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Mobile Communications

Chapter 10: Support for Mobility

• File systems
• Data bases
• WWW and Mobility
• WAP (Wireless Application Protocol), i-mode & Co.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.1


Mobile, bearable multimedia
equipment …

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.2


File systems - Motivation
• Goal
• efficient and transparent access to shared files within a
mobile environment while maintaining data consistency
• Problems
• limited resources of mobile computers (memory, CPU, ...)
• low bandwidth, variable bandwidth, temporary disconnection
• high heterogeneity of hardware and software components
(no standard PC architecture)
• wireless network resources and mobile computer are not
very reliable
• standard file systems (e.g., NFS, network file system) are
very inefficient, almost unusable
• Solutions
• replication of data (copying, cloning, caching)
• data collection in advance (hoarding, pre-fetching)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.3
File systems - consistency problems
• THE big problem of distributed, loosely coupled systems
• are all views on data the same?
• how and when should changes be propagated to what users?
• Weak consistency
• many algorithms offering strong consistency (e.g., via
atomic updates) cannot be used in mobile environments
• invalidation of data located in caches through a server is
very problematic if the mobile computer is currently not
connected to the network
• occasional inconsistencies have to be tolerated, but conflict
resolution strategies must be applied afterwards to reach
consistency again
• Conflict detection
• content independent: version numbering, time-stamps
• content dependent: dependency graphs
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.4
File systems for limited connectivity I
• Symmetry
• Client/Server or Peer-to-Peer relations
• support in the fixed network and/or mobile computers
• one file system or several file systems
• one namespace for files or several namespaces
• Transparency
• hide the mobility support, applications on mobile computers
should not notice the mobility
• user should not notice additional mechanisms needed
• Consistency model
• optimistic or pessimistic
• Caching and Pre-fetching
• single files, directories, subtrees, partitions, ...
• permanent or only at certain points in time

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.5


File systems for limited connectivity
II
• Data management
• management of buffered data and copies of data
• request for updates, validity of data
• detection of changes in data
• Conflict solving
• application specific or general
• errors

• Several early experimental systems exist (late 80s)


• Coda (Carnegie Mellon University), Little Work (University of
Michigan), Ficus (UCLA) etc.

• Many systems use ideas from distributed file systems


such as, e.g., AFS (Andrew File System)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.6
File systems - Coda I
• Application transparent extensions of client and server
• changes in the cache manager of a client
• applications use cache replicates of files
• extensive, transparent collection of data in advance for
possible future use („Hoarding“)
• Consistency
• system keeps a record of changes in files and compares files
after reconnection
• if different users have changed the same file a manual
reintegration of the file into the system is necessary
• optimistic approach, coarse grained (file size)
mobile client

application cache server

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.7


File systems - Coda II
• Hoarding • States of a client
• user can pre-determine a file
list with priorities
• contents of the cache
determined by the list and LRU
strategy (Last Recently Used) hoarding
strong
• explicit pre-fetching possible connection
• periodic updating weak
• Comparison of files disconnection connection
• asynchronous, background write
disconnected
• system weighs speed of
updating against minimization connection
of network traffic
• Cache misses disconnection
• modeling of user patience: how emulating
long can a user wait for data
without an error message?
• function of file size and
bandwidth

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.8


File systems - Little Work
• Only changes in the cache manager of the client
• Connection modes and use
Connected Partially Fetch only Disconnected
Connected
Method normal delayed write optimistic abort at cache
to the server replication of files miss
Network continuous continuous connection on none
requirements high bandwidth demand
bandwidth
Application office, WLAN packet radio cellular systems independent
(e.g., GSM) with
costs per call

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.9


File systems - further examples
• Mazer/Tardo
• file synchronization layer between application and local file system
• caching of complete subdirectories from the server
• “Redirector” responses to requests locally if necessary, via the
network if possible
• periodic consistency checks with bi-directional updating
• Ficus
• not a client/server approach
• optimistic approach based on replicates, detection of write conflicts,
conflict resolution
• use of „gossip“ protocols: a mobile computer does not necessarily
need to have direct connection to a server, with the help of other
mobile computers updates can be propagated through the network
• MIo-NFS (Mobile Integration of NFS)
• NFS extension, pessimistic approach, only token holder can write
• connected/loosely connected/disconnected

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.10


Database systems in mobile
environments
• Request processing
• power conserving, location dependent, cost efficient
• example: find the fastest way to a hospital
• Replication management
• similar to file systems
• Location management
• tracking of mobile users to provide replicated or location
dependent data in time at the right place (minimize access
delays)
• example: with the help of the HLR (Home Location Register)
in GSM a mobile user can find a local towing service
• Transaction processing
• “mobile” transactions can not necessarily rely on the same
models as transactions over fixed networks (ACID:
atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability)
• therefore models for “weak” transaction

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.11


World Wide Web and mobility
• Protocol (HTTP, Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and
language (HTML, Hypertext Markup Language) of the Web
have not been designed for mobile applications and
mobile devices, thus creating many problems!
• Typical transfer sizes
• HTTP request: 100-350 byte
• responses avg. <10 kbyte, header 160 byte, GIF 4.1kByte,
JPEG 12.8 kbyte, HTML 5.6 kbyte
• but also many large files that cannot be ignored
• The Web is no file system
• Web pages are not simple files to download
• static and dynamic content, interaction with servers via
forms, content transformation, push technologies etc.
• many hyperlinks, automatic loading and reloading,
redirecting
• a single click might have big consequences!

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.12


WWW example
Request to port 80: GET / HTTP/1.0
or: GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: www.inf.fu-berlin.de
Response from server
HTTP/1.1 200 OK non persistent
Date: Wed, 30 Oct 2002 19:44:26 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.12 (Unix) mod_perl/1.24
Last-Modified: Wed, 30 Oct 2002 13:16:31 GMT
ETag: "2d8190-2322-3dbfdbaf"
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Length: 8994
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/html

<DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">


<html>
<head>
<title>FU-Berlin: Institut f&uuml;r Informatik</TITLE>
<base href="http://www.inf.fu-berlin.de">
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="http://www.inf.fu-berlin.de/styles/homepage.css">
<!--script language="JavaScript" src="fuinf.js"-->
<!--/script-->
</head>

<body onResize="self.location.reload();">
...

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.13


HTTP 1.0 (old) and mobility I
• Characteristics
• stateless, client/server, request/response
• needs a connection oriented protocol (TCP), one connection
per request (some enhancements in HTTP 1.1)
• primitive caching and security
• Problems
• designed for large bandwidth (compared to wireless access)
and low delay
• big and redundant protocol headers (readable for humans,
stateless, therefore big headers in ASCII)
• uncompressed content transfer
• using TCP
• huge overhead per request (3-way-handshake) compared with
the content, e.g., of a GET request
• slow-start problematic
• DNS lookup by client causes additional traffic

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.14


HTTP 1.0 (old) and mobility II
• Caching
• quite often disabled by information providers to be able to
create user profiles, usage statistics etc.
• dynamic objects cannot be cached
• numerous counters, time, date, personalization, ...
• mobility quite often inhibits caches
• security problems
• how to use SSL/TLS together with proxies?
• today: many user customized pages, dynamically generated
on request via CGI, ASP, ...

• POSTing (i.e., sending to a server)


• can typically not be buffered, very problematic if currently
disconnected

• Many unsolved problems!


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.15
HTML and mobile devices
• HTML
• designed for computers with “high” performance, color high-
resolution display, mouse, hard disk
• typically, web pages optimized for design, not for communication
• Mobile devices
• often only small, low-resolution displays, very limited input
interfaces (small touch-pads, soft-keyboards)
• Additional “features”
• animated GIF, Java AWT, Frames, ActiveX Controls, Shockwave,
movie clips, audio, ...
• many web pages assume true color, multimedia support, high-
resolution and many plug-ins

• Web pages ignore the heterogeneity of end-systems!


• e.g., without additional mechanisms, large high-resolution pictures
would be transferred to a mobile phone with a low-resolution
display causing high costs
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.16
Approaches toward WWW for mobile
devices
• Application gateways, enhanced servers
• simple clients, pre-calculations in the fixed network
• compression, filtering, content extraction
• automatic adaptation to network characteristics
• Examples
• picture scaling, color reduction, transformation of the document
format (e.g., PS to TXT)
• detail studies, clipping, zoom
• headline extraction, automatic abstract generation
• HDML (handheld device markup language): simple language similar
to HTML requiring a special browser
• HDTP (handheld device transport protocol): transport protocol for
HDML, developed by Unwired Planet
• Problems
• proprietary approaches, require special enhancements for browsers
• heterogeneous devices make approaches more complicated

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.17


Some new issues that might help
mobility?
• Push technology
• real pushing, not a client pull needed, channels etc.
• HTTP/1.1
• client/server use the same connection for several request/response
transactions
• multiple requests at beginning of session, several responses in
same order
• enhanced caching of responses (useful if equivalent responses!)
• semantic transparency not always achievable: disconnected,
performance, availability -> most up-to-date version...
• several more tags and options for controlling caching
(public/private, max-age, no-cache etc.)
• relaxing of transparency on app. request or with warning to user
• encoding/compression mechanism, integrity check, security of
proxies, authentication, authorization...
• Cookies: well..., stateful sessions, not really integrated...
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.18
System support for WWW in a mobile
world I (some historical)
• Enhanced browsers mobile client
integrated
• Pre-fetching, caching, off-line use enhancement
• e.g. Internet Explorer browser

web
server

• Additional, accompanying application


mobile client
• Pre-fetching, caching, off-line use
• e.g. original WebWhacker browser
additional
application

web
server

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.19


System support for WWW in a mobile
world II (some historical)
• Client Proxy mobile client
• Pre-fetching, caching, off-line use
• e.g., Caubweb, TeleWeb, Weblicator, browser
WebWhacker, WebEx, WebMirror, client
proxy
...
web
server

• Network Proxy mobile client


• adaptive content transformation
for bad connections, pre-fetching, browser
caching
• e.g., TranSend, Digestor network
proxy
web
server

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.20


System support for WWW in a mobile
world III (some historical)
• Client and network proxy mobile client
• combination of benefits plus
simplified protocols browser
client
proxy
• e.g., MobiScape, WebExpress

web network
• Special network subsystem server proxy

• adaptive content transformation


for bad connections, pre-fetching, mobile client
caching client
browser
• e.g., Mowgli proxy

• Additional many proprietary server


extensions possible web network
server proxy
• “channels”, content negotiation, ...

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.21


WAP - Wireless Application Protocol
• Goals
• deliver Internet content and enhanced services to mobile devices
and users (mobile phones, PDAs)
• independence from wireless network standards
• open for everyone to participate, protocol specifications will be
proposed to standardization bodies
• applications should scale well beyond current transport media and
device types and should also be applicable to future developments
• Platforms
• e.g., GSM (900, 1800, 1900), CDMA IS-95, TDMA IS-136, 3rd
generation systems (IMT-2000, UMTS, W-CDMA, cdma2000 1x EV-
DO, …)
• Forum
• was: WAP Forum, co-founded by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia,
Unwired Planet, further information www.wapforum.org
• now: Open Mobile Alliance www.openmobilealliance.org
(Open Mobile Architecture + WAP Forum + SyncML + …)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.22


WAP - scope of standardization
• Browser
• “micro browser”, similar to existing, well-known browsers in the
Internet

• Script language
• similar to Java script, adapted to the mobile environment

• WTA/WTAI
• Wireless Telephony Application (Interface): access to all telephone
functions

• Content formats
• e.g., business cards (vCard), calendar events (vCalender)

• Protocol layers
• transport layer, security layer, session layer etc.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.23


WAP 1.x - reference model and
protocols
Internet A-SAP WAP

HTML, Java Application Layer (WAE) additional services


and applications
S-SAP
Session Layer (WSP)
HTTP TR-SAP
Transaction Layer (WTP)
SEC-SAP
SSL/TLS Security Layer (WTLS)
T-SAP

TCP/IP, Transport Layer (WDP) WCMP


UDP/IP,
media Bearers (GSM, CDPD, ...)

WAE comprises WML (Wireless Markup Language), WML Script, WTAI etc.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.24


WAP - network elements

fixed network wireless network

HTML WML WAP Binary WML


Internet
filter proxy

HTML WML
HTML
filter/ Binary WML
WAP
web HTML proxy
server

WTA Binary WML


server
PSTN

Binary WML: binary file format for clients

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.25


WDP - Wireless Datagram Protocol
• Protocol of the transport layer within the WAP architecture
• uses directly transports mechanisms of different network
technologies
• offers a common interface for higher layer protocols
• allows for transparent communication using different transport
technologies (GSM [SMS, CSD, USSD, GPRS, ...], IS-136, TETRA,
DECT, PHS, IS-95, ...)

• Goals of WDP
• create a worldwide interoperable transport system with the help of
WDP adapted to the different underlying technologies
• transmission services such as SMS, GPRS in GSM might change,
new services can replace the old ones

• Additionally, WCMP (wireless Control Message Protocol) is used


for control/error report (similar to ICMP in the TCP/IP protocol
suite)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.26


WDP - Service Primitives

T-SAP T-SAP
T-DUnitdata.req
(DA, DP, SA, SP, UD) T-DUnitdata.ind
(SA, SP, UD)
T-DUnitdata.req
(DA, DP, SA, SP, UD)
T-DError.ind
(EC)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.27


Usage of WDP
Wireless Data Gateway
WTLS
WTLS WTLS
WTLS
GSM-SMS WDP
WDP && WDP
WDP &&
Adaptation
Adaptation Adaptation
Adaptation
SMS
SMS SMS
SMS Tunnel
Tunnel Tunnel
Tunnel
Subnetwork
Subnetwork Subnetwork
Subnetwork

WAP
GSM-CSD
Proxy

WTLS
WTLS WTLS
WTLS
Internet Service Provider
UDP
UDP Remote Access Service UDP
UDP
IP
IP Interworking IP
IP IP
IP
PPP Function PPP
PPP PPP
PSTN PSTN Subnetwork
Subnetwork Subnetwork
Subnetwork
CSD-RF CSD-RF PSTN PSTN
CSD-RF CSD-RF Circuit Circuit
Circuit Circuit

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.28


WTLS - Wireless Transport Layer
Security
• Goals
• data integrity
• prevention of changes in data
• privacy
• prevention of tapping
• authentication
• creation of authenticated relations between a mobile device and
a server
• protection against denial-of-service attacks
• protection against repetition of data and unverified data

• WTLS
• is based on the TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol
(former SSL, Secure Sockets Layer)
• optimized for low-bandwidth communication channels
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.29
Secure session, full handshake
originator peer
SEC-SAP SEC-SAP
SEC-Create.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, KES, CS, CM)
SEC-Create.ind
(SA, SP, DA, DP, KES, CS, CM)
SEC-Create.res
(SNM, KR, SID, KES‘, CS‘, CM‘)
SEC-Create.cnf SEC-Exchange.req
(SNM, KR, SID, KES‘, CS‘, CM‘)
SEC-Exchange.ind
SEC-Exchange.res
(CC)
SEC-Commit.req SEC-Exchange.cnf
(CC)
SEC-Commit.ind
SEC-Commit.cnf

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.30


SEC-Unitdata - transferring
datagrams

sender receiver
SEC-SAP SEC-SAP
SEC-Unitdata.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, UD) SEC-Unitdata.ind
(SA, SP, DA, DP, UD)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.31


WTP - Wireless Transaction Protocol
• Goals
• different transaction services, offloads applications
• application can select reliability, efficiency
• support of different communication scenarios
• class 0: unreliable message transfer
• class 1: reliable message transfer without result message
• class 2: reliable message transfer with exactly one reliable
result message
• supports peer-to-peer, client/server and multicast
applications
• low memory requirements, suited to simple devices (<
10kbyte )
• efficient for wireless transmission
• segmentation/reassembly
• selective retransmission
• header compression
• optimized connection setup (setup with data transfer)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.32
Details of WTP I
• Support of different communication scenarios
• Class 0: unreliable message transfer
• Example: push service
• Class 1: reliable request
• An invoke message is not followed by a result message
• Example: reliable push service
• Class 2: reliable request/response
• An invoke message is followed by exactly one result message
• With and without ACK
• Example: typical web browsing

• No explicit connection setup or release is available


• Services for higher layers are called events
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.33
Details of WTP II
• Used Mechanisms
• Reliability
• Unique transaction identifiers (TID)
• Acknowledgements
• Selective retransmission
• Duplicate removal
• Optional: concatenation & separation of messages
• Optional: segmentation & reassembly of messages
• Asynchronous transactions
• Transaction abort, error handling
• Optimized connection setup (includes data transmission)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.34


WTP Class 0 transaction

initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0, H) TR-Invoke.ind
Invoke
PDU (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0, H‘)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.35


WTP Class 1 transaction, no user ack
& user ack
initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H) TR-Invoke.ind
Invoke
PDU (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H‘)
TR-Invoke.cnf U
(H) Ack PD

initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H) TR-Invoke.ind
Invoke
PDU (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H‘)
TR-Invoke.res
(H‘)
TR-Invoke.cnf U
(H) Ack PD

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.36


WTP Class 2 transaction, no user ack,
no hold on
initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) TR-Invoke.ind
Invoke
PDU (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H‘)
TR-Result.req
(UD*, H‘)
TR-Invoke.cnf PDU
(H) Result

TR-Result.ind
(UD*, H)
TR-Result.res
(H)
Ack PD TR-Result.cnf
U
(H‘)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.37


WTP Class 2 transaction, user ack

initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) TR-Invoke.ind
Invoke
PDU (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H‘)
TR-Invoke.res
(H‘)
TR-Invoke.cnf U
(H) Ack PD TR-Result.req
(UD*, H‘)
TR-Result.ind PDU
(UD*, H) Result

TR-Result.res
(H)
Ack PD TR-Result.cnf
U
(H‘)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.38


WTP Class 2 transaction, hold on, no
user ack

initiator responder
TR-SAP TR-SAP
TR-Invoke.req
(SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) TR-Invoke.ind
Invoke
PDU (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H‘)
TR-Invoke.cnf U
(H) Ack PD TR-Result.req
(UD*, H‘)
TR-Result.ind es ult PDU
R
(UD*, H)
TR-Result.res
(H)
Ack PD TR-Result.cnf
U
(H‘)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.39


WSP - Wireless Session Protocol
• Goals
• HTTP 1.1 functionality
• Request/reply, content type negotiation, ...
• support of client/server, transactions, push technology
• key management, authentication, Internet security services
• session management (interruption, resume,...)

• Open topics
• QoS support
• group communication
• isochronous media objects
• management

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.40


WSP protocols

WSP

Connection mode Connectionless mode


(uses WTP) (uses WDP or WTLS)

• Session Management (class 0, 2) • Method Invocation


• Method Invocation (Kl. 2) • Push
• Error Report (in general unreliable)
• Push (class 0)
• Confirmed Push (class 1)
• Session suspend/resume (class 0, 2)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.41


WSP/B session establishment

client server
S-SAP S-SAP
S-Connect.req
(SA, CA, CH, RC) Conne S-Connect.ind
ct PDU
(SA, CA, CH, RC)
S-Connect.res
U (SH, NC)
S-Connect.cnf D
eply P
(SH, NC) ConnR

WTP Class 2
transaction

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.42


WSP/B session suspend/resume
client server
S-SAP S-SAP

S-Suspend.req Suspe S-Suspend.ind


nd PDU
S-Suspend.ind (R)
(R) WTP Class 0
transaction

S-Resume.req
(SA, CA)
~ ~
Resum S-Resume.ind
e PDU
(SA, CA)
S-Resume.res
PDU
S-Resume.cnf Reply

WTP Class 2
transaction

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.43


WSP/B session termination

client server
S-SAP S-SAP
S-Disconnect.req
(R) Discon S-Disconnect.ind
nec t PDU (R)
S-Disconnect.ind
(R) WTP Class 0
transaction

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.44


WSP/B method invoke

client server
S-SAP S-SAP
S-MethodInvoke.req
(CTID, M, RU) Metho S-MethodInvoke.ind
d PDU
(STID, M, RU)
S-MethodInvoke.res
(STID)
S-MethodInvoke.cnf
(CTID) S-MethodResult.req
(STID, S, RH, RB)
S-MethodResult.ind PDU
(CTID, S, RH, RB) Reply

S-MethodResult.res
(CTID) S-MethodResult.cnf
(STID)

WTP Class 2
transaction

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.45


WSP/B over WTP - method invocation

client initiator responder server


S-SAP TR-SAP TR-SAP S-SAP

S-MethodInvoke.req TR-Invoke.req Invo


ke(Me
thod) TR-Invoke.ind S-MethodInvoke.ind

TR-Invoke.res S-MethodInvoke.res
Ack PDU
S-MethodInvoke.cnf TR-Invoke.cnf
TR-Result.req S-MethodResult.req
ult( Re ply)
s
S-MethodResult.ind TR-Result.ind Re

S-MethodResult.res TR-Result.res Ack PD


U
TR-Result.cnf S-MethodResult.cnf

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.46


WSP/B over WTP - asynchronous,
unordered requests

client server
S-SAP S-SAP
S-MethodInvoke_1.req
S-MethodInvoke_2.req
S-MethodInvoke_2.ind
S-MethodInvoke_1.ind
S-MethodInvoke_3.req S-MethodResult_1.req
S-MethodInvoke_3.ind
S-MethodResult_1.ind
S-MethodResult_3.req
S-MethodResult_3.ind
S-MethodResult_2.req
S-MethodInvoke_4.req
S-MethodInvoke_4.ind
S-MethodResult_4.ind S-MethodResult_4.req

S-MethodResult_2.ind

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.47


WSP/B - confirmend/non-confirmed
push
client server
S-SAP S-SAP
S-Push.req
(PH, PB)
S-Push.ind DU
(PH, PB) Push P

WTP Class 0
transaction

client server
S-SAP S-SAP
S-ConfirmedPush.req
(SPID, PH, PB)
S-ConfirmedPush.ind h PDU
us
(CPID, PH, PB) ConfP

S-ConfirmedPush.res
(CPID) S-ConfirmedPush.cnf
(SPID)
WTP Class 1
transaction
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.48
WSP/B over WDP

client server
S-Unit-MethodInvoke.req S-SAP S-SAP
(SA, CA, TID, M, RU) Metho S-Unit-MethodInvoke.ind
d PDU
(SA, CA, TID, M, RU)
S-Unit-MethodResult.req
(CA, SA, TID, S, RH, RB)
S-Unit-MethodResult.ind PDU
(CA, SA, TID, S, RH, RB) Reply
S-Unit-Push.req
(CA, SA, PID, PH, PB)
S-Unit-Push.ind DU
(CA, SA, PID, PH, PB) Push P

WDP Unitdata
service

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.49


WAE - Wireless Application
Environment
• Goals
• network independent application environment for low-bandwidth,
wireless devices
• integrated Internet/WWW programming model with high
interoperability
• Requirements
• device and network independent, international support
• manufacturers can determine look-and-feel, user interface
• considerations of slow links, limited memory, low computing power,
small display, simple user interface (compared to desktop
computers)
• Components
• architecture: application model, browser, gateway, server
• WML: XML-Syntax, based on card stacks, variables, ...
• WMLScript: procedural, loops, conditions, ... (similar to JavaScript)
• WTA: telephone services, such as call control, text messages,
phone book, ... (accessible from WML/WMLScript)
• content formats: vCard, vCalendar, Wireless Bitmap, WML, ...
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.50
WAE logical model

Origin Servers Gateway Client

response encoded WTA


web
with response user agent
server
content with
encoders
content
&
decoders WML
other content
user agent
server push encoded
content push
content
other
WAE
user agents
request encoded
request

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.51


Wireless Markup Language (WML)
• WML follows deck and card metaphor
• WML document consists of many cards, cards are grouped to
decks
• a deck is similar to an HTML page, unit of content
transmission
• WML describes only intent of interaction in an abstract
manner
• presentation depends on device capabilities

• Features
• text and images
• user interaction
• navigation
• context management

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.52


WML – example I
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN"
"http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml">
<wml>
<card id="card_one" title="simple example">
<do type="accept">
<go href="#card_two"/>
</do>
<p>
This is a simple first card!
<br/>
On the next one you can choose ...
</p>
</card>

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.53


WML – example II
<card id="card_two" title="Pizza selection">
<do type="accept" label="cont">
<go href="#card_three"/>
</do>
<p>
... your favorite pizza!
<select value="Mar" name="PIZZA">
<option value="Mar">Margherita</option>
<option value="Fun">Funghi</option>
<option value="Vul">Vulcano</option>
</select>
</p>
</card>
<card id="card_three" title="Your Pizza!">
<p>
Your personal pizza parameter is <b>$(PIZZA)</b>!
</p>
</card>
</wml>

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.54


WMLScript
• Complement to WML

• Provides general scripting capabilities

• Features
• validity check of user input
• check input before sent to server
• access to device facilities
• hardware and software (phone call, address book etc.)
• local user interaction
• interaction without round-trip delay
• extensions to the device software
• configure device, download new functionality after deployment

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.55


WMLScript - example
function pizza_test(pizza_type) {
var taste = "unknown";
if (pizza_type = "Margherita") {
taste = "well... ";
}
else {
if (pizza_type = "Vulcano") {
taste = "quite hot";
};
};
return taste;
};

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.56


Wireless Telephony Application (WTA)
• Collection of telephony specific extensions
• Extension of basic WAE application model
• content push
• server can push content to the client
• client may now be able to handle unknown events
• handling of network events
• table indicating how to react on certain events from the network
• access to telephony functions
• any application on the client may access telephony functions
• Example
• calling a number (WML)
wtai://wp/mc;07216086415
• calling a number (WMLScript)
WTAPublic.makeCall("07216086415");

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.57


WTA logical architecture
other telephone networks
WTA server
client
WML
scripts mobile WTA
WTA & WML network user agent
server
WML
decks
WAP gateway repository
WTA
services
encoders
& device
network operator decoders specific
trusted domain other functions
servers

third party
firewall
servers

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.58


Voice box example
WTA-User-Agent WTA-Gateway WTA-Server Mobile network Voice box server
Indicate new voice message

Generate new deck


Service Indication Push URL
Display deck;
user selects
WSP Get HTTP Get

Respond with content


Binary WML WML

Display deck;
user selects
WSP Get HTTP Get
Respond with card
WML for call
Binary WML
Play requested voice message
Wait for call
Call setup
Setup call
Setup call
Accept call
Accept call Accept call
Voice connection

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.59


WTAI - example with WML only
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN"
"http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml">
<wml>
<card id="card_one" title="Tele voting">
<do type="accept">
<go href="#card_two"/>
</do>
<p> Please choose your candidate! </p>
</card>
<card id="card_two" title="Your selection">
<do type="accept">
<go href="wtai://wp/mc;$dialno"/>
</do>
<p> Your selection:
<select name="dialno">
<option value="01376685">Mickey</option>
<option value="01376686">Donald</option>
<option value="01376687">Pluto</option>
</select>
</p>
</card>
</wml>

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.60


WTAI - example with WML and
WMLScript I
function voteCall(Nr) {
var j = WTACallControl.setup(Nr,1);
if (j>=0) {
WMLBrowser.setVar("Message", "Called");
WMLBrowser.setVar("No", Nr);
}
else {
WMLBrowser.setVar("Message", "Error!");
WMLBrowser.setVar("No", j);
}
WMLBrowser.go("showResult");
}

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.61


WTAI - example with WML and
WMLScript II
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN"
"http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml">
<wml>
<card id="card_one" title="Tele voting">
<do type="accept"> <go href="#card_two"/> </do>
<p> Please choose your candidate! </p>
</card>
<card id="card_two" title="Your selection">
<do type="accept">
<go href="/myscripts#voteCall($dialno)"/> </do>
<p> Your selection:
<select name="dialno">
<option value="01376685">Mickey</option>
<option value="01376686">Donald</option>
<option value="01376687">Pluto</option>
</select> </p>
</card>
<card id="showResult" title="Result">
<p> Status: $Message $No </p>
</card>
</wml>

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.62


WAP push architecture with proxy
gateway
• Push Access Protocol
• Content transmission between server and PPG
• First version uses HTTP
• Push OTA (Over The Air) Protocol
• Simple, optimized
• Mapped onto WSP

Push Proxy Push


Push OTA Gateway Access
Client Push Initiator
Protocol Protocol

User Agents Server


Coding,
application
checking

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.63


Push/Pull services in WAP I
• Service Indication
• Service announcement using a pushed short message
• Service usage via a pull
• Service identification via a URI

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE si PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD SI 1.0//EN"
"http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/si.dtd">
<si>
<indication
href="http://www.piiiizza4u.de/offer/salad.wml"
created="2007-10-30T17:45:32Z"
si-expires="2007-10-30T17:50:31Z">
Salad special: The 5 minute offer
</indication>
</si>
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.64
Push/Pull services in WAP II

• Service Loading
• short message pushed to a client containing a URI
• User agent decides whether to use the URI via a
pull
• Transparent for users, always looks like a push

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE sl PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD SL 1.0//EN"
"http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/sl.dtd">
<sl
href="http://www.piiiizza4u.de/offer/salad.wml">
</sl>

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.65


Examples for WAP protocol stacks
(WAP 1.x)

WAP standardization
WAE user agent

outside WAP
WAE

transaction based
WSP application
datagram based
WTP WTP application
WTLS WTLS WTLS

UDP WDP UDP WDP UDP WDP

IP non IP IP non IP IP non IP


(GPRS, ...) (SMS, ...) (GPRS, ...) (SMS, ...) (GPRS, ...) (SMS, ...)
1. 2. 3.
typical WAP
pure data application
application with
with/without
complete protocol
additional security
stack

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.66


i-mode – first of all a business model!
• Access to Internet services in Japan provided by NTT DoCoMo
• Services
• Email, short messages, web, picture exchange, horoscope, ...
• Big success (in some countries) – millions of users
• Many use i-mode as PC replacement
• For many this was the first Internet contact
• Very simple to use, convenient
• Technology
• 9.6 kbit/s (enhancements with 28.8 kbit/s), packet oriented (PDC-P)
• Compact HTML plus proprietary tags, special transport layer (Stop/go,
ARQ, push, connection oriented)
mobile terminal mobile network gateway content provider
cHTML + tags cHTML + tags
HTTP(S) HTTP(S)
TL TL TCP TCP TCP TCP
IP IP IP IP
PDC-P PDC-P L2 L2 L2 L2
L1 L1 L1 L1

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.67


Email example: i-mode push with
SMS

Popular misconception:
application WAP was a failure, i-mode is different
WSP
and a success – wrong from a
technology point of view, right from a
WTP business point of view…
WDP

SMS i-mode as a business model:


- content providers get >80%
Operator sends an SMS containing a of the revenue.
push message if a new email has - independent of technology
arrived. If the user wants to read the (GSM/GPRS in Europe,
email, an HTTP get follows with the PDC-P in Japan – but also
email as response. UMTS!)
- not successful in e.g.
Germany (stopped in 2008)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.68


i-mode protocol stack based on WAP
2.0

user equipment gateway server

cHTML cHTML

HTTP HTTP
SSL SSL
WTCP WTCP TCP TCP
IP IP IP IP
L2 L2 L2 L2
L1 L1 L1 L1

i-mode can use WAP 2.0/Internet protocols (example: i-mode in Germany over GSM/GPRS)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.69


i-mode – technical requirements
Functions Descriptions Status Requirement
WEB Access Portal Site / Internet Access M i-mode HTML (cHTML+tags)
E-mail Internet e-mail and inter-terminal email M HTTP 1.1
Security End-End security O SSL (Version 2, 3), TLS 1
Java Java application made available O Compatible i-mode JAVA

Ringing tone download Ringing melody download M SMF based


Image download Stand-by screen download M GIF (O: JPEG)
Voice call notification Voice termination notified and responded during i-mode M 3GPP standard system
during i-mode session communications
Content charge billing Per content charge billed to user M Specifications depend on each
operator’s billing system
Third party payment Content charge collection on behalf of Content Provider M Specifications depend on each
collection operator’s billing system
Reverse billing Packet usage charges can be billed to third party O Specifications depend on each
operator’s billing system
Subscriber ID transmission Hashed subscriber ID from the operator’s portal to the CP M The ID generation algorithm
transmission on each content access should be determined by each
operator and has to be secret
Number of characters per Number of characters (byte) per e-mail M To be defined by operators
e-mail (e.g. 500 byte, 1K byte, 10K
byte)
Character code set Character code set supported by browser and used to M To be defined by operators
supported develop content
User Agent Browser specifications to be notified M HTTP 1.1
i-mode button Dedicated button O Hard or soft key

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.70


i-mode – very first examples I

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.71


i-mode – very first examples II

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.72


i-mode – very first examples III

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.73


WAP 2.0 (July 2001)
• New for developers
• XHTML
• TCP with “Wireless Profile”
• HTTP

• New applications
• Color graphics
• Animation
• Large file download
• Location based services
• Synchronization with PIMs
• Pop-up/context sensitive menus

• Goal: integration of WWW, Internet, WAP, i-mode


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.74
WAP 2.0 architecture

Service Security

Application
framework
Multimedia Messaging Content
discovery services (Email) formats

External Crypto WAE/WTA User Agent


Push
services EFI libraries (WML, XHTMLMP)

Authenti-
Provisioning

Session
cation Capability Negotiation
Push Cookies
Navigation OTA Synchronisation
Identification
Discovery

Protocol framework
Transfer
Service Hypermedia transfer Strea-
PKI MMS
Lookup (WTP+WSP, HTTP) ming

Transport
Secure Connections
Datagrams
transport (TCP with
(WDP, UDP)
wireless profile)

Secure IPv4 CSD USSD GPRS ...

Bearer
bearer
IPv6 SMS FLEX MPAK ...

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.75


WAP 2.0 example protocol stacks

WAP device WAP gateway Web server


WAE WAE
WSP WSP WAP device WAP proxy Web server
HTTP HTTP
WTP WTP WAE WAE
WTLS WTLS TLS TLS HTTP‘ HTTP‘ HTTP HTTP
WDP WDP TCP TCP TCP‘ TCP‘ TCP TCP
bearer bearer IP IP IP IP IP IP

WAP 1.x Server/Gateway/Client WAP HTTP Proxy with profiled TCP and HTTP

WAP device WAP proxy Web server


WAE WAE WAP device Web server
HTTP HTTP WAE WAE
TLS TLS HTTP IP router HTTP
TCP‘ TCP‘ TCP TCP TCP TCP
IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP

WAP Proxy with TLS tunneling WAP direct access

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.76


Java Platform, Micro Edition
• “Java-Boom expected” (?)
• Desktop: over 90% standard PC architecture, Intel x86 compatible,
typically MS Windows systems
• Do really many people care about platform independent
applications?

• BUT: Heterogeneous, “small“ devices


• Internet appliances, cellular phones, embedded control, car radios,
...
• Technical necessities (temperature range, form factor, power
consumption, …) and economic reasons result in different hardware

• Java ME (source released as: phone ME / was: J2ME)


• Provides a uniform platform
• Restricted functionality compared to standard java platform (JVM)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.77


Applications of Java ME
• Example first cellular phones
• NTT DoCoMo introduced iαppli
• Applications on PDA, mobile phone,
...
• Game download, multimedia
applications, encryption, system
updates
• Load additional functionality with a
push on a button (and pay for it)!

• Embedded control
• Household devices, vehicles,
surveillance systems, device control
• System update is an important factor

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.78


Characteristics and architecture
• Java Virtual Machine
• Virtual Hardware (Processor) Applications
• KVM (K Virtual Machine)
• Min. 128 kByte, typ. 256 kByte
Profile
• Optimized for low performance devices
• Might be a co-processor
(MIDP)

• Configurations Configurations
• Subset of standard Java libraries depending (CDC, CLDC)
technical hardware parameters (memory,
CPU) Java Virtual Machine
• CLDC (Connected Limited Device (JVM, KVM)
Configuration)
• Basic libraries, input/output, security – Operating system
describes Java support for mobile devices
• Profiles (EPOC, Palm, WinCE)

• Interoperability of heterogeneous devices Hardware


belonging to the same category (SH4, ARM, 68k, ...)
• MIDP (Mobile Information Device Profile)
• Defines interfaces for GUIs, HTTP, application
support, … -> MIDlets

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.79


Hardware independent development

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.80


Summary Java ME
• Idea is more than WAP 1.x or i-mode
• Full applications on mobile phones, not
only a browser
• Includes system updates, end-to-end
encryption

• Platform independent via virtualization


• As long as certain common interfaces
are used
• Not valid for hardware specific functions

• Limited functionality compared to JVM


• Thus, maybe an intermediate solution
only – until embedded systems, mobile
phones are as powerful as today’s
desktop systems

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.81


Other mobile application platforms
• Microsoft .NET Compact Framework
• run-time environment plus class library with focus on mobile
devices – light-weight version of .NET
• support of many programming languages (C#, Python,
Ruby, C++, Haskell, …)
• typically in connection with Windows CE

• Qualcomm BREW (Binary Runtime Environment for


Wireless)
• run-time environment with main focus on games
• certified applications only

• Google Android
• OS + middleware + applications for mobile devices
• Java/Linux based, open source

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.de MC - 2008 10.82