. The reference to the standards is located at the end of the guide as Appendices. The rest of the document is a relevant adaptation framework even for businesses that do not use those standards. There are reservations on whether Climate Ready should promote a tool which is not free to use. No. The UKCIP Adaptation Wizard already provides a similar framework to organisations to address the challenges of climate change, with the addition of a step-by-step support to its implementation and the provision of extra tools and resources to facilitate the adaptation process. However, this product provides a good idea of how the Adaptation Wizard could be successfully modified to address the specific needs of business:    The Business of Adapting to Climate Change: A Call to Action A more business-friendly language; A concise format; The parallel provision of business case studies.

Climate change adaptation. Adapting to climate risks using ISO 9001, ISO 14001, BS 25999 and BS 31100

Future proof: Preparing your business for a changing climate

Yes. The framework for corporate action on adaptation presented here includes several interesting points which are currently missing from the Climate Ready suite of tools:  It places adaptation of businesses in a broader context that shows how their actions can influence and be influenced by other crucial actors in climate change, such as public institutions and civil society;

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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The issues covered go beyond improving resilience to direct impacts of extreme weather, to include other vulnerabilities like ecosystems, human capital and food security; It shows how climate change adaptation can become a concrete opportunity to gain competitive advantages over businesses that do not adapt now.

GEMI Climate Change Risk and Opportunity Identification Tool

No. Speed BACLIAT already helps companies identify and assess potential risks and opportunities of climate change in a more sophisticated and comprehensive way. Yes. This is an excellent example of how Climate Ready’s expertise on climate change adaptation of businesses could be integrated into other more intuitive concepts like ‘business continuity’ to ultimately increase the resilience of the UK business and services sector. However, at present the resource does not specifically help businesses address longer-term issues associated with climate change. Improvements in this area should be considered if Climate Ready decide to use this product. No. The Adaptation Wizard is a perfect substitute of this product. However, some interesting features like the risk management approach may be born in mind when the time comes to revise/update the Wizard. No. The resource is compatible with Climate Ready’s overall programme, but provides limited additional value since it is geographically tailored to the Baltic region. There is no information on how effective it is in supporting individuals and groups in practice. Yes. The guide is compatible with Climate Ready’s mandate, and its design/content may help inform the development of further guidance. Features which are especially highlighted are the quick checklists and the – very light – attempt to make the business case for adaptation. Yes. The product is in line with Climate Ready’s resources as it was developed by Climate Ready itself. This short document could very well work to get the attention of British SMEs about climate change adaptation and indirectly promote Climate Ready’s website and the other guidance supplied. Yes. This report would complement and enhance the Climate Ready resources in the area of supply chain resilience building.

Promoting Business Continuity. A Guide for Businesses in Somerset

Managing the Risks from Climate Change: An Adaptation Checklist For Business

Baltic Climate – Business Toolkit

Weathering the Storm – Saving and Making Money in a Changing Climate. A Practical Guide for Small Businesses in the West Midlands

‘Be Climate Ready’ Guide

Value Chain Climate Resilience: A guide to managing climate impacts in companies and communities / Business ADAPT Tool

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Guide to Corporate Ecosystem Valuation (CEV)

No. The report has some relevance due to the climate resilience benefits of a strong local ecosystem to businesses, but does not specifically focus on this topic and may be confusing if incorporated. No. This report is aimed at informing policy makers, and is not intended to provide any useful support to businesses beyond being a source of policy-level information on the subject. As such it would be aligned with the overall theme and work of Climate Ready, but would not necessarily add value as a resource for business.

Private Sector Engagement in Adaptation to Climate Change

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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6 Conclusions and recommendations
6.1 General support
There is a large number of generic adaptation tools and guidance provided by different types of organisations and addressing issues related to different stages of the adaptation cycle (we identified a long-list of about 35 products). While the suite of UKCIP resources that is currently being migrated to the Climate Ready service offers a fairly comprehensive range of generic support, we highlighted some areas of the adaptation cycle where gaps remain, namely in raising awareness, identifying impacts and quantifying risks. The project identified a small selected portfolio of external adaptation resources which could supplement the current set of Climate Ready tools. The combined set of Climate Ready and third-party resources is able to cover the entire adaptation cycle, in a generic sense. Signposting to third-party adaptation products appears to be inevitable in order to meet the needs of Climate Ready’s varied mix of users. The right balance between Climate Ready and third party provision of tools, as well as the strategic approach to the dissemination and delivery of tools and guidance, appears to be different for each sector. Similarly, each theme is likely to require a different balance between generic and sector-specific tools within the Climate Ready offer, because different sectors are at different stages in their familiarity with and action on adaptation. Sensible decisions about the mix of products within both the generic and the sector-specific Climate Ready offerings will therefore also need to be driven by clear identification and understanding of Climate Ready target users. This is a fundamental question which some of this project’s activities have started to address: who are the main target users of Climate Ready tools? There are various possibilities:    Implementers, i.e. those who ultimately need to adapt, like farmers or businesses; Intermediaries, i.e. those who are the trusted means of advice and information for end users, like the Farming Advice Service, consultants, or insurers; or Institutions / policy-makers, i.e. those who define the regulatory framework / enabling environment, like the Forestry Commission, other governmental bodies, or Local Authorities.

The most appropriate tools and resources are different in each of these cases. Consequently, if the Climate Ready service is to be able to support a wide range of users, a ‘smart signposting’ solution is likely to be needed, which should be able to: 1. Identify specific type of users; 2. Identify their current needs; and 3. Consequently present them with the most appropriate resources. Both an advanced search function (such as used in the European Climate Adaptation Platform, Climate-ADAPT) and a question-driven filter approach have potential to deliver aspects of the solution: these different features could be exploited in different sections of the Climate Ready website.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

6.2 Agriculture
A number of recurrent issues were identified during the interviews with agriculture stakeholders; these have highlighted that future effort by Climate Ready in the development of adaptation resources could focus on: 1. Raising awareness of the connection between climate change impacts and UK agriculture; 2. Providing practical and actionable examples of farming techniques that can increase farmers’ resilience to climate change while also meeting other farm business objectives. Such examples shall target specific farm sub-sectors - e.g. potato production. 3. Mainstreaming adaptation along the supply chain to linked industry actors, e.g. chemicals, seeds, food processors, machineries etc.; 4. Improving and updating UK Climate Projections. Farmers have an overwhelming preference for sector-specific support provided mainly through the existing network of farming advisors (rather than a new generic adaptation function). Communication on climate change should make use of existing networks. Care should be taken with the language used in communicating to farmers and adaptation advice will need to be closely aligned with commercial and regulatory drivers. The case for undertaking resilience measures should be expressed in terms of commercial benefits to their business. The review has clearly identified a need for further work both to develop the content of good practice advice and guidance on agriculture adaptation, and to integrate this in efficient and effective ways within the current landscape of advice provision to this sector. There are a number of sources of advice that could help fill gaps in existing provision of adaptation tools and guidance to this sector, particularly on awareness raising about climate change impacts on UK agriculture. Based on the evidence from interviews and desktop research, a number of existing advice schemes could potentially be used to deliver adaptation guidance to the agricultural sector. For example:  Independent consultants provide substantial advice to farmers and are represented by trade associations like the Association of Independent Crop Consultants (AICC) and the British Institute of Agricultural Consultants (BIAC). The trade associations provide support to their advisors and could be used to disseminate information to farmers through a network of existing advisors. Environmental information services, like Campaign for the Farmed Environment and Farming Futures, are operated through collaborations between industry, government and environmental organisations. They provide a shared communications platform which could be used to provide advice on climate change adaptation. The Farming Advice Service has the flexibility to deliver a wide range of agricultural advice. The service is delivered through a consortium approach with 85 advisers currently approved to delivery advice through a range of mechanisms such as farm walks, workshops, adviser training and drop-in-clinics. The advice service has developed training materials on adaptation and could prioritise advice on adaptation, targeted at specific sectors within the industry. The Environment Agency’s existing network of Agricultural Officers works with agricultural businesses and could be an additional route through which adaptation advice can be provided. For instance, the relationships developed through the creation of abstractor groups could be maintained and used to improve resilience over the long term.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

6.3 Forestry
Evidence from the interviews confirmed that foresters invariably look within their sector for advice. Wider input can be helpful to provide broader context, but specific advice on forest management comes from within the sector. This means that Climate Ready may only have a backroom role in supporting Forest Research and the Forestry Commission to develop and disseminate forestry tools, advice and guidance on adaptation. Climate Ready may be best-placed to help integrate advice on forestry with that for other sectors (e.g., agriculture, energy and water management), particularly in relation to the delivery of ecosystem services. Beyond those forestry-centric resources that can be accessed via the Forestry Commission’s website, current advice, guidance and tools relating to climate change adaptation are somewhat dispersed. The Woodland Trust suggests that it would be helpful to provide people across the forestry sector with a simpler entry point that makes wider advice, guidance and tools relevant to them. However, unless it is made obvious that such resources relate directly to forestry, foresters will not make routine use of them. Members of forestry organisations look to their own websites, so rather than Climate Ready trying to develop its website as a central hub, it would be helpful if Climate Ready provided modules or a portal for embedding in third party websites. Forestry is not a homogeneous sector. This means that when it comes to supporting climate change adaptation, no one size fits all and there is the risk that whatever is developed may either be too tailored or too broad for use by different parts of the sector. The Climate Ready service could potentially consider this ongoing need for outreach (e.g. attending forestry conferences) and personalised support or coaching.

6.4 Business and Services
Within the business and services sector, there is an appetite for further development of Climate Ready tools and guidance, especially if the service could cover adaptation under 360o and unify adaptation guidance for English businesses under a single and trusted organisation. In contrast to the approach preferred by the forestry sector, Climate Ready is envisaged as a hub of adaptation guidance for the business and services sector, where own and selected third party resources are provided or sign-posted in a rational and businessfriendly manner, so that users are able to find relevant and trusted tools. Tools and guidance should ultimately cover the entire adaptation cycle, although raising awareness and measures to gather consensus within senior management should have priority at this stage. The generic tools and guidance that Climate Ready is embracing should also be followed by more specific resources targeting defined business sectors. The language which is used to communicate adaptation to users in this sector is crucial in effectively fostering engagement and action: so familiar and appealing concepts like business resilience and cost-effectiveness of responses to climate risks should definitely be exploited. It is encouraging that Climate Ready is already working on a tool to support organisations in developing the business case for mainstreaming adaptation into corporate investment appraisals.

6.5 Cross-cutting issues
6.5.1 Replicability in other Climate Ready themes
The project developed and applied a standard approach to research and review adaptation tools and guidance, as illustrated in Figure 8.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Figure 8. Framework for researching and reviewing adaptation guidance

Expert knowledge nline search

Stakeholders interviews

Long-list

Preliminary assessment

Shortlist

etailed review

As might be expected, there was some flexibility in the emphasis given to each stage, depending on the different characteristics of the two Climate Ready themes that were considered. The approach could be applied in the remaining Climate Ready themes to complete a comprehensive review of adaptation tools and guidance, and to clarify further the scope and nature of the Climate Ready service. Those sectors which are more advanced in the adaptation process, and for which there is already a good stock of available adaptation resources (i.e. Natural Environment and Local Authorities themes), could resemble the Forestry sector by preferring to draw on existing third party portals and advice schemes for adaptation support (rather than turning to a new hub provided by Climate Ready). In these cases, the actual review of the tools is probably a lower priority than working in partnership with sectoral intermediaries to fine-tune the available tools to support the sector.

6.5.2 Balance of generic and sector-specific resources
The question of the appropriate balance between generic and sector-specific support provided in the Climate Ready offering emerged at multiple points during the project, both in discussing with potential users during the interviews, and at the final workshop. This project looked only at two Climate Ready themes in detail and so any conclusions on this point are partial and preliminary. The appropriate balance between generic and sector-specific resources seems to be different for different themes. Both agriculture and forestry users expressed a preference for sector-specific adaptation resources addressing practical issues and actions in their sector, whereas potential users in the business and services theme were more open to the idea of using generic resources to provide the right background and analytical framework, later supplemented by tools targeting business sub-sectors. The level of understanding of adaptation can also influence preference for generic or sector-specific resources. Those users who are just starting out on adaptation and have very limited knowledge (and some of the interviewees in the business and services theme were in this position) are able to accept a more generic and introductory resource than those users who have a high level of understanding and experience and now look for specific solutions to detailed challenges.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Overall, we suggest that there will be an ongoing place for a core set of generic resources to be maintained and offered by Climate Ready. These resources can act as a starting point for any user, and provide demonstration of core concepts and principles, as well as a tried and trusted framework and evidence base. If the focus of Climate Ready were to switch solely toward sector-specific resources, there is a risk of divergence, with different approaches developing, particularly with signposting to third party products. A set of generic resources provides a consistent core framework, as a reference point and quality mark on which sectorspecific materials can be founded. We also suggest that Climate Ready will need to increase its signposting and/or support of selected sector-specific resources and third party organisations to meet the distinctive needs of each sector / theme appropriately, but the generic resources will help to maintain a theoretical coherence across the whole Climate ready offering.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

APPENDICES

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Appendix 1: Task 1 Generic Tools Review
See separate document

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Appendix 2: Task 2 User Needs Report
See separate document

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Appendix 3: Task 3 Agriculture Forestry Tools Review
See separate document

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Appendix 4: Task 3 Forestry Tools Review
See separate document

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Appendix 5: Task 4 Business and Services Tools Review
See separate document

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Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Appendix 6: Task 5 – Final Workshop Report
Adaptation Guidance Review Project
Final Workshop - Key points and actions

Introduction
Purpose of the workshop was two-fold: on the one hand, for Ricardo-AEA to present the main findings and recommendations of the project to the wider team of Climate Ready (CR); on the other hand, it aimed to use the findings to generate discussion and define key issues that would help steer CR’s ongoing work on tools and guidance. Megan gave a brief overview of the project, recapping on its aims, objectives and intended outputs (see attached presentation). Subsequently, she introduced additional pieces of work which are related to this project, namely:  the decision to transfer core tools from UKCIP to Climate Ready for 31 March: Adaptation Wizard, BACLIAT (but not Speed BACLIAT), Identifying Adaptation Options, Adaptation Monitoring and Evaluation, CLARA, LCLIP (to be modified for general audience)  a set of projects going on in the Business and Services (B&S) theme: Segmentation work; Influencing packs for SMEs and Big Corporates; Business case project; Climate change risks to supply chains.  other relevant works: Built environment review; Socially just climate change adaptation project; SWIMS launch; Health sector guidance.

Session 1 - Generic review
After the introductory session, Luca started the illustration of the findings of the project (see separate presentation). The first session was about presenting the approach to and outcomes of the review of generic (i.e. non-sector-specific) products. The session concluded that due to the abundant supply of adaptation guidance products there is the need of developing a “Smart Filter” to: 1) Identify specific type of users; 2) Identify their current needs; 3) Consequently present them with the most appropriate resources. The conclusions led to the following question which framed the discussion: “Who should the main target users of CR core set of tools be”? The audience was provided with three categories: a) Implementers; b) Intermediaries; c) Institutions/policy-makers. Main responses:  There was a quite clear agreement that policy-makers should not be the main targets of CR core tools.  Concerning implementers and intermediaries, they are both important users of CR support and the tools should be targeting them. However the audience is aware of the following: o 80% of potential CR users are implementers, most of them with a limited knowledge of adaptation and just starting their adaptation journey. Therefore tools that point to raise awareness about the importance of adaptation are crucial. It is also important to find ways to integrate adaptation in the implementers ’ common operations rather than as a separate bit. o Intermediaries, even though are potentially only 20% of CR users, are important users as they have the ability to reach directly implementers as well as they can provide feedback to CR about the effectiveness of the tools for their sector (an issue that is often difficult to perceive). Tools directed to them should offer more technical details than those for implementers.

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Session 2 - Sectors review
This session presented the outcomes of interviews of key-stakeholders and the review of adaptation tools for the Agriculture and Forestry (A&F) and B&S sectors. Briefly:  Agriculture. Agriculture is characterised by an annual planning cycle which makes it difficult for farmers to include longer-term climate impacts, but helps to be responsive to weather variability and gradual climate change. Raising awareness is a priority for CR as well as closing the gap in guidance on identifying impacts and quantifying risks. A good way to support implementers in agriculture would be through the numerous existing sources of advice, e.g. independent consultants, environmental information services, existing advice schemes, and EA’s existing network of Agricultural fficers .  Forestry. Unlike farmers, foresters need to plan very far in the future. Therefore it was not surprising to see that work is already happening on all stages of the adaptation cycle. Forestry operators tend to look within the sector for advice and Forest Research and the Forestry Commission are recognised as the key source of adaptation advice. The role envisaged for CR, consequently, is to support FR, FC, and other forestry intermediaries to provide the right adaptation support to the sector, particularly by integrating advice on forestry with that for other sectors (e.g. agriculture and ecosystem services).  Direct comment on A&F: Farmers and foresters are often at the same time businesses and may need to be supported as businesses as well.  Business and service. The majority of interviewed businesses were at the very beginning of their adaptation journey. Raising awareness was signalled as a priority by both interviews and tools review. In addition to it, the review showed that products covering the overall framework to adapt, and monitoring and review were missing from CR core suite of tools, but the gaps could be closed by using third-party tools. CR was advised to aim at becoming a hub of adaptation guidance for business with the help of the above mentioned Smart Filter. The discussion was concentrated over defining similarities between other CR themes and the outcomes of the analysis for A&F and B&S:  Built environment. Caroline Duckworth found the exercise of defining the users of each theme useful and presented a segmentation of the Built Environment theme’s users, which are mainly Local Authorities and public sector.  The general understanding is that those sectors that are more advanced in the adaptation process and for which there are already a good number of guidance, like the Natural Environment and Local Authorities sectors, are more likely to resemble the Forestry sector by looking for support internally. In these cases, it is of utmost importance to work in partnership with sectoral intermediaries.

Session 3 - A safe place for ideas
This was a short session before the lunch-break to ask the participants to write on post-it notes (creative) ideas for new or upgraded CR guidance products to be prepared during next financial year. Here is what people wrote:  Update AdOpt to include pre-action, evaluation, OP actions from ECR;  Two notes supporting the development of the “business case for adaptation”;  Citizen’s guide to encouraging adaptation in suppliers, Las, schools, government;  Something more on identifying adaptation options;  Think of the future of Speed BACLIAT;  Form partnerships with sector representatives to collectively create shared set of tools that sector groups can promote/endorse;  Upgrade LCLIP with the strengths of SWIMS.

Session 4 - Ideas for signposting options for CR website
In the afternoon, Luca presented some ideas on how Climate Ready’s website might consider signposting users to information sources (see presentation attached).

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

The proposal coming from the Consultants based on previous discussions within the project ’s Steering Group was the following:  On the “Tools and Guidance” page: Use signposting solutions akin to those of the EU’s Climate-Adapt platform to allow users to more freely self-select the tools & guidance they access.  On the “Sectors” page: Use a more constrained questions driven filter to guide users to more specific resources suitable to the ‘adaptation stage’ of most in a particular theme . The proposal was well received especially because it would provide users with different knowledge and time available with a differentiated point of entrance in to the adaptation journey. However, some issues were raised in discussion:  There is some concern that the Climate-Adapt’s signposting approach works well only with a large supply of products, while CR’s supply is more limited.  Chris West pointed out that Climate-Adapt’s approach leaves too many open ways to the user, while he would rather have something that identify and then guide/accompany the user to the right products.  Someone noted that there is a different audience for tools and information: information should target users that want to understand the implication of climate change for their organisation, whereas tools should provide practical support to those that are in an advanced stage of the journey. The filter would be especially useful for tools rather than information.  Following the same logic about differentiating the support offer for different users, an idea could be to develop guidance for users who have: 10 minutes (e.g. information about what is adaptation); 1 hour (e.g. info about what does climate change mean for him); 1 day (e.g. tools to work on adaptation, like BACLIAT).  CR was compared to a “personal shopper” who helps users find the right guidance.  Another idea was to have businesses which worked on adaptation and used CR tools to become “testimonials” of CR work and have them presenting to other businesses. Finally, the discussion moved to the pros and cons of hosting on CR website and signposting users to third-party’s guidance. Opinions were mixed. Few common points were reached as follows:  Pros: external resources can help reach the wider audience and provide support on wider topics and issues.  Cons: 1) a large offer of products may result in confusing users; 2) there is an issue for CR to check the quality of third-party resources and it may raise reputation issues for the Environment Agency; 3) external products are difficult to be kept updated. Two were the main conclusions of this part of the discussion:  CR should have a own core set of products to provide the basic support to users in the early stages of the adaptation cycle, while the offer on CR website should rely increasingly on supplementary/external products to meet the specific needs of users at further stages.  CR should identify sectoral authoritative providers of adaptation guidance to work in partnership with in order to closely develop and control sectoral guidance.

Next steps
Megan explained that the outcomes of the project and the workshop will be taken further in the newlyestablished CR Tools and Guidance steering group.

List of participants
Present: Chris West (Climate Ready) Kylie Russell (Business & Services Theme Lead) Alex Webb (Agriculture & Forestry Theme Lead) Simon Slater (Climate UK) Charlie Corbishley (Climate Ready Programme Lead)

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Ellie Heightman (Climate Ready Communications Lead) Richard Lamb (Climate Ready) Katy Peat (Climate Ready Evidence) Laurie Newton Caroline Duckworth (Built Environment Theme Lead) Gretchen Moeser (Environment Agency) Jens Evans (Environment Agency) Angela Connelly Molly Anderson (Climate Ready Evidence Lead) Megan Gawith (Climate Ready, Project Manager) Luca Petrarulo (Ricardo-AEA) Paddy Pringle (Ricardo-AEA) Apologies Nick Buckland (Climate Ready)

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

Climate Ready: Review of Adaptation Guidance

Appendix 7: Presentation of Ideas for “Smart Signposting”
See separate document

Ref: Ricardo-AEA/R/ED58446/Final Report

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