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Electrostatic Precipitator

An electrostatic precipitator is a large, industrial emission-control unit. It is designed to trap and remove dust particles from the exhaust gas stream of an industrial process. Precipitators are used in these industries:  Power/Electric  Cement  Chemicals  Metals  Paper In many industrial plants, particulate matter created in the industrial process is carried as dust in the hot exhaust gases. These dust-laden gases pass through an electrostatic precipitator that collects most of the dust. Cleaned gas then passes out of the precipitator and through a stack to the atmosphere. Precipitators typically collect 99.9% or more of the dust from the gas stream. Precipitators function by electrostatically charging the dust particles in the gas stream. The charged particles are then attracted to and deposited on plates or other collection devices. When enough dust has accumulated, the collectors are shaken to dislodge the dust, causing it to fall with the force of gravity to hoppers below. The dust is then removed by a conveyor system for disposal or recycling. Depending upon dust characteristics and the gas volume to be treated, there are many different sizes, types and designs of electrostatic precipitators. Very large power plants may actually have multiple precipitators for each unit.

MAIN ELEMENTS OF AN ESP
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Inlet funnel Outlet funnel Discharge electrode Collecting electrode Gas distribution plate Hopper Rapping system

BASIC PRINCIPLE Electrostatic precipitation removes particles from the exhaust gas stream of an industrial process. Often the process involves combustion, but it can be any industrial process that would otherwise emit particles to the atmosphere. Six activities typically take place:   Ionization - Charging of particles Migration - Transporting the charged particles to the collecting surfaces

Particle Size A precipitator collects particles most easily when the particle size is coarse. Particle size for non-combustion processes will have similar determinants.  Particle resistivity The resistivity of fly ash or other particles is influenced by the chemical composition and the gas temperature.  Particle size and size distribution The size distribution in a power plant is defined by coal quality. Sodium and iron oxides in the fly ash can reduce resistivity and improve performance. Resistivity should be kept in the range of 108 . If velocity is too low. the gas flow rate will have processspecific determinants.Precipitation of the charged particles onto the collecting surfaces Charge Dissipation .4µm) are the most difficult to collect because the fundamental fieldcharging mechanism is overwhelmed by diffusion charging due to random collisions with free ions.Removing the particles from the collecting surface to the hopper Particle Removal . The generation of the charging corona in the inlet field may be suppressed if the gas stream has too many small particles (less than 1 µm). 3.5 . High resistivity can reduce precipitator performance.1010 ohm-cm. Particle Resistivity Resistivity is resistance to electrical conduction. low resistivity can also be a problem. performance may suffer from poor gas flow distribution or from particle dropout in the ductwork. particle temperature and gas temperature. boiler load. burning reduced-sulfur coal increases resistivity and reduces the collecting efficiency of the precipitator. Very small particles (0. excess air rate and boiler design. Resistivity is influenced by the chemical composition of the gas stream. unburned carbon reduces precipitator performance because it is so conductive and loses its electrical charge so quickly that it is easily re-entrained from the collecting plate. For example. .Conveying the particles from the hopper to a disposal point Process Variables Gas characteristics and particle properties define how well a precipitator will work in a given application. On the other hand.5.0.  Gas temperature Following are details of these process variables: 1. especially at higher operating temperatures. the coal mill settings and burner design. in combustion processes. The higher the resistivity. the harder it is for a particle to transfer its electrical charge. For example (in combustion processes). The main process variables to consider are:  Gas flow rate The gas flow rate in a power plant is defined by coal quality. At higher velocity.2 . Gas Flow Rate A precipitator operates best with a gas velocity of 3. 2. Where there is no combustion.    Collection .Neutralizing the charged particles on the collecting surfaces Particle Dislodging .5 ft/sec. particle reentrainment increases rapidly.

In weighted wire systems. Collecting plates are also part of the electrical power circuit of the precipitator. can be significant. there are two common designs:  Plates supported from anvil beams at either end The anvil beam is also the point of impact for the collecting rapper  Plates supported with hooks directly from the precipitator casing Two or more collecting plates are connected at or near the center by rapper beams. The particles then precipitate onto the collecting plates. While the design of the collecting plates varies by manufacturer. The upper discharge frame is in turn supported from the roof of the precipitator casing. Interactions to Consider Particle size distribution and particle resistivity affect the cohesiveness of the layer of precipitated material on the collecting plates and the ability of the rapping system to dislodge this layer for transport into the precipitator hopper without excessive re-entrainment. Gas Temperature The effect of gas temperature on precipitator collecting efficiency. High-voltage insulators are incorporated into the support system. The electrical field forces dust particles in the gas stream to migrate toward the collecting plates. which then serve as impact points for the rapping system . Collecting plates are suspended from the precipitator casing and form the gas passages within the precipitator. Common types of discharge electrodes include:        Straight round wires Twisted wire pairs Barbed discharge wires Rigid masts Rigid frames Rigid spiked pipes Spiral wires Discharge electrodes are typically supported from the upper discharge frame and are held in alignment between the upper and lower discharge frames. the discharge electrodes are held taut by weights at the lower end of the wires. Plate baffles shield the precipitated particles from the gas flow while smooth surfaces provide for high operating voltage. 5. About Discharge Electrodes Discharge electrodes emit charging current and provide voltage that generates an electrical field between the discharge electrodes and the collecting plates.4. These collecting plate functions are incorporated into the precipitator design. given its influence on particle resistivity. About Collecting Plates Collecting plates are designed to receive and retain the precipitated particles until they are intentionally removed into the hopper.

Ideally. but not the corona current level. Rapping systems may be actuated by electrical or pneumatic power. and perforated gas distribution plates in the inlet and/or outlet fields of the precipitator. Its operation is governed by the inlet gas and dust conditions. and also in the precipitator itself. discharge electrodes should be kept as free as possible of accumulated particulate. About Gas Distribution Systems One electrical field or bus section of an electrostatic precipitator is by itself an independent precipitator. as well as the collecting plate and discharge electrode geometries. Tumbling hammers may also be used to dislodge ash. Typical criteria are based on ICAC (Institute of Clean Air Companies) recommendations using average gas velocities or on a calculated RMS statistical representation of the gas velocity pattern. which can be different in each gas passage. and 2) further at the inlet of each gas passage of the electrical field or bus section. or by mechanical means. In general. The quality of gas velocity distribution can be measured in a scaled-down model of the precipitator and its ductwork. (Note that the gas passage shares the voltage level with the adjacent gas passages of the same electrical field or bus section. center. Within this electrical field or bus section.) This points to the importance of creating similar gas and dust conditions 1) at the inlet of each electrical field or bus section. gas distribution devices consist of turning vanes in the inlet ductwork. uniformity is desired in:  Gas velocity  Gas temperature  Dust loading  Gas velocity distribution can be most effectively influenced by the use of gas distribution devices. About Rapping Systems Rappers are time-controlled systems provided for removing dust from the collecting plates and the discharge electrodes as well as for gas distribution devices (optional) and for hopper walls (optional).Top. Discharge Electrode Rapping In general. one gas passage is also an independent precipitator governed by the same factors. or bottom spacer bars may be used to maintain collecting plate alignment and sustain electrical clearances to the discharge system. Rapping methods include:      Electric vibrators Electric solenoid piston drop rappers Pneumatic vibrating rappers Tumbling hammers Sonic horns (do not require transmission assemblies) 1. .

1/2"layer on the collecting plates.4 minute range. depending on the inlet particulate loading of the precipitator and the nature of the particulate. selection of individual rappers. Gas Distribution Plate and Hopper Wall Rapping The gas distribution plates should also be kept free of excessive particulate buildup and may require rapping on a continuous base with a cycle time in the 10-20 minute range. The rapping system for the gas distribution screens in the inlet and outlet of the . 4.4 minutes. The times that are actually available may be limited. the impact of the rapping system is directed into the beams located at the leading and/or trailing edge of the collecting plates. Rapping systems with pneumatic or electric actuators allow variations of the rapping intensity. Rapping systems can be optimized for top precipitator performance using precipitator power input and stack opacity as criteria. the optimum rapping cycles for the downstream electrical fields can be established. The collecting plates are supported from anvil beams or directly with hooks from the precipitator casing. The first electrical field generally collects about 60-80% of the inlet dust load. Pneumatic or electric vibrators allow adjustments of the rapping time. the impact is directed into the rapper beams located at or near the center of the top of the collecting plates. With anvil beam support. The first field plates should be rapped often enough so that their precipitated layer of particulate is about 3/8 1/2" thick. these repeat times yield a deposited layer of 3/8-1/2" for the plates in all three fields.60 minutes). and the plates in the third field should have a repeat time of 25T. depending on the size and inlet particulate loading of the precipitator. Adjustment may be required for factors such as dust resistivity. Ideally. Sheet formation is essential to make the dust drop into the precipitator hopper without re-entrainment into the gas stream. progressing to the lowest frequency. The collecting plate rapping system of the first field has a repeat time T equal to the time it takes to build a 3/8 . State-of-the-art rapper controls allow selection of rapping sequences. Once an optimum rapping cycle has been found for the first electrical field (which may vary across the face of a large precipitator). dust layer cohesiveness. For direct casing support. and provide anti-coincidence schemes which allow only one rapper to operate at a given time. Improving Rapping System Performance All precipitator rapping systems allow adjustment of rapping frequency. Collecting Plate Rapping Collecting plate rapping must remove the bulk of the precipitated dust. for example with repeat times of 2 .The rapping system for the discharge electrodes should be operated on a continuous schedule with repeat times in the 2 . gas temperature effects. normally starting with the highest frequency (the least time between raps). 2. There is no advantage in rapping more often since the precipitated dust has not yet agglomerated to a sheet which requires a minimum layer thickness. Rapping less frequently typically results in a deterioration of the electrical power input by adding an additional resistance into the power circuit. Gas distribution plates in the outlet of the precipitator may be rapped less often (every 30 . electrical field height and length. 3. Optimization of the rapping system starts with the discharge electrode rapping system operating on its own time schedule. The plates in the second field should have a repeat time of about 5T. and the collecting area served by one rapper.

These can operate on the outside wall of the hopper or on an internal hopper baffle. Next. The flow of fly ash out of the hopper can be facilitated by the use of external vibrators. It requires a substantial amount of time for stabilization after each adjustment. About Hoppers Precipitator hoppers are designed to completely discharge dust load on demand. 1. precipitator hoppers are rectangular in cross-section with sides of at least 60-degree slope. and transports the fly ash to reprocessing or to disposal. Next. Heaters are added to ensure hot metal surfaces immediately above the fly ash discharge.12". If the stack opacity trace shows rapping spikes. These hoppers are insulated from the neck above the discharge flange with the insulation covering the entire hopper area. Discharge diameters are generally 8" . 4. In addition. the lower 1/4. 2. The adjustment of the rapping system for optimum precipitator performance is a slow process. Hopper wall temperature retention discourages condensation on the inside of the hopper. particle size and shape. changes the repose angle of the particles. Compaction characteristics are affected by moisture content. Ash handling system The fly ash handling system evacuates the fly ash from the hoppers. Typically. the rapping frequency of the other fields should be adjusted in sequence until their electrical power inputs remain constant. The optimization should start with the Collecting Plate Rapping Schedule determined above. 3.1/3 of the hopper wall may be heated. and promotes gravity flow. This air flow fills the voids between the fly ash particles at a slight pressure. Facilitating hopper discharge Hopper discharge problems are caused by compaction of the fly ash in the hopper. the rapping frequency of the inlet field should be increased or decreased until the electrical power input of the inlet field remains constant. Insulation Insulation provides protection for facility personnel as well as working to retain as much hopper wall temperature as possible. Hopper fluidizers Hopper fluidizers have a membrane that permits air flow to the fly ash directly above. the rapping intensity should be reduced while observing the electrical power input of the precipitator.precipitator should then be operated with repeat times of 2-3 minutes for the inlet and 2 . head of material. and vibration. .3 hours for the outlet screens. The ash handling system should be designed and operated to remove the collected fly ash from the hoppers without causing re-entrainment into the gas flow through the precipitator. The design of the ash handling system should allow for flexibility of scheduling the hopper discharges according to the fly ash being collected in these hoppers. The only rapping system requiring optimization is the collecting plate rapping system.

Rapping system .Electrocstatic Precipitator THREE SYSTEMS IN AN ESP: 1. Emitting system 2. Collecting system 3.

Emitting system The emitting system contains emitting plates with electrode which are responsible for charging of dust particles.7 No. No. Emitting system contains emitting frames on which pressed hooks are welded. Emitting frame consist of several hollow section attached with the help of channel.10 Rapping System In cheema boilers limited. Emitting system charge the particles electro statically and then these particles gets attached to a collecting system. of hollow section in one frame – 7 Collecting system Collecting system collects the particles that have been charged by the emitting system. A collecting suspension frame consists of several angles and no. When enough particles get collected then they are dislodged in the hopper. These hooks are attached for holding the electrodes. of angles in one frame. No. of hooks in one angle. . In tumbling hammer system. of pressed hooks on each angle. rapping system used is tumbling hammer system. electrodes are cleaned rapping them with hammers causing a vibration which shakes off the dust that is then falling into the hoppers from where the dust is finally removed from the precipitator.