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Founded in Switzerland in 1874, the Schindler Group is a leading global provider of elevators, escalators and related services. Its innovative and environmentally-friendly access and transitmanagement systems make an important contribution to mobility in urban societies. In 2011, the Schindler Group generated sales of more than CHF 7.8 billion. Schindler mobility solutions move one billion people every day all over the world. Behind the company's success are 44,000 employees in over 100 countries. The Schindler Group is one of the leading global suppliers of elevators and escalators. It has around 44 000 employees and its operations span five continents. Schindler designs, installs, services and modernizes transport systems for almost every building type worldwide. Globally, Schindler equipment moves one billion people per day.

 The first patent for elevators without a machine room. The machine-room-less elevator is the result of technological advancements that often allow a significant reduction in the size of the electric motors used with traction equipment. These newly designed permanent magnet motors (PMM) allow the manufacturers to locate the machines in the hoistway overhead, thus eliminating the need for a machine room over the hoistway. The power feeders for the MRL are also significantly reduced due to the more efficient design and the counter-balancing provided with traction equipment. The Miconic 10 hall call destination system and its successor, the Schindler ID. Schindler's Miconic 10, the company's name for their proprietary control system, introduced in 1995, was the industry first of an innovative type of control systems now known as hall call destination system. The system features keypads and LED screens instead of hall button stations whereby riders enter their desired floor before entering an elevator car. The system then directs the rider to a specific elevator car while grouping riders traveling to nearby floors together. Schindler claims this minimizes the number of stops, and decreases congestion and travel time—especially during peak traffic periods. The system was continuously further developed and new functions were amended eventually evolving in systems which guarantee highly efficient and energy saving traffic management. Especially in high rise buildings traffic management systems like Miconic 10 and Schindler ID allow building designers to maximize rentable space and transport efficiency. Moreover, access control becomes feasible.

PORT Technology In 2009, an entirely new concept for managing the transit of passengers through buildings was rolled out. It comprises the third generation hall call destination system PORT technology, which has attracted enormous interest among customers. Schindler's PORT Technology revolutionizes the science of optimizing traffic flow through a building while offering personalized service and access control. Mobility solutions: 1. Predictive call entry – Based on previous time and date usage patterns, each passenger can choose from a list of his or her most frequently selected destinations. 2. Automatic call entry – With destination-dispatch technology, RFID cards can be preprogrammed to allow access to specific floors and destinations and can vary depending on the originating floor. The PORT also can display only the floors to which passengers

The PORT system can allocate more elevator space or extend the time elevator doors remain open for riders who may need more space or time. When the desired destination is highlighted. Whatever a passenger may require. a distinctive experience personalized for each rider is attainable. The PORT Technology has the knowledge to deliver personalized service. 3. for those with disabilities. For concierge service or for passengers who need an express elevator.are allowed access. Contextual operation – On floors above the lobby. . Touch-less operation – If an RFID card is held continuously at the PORT. a PORT display can be programmed to show only the floors that are relevant to the passengers of those floors. Personalized service: People have unique mobility needs and The PORT Technology is designed to meet them all by delivering personalized service. the passenger simply removes the RFID card to register his or her call. For instance. This patented technology automatically delivers elevator assignments for passengers at the terminal or turnstile. each destination allowed for the passenger will be highlighted in turn. 4. The PORT Technology can be programmed to send a dedicated elevator for that elevator trip. By always knowing the exact requirements of each passenger.

It is . Each PORT terminal comes equipped with a RFID sensor. Superior reliability and performance Premium ride quality PORT Technology.      Eco-friendly. . Schindler's patented technology helps your elevators play a significant role in controlling access within your building while performing at peak efficiency. advanced destination-dispatching system for a new level of passenger communication and elevator utility. The Schindler 7000 elevator system offers the latest technology in elevator design.99 efficient. Power 1 factor drive :The Power Factor 1 (PF1) drive reduces energy consumption considerably in comparison to conventional applications and regenerates energy back into a building’s electric system. highly-efficient permanent magnet motors. When a passenger scans a preprogrammed RFID card at the PORT terminal. the system can verify that passenger’s credentials through a secure central database and automatically call an elevator to transport that person to an authorized floor.  The Schindler 7000 global high-rise elevator.Access control: Access control is a fully integrated component of The PORT Technology.Schindler's PORT Technology can play a significant role in managing and controlling access within your building.

.  PF1 drive will generate less heat.  Suspension traction media Schindler's exclusive supension traction media (STM) are more flexible than traditional cables. providing additional savings through reduced cooling requirements for the machine room. they can fit on a smaller sheave. They're a major upgrade over conventional cables. air conditioning or other equipment. In 2011. requiring less space. The STM also offer a smoother. This space-saving design results in a smaller machine in your hoistway or machine room. the US business magazine “Forbes” included Schindler on its list of the world„s 100 most innovative companies. reliable ride.  Recovered energy can be used to power other building demands such as lighting. With a smaller bend radius. .Some of its features are :  During light elevator loads on ascent or heavy loads on descent. the system can regenerate energy.

The building has also been equipped with a new. New Jersey. Schindler has made a multi-million dollar investment in sustainable technologies and the renovation of its North American headquarters in Morristown.000 square feet of carpeting is being replaced with "cradle-to-cradle" carpet tiles that are essentially waste-free. frequency converter with standby power mode and LED lights. Since the facility hadn't been updated in over 12 years. Lighting: Most internal and external lighting will be fitted with energy-efficient T5 and LED light fixtures running on day-light sensors. The new ceilings will also be made with "cradle-to-cradle" recycled content. Energy Saving Upgrades in the building Solar Panels: The building features a brand new 21. The renovation of Schindler’s North American headquarters is focused on reducing our carbon footprint. reducing electricity consumption with no loss of illumination. Once completed.000 square foot solar array. comprised of 1. Some of its latest initiatives include:  New "Green" North American Headquarters As part of its ongoing commitment to environmental protection and sustainability. The company purchased the 42 year-old building about two years ago. a major renovation was necessary to improve its overall efficiency. the building will feature advanced energy saving features that will significantly reduce the facility's energy use and carbon footprint. Carpets & Ceilings: 15.PIONEERING INITIATIVES Schindler has always taken initiatives when it comes to sustainable development. reducing the waste that ends up in landfills. which automatically adjust the brightness of the light fixtures based on natural light entering the building through the new low-e windows. It has always supported projects and forged partnerships worldwide for the reduction of its environmental impact. Schindler 9300 AE escalator with ECOLINE that generates energy savings of up to 20% per year.      . insulating dual-pane windows featuring low-E coatings that help control heat transfer and significantly reduce the strain on the heating and cooling systems. Transportation: The building also features a newly launched Schindler 3300 machine room less elevator that is up to 60% more efficient than a hydraulic elevator with eco-friendly features such as an energy-saving gearless motor to avoid power loss. Each panel will generate 230 watts of renewable energy. Old tiles can be recycled piece-by-piece as they age and turned back into the raw material used to make new carpets.236 photovoltaic solar panels. Windows: Schindler is replacing all 475 windows in the building with energy-efficient.

Mankind’s future lies in using clean. . when Schindler selected Renault as a supplier of its vehicle fleet. sustainable energy from renewable sources. The two companies have been partners since 2002. who maintain the company's global portfolio of elevators and escalators. Schindler and the automaker Renault signed a memorandum of understanding aimed at promoting zero-emission mobility. Schindler’s arrival ensures the continuity of the adventure. This partnership is an important commitment in Schindler's on-going investment in new technology for clean and sustainable mobility and a key milestone for the Solar Impulse project. Schindler is one of four main partners who have joined forces to develop the Solar Impulse. Schindler will closely follow and support cutting edge technology in various disciplines. 100 times lighter – when it attempts to circle the globe non-stop with no fuel in 2014.  Schindler and Renault to promote zero-emission mobility At the 2010 Geneva Motor Show. The fleet is used primarily by Schindler technicians. After the successful first ever solar night flight in July 2010. a revolutionary aircraft that uses only sunlight for power. which has 16. Schindler joins Solar Impulse as main partner Schindler has decided to support Solar Impulse.000 vehicles in total. Sources like the sun that will power the Solar Impulse – which has the wingspan of an Airbus A340 but is ca. the zero fuel airplane aiming to fly around the world propelled only by solar energy.

8 million. 2008 In 2008. In addition. and education and scholarship programs with around CHF 1. Schindler also actively provides financial support for a diverse range of charitable and cultural initiatives. CHF 0.CSR Activities Schindler has always contributed to society by acting as a good corporate citizen and supported educational institutions and training initiatives of communities and society as a whole. Donations to charities accounted for over CHF 6 million and around CHF 0.8 million. . the Group supported cultural and social projects with around CHF 0. which manages the Balgrist University Hospital. In addition the Group spent around CHF 0.4 million. along with other sponsors. is intended to strengthen entrepreneurship. Behind the initiative is the Swiss Association "Balgrist". Around CHF 0. 2010 In 2010.9 million were spent on various sporting programs and events. technology and innovation in Switzerland. The Schindler Group actively supports a wide range of charitable and cultural initiatives. 2009 In 2009.7% of net profit. and education and scholarship programs with around CHF 2. including contributions of over CHF 1 million to charities and funding of around CHF 0.8 million. Schindler donated CHF 5 million for the endowment of a professorial chair in muscle biology at the University of Zurich and the Federal Institute of Technology (ETH).9 million to various sporting programs and events. like many of Schindler’s other important investments. and the ResOrtho Foundation. 2011 In 2011. In addition. the Schindler Group donated more than CHF 10 million to deserving social initiatives worldwide.4 million. Reflecting the philosophy behind these efforts. This engagement. This corresponds to 0. Schindler donated more than CHF 6. the Schindler Group donated around CHF 5 million to deserving social initiatives worldwide.5 million supporting cultural and social projects. Donations to charities accounted for approx.9 million were spent on various sporting programs and events. which supports research into musculoskeletal diseases. Schindler refrains from sponsoring and marketing in this field.4 million to deserving social initiatives worldwide. Schindler also provides substantial financial contributions for educational institutions around the world and promotes learning-oriented initiatives. the Group supported cultural and social projects with around CHF 1.

Of that sum. the Schindler Award 2012. while nearly CHF 1.000) investment in an IT center at a primary school in rural South Africa. locals having extensive experience in the industry in India manned its subsidiary. Schindler donated more than CHF 7. donations to charities amounted to over CHF 1 million. Later it entered into a technical collaboration with another Indian company. In addition the Group spent over CHF 1.1 million to worthy causes worldwide. they were equipped to create a world-class organization from scratch. Its branch offices are located at Pune and Ahmedabad in the West. with a corporate office in New Delhi and strategically located branch offices targeted at servicing the entire country. will be held in Berne. The Schindler Award 2010 attracted almost 1'400 participants and is therefore one of the most recognized and popular architectural competitions for students in Europe.2 million to various sporting programs and events. The next competition.2007 In 2007. Bharat Bijlee. Schindler in India Schindler has been present in India for almost fifty years now. To enable them to work better. Schindler donated more than CHF 4.8 million supporting cultural and social projects. A notable example was a R325. a biannual prize for the design of inclusive and accessible urban areas.Bangalore.000 (CHF 55. the company established a 100 per cent owned subsidiary in 1998 to further expand operations in India. The competition is open to all students in their final year of study on a bachelor’s course or those enrolled on a master’s course at a European university or college of architecture. Schindler has sponsored the "Schindler Award". including contributions of around CHF 1. In order to ensure that its personnel understand local market conditions well. While not on the same scale as the tsunami-fundraising of 2005 (see below). in 1985. that school qualifies to participate in the schools’ competition. It earlier had a distribution agreement (since 1958) with an Indian company ECE. Schindler Award Since 2003. Chennai and Hyderabad in the south and Kolkata . Encouraged by the economic reforms and the growth in the Indian economy following the liberalization in the early 1990s. Switzerland and registration will be open from September 2011 on.3 million to charities and funding of over CHF 1.2 million went to support sporting events and competitions in our subsidiaries' communities. If 12 or more students from the same school apply to enter the competition. Schindler nevertheless invested substantial sums in social development projects. 2006 In 2006.6 million to deserving social initiatives worldwide. Schindler's operations are headquartered in Mumbai.

in the east. Key Success Factors in India  High quality of service Schindler India ensures that it offers its Indian customers the latest models of its worldrenowned range of products that are technologically superior to those currently on offer in the Indian market It also provides for high quality service in the form of full modernization and maintenance services to transform and protect earlier installations. airports and metro stations. multiplexes. . The Indian subsidiary is connected to the competency Centre in Switzerland through a 24-hour leased line and has on-line access to all Schindler databases worldwide. residential buildings. Schindler aspires to be a supplier of choice for construction companies. Its Schindler Local Service Network has features like service vans carrying all essential spares. onto the mid-rise applications for the residential and the commercial market segments and finally on to the high requirements and high-rise section. as well as escalators on the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation and the Chennai Airport. Its engineering team works continuously with the R&D team in Switzerland and is also a member of various product development teams around the world. Technical competency Schindler India has a very strong Technical Support Group and major investments have been made in terms of training both in India and abroad to ensure that the skill levels are comparable to that available worldwide. In India Schindler sells elevators and escalators. This infrastructure permits software support during service calls without delays. The company is a strong believer of ―Leadership through Service‖. It is expanding across the country to be close to its customers. Its elevators range starts with low-rise requirements focusing on basic transport needs at affordable costs.  Future Plans Going forward as the construction industry in India grows. Schindler is India's leading supplier of escalators and provides standard and tailor-made escalator and moving walk solutions for both commercial and public transport applications. a 24-hour call back centre supported on a Lucent Technologies platform and service personnel equipped with laptop computers and cell phones. All its elevators and escalators are competitively priced and fulfil international requirements and regulations. offices. In the escalators segment.In India the company has executed some prestigious projects like installing elevators at the Bombay Stock Exchange building and the 45-storied Shreepathi Towers. It has also installed its escalators at leading malls and multiplexes in key cities in the country. with increased applications at malls.

were in use during the middle ages and can be traced back to the third century BC. and today we have intelligent elevator systems that can be remotely tracked for maintenance and rework. The progress in this field has been astonishing ever since. then the tallest building in the world. with related hoisting and lowering mechanisms and a source of power. allowing hundred-plus story buildings to become possible and forever changing the urban landscape . Today. The power elevator debuted mid-19th century in the U. this design had evolved into the gearless traction electric elevator. The year 1926 saw the birth of the modern elevator in the Woolworth building.S. Push-button controls and various complex signal systems modernized the elevator even further and safety became an integral part of the design.INSIGHT INTO ELEVATOR INDUSTRY AND TECHNOLOGY USED ELEVATOR INDUSTRY History An elevator is a device for vertical transportation of passengers or freight to different floors or levels. as in a building or a mine. Elisha's sons went on to found Otis Brothers and Company in Yonkers. NY. They were operated by animal and human power or by water-driven mechanisms. Multi-speed motors replaced the original single-speedmodels to help with landing-leveling and smoother overall operation. demonstrating an elevator with a "safety" to break the cab's fall in case of rope failure. the very earliest units were called hoists. Elevators consist of a platform or car traveling in vertical guides in a shaft or hoist way. the country's first Otis passenger elevator was in operation at a New York City department store. By 1857. The term elevator generally denotes a unit with automatic safety devices. and. In 1853. Electromagnet technology replaced manual rope-driven switching and braking. ten years later. Elisha Graves Otis was at the New York Crystal Palace exposition. allowing for the building of significantly taller structures. Otis is the world’s largest elevator manufacturer. as a simple freight hoist operating between just two floors in a New York City building. a defining moment in elevator development. In 1889 came the direct-connected geared electric elevator. eventually to achieve mass production of elevators in the thousands. or hoists. Rudimentary elevators. By 1903. .

Mitsubishi.S.. Mitsubishi Elevator Co. assembly.Hyundai. they are more concerned with the cost of the elevator rather than quality of the product.etc. • Schindler – Switzerland • KONE – Finland/Brussels • ThyssenKrupp – Germany • Fujitec Elevator Co. Toshiba and Hitachi – Japan • Hyundai – Korea Throughout the world. maintenance and rework of elevators.. Today. and while the independent segment of the industry remains quite large. . Of these. They are already using a lot of computer-assisted tools for design. Thyssen-Krupp.the locations of each of their head-quarters are as follows: • Otis – U. manufacture. Whereas the local manufacturers are less technologically aided. numerous independent elevator companies install and service elevators and escalators.  Small local manufacturers. the earlier occupy a very large part of the market share and offer the latest in design and safety. Schindler. These companies compete with each other in this huge market by launching new products to meet the needs of Indian customers.Elevator Market in India Elevator market can be broadly classified on the basis of manufacturing companies into 2 types:  Global giants such as Otis. Johnson. the trend of major companies buying out smaller independent companies continues. Kone. of the major multinational elevator companies in India .

Electrical Pump 5. Elevators can be grouped on the basis of their hoisting mechanism and on the basis of their usage. Reservoir 6. Valve. between the cylinder and the reservoir. Elevator car 2. vessel or other structures.1. . On the basis of the hoisting mechanism: 1. Piston and cylinder 4. Hydraulic elevator Hydraulic elevators use the principles of hydraulics (in the sense of hydraulic power) to pressurize an above ground or in-ground piston to raise and lower the car Main components are : 1. 1. Hydraulic fluid(oil or water) 3.Elevator Technology An elevator (or lift) is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or goods between floors of a building.

This pump draws low-pressure hydraulic fluid from a reservoir and pumps it into the cylinder. To stop the car at a lower floor. When the solenoid opens the valve. the force it exerts on the base of the piston will exceed the weight of the piston and elevator car and they will accelerate upward.Working:  Upward motion: A hydraulic elevator is lifted from below by a long metal shaft( hydraulic ram) as shown in figure. usually oil or water. the control system closes the valve again.  Downward Motion: The valve is opened and the hydraulic fluid is accelerated towards the low-pressure reservoir and the cylinder begins to empty and thus car starts moving down. A deep hole must be drilled and the cylinder must be lowered into the hole with a crane. Burying the cylinder is quite a procedure in a tall build. which drives the fluid into the reservoir. . The hydraulic fluid. The valve is operated electrically by a basic solenoid switch. If this pressure is high enough. which are as follows : 1. After attaining the proper height. Although hydraulic elevators allows us to convert lesser force into a bigger one but they do have two drawbacks. the fluid that has collected in the cylinder can flow out into the fluid reservoir. An electrical pump continuously add high-pressure hydraulic fluid to the cylinder to keep the piston moving upward. A hydraulic elevator is only as tall as its piston and cylinder The piston has to reach all the way to the top floor and the equally tall cylinder must be hidden below the ground. A hydraulic ram is a long piston that is driven into or out of a hollow cylinder by pressure in a hydraulic fluid. The weight of the car and the cargo pushes down on the piston. this pump stop pumping and the piston and the car comes at rest. The car gradually descends. The difficulties involved in manufacturing the cylinder and piston and in assembling the completed hydraulic ram limit its height. exerts a force on the base of the piston. The pump does work on the fluid and this work is what lifts the elevator car.

2. Counter weight 5. No mechanism for storing energy between trips The energy expended in lifting people up 30 floors is not saved as those people descend. For a tall building with lots of up and down traffic. Electric Motor 3. . etc.2. Main components are: 1. Guide Rails. 1. pulling is used. In early cable-lifted elevators. Multiple cables are used to pull the elevator using pulleys. counter weight . Now. the elevator can turn a lot of electric energy into thermal energy in the hydraulic fluid. Control System 2. Traction (Cable lifted) elevator Instead of pushing (as in hydraulic elevator). we use electric motor and counter weight. the cables were pulled by steam-powered hydraulic rams. Sheave 4. electrical motor. It becomes thermal energy in the hydraulic fluid as the hydraulic fluid returns to the reservoir.

counterweight is added through a set of pulleys with the elevator car. when the elevator is 50% filled. Mass of the counter weight is chosen such that its mass and the mass of the elevator car( including passenger) is almost similar so that the total amount of mass that is rising or falling as the elevator moves is almost zero. Therefore. A sheave is just a pulley with a grooves around the circumference. the sheave.  Upward motion: Lifting the elevator car by itself requires a considerable amount of work because the car’s gravitational potential energy increases as it rises. When the motor turns one way. the motor rotates the sheaves directly. a DC hoist motor powered by an AC/DC motor-generator (MG) . the motor turns a gear train that rotates the sheave. the counterweight will exactly balance the car and very little work will be done in raising or lowering the car. In order to allow accurate speed control of the motor. counter weight starts ascending thus balancing the overall weight.The MG set also typically powered the relay controller of the elevator. The counterweight is usually equal to the mass of the empty elevator car plus about 50% of the elevator’s rated load. the ropes move too. the motor and the control system (1) are all housed in a machine room above the elevator shaft. Geared machines use worm gears to control mechanical movement of elevator cars by "rolling" steel hoist ropes over a drive sheave which is attached to a gearbox driven by a high speed motor. and looped around a sheave (3). so when you rotate the sheave.  Downward motion: When car starts moving downward. to allow accurate levelling and for passenger comfort. the sheave lowers the elevator. Traction elevators are further divided into two categories. In geared elevators. it’s simply moving around between the various parts of the machine. The sheave is connected to an electric motor (2). The counterweight balances the car so that it takes very little power to move the system. the sheave raises the elevator.Working: The ropes are attached to the elevator car. which has the added advantage of electrically isolating the elevators from the rest of a building's electrical . These are as follows:  Geared traction machines: They are driven by AC or DC electric motors. The sheave grips the hoist ropes. Typically. In gearless elevators. Thus. when the motor turns the other way. Thus the overall gravitational potential energy of the elevator is not changing very much.

In this case.4. This brake is usually an external drum type and is actuated by spring force and held open electrically.  Gearless traction machines They are low speed (low RPM). The propulsion can be done by an electric or a combustion engine.system. plus an advantageous roping ratio. high torque electric motors powered either by AC or DC. reduces the demand from the pump to raise the counterweight. the drive sheave is directly attached to the end of the motor. Climbing elevators are used in guyed masts or towers. Traction-Hydraulic Elevators The traction-hydraulic elevator has overhead traction cables and counterweight. 1. The weight of the car and its passengers. thus eliminating the transient power spikes in the building's electrical supply caused by the motors starting and stopping (causing lighting to dim every time the elevators are used for example). in order to make easy access to parts of these constructions. as well as interference to other electrical equipment caused by the arcing of the relay contactors in the control system. A brake is mounted between the motor and drive sheave (or gearbox) to hold the elevator stationary at a floor. 1. such as flight safety lamps for maintenance.3. Climbing elevator A climbing elevator is a self-ascending elevator with its own propulsion. but is driven by hydraulic power instead of an overhead traction motor. thereby reducing the size of the required machinery. . a power failure will cause the brake to engage and prevent the elevator from falling.

Double Decker. is an elevator designed to carry goods. commercial and industrial.1. Passenger elevators vary with the capacity of passengers and type of buildings. or goods lift. 2. rather than passengers. On the basis of their usage: 2. they may be classified as residential. a television in high rise buildings. Passenger elevators Passenger elevators are the most common type of elevator. On this basis. including: hospital emergency. Freight elevators are generally required to display a written notice in the car that the use by passengers is prohibited (though not necessarily illegal).2. front and rear entrances. It may be specialized for the service they perform. and other uses. Freight elevators are typically larger and .2 Freight elevators A freight elevator. though certain freight elevators allow dual use through the use of an inconspicuous riser.

Freight elevators may have manually operated doors.300 to 4. 2.500 kg.capable of carrying heavier loads than a passenger elevator. 2. In this case. To . that are used to lift entire sections of a theater stage.3 Stage lifts Stage and orchestra lifts are specialized lifts. generally from 2. Although hydraulic freight elevators exist. or an entire cast of performers (including live elephants) up to stage level from below. Geared hydraulic chains (not unlike bicycle chains) generate lift for the platform and there are no counterweights. electric elevators are more energy efficient for the work of freight lifting. and three smaller lifts near the rear of the stage. Radio City Music Hall has four such lifts: an "orchestra lift" that covers a large area of the stage. and often has rugged interior finishes to prevent damage while loading and unloading. typically powered by hydraulics. the orchestra lift is powerful enough to raise an entire orchestra.4 Vehicle elevators Vehicular elevators are used within buildings or areas with limited space (in lieu of ramps). typically to move cars into the parking garage or manufacturer's storage. For example.

the platform may rotate so that the driver only has to drive forward. elevators carry aircraft between the flight deck and the hangar deck for operations or repairs. up to 200. 2. Most vehicle elevators have a weight capacity of 2 tons.6. 2. .accommodate building designs and improve accessibility. Smaller elevators lift munitions to the flight deck from magazines deep inside the ship.5.000 pounds (90 tonnes) of aircraft and equipment. These elevators are designed for much greater capacity than other elevators. Aircraft elevators On aircraft carriers. They often link kitchens with rooms on other floors. Dumbwaiter Dumbwaiters are small freight elevators that are intended to carry food rather than passengers.

control system. understanding of its terminology. Elevator Specification 5. Technical info 6. Types of traction elevator/ drives / 3. some technical info and safety 1.DESIGN OF A TRACTION ELEVATOR Designing an elevator requires an in-depth knowledge of each and every part of an elevator. Safety System 7. its types. Parts  Electrical  Mechanical  Electronic 2.5 4.down and full collective . Elevator terminology 3.

1Mechanical 1. Parts There are three main division of parts: 1.1.2 Electrical .

Door Lock . enclosure. soffit or back wall which shows the direction of car travel.A portion of the door or gate. Door Hanger .A rolling assembly fastened to the top of a door panel which supports and allows horizontal sliding movement of the door panel. The door track on which the hanger rolls is part of the door hanger assembly.The decorative room in which people ride in a passenger elevator. Door Sill .1.A set of weights roped directly to the elevator car of a windingdrum type installation.Devices at the bottom of horizontal sliding door panels.The threshold of a door opening with grooves to guide the bottom of the car door.The load-carrying unit.1 Car   Car (elevator) .   Door Panel . frame.1. when activated. which covers the opening and moves to uncover the opening.1.3 Electronic 1.A control panel on top of an elevator car which.  . Car Counterweight . and car door or gate. Car Top Inspection Station .2 Door   Door Gibs . Cab . this weight is equal to approximately 50 percent of the car weight.   Car Riding Lantern . removes the car from normal service and allows the car to run at inspection speed from the car top station only.A fixture mounted in the entry column.  1. In practice.Any type of mechanical lock designed to prevent the opening of a hoistway door from the landing side. which stick into sill grooves and eliminate door panels swinging in or out. including its platform.1 Mechanical Parts 1.

Telescopic Doors . which move in same direction but with different speed. Guide Rails . which centers the plunger in the cylinder.5 Hoist  Hoist . Guide Shoes . or on the sides of vertically sliding doors or gates to guide them. which consists of two horizontal sliding panels.A door type.1.1. Guiding projections mounted on the bottom edge of horizontally sliding doors or gates. Center Opening Doors . The door track is a part of the door hanger assembly.A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or liftwheel around which rope or chain wraps. round.A rail which accepts the rolling assembly of the door hanger and allows the horizontal movement required to open and close the doors.Devices used mainly to guide the car and counterweight along the path of the guide rails. which provides electrical connection between an elevator or dumbwaiter car.Steel T-.  1. .Usually 4 to 6 in number. which move in opposite directions.That amount of the drive sheave actually in contact. and a fixed outlet in the hoistway or machine room. or material lift.3 Guide   Guide .1. 1.A cable made up of electric conductors. Cable Wrap .A door type.4 Cables    Cable (Rope) . or formed sections with guiding surfaces installed vertically in a hoistway to guide and direct the course of travel of an elevator car and elevator counterweights. Traveling Cable . bolted to the upper end of the cylinder. They also assure that the lateral motion of the car and counterweight is kept at a minimum as they travel along the guide rails.An assembly. it is used to support the car and (passing over the drive sheave to the counterweight) pull the car. Door Track . which consists of two horizontal sliding panels.   1.

aligned with the drive sheave.The space enclosed by fireproof walls and elevator doors for the travel of one or more elevators. consisting of vertical walls or partitions.A pulley located on the car. Drive Sheave .  . and by which motion is imparted to the car and counterweight by the hoist ropes.  1. Hoistway . which the brake clamps. it also stops the elevator when power is removed from the hoist motor with a spring-loaded clamping device that holds the elevator car when the machine is turned off. Brake Drum . lined with friction material which.) Hoistway Enclosure . under which the hoist cables run to double the capacity and reduce the speed of an elevator. and in which the hoistway doors and door assemblies are installed. On some types of control.6 Brakes  Brake . Deflector Sheave .  Hoist Rope . which isolates the hoistway from all other areas or from an adjacent hoistway. when in contact with the brake drum.1. machined surface on the motor shaft.A pulley on a gearless machine which serves two purposes: (1) To allow each cable to second pass over the drive sheave and (2) To deflect the cable for a straight drop to the counterweight. It includes the pit and terminates at the underside of the overhead machinery space floor or grating or at the underside of the roof where the hoistway does not penetrate the roof. Brake shoe .The wire ropes used to raise and lower an elevator car. dumbwaiters or material lifts.A round. On some types of control.The grooved wheel of a traction-type hoisting machine over which the hoist ropes pass.Moving member(s) of a brake. it will stop the elevator when power is removed from the hoist motor   1. which provides a path for the cables to drop straight to the counterweight. (Hoistway is sometimes called "hatchway" or "hatch".The fixed structure. Secondary Sheave .1.A pulley.An electro-mechanical device used to prevent the elevator from moving when the car is at rest and no power is applied to the hoist motor. and on the counterweight.7 Sheave    Compounding Sheave . holds the elevator at floor level.

A groove in the drive sheave which produces a pinching or wedging effect on the cable. used to connect a circuit with the rotating or moving portion of a DC motor. when activated by over speed. 1.A mechanical speed control mechanism.9 Other Parts  Brush . It opens a switch.1.A device used in elevator power door operation to engage the car door to the landing door by a grasping and holding movement.A device designed to stop a descending car or counterweight beyond its normal limit of travel by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car or counterweight. (2) On escalators.A wheel mounted in bearings and having one or more grooves over which a rope or ropes may pass. Groove . initiates setting of the car safety. Buffer . when stopped by the governor. It carries current to and from the non-moving parts of connections. a directdriven centrifugal device which.1.8 Governor  Governor . cuts off power to the drive motor and service brake. "U" . 1. which relies on friction between groove and cable.A wire rope attached to an elevator car frame that drives the governor and."Vee" . generator or other electrical device. Some types of governors will also open the governor switch and cut off power to the drive motor and brake if the car over speeds in the up direction. Clutch . used on gearless machines. used on gearless machines. This initiates the activation of the car safety device. Landing Door . For elevator. which cuts off power to the drive motor and brake if the car travels at a preset over speed in the down direction. it is a wire rope driven centrifugal device used to stop and hold the movement of its driving rope.  Governor Rope .A device. Sheave Groove . usually of carbon or graphite composition.     .A groove in the drive sheave.The movable door at the entrance of an elevator which provides access to the hoistway.

like-DC motors.2. with or without brushes. motors of all types are used in various hoisting machine applications to raise and lower the load being transported. asynchronous AC induction motors.1. raise and lower freight elevator landing doors and car gates. How elevator speed is controlled? Adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are a form of electrical power converters typically used to convert the fixed voltage electricity of utility-line mains to adjustable voltage that controls the speed of elevator motors. In elevators. Various types of motors have been used in elevators. in fans that provide ventilation of car enclosures. Ward-Leonard-style . ASDs are often thought of as being only AC drives and motors. but the speed of DC motors can be easily adjusted by voltage control and have been doing so to operate elevators for many years.2 Electrical Parts 1. This is the main electrical component in the elevator.1 Electrical Motors A motor is defined as a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical work using rotary motion. geared and gearless motors. to operate hydraulic elevator pumps and where required to keep the bottom of the hoistway dry and free of moisture in pit sump pumps as well. permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. to open and close car and landing doors.

In either case.motor-generator (MG) sets are a form of DC drive. adjusting . as are silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR)-DC adjustable speed controls.