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# Transformers

Function
Converts (or Transforms) electrical energy from one voltage to another voltage
– Either step-up or step-down – Or isolates one circuit from another

• A transformer is a static device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils.

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with the use of a rectifier .Application • Changing voltage in AC circuits • Charging batteries from AC circuits.

Types of transformers • Power transformer – Step up – Step down • Auto-transformer – Only one winding • Isolation transformer – Same voltage output as that of input • Current transformer – Used to measure AC current flow .

Schematic symbol .

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magnet.micro.html .Transformer http://www.fsu.edu/electromag/java/transformer/index.

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Construction – three basic parts • Primary coil or winding – Many turns of wire • Secondary coil or winding – Primary and secondary are not electrically connected • Core – or magnetic circuit – Most transformers have the primary and secondary coils wound on a core to obtain maximum inductive effect between the coils – Iron Core is most common because it maximizes efficiency – Laminated core reduces eddy current effects .

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Types of losses – Copper or electrical losses – Iron losses • • • • Hysteresis Eddy current Core saturation Flux leakage .

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current may flow • Only works with a varying voltage in the primary coil – Usually alternating current (AC) – Can work with pulsating DC • Only works with pure DC when circuit is either being opened or being closed .Operation • Current in primary coil produces magnetic field • Magnetic field induces a potential (voltage) in the secondary coil – Mutual induction (not mutual inductance) – If there is a complete circuit connected to the secondary coil.

Operation • Input and output power is considered equal (at least in a perfect world) – – – – P1 = P 2 P=I×E I1 × E1 = I2 × E2 E1 / E2 = I2 / I1 • Notice the current ratio is the inverse of the voltage ratio • Turns ratio – Ratio of the number of turns (of wire) in the primary winding to the number of turns in the secondary winding – The turns ratio is equal to the voltage ratio • E1 / E2 = N1 / N2 • (At least in a perfect world) .

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See page 3-90 .Operation • As long as there is an open in the secondary circuit. This is because the back voltage produced in the primary blocks the voltage of the source. the amount of current flowing in the primary is almost nothing.

• The wattage needed in the secondary determines the amount of wattage that needs to be provided in the primary. The wattage of the primary is a function of the input voltage and the amount of current the will flow. the magnetic field will collapse back onto the primary windings causing a CEMF that nearly equals the primary input voltage.Operation • Without the transfer of electrical power to the secondary. .

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3 phase transformers • • • • See page 3-104 Delta wound Y (wye) wound This will be discussed in more detail in AMT204. when we look at alternators. Aircraft Electricity III. .

Rectifiers • Electronic device that changes AC to DC by limiting or regulating the direction of current flow • Types of rectifiers – Half-wave – Full-wave – Full-wave bridge .