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# Dynamic assignment Vibration is a phenomenon whereby the oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

In other word, vibration also can be defined as the periodic motion such that a simple harmonic motion which vibrates at a constant frequency which also means constant number of cycles completed per second.

From the Figure 1, a relationship between the displacement, x and time, t can be expressed as X = A sin (ωt ) Where A is the amplitude and is the natural frequency of the system which can be related to the frequency, f by: ω = 2πf Since the frequency is also the reciprocating of the period, T, thus the natural frequency then becomes: ω =2π/T Vibration has proved to be fundamental application in daily life, like how we are able to hear because our eardrums vibrate or how instruments are able to provide sound. However, sometimes vibration is also undesirable as it creates noise and causes mechanical failure of the machines such as friction in the machine component. An excitation force is required for an object to start vibrating, which can be from an externally applied force, or internally within the object itself. Basically, vibration can be divided into free vibration and forced vibration. For free vibration, it vibrates freely after the mechanical system is set off from the initial point. Free vibration does not affected by external forces. On the other hand, the forced vibration is the vibration which is influenced and excited by the external forces and keeps oscillating without stopping. In case of free vibration, it can be further break down into damped free vibration and undamped free vibration. For undamped free vibration, the system will no loses energy to the surrounding and it will keep on oscillating with constant amplitude. For damped free vibration, energy is loses from the vibrating system in the form of friction or turbulence and eventually the damped vibration’s amplitude will slowly decreases to zero.

Basically. the usage of the dynamo battery is not environmental friendly and restraining. (E. In general.) Figure 2 electromechanical conversions via piezoelectricity phenomenon The overall process of generating electricity with piezoelectric can be explained easily with the following figure 3. One of the piezoelectric effects is to convert the mechanical strain into electrical charge and it can be function as sensor. Besides that.Minazara. when riding a bicycle. Hence. After that. n. However. the electricity produced by the piezoelectric material will be formatted by static converter before supplying to the storage system. the power conversion of the dynamo is not effective as a lot of the cyclist energy is used to overcome the rolling resistance and the friction of the dynamo.d.Piezoelectric essay part (Siow Yong Hoi) At the early stage of the bicycle industry.. vibration will occurred due to the uneven road surface and these vibrations will be detected by the piezoelectric material on the bicycle. 2006). Piezoelectric generator relies on the piezoelectric effect very much and it exists in two domains. they have come out with an unpolluted and longlasting resolution which is using piezoelectric generator. Another piezoelectric effect is to transform applied electrical potential into mechanical strain energy which can be function as actuator. the electrical devices on the bicycle such as the front or rear lamp and digital device such as speedometer are powered by the dynamo. The piezoelectric material will convert bicycle’s vibration into electricity. the piezoelectric material is made up of ferroelectric compositions and their solid solutions of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) modified by different component and dopes. (Anon. Piezoelectric generator converts mechanical forces such as pressure into electrical energy or vice versa. Figure 3 General diagram of generator based vibrations energy harvesting using piezoelectric material .

The setup of the experiment is shown in figure 5 and it is carried out on uneven road surface condition. .Minazara has carried out experiment to identify which location of the bicycle can harvest more energy by using the accelerometer. E.The following figure 4 is the piezoelectric beam modelling that consist mass. spring and damper. Figure 4 Equivalent model of a vibrating piezoelectric structure Before placing piezoelectric generator on the bicycle. Figure 5: Accelerometers places. piezoelectric.

about 80% of the vibration energy can be harvested using piezoelectric which can be shown in the figure 7.5 Hz. Minazara also carried out the experiment to determine how much power can be generated by piezoelectric with the vibration as the source. it can be seen that the acceleration is measured highest at the fork and the peak is observed at the frequency of 12. Figure 7 Cumulative sum of the acceleration square After that.5mW of power can be achieved under optimum . it is found that under ideal condition which pure sinusoidal vibration is. Hence.Figure 6 Vibrations acceleration measurement for the case of a bicycle rolling on uneven path From the figure 6 above. Within the range of 10Hz and 30Hz. As a result. E. 3. the piezoelectric generator will be placed on the fork of the bicycle in order to maximise the electricity generated using the piezoelectric generator.

[Online] Available at: http://www. What is Vibration.. Figure 8 Piezoelectric generator installed on the handlebar of a bicycle to power a lamp This application can be related to the dynamic’s subject of vibration as we can use Newton’s Second Law of motion or Lagrange Equation to obtain the equation. 2013.com/vibman/whatisvibration.)This power is enough for low power consumption devices and even for recharge a battery. n. Vibration.d. .com/dictionary/vibration [Accessed 4 April 2013]..ru/eng/piezoceramic_e.Minazara.azimadli.elpapiezo. [Online] Available at: http://www.htm [Accessed 4 April 2013].merriam-webster.resistive load of 100k (E. 2009. AzimaDLI. 2006. Bibliography Anon. [Online] Available at: http://www. Piezoelectric material. Anon.shtml [Accessed 20 April 2013].

Piezoelectric Generator Harvesting Bike Vibrations Energy to Supply Portable Devices.icrepq. [Online] Available at: http://www.pdf [Accessed 20 April 2013]..E. D.d. a.com/icrepq-08/344-minazara. .Minazara. F. n.