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A MAJOR PROJECT SYNOPSIS

ON

SERIAL PORT OPERATE FOR HOME APPLIANCES USING COMPUTER
Submitted to: Mr. Ashish Awasthi H.O.D (Department of Electroics & Communication Engg.)
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Submitted by: Arvind Kumar Verma Roll No. 0922131008 Abhishek Singh Yadav Roll No. 0922131001

Triloki Chand Roll No. 0922131047

Acknowledgement
First of all, I express my deep sense of gratitude and devotion of God almighty without whose help and wish everything were just impossible .
My present report is the result blessings and well wishes of my teachers. I wish to express my grateful thanks to teacher Mr. ASHISH AWASTHI, H.O.D of E&C.I.E.T Sitapur under whose enlighten guidance and supervision. I could able to complete the report. Finally, I am hearty obliged to my teacher Mr. ASHISH AWASTHI for their constant operation and patience .

SUBMITTED BY
Krishna Kumar Yadav Roll no. 0922131021 Pramit Srivastava
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Roll no. 0922131027 Date…………….. I.E.T Resora, Sitapur

ABSTRACT
Traditionally electrical appliances in a home are controlled via switches that regulate the electricity to these devices. As the world gets more and more technologically advanced, we find new technology coming in deeper and deeper into our personal lives even at home. Home automation is becoming more and more popular around the world and is becoming a common practice. The process of home automation works by making everything in the house automatically controlled using technology to control and do the jobs that we would normally do manually. Home automation takes care of a lot of different activities in the house. this project we propose a unique System for Home automation utilizing Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) that is paired with a wireless module to provide seamless wireless control over many devices in a house. The block diagram is a shown below. This user console has many keys , each corresponding to the device that needs to be activated. The encoder encodes the user choice and sends via a FM transmitter. The FM receiver receives the modulated signal and demodulates it and the user choice is determined by the DTMF decoder. Based upon this the required appliance is triggered.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
I. II. III. IV. INTRODUCTION………………………………..8 COMPONENTS………………………………….11 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION………………………………….13 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION………………………………….14

Chapter 2
A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO 8051 MICROCONTROLLER…………………………….15 II. AT89S52……………………………………………15 III. PIN DIAGRAM…………………………………..17 IV. BLOCK DIAGRAM……………………………...19 V. PIN DESCRIPTION……………………………...20
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Chapter 3
I. II. Printed circuit board …………………………………...24 Reliment pin with base…………………………………25

Chapter 4
I. II. MT 8870………………………………………………...27 PIN DIAGRAM…………………………………………27
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28 APPLICATION…………………………………………...38 PIN DIAGRAM…………………………………………. V.36 Chapter 6 I.. II.38 PIN DESCRIPTION………………………………………39 DESCRIPTION……………………………………………40 PIN CONFIGURATION………………………………….. V. BLOCK DIAGRAM…………………………………….29 DESCRIPTION………………………………………….. 7404………………………………………………………. VI.35 DESCRIPTION…………………………………………. III... II.. V.. IV. I. IV..III.42 PIN DESCRIPTION………………………………………..30 PIN DESCRIPTION…………………………………….28 FEATURES…………………………………………….34 LOGIC DIARAM……………………………………….36 FEATURES………………………………………………. V..44 DISADVANTAGES………………………………………44 Chapter 8.34 PIN DIAGRAM…………………………………………. II.. IV. VII. 7805………………………………………………………..43 ADVANTAGES…………………………………………. III. ULN 2003 RELAY DRIVER…………………………….30 Chapter 5 I.40 Chapter 7. 5 .. III.42 PIN DIAGRAM………………………………………….. IV.

V.50 22 pF Cap………………………………………….65 APPLICATION……………………………………. XI.51 Chapter 9 I..62 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ………………………….. III...66 DIODE……………………………………………….56 POWER DISSIPATION…………………………….49 0. IV. II.61 CRYSTAL…………………………………………. II.49 10 μF 25 V…………………………………………………. III.. VI.... IX. VII.47 470 μF 25 V………………………………………………... VII. X. RESISTOR…………………………………………53 UNITS………………………………………………54 ELECTRONIC SYMBOLS AND NOTATION……55 THEORY OF OPERATION……………………….71 REFERENCES …………………………………………………82 6 .. V. VIII. IV... VI..59 10 K pot…………………………………………….1 μF 25 V…………………………………………………50 33 pF Cap…………………………………………………. XII.. CAPICITOR 1000 μF 25 V……………………………………………….62 2 PIN MICRO SWITCHS……………………………64 CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION…………….67 Chapter 10 POWER SUPPLY…………………………………………..I.

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The system provides availability due to development of a low cost system. it results in turning ON or OFF specific 8 . This system is designed for controlling arbitrary devices. end user has to connect his/her cell phone to the system) which is connect to the system via head set. in response the user would enter a two/three digit password to access the system to control devices. Most of the times it was done manually.INTRODUCTION The aim of the proposed system is to develop a cost effective solution that will provide controlling of industral appliances remotely and enable industrial security against intrusion in the absence of industry. The industrial control system with an affordable cost was thought to be built that should be mobile providing remote access to the appliances and allowing industrial security. it includes a cell phone (not included with the system kit. As the caller press the specific password. we are going to develop a cellular phone based industrial /office appliance. To active the cellular phone unit on the system a call is to be made and as the call is answered. Now it is a necessity to control devices more effectively and efficiently at anytime from anywhere. Though devices connected as industrial and office appliances consume electrical power. These devices should be controlled as well as turn on/off if required. In this system.

The underlying principle mainly relies up on the ability of DTMF (Double Tune Multi Frequency) ICs to generate DTMF corresponding to a number or code in the number pad and to detect the same number or code from its corresponding DTMF. the system will call the owner and indicate 9 . The DTMF frequencies representing the number/ codes are shown below. and a power supply to reliably monitor a home utilizing motion. made possible using an list of automatically contacted phone numbers. the DTMF detector IC. The implementation of such a system requires a home phone line. and fire sensors. Security preserved because these dedicated passwords owned and known by selected persons only. window. In detail. Imagine a high-end home security system with no monthly maintenance fees. for example IC MT 8870 detects the number or code represented by DTMF back. synthetic speech and dual-tone detection to interface with the owner via a phone connection. The device switching is achieved by Relays. if the window sensor gets tripped and no password is entered at the keypad. a cell phone or touch-tone phone. The home industrial line is used to contact trusted parties at specified phone numbers in the event of a fire alarm or security issue. For instance. door. For example. a DTMF generator generates two frequencies corresponding to a number or code in the number pad which will be transmitted through the communication networks. In the receiver part. which is capable of informing up to five different numbers over telephony network about the nature of the event. constituting the transmitter section which is simply equivalent to a mobile set. through the inspection of the two transmitted frequencies. our system contains an alarm unit giving the user a remote on/off mechanism.device.

Non-admin passwords can only be used to arm and disarm the system. it will use an internal ordered list of other numbers to make further backup calls. The contacted party can then take immediate action. deleting and reordering phone numbers in the call list. outdoor property lighting. Options with an admin password include adding. such as calling a neighbor or the police. landscape sprinkler timers. and is intended to be added to the base package. The base system at the industrial includes a keypad and LCD screen for on-site use. With automation features a homeowner can remotely toggle appliances such as air conditioning and heating units. arming or disarming the system. changing the admin password. 10 . lamps or porch lights. Any of these features could be added using the existing relays in this system. Industrial automation is closely related to a security system such as this. The owner can then listen to what is happening inside the industrial with microphones near each sensor that transmit through the phone line when that sensor is triggered. The owner can then communicate with whomever is inside the house through the use of a speaker phone built into the system. Internal menus are displayed on the screen and can be navigated once the admin password has been verified. Settings on the security system or industrial automation system can be changed at home or by cell phone. adding or deleting passwords. and safety lighting.that the window sensor was tripped. and adjusting automatic temperature controls. If the security system cannot contact the owner. When there is a security problem the owner will be the first to know and have the ability to have control of the situation with the use of their cell phone. snow-melt systems.

5795MHz Crystal 12MHz Crystal 11 QUANTITY 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 6 6 1 1 1 .COMPONENTS NAME PCB Reliment 2 pin with base Reliment 16 pin with base 40 pin IC base 18 pin IC base 16 pin IC base 14 pin IC base MT 8870 AT 89C51 ULN 2003 7404 7805 1000μF 25V 470μF 25V 10μF 25V 0.1μF Ceramic 33pF Cap 22pF Cap Resistor 1M Resistor 100K Resistor 330K Resistor 1K Resistor 10K 10K pot 3.

1A 5pin relay 12volt Relay external conectors diodeIN4007 led Headphone 3.5mm 1 1 1 4 4 4 6 1 12 .LCD 16*2 2pin micro switch Transformer 0-12.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 13 .

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A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO 8051 15 .

Also called a "computer on a chip. on-chip oscillator." billions of microcontroller units (MCUs) are embedded each year in a myriad of products from toys to appliances to automobiles. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. a full duplex serial port. and also to know about the size. and clock circuitry. AT89S52: The AT89S52 is a low-power. a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture. the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller. volatile memory for input and output (RAM). high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. a single vehicle can use 70 or more microcontrollers. In addition. For example. three 16-bit timer/counters. The following picture describes a general block diagram of microcontroller. and we can do it by studying the internal hardware design (devices architecture). a clock and an I/O control unit. 256 bytes of RAM. which provides a highly flexible and costeffective solution to many. number and the size of the registers. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while 16 . The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash. embedded control applications. non-volatile memory for the program (ROM or flash). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor (the CPU). the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. 32 I/O lines.MICROCONTROLLER: When we have to learn about a new computer we have to familiarize about the machine capability we are using. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. two data pointers. Watchdog timer.

timer/counters. and interrupt system to continue functioning. Once familiar with hardware and software. 17 . The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator. The hardware is driven by a set of program instructions. or software. the user can then apply the microcontroller to the problems easily.allowing the RAM. disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt. serial port.

Internal ROM and RAM 18 . 1. The pin diagram of the 8051 shows all of the input/output pins unique to microcontrollers: The following are some of the capabilities of 8051 microcontroller.

2. each containing 8 registers 80 bits of general purpose data memory 32 input/output pins arranged as four 8 bit ports: P0-P3 Two 16 bit timer/counters: T0-T1 Two external and three internal interrupt sources Oscillator and clock circuits. 19 . Timers and counters 4. Serial data communication The 8051 architecture consists of these specific features:           16 bit PC &data pointer (DPTR) 8 bit program status word (PSW) 8 bit stack pointer (SP) Internal ROM 4k Internal RAM of 128 bytes. I/O ports with programmable pins 3. 4 register banks.

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PCBs must initially be designed and laid out. it is more correctly referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. A PCB populated with electronic components is called a printed circuit assembly (PCA). Much of the electronics industry's PCB design. and allow fully automated assembly processes that were not possible or practical in earlier era tag type circuit assembly processes. resistors or active devices have been manufactured into the actual substrate of the board. but become cheaper. In informal use the term "PCB" is used both for bare and assembled boards. Today printed wiring (circuit) boards are used in virtually all but the simplest commercially produced electronic devices. is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways. and potentially more reliable for high-volume production since production and soldering of PCBs can be automated. the context clarifying the meaning. printed circuit board assembly or PCB Assembly (PCBA).Printed circuit board A printed circuit board. Use of the term PWB or printed wiring board although more accurate and distinct from what would be known as a true printed circuit board. When the board has only copper tracks and features. tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. or PCB. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction. assembly. faster to make. has generally fallen by the wayside for many people as the distinction between circuit and wiring has become blurred. and no circuit elements such as capacitors. 25 . and quality control needs are set by standards published by the IPC organization.

or connect a wire or cable or optical interface to an electrical terminal. as for portable equipment. Connectors may join two lengths of flexible copper wire or cable. The connection may be temporary. require a tool for assembly and removal.[1] There are hundreds of types of electrical connectors. or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. 26 .Reliment pin with base An electrical connector is an electro-mechanical device for joining electrical circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly.

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MT 8870

PIN DIAGRAM:

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BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Features
• Complete DTMF Receiver • Low power consumption

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• Internal gain setting amplifier • Adjustable guard time • Central office quality • Power-down mode • Inhibit mode • Backward compatible with MT8870C/MT8870C-1

Applications
• Receiver system for British Telecom (BT) or CEPT Spec (MT8870D-1) • Paging systems • Repeater systems/mobile radio • Credit card systems • Remote control • Personal computers • Telephone answering machine

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Description
The MT8870D/MT8870D-1 is a complete DTMF receiver integrating both the band -split filter and digital decoder functions. The filter section uses switched capacitor techniques for high and low group filters; the decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and decode all 16 DTMF tone-pairs into a 4-bit code. External component count is minimized by on chip provision of a differential input amplifier, clock oscillator and latched three-state bus interface.

Pin Description

1. IN+ 2. IN-

Non-Inverting Op-Amp (Input). Inverting Op-Amp (Input).

3. GS Gain Select. Gives access to output of front end differential amplifier for connection of feedback resistor.

4. V-Ref Reference Voltage (Output). Nominally VDD/2 is used to bias inputs at mid-rail .

5. INH Inhibit (Input). Logic high inhibits the detection of tones representing characters A, B, C and D. This pin input is internally pulled down.

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When TOE is logic low. provide the code corresponding to the last valid tone-pair received (see Table 1). Powers down the device and inhibits the oscillator.579545 MHz crystal connected between pins OSC1 and OSC2 completes the internal oscillator circuit. A 3. 32 . 9. 0 V typical. This pin input is internally pulled down. 11-14.6. Active high. 15. the data outputs are high impedance.Presents a logic high when a received tone-pair has been registered and the output latch updated. PWDN Power Down (Input). This pin is pulled up internally. 10. VSS Ground (Input). 8. When enabled by TOE. OSC1 Clock (Input). TOE Three State Output Enable (Input). Q1-Q4 Three State Data (Output). 7. returns to logic low when the voltage on St/GT falls below VTSt. OSC2 Clock (Output). Logic high enables the outputs Q1-Q4. StD Delayed Steering (Output).

+5 V typical. 17. 18. its state is a function of ESt and the voltage on St. VDD Positive power supply (Input). Presents a logic high once the digital algorithm has detected a valid tone pair (signal condition). A voltage less than VTSt frees the device to accept a new tone pair.16. St/GT Steering Input/Guard time (Output) Bidirectional. ESt Early Steering (Output). 33 . The GT output acts to reset the external steering time-constant. A voltage greater than VTSt detected at St causes the device to register the detected tone pair and update the output latch. Any momentary loss of signal condition will cause ESt to return to a logic low.

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ULN2003 RELAY DRIVER: PIN DIAGRAM: 35 .

LOGIC DIAGRAM: 36 .

display drivers (LED gas discharge). The ULN2003 has a 2. Applications include relay drivers.The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays. lampdrivers. The collector-current rating of a single Darlington pair is 500mA. It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that features high-voltage outputs with common-cathode clamp diode for switching inductive loads. 37 . hammer drivers. FEATURES : * 500mA rated collector current (Single output) * High-voltage outputs: 50V * Inputs compatible with various types of logic. and logic buffers.DESCRIPTION : series base resistor for each darlington pair for operation directly with TTL or 5V CMOS devices. The Darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher current capability. * Relay driver application.7k.line drivers.

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The output of an inverter is the complement of its input logic state.7404 7404 is a NOT gate IC. It consists of six inverters which perform logical invert action. Pin Diagram 39 . i.e.. when input is high its output is low and vice versa.

Pin Description: Pin No Function Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Input/output of 1st inverter Input/output of 2nd inverter Input/output of 3rd inverter Ground (0V) Output/input of 4th inverter Output/input of 5th inverter Output/input of 6th inverter Supply voltage. 5V (4.5.75 .25 V) Input1 Output1 Input2 Output2 Input3 Output3 Ground Output4 Input4 Output5 Input5 Output6 Input6 Vcc 40 .

a NOT gate IC with six inverters that perform logical invert action. I/P-O/P Table: Input 1 0 Output 0 1 Pin Configuration: 41 .Description : 7404.

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7805 provides +5V regulated power supply.7805 7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. Pin Diagram: 43 . The voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. Capacitors of suitable values can be connected at input and output pins depending upon the respective voltage levels. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. It is a member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output.

the 7805 has a 5 volt output. 7805 ICs can be used in combination to provide positive and negative supply voltages in the same circuit. 5V (4.Pin Description: Pin No 1 Function Name Input voltage (5V-18V) Input 2 Ground (0V) Ground 3 Regulated output. while the 7812 produces 12 volts).2V) Output The 7805 is a family of self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator integrated circuits. although smaller surface-mount and larger TO3 44 . There is a related line of 7805 devices which are complementary negative voltage regulators. For ICs within the family. the xx is replaced with two digits. The 7805 family is commonly used in electronic circuits requiring a regulated power supply due to their ease-of-use and low cost. 7805 ICs have three terminals and are commonly found in the TO220 form factor. indicating the output voltage (for example. The 7805 line are positive voltage regulators: they produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground.8V-5.

the current-limiting features of the 7805 devices can provide protection not only for the 7805 itself.  7805 series ICs have built-in protection against a circuit drawing too much power. This can make these devices unsuitable for powering some devices from certain types of power sources (for example. regulated source of power.5 amperes of current (though smaller or larger packages may have a lower or higher current rating). Some other designs (such as a switched-mode power supply) may need substantial engineering expertise to implement. up to a maximum of 35 to 40 volts depending on the make. as well as economical and efficient uses of space. These devices support an input voltage anywhere from a couple of volts over the intended output voltage. making them easy to use. Other voltage regulators may require additional components to set the output voltage level. making them quite robust in most applications. but also for other parts of the circuit. They have protection against overheating and short-circuits.packages are available. and typically provide 1 or 1. Advantages  7805 series ICs do not require additional components to provide a constant. or to assist in the regulation process. Disadvantages  The input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage by some minimum amount (typically 2 volts). In some cases. powering a circuit 45 .

powering a 7805 using a 24 volt power source). This means both that for some applications an adequate heatsink must be provided. The extra input power is dissipated as heat. this inefficiency can be a significant issue. 46 . 7805 integrated circuits cannot supply as much power as many designs which use discrete components.  Even in larger packages. the LM317 series of ICs are available.that requires 5 volts using 6-volt batteries will not work using a 7805). As the input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage.  Each specific model of 7805 is designed to produce only one fixed voltage output. which are similar to 7805 ICs but can produce a configurable voltage). When the input voltage is significantly higher than the regulated output voltage (for example. the input current required is always the same as the output current. and also that a (often substantial) portion of the input power is wasted during the process. this means that the total power (voltage multiplied by current) going into the 7805 will be more than the output power provided.  As they are based on a linear regulator design. so they may not be suitable for applications requiring a configurable or varying output (For such applications. and are generally inappropriate for applications requiring more than a few amperes of current. rendering them less efficient than some other types of power supplies.

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Capacitors 48 .1000 μF 25 V A capacitor (originally known as condenser) is a passive twoterminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely. but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. for example.

in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value.are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors. and for many other purposes. capacitance. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. a static electric field develops across the dielectric. for smoothing the output of power supplies. while the conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance. In practice. in filter networks. measured in farads. The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor. referring to an early means of construction. 49 . in electric power transmission systems for stabilizing voltage and power flow. hence capacitor conductors are often called plates. causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. resulting in a breakdown voltage.

470 μF 25 V 10 μF 25 V 50 .

1 μF Ceramic 33 pF Cap 51 .0.

22 pF Cap Description: This is a very common 22pF capacitor. Used with crystals for loading purposes.1" spaced leads make this a perfect candidate for breadboarding and perf boarding. 52 . 0. Rated at 200V.

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The temperature 54 . particularly analog devices. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. such as nickelchrome).Resistor A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. according to its specific application. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits. the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films. V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts. and this can be assumed to be a constant (independent of the voltage) for ordinary resistors working within their ratings. as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law: where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes. The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance.

In a high-voltage circuit. Practical resistors have a series inductance and a small parallel capacitance. excess noise.[1] A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. these specifications can be important in high-frequency applications. the size of the device and the position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them. named after Georg Simon Ohm.coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue. An ohm is equivalent to a volt per ampere. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. The unwanted inductance. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. that is. the derived units of milliohm (1 mΩ = 10−3 Ω). 55 . attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor. Units The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance. and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. Since resistors are specified and manufactured over a very large range of values.

kilohm (1 kΩ = 103 Ω). Although the concept of conductance is often used in circuit analysis. The reciprocal of resistance R is called conductance G = 1/R and is measured in siemens (SI unit). Two typical symbols are as follows. (b) rheostat (variable resistor). sometimes referred to as a mho. practical resistors are always specified in terms of their resistance (ohms) rather than conductance. Hence. and 56 . American-style symbols IEC-style resistor symbol (a) resistor. Electronic symbols and notation The symbol used for a resistor in a circuit diagram varies from standard to standard and country to country. siemens is the reciprocal of an ohm: . and megohm (1 MΩ = 106 Ω) are also in common usage.

Additional zeros imply tighter tolerance. The European notation avoids using a decimal separator.(c) potentiometer The notation to state a resistor's value in a circuit diagram varies. When the value can be expressed without the need for an SI prefix. and replaces the decimal separator with the SI prefix symbol for the particular value. too. an 'R' is used instead of the decimal separator. 1R2 indicates 1. for example 15M0. Theory of operation Ohm's law The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified by Ohm's law: 57 . For example.2 Ω. For example. The use of a SI prefix symbol or the letter 'R' circumvents the problem that decimal separators tend to 'disappear' when photocopying a printed circuit diagram. and 18R indicates 18 Ω. 8k2 in a circuit diagram indicates a resistor value of 8.2 kΩ.

is given by NR. however the currents through them add. if a 300 ohm resistor is attached across the terminals of a 12 volt battery. Equivalently. This is directly used in practical computations. Resistors in a parallel configuration are each subject to the same potential difference (voltage). then a current of 12 / 300 = 0. where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R). The conductances of the resistors then add to determine the 58 . the current through all of the resistors is the same. Ohm's law can be stated: This formulation states that the current (I) is proportional to the voltage (V) and inversely proportional to the resistance (R).Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I). the resistance of N resistors connected in series. each of the same resistance R. thus the total resistance can be found as the sum of those resistances: As a special case.04 amperes (or 40 milliamperes) flows through that resistor. The potential difference (voltage) seen across the network is the sum of those voltages. In a series configuration. For example. but the voltage across each resistor will be in proportion to its resistance.

in case the keyboard or font lacks the vertical line symbol. the resistance of N resistors connected in parallel.[2][3][4] One practical application of these relationships is that a non-standard value of resistance can generally be synthesized by connecting a number of standard values in series or parallel. Occasionally two slashes "//" are used instead of "||". For the case of two resistors in parallel. it can be shown that the corner-to-corner resistance is 5⁄6 of the individual resistance. consider a cube. or matrix methods can be used to solve such a problem. What then is the resistance that would be measured between two opposite vertices? In the case of 12 equivalent resistors. In the special case of N identical resistors all connected in series or all connected in parallel.conductance of the network. This can also be used to obtain a resistance with a higher power rating than that of the individual resistors used. some complex networks of resistors cannot be resolved in this manner. requiring more sophisticated circuit analysis. Thus the equivalent resistance (Req) of the network can be computed: The parallel equivalent resistance can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as in geometry) as a simplified notation. For instance. 59 . each edge of which has been replaced by a resistor. the Y-Δ transform. this can be calculated using: As a special case. each of the same resistance R. A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series connections can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other. For instance. the power rating of the individual resistors is thereby multiplied by N. However. More generally. is given by R/N.

this is distinct from the reversible change in resistance due to its temperature coefficient when it warms. permanently altering its resistance.Power dissipation The power P dissipated by a resistor is calculated as: The first form is a restatement of Joule's first law. including most of the packages detailed below. Power resistors are physically larger and may not use the preferred values. Such resistors in their discrete form. Resistors required to dissipate substantial amounts of power. this designation is loosely applied to resistors with power ratings of 1 watt or greater. color codes. and power amplifiers. particularly used in power supplies. damage to the resistor may occur. Using Ohm's law. The total amount of heat energy released over a period of time can be determined from the integral of the power over that period of time: Resistors are rated according to their maximum power dissipation. or 1/4 watt. the two other forms can be derived. are typically rated as 1/10. Most discrete resistors in solid-state electronic systems absorb much less than a watt of electrical power and require no attention to their power rating. are generally referred to as power resistors. power conversion circuits. 1/8. If the average power dissipated by a resistor is more than its power rating. and external packages described below. Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where 60 .

Since poor air circulation. There are flameproof resistors that fail (open circuit) before they overheat dangerously. or high operating temperatures may occur. Some types and ratings of resistors may also have a maximum voltage rating.it can burn the circuit board or adjacent components. resistors may be specified with higher rated dissipation than will be experienced in service. 61 . this may limit available power dissipation for higher resistance values. high altitude. or even cause a fire.

you may have to trim off the large metal anchors. Connect VCC to an outer pin. This pot works great in a breadboard but on a few breadboards. Turn the pot and the resistance changes.10 K pot Description: An adjustable potentiometer can open up many interesting user interfaces. the center pin resistance to one of the outer pins will vary from 10K Ohm to about 50 Ohm. Hook the center pin to an ADC on a microcontroller and get a variable input from the user! This is a center-tap linear type potentiometer. and the center pin will have a voltage that varies from 0 to VCC depending on the rotation of the pot. The outer two pins will always show 10K resistance. The pot is linear meaning the resistance will vary linearly with its position. 62 . This is a good choice for general user interfaces. GND to the other.

called the crystal structure.[2][3] Common crystals include snowflakes. characteristic orientations. The word crystal is derived from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος (krustallos). (Quasicrystals are an exception.[1] from κρύος (kruos).) 63 . Crystal structure (microscopic) The scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it. consisting of flat faces with specific.[citation needed] The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. meaning both ―ice‖ and ―rock crystal‖. In addition to their microscopic structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement. see below. molecules. large crystals are usually identifiable by their macroscopic geometrical shape. "icy cold. frost". diamonds. and table salt.Crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms. most common inorganic solids are polycrystals. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. however. Crystals are often symmetrically intergrown to form crystal twins. or ions are arranged in an ordered pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.

These are grouped into 7 crystal systems.Not all solids are crystals. such as halite shown at right) or hexagonal crystal system (where the crystals may form hexagons. Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline. or noncrystalline. There are 219 possible crystal symmetries. even microscopically. the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion. These have no periodic order. In the final block of ice. rocks. including almost all metals. but the whole polycrystal does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms. a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement. ceramics. are called amorphous solids. when liquid water starts freezing. the phase change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse. The unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal. Solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline. 64 . but forming a crystal does. because the periodic pattern is broken at the grain boundaries. forming a polycrystalline structure. also called glassy. etc. The symmetry of a crystal is constrained by the requirement that the unit cells stack perfectly with no gaps. A crystal structure (an arrangement of atoms in a crystal) is characterized by its unit cell. vitreous. There are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids: most notably. such as glass. called crystallographic space groups. ice. each of the small crystals (called "crystallites" or "grains") is a true crystal with a periodic arrangement of atoms. For example. such as ordinary water ice). such as cubic crystal system (where the crystals may form cubes or rectangular boxes.

through the use of a tipping-point mechanism. also trademarked and frequently known as a micro switch. which occurs at high speed 65 . This durability is a natural consequence of the design. sometimes called an "over-center" mechanism. is an electric switch that is actuated by very little physical force.2 pin micro switch A miniature snap-action switch. The defining feature of micro switches is that a relatively small movement at the actuator button produces a relatively large movement at the electrical contacts. Switching happens reliably at specific and repeatable positions of the actuator. which is not necessarily true of other mechanisms. They are very common due to their low cost and durability. greater than 1 million cycles and up to 10 million cycles for heavy duty models.

Owing to the geometry. (Actually. from the anchor point. just right of center in the photo). compressed during assembly) so it attempts to extend itself (at the top. there must be a significant movement in the opposite direction. which is approximately proportional to the angle for small angles. the flat spring upward. the upward force is proportional to the displacement which decreases as the flat spring moves downward. The curved spring presses. in the photograph) and has electrical contacts on the other. Because the flat spring is anchored and strong in tension the curved spring cannot move it to the right. that is away. An actuator nub presses on the flat spring near its hinge point. A small curved spring. internally there are two conductive springs. preloaded (i.(regardless of the speed of actuation). or pulls.e. A long flat spring is hinged at one end of the switch (the left. Most successful designs also exhibit hysteresis. Both of these characteristics help to achieve a clean and reliable interruption to the switched circuit. When the flat spring is flexed enough it will provide sufficient force to compress the curved spring and the contacts will begin to move. A fulcrum is near the midpoint of the flat spring. is connected between the flat spring near the contacts. meaning that a small reversal of the actuator is insufficient to reverse the contacts. the force is proportional to the sine of the angle..) As the actuator depresses it flexes the flat spring while the curved spring keeps the electrical contacts touching. 66 . Construction and operation K In one type of microswitch.

They are usually rated to carry current in control circuits only. lamps. because the actuator does not move during the changeover. the switch is designed so that the curved spring is strong enough to move the contacts. solenoids. In the actuated position the curved spring provides some upward force. or other 67 . Just as in the downward direction. machinery. This results in acceleration until the normally-closed contacts are hit. the switch is designed so the net effect is acceleration. where it is necessary to know if a valve has been opened or shut. If the actuator is released this will move the flat spring upward. This "over-center" action produces a very distinctive clicking sound and a very crisp feel. Micro switches are very widely used. levelling and safety switches in elevators. the force from the curved spring increases. Even though the flat spring unflexes as it moves downward. and to detect paper jams or other faults in photocopiers. among their applications are appliances. although some switches can be directly used to control small motors. industrial controls. even if the flat spring must flex. vending machines. vehicles. Applications Common applications of micro switches include the door interlock on a microwave oven. Micro switches are commonly used in tamper switches on gate valves on fire sprinkler systems and other water pipe systems.As the flat spring moves downward the upward force of the curved spring reduces causing the motion to accelerate even in the absence of further motion of the actuator until the flat spring impacts the normally-open contact. As the flat spring moves. and many other places for control of electrical circuits.

a diode is a two-terminal electronic component with an asymmetric transfer characteristic. In these latter applications. The snap-switch mechanism can be enclosed in a metal housing including actuating levers. and high (ideally infinite) 68 . Special low-force versions can sense coins in vending machines. forming a limit switch useful for control of machine tools or electrically-driven machinery. flow. or may be packaged as part of a pressure. Micro switches may be directly operated by a mechanism. the repeatability of the actuator position when switching happens is essential for long-term accuracy. air flow.devices. or with a vane attached. operated by a sensing mechanism such as a Bourdon tube. with low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction. Diode In electronics. plungers or rollers. A motor driven cam (usually relatively slow-speed) and one or more micro switches form a timer mechanism. or temperature switch.

69 . to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes). IMPATT diodes). diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on–off action. However. Gunn diodes. the diode can be viewed as an electronic version of a check valve. Thus. to protect circuits from high voltage surges (avalanche diodes). A semiconductor diode. These are exploited in special-purpose diodes that perform many different functions. this effect can be used as a temperature sensor or voltage reference. diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener diodes). the most common type today. a plate (anode) and heated cathode. to generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes. and is used to convert alternating current to direct current. is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p – n junction connected to two electrical terminals. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction). The voltage drop across a forward-biased diode varies only a little with the current. while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). and to produce light (light emitting diodes).[5] A vacuum tube diode is a vacuum tube with two electrodes. For example. and is a function of temperature. introducing impurities into the materials. Semiconductor diodes begin conducting electricity only if a certain threshold voltage or cut-in voltage is present in the forward direction (a state in which the diode is said to be forward-biased).resistance in the other. including extraction of modulation from radio signals in radio receivers—these diodes are forms of rectifiers. Semiconductor diodes' nonlinear current–voltage characteristic can be tailored by varying the semiconductor materials and doping. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification.

were made of mineral crystals such as galena. 70 . called cat's whisker diodes. Today most diodes are made of silicon. but other semiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used. The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874.Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance. Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. developed around 1906. The first semiconductor diodes. which makes them useful in some types of circuits.

71 .

chemical. Depending on its design. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load. Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells. Common examples of this include power supplies that convert AC line voltage to DC voltage. a power supply may obtain energy from: Electrical energy transmission systems. Commonly specified power supply attributes include: The amount of voltage and current it can supply to its load. as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task. A power supply may be implemented as a discrete. The term is most commonly applied to electric power converters that convert one form of electrical energy to another. though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (mechanical. stand-alone device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load. solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value.POWER SUPPLY: A power supply is a device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. 72 . from an energy source. Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators. Examples of the latter case include the low voltage DC power supplies that are part of desktop computers and consumer electronics devices. Solar power. the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source.

73 . Transformers range in size from thumbnail-sized used in microphones to units weighing hundreds of tons interconnecting the power grid. less often to mechanical ones. Here in our application we need a 5v DC power supply for all electronics involved in the project. distribution. How long it can supply energy without refueling or recharging (applies to power supplies that employ portable energy sources). This varying magnetic flux induces a varying electromotive force (emf)or voltage in the secondary winding. Here a brief description of all the components is given as follows: TRANSFORMER: A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive coupling between its winding circuits. and utilization of electrical energy. and rarely to others. The term is most commonly applied to electrical energy supplies. voltage regulator. A wide range of transformer designs are used in electronic and electric power applications. and filter circuit for generation of 5v DC power. Transformers are essential for the transmission. This requires step down transformer. rectifier. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic flux through the secondary winding.How stable its output voltage or current is under varying line and load conditions. A device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads is called a power supply unit or PSU. Power supply is a reference to a source of electrical power.

A varying current in the first or "primary" winding creates a varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of the transformer.Transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors — the transformer's coils or "windings". or around separate but magnetically-coupled cores. This effect is called mutual induction. the conductors are commonly wound around a single iron-rich core. Except for air-core transformers. 74 . This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the "secondary" winding.

• Rectifier phase shift configuration: 2-winding. output voltage and current stabilizer or circuit isolation. varying.zigzag grounding transformer winding.forced oil-cooled. 75 . liquid-immersed .Classification parameters: Transformers can be classified in many ways. distribution. or radiofrequency. amplifier output. such as the following: • Duty of a transformer: Continuous. intermittent.. n-winding. . isolation. • Circuit Application: Such as power supply. 3winding.self-cooled. rectifier.[i] other autotransformer. [n-1]*6-pulse. shell form. Scott-T. • Consant-Potential transformer descriptor: Step-up. etc. short-time. step-down. 12-pulse. • Basic magnetic form: Core form. • Utilization: Pulse. water-cooled. impedance matching. • General winding configuration: By EIC vector group . arc furnace. and zigzag or interconnected star. • Frequency range: Power-frequency. power. etc. wye or star.various possible two-winding combinations of the phase designations delta. 6-pulse. . audio-frequency. periodic. forced air-cooled. • Cooling type: Dry and liquid-immersed . . polygon. • Voltage class: From a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts..

is scaled from the primary VP by a factor equal to the ratio of the number of turns of wire in their respective windings: By appropriate selection of number of turns. 76 . The magnetic field (flux) builds up (expands) and collapses (contracts) about the primary winding. The secondary induced voltage VS. The expanding and contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary winding and induces an alternating voltage into the winding. Refer to the transformer circuit in figure as you read the following explanation: The primary winding is connected to a 60-hertz ac voltage source.If a load is connected to the secondary circuit. electric charge will flow in the secondary winding of the transformer and transfer energy from the primary circuit to the load connected in the secondary circuit. BASIC PARTS OF A TRANSFORMER: In its most basic form a transformer consists of: A core that supports the coils or windings. The voltage may be stepped up or down depending on the design of the primary and secondary windings.This voltage causes alternating current to flow through the load.a transformer thus allows an alternating voltage to be stepped up-by making NS more than NP-or stepped down by making it. of an ideal transformer.

Thus the change of load current and voltage is reduced relative to what would occur without the capacitor. the circuit should include a bleeder resistor connected as close as practical across the capacitor. perhaps because it can be disconnected. especially with single phase AC where the full-wave bridge serves to convert an AC input into a DC output. any drop in the output voltage and current of the bridge tends to be canceled by loss of charge in the capacitor. because. in some applications. Because a bleeder sets a minimum current drain. This charge flows out as additional current through the load. and AC current through. Increases of voltage correspondingly store excess charge in the capacitor. the resistive load. thus moderating the change in output voltage / current. The function of this capacitor. The simplified circuit shown has a well-deserved reputation for being dangerous. the addition of a capacitor may be desired because the bridge alone supplies an output of fixed polarity but continuously varying or "pulsating" magnitude. If supplying a dangerous voltage. defined as percentage voltage change from minimum to 77 .OUTPUT SMOOTHING: For many applications. This resistor should consume a current large enough to discharge the capacitor in a reasonable time. reducing the AC voltage across. but small enough to minimize unnecessary power waste. known as a reservoir capacitor (or smoothing capacitor) is to lessen the variation in (or 'smooth') the rectified AC output voltage waveform from the bridge. a practical circuit should include a reliable way to safely discharge the capacitor. In less technical terms. the capacitor can retain a lethal charge after the AC power source is removed. If the normal load cannot be guaranteed to perform this function. the regulation of the circuit. One explanation of 'smoothing' is that the capacitor provides a low impedance path to the AC component of the output.

The smoothing can then be improved by adding additional stages of capacitor–resistor pairs.maximum load. While the voltage is smoothed. When the load includes a smoothing capacitor. though in most applications the power supply transformer's resistance is already sufficient. current will flow through the bridge only during the time when the input voltage is greater than the capacitor voltage. Output can also be smoothed using a choke and second capacitor. a series resistor at the load side of the capacitor is added. Sometimes a small series resistor is included before the capacitor to limit this current. and the diodes conduct for 10% of the time. both the voltage and the current waveforms will be greatly changed. Due to the relatively high cost of an effective choke compared to a resistor and capacitor this is not employed in modern equipment. In a practical circuit. 78 . This non-sinusoidal current leads to harmonic distortion and a poor power factor in the AC supply. often done only for sub-supplies to critical high-gain circuits that tend to be sensitive to supply voltage noise. as described above. is improved. The capacitor and the load resistance have a typical time constant τ = RC where C and R are the capacitance and load resistance respectively. As long as the load resistor is large enough so that this time constant is much longer than the time of one ripple cycle. if the load draws an average current of n Amps. The choke tends to keep the current (rather than the voltage) more constant. the bridge diodes must be sized to withstand the current surge that occurs when the power is turned on at the peak of the AC voltage and the capacitor is fully discharged. the above configuration will produce a smoothed DC voltage across the load. For example. In some designs. The idealized waveforms shown above are seen for both voltage and current when the load on the bridge is resistive. However in many cases the improvement is of insignificant magnitude. the average diode current during conduction must be 10n Amps. when a capacitor is directly connected to the output of a bridge.

fixed voltage regulators (78xx. Now we consider the IC of 3pin for this voltage regulator.Some early console radios created the speaker's constant field with the current from the high voltage ("B +") power supply. and it produced the magnetic field to operate the speaker. The speaker field coil thus performed 2 jobs in one: it acted as a choke. 20V). It is a three pin IC used as a voltage regulator. 7805 gives fixed 5V DC voltage if input voltage is in (7.5V. (permanent magnets were then too weak for good performance) to create the speaker's constant magnetic field.It can also be used in circuits to get a low DC voltage from a high DC voltage (for example we use 7805 to get 5V from 12V). filtering the power supply. 79xx) 2. which was then routed to the consuming circuits. The most commonly used ones are 7805 and 7812. REGULATOR IC: Here we can used the 3 pin IC for voltage regulator as we call the name 78XX. +ve voltage regulators 2. variable voltage regulators(LM317) In fixed voltage regulators there is another classification 1. There are two types of voltage regulators 1. It converts unregulated DC current into regulated DC current. -ve voltage regulators POSITIVE VOLTAGE REGULATORS This include 78xx voltage regulators. 79 . Normally we get fixed output by connecting the voltage regulator at the output of the filtered DC (see in above diagram).

the tasks the two perform are different. They are common in electrical and electronic equipment. which require very little load current from the supply. It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage. intermediate frequency (IF) or radio frequency (RF) frequency filters (e. The application of the simple capacitor filter is very limited. such as across the contact breaker or 'points' in a spark-ignition engine Filter capacitors are not the same as reservoir capacitors. and cover a number of applications. notch. 80 . such as: Glitch removal on Direct current (DC) power rails  Radio frequency interference (RFI) removal for signal or power lines entering or leaving equipment  Capacitors used after a voltage regulator to further smooth dc power supplies  Capacitors used in audio. low-current power supplies for cathode-ray and similar electron tubes.g. etc. high pass.  The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. low pass.The Capacitor Filter: Filter capacitors are capacitors used for filtering of undesirable frequencies.)  Arc suppression. The capacitor (C1) shown in figure 4-15 is a simple filter connected across the output of the rectifier in parallel with the load. The capacitor filter is also used where the power-supply ripple frequency is not critical. this frequency can be relatively high. albeit related.

The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits. but other operating principles are also used.RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch. The relay operates mechanically. A very useful feature of a relay is that it can be used to electrically isolate different parts of a circuit. so it can not operate at high speed. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically. 5VDC) to switch the power in a high voltage circuit (e. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults. 81 .g. Solidstate relays control power circuits with no moving parts. repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. which is attached to a switch.g. The electromagnetic coil attracts a steel plate. The relay takes advantage of the fact that when electricity flows through a coil. It will allow a low voltage circuit (e. or not. or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays". 100 VAC or more). So the switch's motion (ON and OFF) is controlled by the current flowing to the coil. instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. respectively. it becomes an electromagnet. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits).

82 . the contacts will spark and melt.Internal circuit of Relay: Relay is an electrically operated switch. voltage and current capacity of the contact points. etc. The various things to consider when selecting a relay are its size. The relay will fail. drive voltage. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically. sometimes fusing together. There are many kind of relays. but other operating principles are also used. or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. You can select one according to your needs. When the maximum is exceeded. number of contacts. impedance. resistance of the contacts. The resistance voltage of the contacts is the maximum voltage that can be conducted at the point of contact in the switch. The value is printed on the relay. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits).

REFERENCES  ―8051 and embedded system‖ by Mazidi and Mazidi All datasheets from www.com And www.triindia.atmel.co.in ESTIMATED COST: Rs.datasheetcatalog.7000 83 .com About AT89s8252 from www.