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Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter

Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms
Edward Winter

The present list comprises, for the most part, the earliest citations given in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), although some additional headwords and other complementary material are included. Regular additions will be made, and an endnote explains how readers can help improve the list.

Blitz chess Citations sought. (1 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55

’ The Field. En prise http://www. obliges the adversary to take your pawn en but it is often difficult to know in which exact sense the word was being employed.S. Cook OED: ‘I almost imagined the author’s solution a “cook”.’ Westminister Papers.. 4341.chesshistory. a problem is cooked. En passant OED: ‘You prevent him by pushing immediately your queen’s knight’s pawn upon his knight.. The first known occurrence of the term in a chess context was in 1851. etc. page 854. page 243.N.html (2 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 . chessy. as both a noun and a verb.Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter Chessdom.’ Practical Chess Exercises by W. Kenny (London. 1818). see C. For a detailed account of the early use of ‘cook’. 14 December 1889. See the separate Chessy Words feature article. 1875. page 106. chessical. which . OED: ‘If there are two key-moves.

. 1847).’ Chess Made Easy (London. page ix. ‘. 9 January 1950.... page 379. first page of the Introduction. Fianchetto OED: ‘Black’s present move.’ Prague 1946 .’ Kaleidoscope.. as might be en prise.. Grandmaster draw ‘But the French champion enjoys the game of chess too much to indulge in the “grandmaster draw” circa 1951). The OED incorrectly gives 1848.html (3 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 .... that other is said to be in Prise of the first. 1750). 13 March 1821.chesshistory. which the Italians call “Il Fianchetto di Donna” .. page 294. Staunton (London. Golombek (Sutton Coldfield. OED: ‘[He] had the privilege of taking such of the pieces . page 8.’ The Chess-Player’s Handbook by H.. Half-pin See C. the number of so-called “grandmaster draws” can be counted on the fingers of one hand .N.’ The Times (London). by H.Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter OED: ‘When one piece can take another. http://www. 4361.

B. Rowland (Kingstown.’ The Problem Art by T.’ Chess Openings by J. 1896). OED: ‘What is claimed as hyper-modern turns out to be .F. Hart (London.Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter Helpmate OED: ‘Another class of problems .com/winter/extra/earliest... ..’ BCM. A reference to 1 e4 d6. King’s Gambits. Hypermodern OED: ‘The Hyper-moderns are the greatest opponents of routine play.Hungarian. http://www. Cheshire (London. page 91.’ The Hastings Chess Tournament 1895 by H. which we term Help-mate Problems. page 122.F. Mason (London.html (4 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 . The same page of the BCM.. September 1923. refers to Réti discussing ‘the school of the Hyper-moderns’ and also contains the remark ‘But this is scarcely hyper-modern’. Sergeant of Réti’s Modern Ideas in Chess. ‘Indian Defence. page 369. 1897).chesshistory. Indian.. in which both players concur in endeavouring to effect the speediest mate . translated by J. 1923).. the item being a review by P.. .. and F. respectably medi[a]eval. Indian (openings) OED: ‘Openings..W.. page 92.’ Modern Ideas in Chess by R. page 338.. 1897). Réti..

page 237.) ‘Indian Defence. Nimzowitsch (London. in his games against Cochrane. Note after 1 e4 d6 2 d4 g6: ‘An example of the rare Indian Defence. 1846. 1929). August page 172. 1842). 22 October 1884. the Brahmin Moheschunder Bonnerjee.’ Chess Exemplified by C.’ A Treatise on the Game http://www. Isolated pawn OED: ‘An isolated pawn is one that has no comrade on the same or either adjoining file.’ Chess Player’s Chronicle.’ International Chess Magazine. J’adoube OED: ‘If a player touch one of his adversary’s pieces. page 96.’ Chess Player’s Chronicle. so called on account of its introduction by the celebrated Indian Chess Player. (Heading to a game which began 1 e4 e5 2 d3. he may be compelled to take it. Pearson (London.Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter ‘Indian Opening. Isolani ‘White has an “isolani”. so that he requires the support of a Piece. page 187. without saying “J’adoube”.html (5 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 .chesshistory. page 27.’ My System by A.’ Indian (problems) OED: ‘We now publish the names of those amateurs who have sent us the correct solution of our Indian problem.

February 1879. Lightning chess OED: ‘Two special lightning tournaments were held.H. 22 June 1895. page 131. page 3. ‘Living Chess. page 261.’ The Year-Book of Chess 1910 by E. page ? See page 71 of A Chess Omnibus.html (6 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 . To ‘White could save a Pawn by Knighting instead of Queening.’ Chess Player’s Chronicle.’ American Chess Journal.Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter of Chess by J. July 1905. Bird and Burn playing lightning chess.’ Hereford Times.’ Lasker’s Chess Magazine. The ancient pastime of playing chess with living representatives of the chess pieces is again becoming very popular. Michell (London. Knight. 1910). Sarratt (London. 31 March Living chess OED: ‘So that the reader may visualize the phases through which the game has passed we will show two historical cameos of living chess. volume one. page 456. page 143.A. ‘.. http://www. 1808).

com/winter/extra/earliest.’ The Book of Chess by G.chesshistory. spectators inquired. 1844). Chess Review.N. was the impudent reply. page 72. ‘Of course I consider that all players for whom I have made up these Chess Studies are acquainted with the ordinary chess terms. The OED citation was from an article by Tartakower. 1868).H.A. http://www. Patzer/Potzer OED: ‘Immediately. April 1948. Horowitz. with living men for the pieces’ was published on page 70 of the April 1875 City of London Chess Magazine but did not contain the specific term ‘living chess’. Nimzo-Indian OED: ‘Nimzo-Indian Defence. page 5.’ Chess Studies by G.Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter Note: A detailed paragraph on ‘playing Chess. and similar conventional phrases. Pin OED: ‘Removing his queen to obviate the “pin”. page 103. with such a potzer. as bishop “pins” knight. not when he wills. 3712. 14 November 1935.’ CHESS.’ Article by I.html (7 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 . Walker (London. page xii. For the origins of the term (in German-language sources) see C. “Didn’t you see that win?” “Yes”. “But. Selkirk (London. I draw when I will.

N. page 45 Sitzfleisch OED: D.’ Letter from ‘Philidor Jones’.. Chess Monthly.H.chesshistory. http://www.html (8 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 . 14 January 1939..’ Chess Player’s Magazine.’ W.’ CHESS. Bystanders at Blackpool [i. Steinitz. is very prettily conceived. page 212.. at the British Chess Federation Congress in 1937] wondered at the strange terms such as “skewer” with which the boys interlarded their conversation. page 113. September 1897. though not See C.Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter Seesaw ‘A pretty so-called seesaw of checks finishes the game .. 1867. Skewer ‘Mr [Edgar] Pennell’s teaching is original in the extreme. December 1881. Explanations revealed that it was a term coined by Mr Pennell . page 251. 4316. American Chess Magazine. Self-mate OED: ‘The self-mate. Lawrence (1932) ‘It is Sitzfleisch that decides a game.

N. Boston. 9 November 1857 in Chess Monthly.chesshistory. See C. 4325. Moreover. World champion/Champion of the world ‘But one remains – the noblest heart – At him thy glove be hurled. page (9 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 . Weller. http://www..’ Dubuque Chess Journal. 9 October 1858. November 1870.’ Mr Blackburne’s Games at Chess by P.’ American Union. page ?. references to woodpushing exist in Le neveu de Rameau by Denis Diderot. 1899)..Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter Sui-mate OED: ‘White sui-mates in ten moves. can acquire a steady defensive style of wood-shifting . Tabia/Tabiya Citations sought. page 9. Anderson Graham (London.’ Final stanza of a poem to Paul Morphy by Edwin J. Der Lasa conquered then thou art The Champion of the World. ‘Morphy is comparatively a boy. Woodshifter ‘The most ordinary “wood-shifter” by long study and analysis. Such ‘wood words’ were discussed on pages 119-120 of Chess Facts and Fables. but he stands today the champion of the world. page 367. December 1857.

page ?.. We suggest “X-Ray’ attack”. and not 1904 as given in the 1989 edition of the OED. February 1905. X-Ray attack ‘There is another type of double attack in which the targets are threatened in one direction..html (10 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 . Harkness on page 25 of the Chess Review. April 1947. The correct date is 1905. Stanley in Harper’s Weekly.’ Keres’ Best Games of Chess 1931-1940 by F. The attacking piece threatens two units. no man living can tell whether or no. on the same rank..chesshistory. one behind the other.N. these two gentlemen are not now engaged in fighting for the Chess championship of the whole world!’ C. http://www. Reinfeld (London. 9 October 1858. 1941).Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter ‘.com/winter/extra/earliest.’ Article by K. 4245.H. Zugzwang: OED: ‘White has struggled bravely and only loses by “Zugzwang”. file or diagonal. Zwischenzug: OED: ‘This masterly Zwischenzug is the finest move in the whole game .. page 166. page 108.’ Lasker’s Chess Magazine. This double threat has lacked a good descriptive name. See C.

The e-mail address is chessnotes@chesshistory. with all requsite bibliographical details) are welcomed. To the Archives for other feature articles. Diderot/ woodpushing). Correspondents are asked to include their name and full postal address and to specify whether they wish to be identified in connection with any contribution made. Citations for various less common terms are presented in a companion article. Jack O’Keefe (X-Ray attack). and the word ‘chess’ needs to appear in the subjectline or in the message itself. Acknowledgments: Morgan Daniels (Times/grandmaster draw. Unusual Chess as are proposals for additional entries. Joost van Winsen (Mason citation for Indian Defence. Latest update: 2 July 2006 To the Chess Notes main page.html (11 of 11)14/07/06 07:31:55 . All rights reserved. http://www. and living chess).com.Earliest Occurrences of Chess Terms by Edward Winter Note: Earlier citations (primary sources. Copyright 2006 Edward Winter.