TRADITIONAL SOUTH ASIAN MEDICINE

Founded by Rahul Peter Das and Ronald Eric Emmerick Edited by Rahul Peter Das (t)

VOLUME 2003

7

at the age of22. It sc:cmcdappropriate to me to deal. The reading made him so enthusiastic that he decided to study Khotanese with Harold W. in the ten years or so that have elapsed since we met for the first time in Venice in 1990 on the occasion of a conference that I attended as a graduate student of the Istituto Universitario Orientale of Naples. He had not yet heard of this language when in Sydney. not only because that work resulted in many ground-breaking publications . Bailey at Cambridge University.31. with the work devoted by Ronald Emmerick to the study of the SiddhaslIra and connected rcscaroh themes. I . at the Warburg-Haus in Hamburg on the 14th of December. he read the inaugural lecture delivered in 1938 by the scholar who was to become his teacher.Ronald Eric Emmerick and the Siddhasiira: Khotanese. 'Harold Walter Bailey. on that occasion. . the atIad:ioo and encouragement I received from him. After having been instructed in Imnian and Indian studies by Bailey. and published under the title Saka Grammatical Studies. Man 1937 .but also because presenting Emmcrick's work on the SiddhaslIra and other medical texts made it possible to give an idea of his way of doing things. Proceedings o/the British Academy 101 (= 1998 Lectures and Memoirs) (1999): 309-349. Iranian and Oriental Studies * The chosen field of research of Ronald Eric Emmerick was Khotanese. in a small way. Ronald E. 1899-1996'. as a teacher and friend. I To the elucidation of the Khotanese language and texts Emmerick was to devote the best part ofhis life and research activity. Dr. 327 (with note 37) of Ronald Eric Emmerick. August 2001). 2001. See p. Emmerick (9. a milestone in Khotanese and Iranian • This is the revised version of a speech I delivered at the Akademische Gedenlrfeier zu Ehren V01l Prof. the Eastern Middle Iranian language used in the first millennium in the Buddhist kingdom ofKhotan on the southern branch of the Silk Route in the present-day Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. that was subsequently revised and enlarged. in the years 1963-1965 he wrote his doctoral dissertation entitled Indo-Iranian Studies: SaIra Grammar.I am glad to have been able to contribute to honouring the memory ofProfcssor Emmcrick and thus to return.three books ind some forty articles corresponding to more than four hundred printed pages .

transkripcij40 penvod.W. prediJ/ovie. 'Notes on The Booko/Zambasta'.S. vstupitelnaja stat 'j4o parij i prilo%enie.E. Being Khotanese Tem.studies on account of its thoroughness. . Dos nordarische (saJrische)Lehrgedicht des Buddhismus. E. Vorob'eva-Desjatovskaja. in order to provide a firm basis for the grammatical study of the Khotanese language. Emmcrick. SaIaJ Grammatical Studies.2 (1966): 148-178. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo Nauka 1965 (pamjatniki pis'mennosti Vostoka 1). Bailey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1967. London: Oxford University Press 1968 (London Oriental Series 20).amwm Leipzig: F.3 In fact. Emmerick. RoE. 5 H.Emmerick. Skaztmie 0 Bhadre (Novye listy MlIrslroj rulropl3i 'E'). The Book o/ZiurIIxMta . .S.4 Khotonese Poem on"Buddhism. Text rmd Obersetzung. Broc:kbaus 1933-1936 (reprint Ncndeln: Kraus Reprint (966) (Abbaodlungcn fiir die Kunde des Morgcnlandes 20). ·'The Wme New Fragments from the Book of lambesta'. Emmerick was to edit and translate the extant portions of the Old Khotanese Sarangamasamiidisutra. Fabimile td:rta.the Suvan.lndo-Scythian Studies.4 Research on this text was carried out jointly by Emmerick and Bailey and their collaboration resulted in Bailey's treatment of the vocabulary and in Emmerick's new edition and translation of the text 5 In subsequent years.1-2 (1967): 147.:ZThe work was based on the reading of a large number of Old and Late Khotanese texts including. Emmcrick. and two other substantial Old Khotanese texts . Emmcrick. in particular. London: Oxford University Press 1968 (London Oriental Series 21). 3 Ernst Leumann.were to be inteIpreted in detail by Prods Oktor Skja:rvs and Giotto Canevascini respectively. RoE.JOU11IIlJ o/the Royal Asiatic Society 1969: 59·74. Cf. 13. 12.A. both of whom made full use of suggestions made by Emmerick him2 RoE.za/Jhiisottamasutra and the Sanghiitasutra . the interpretation of the text needed to be brought up to date and completed in the light of the advances in the knowledge of Khotanese and of the nineteen newly published folios and folio fragments of the main manuscript of the Book ofZambasta. ADsdcm NacbJaB haausgegeben von Maou I. Volume VI: Prolexis to the Book o/Zambosta. R. Emmcrick.S. BuJl«in o/the School o/Oriental and African Studies 30 (1967): 83-94. RoE. 4 V. R.biaMqiorN. 'Notes on the ''Talc of Bhadra"'. 'Thelen New Folios ofKhotancse'. which bad been edited and translated more than thirty years before by Ernst Leumann. I. Asia Major N. Vorob'ev-Desjatovskij and M. the largest extant Old Khotanese text. a fresh close study of the so-called Book ofZambasta.

cf. Wujastyk. as has been suggested by Emmerlck. Giotto CaDCVISCini. 9 . The Khotanese Silrangamasam4dhisiltrtJ. 'Ravigupta's Siddhasira in Arabic'.B. and the philological problems presented by having to deal in many cases with hastily written copies containing omissions and repetitions as well as misreadings of earlier copies' . in: Hans R. Accordingly. Ind%gica Taurlnensia 3-4 (1975-1976): 209-221. MaiDZ1983 (to be published shortly). The Khotanese ~ottIl1rItUQtra. Brill 1981. 77reKhotanese Saiagluffasatra.all belong to the Indian i1yurvedic tradition. Wiesbaden: Dr.). It is contained in 64 of tile RoB. Habilitation thesis in three parts. A Critical Edition. 87-115. 'The Confession of Acts'.the SiddhasiIra. Bulletirt of the School of Oriental GIld African Studies 48 (1985): 74-78 (with 1 plate). pp. • R. London: Oxford University PraIs 1970 (Loodon Oric:atal Series 23). Roemer and Albrecht Notb (eds. those texts and such extensive Late Khotanese texts as the MaiijuirinairatmyavatarasQtra and the medical texts Siddhasiira and JlvalaJpustalaJ had still not been translated. 28-31. 'Ravigupta's Place in Indian Medical Tradition'.6 But.E. a research work that . See LE. the nature of which also ensured an exceptionally large vocabulary content.9 The Khotanese version of the Siddhasilra dates presumably from the tenth century. D. Leiden: EJ. Emmerick.' Khotanese medical texts . 'Ravigupta and Vlgbbata'. Ludwig Reichert Verlag 1993 (Beitrige zur Iranistik 14). Leiden: E. Since the interpretation of non-bilingual texts in Late Khotanese presents considerable difficulty due to 'the ambiguity of the truncated words in Late Khotanese. The S8Dskrit original of the SiddhasiIra was composed by Ravigupta around 650 C. . among which was the SiddhasiIra. ~ck. at the time of his grammatical studies. see p. Studlenzur Geschichte und KullUrdes Vorderen Orisnts. the tendency of the inflections to evaporate in the later stages of the language. the wide variety of acceptable spellings. 6 7 R. the so-called Jivakapustaka and a number of fragmentary texts . Emmerick decided to provide a thorough investigation and interpretation of the Khotanese Siddhasiira.' the best starting point were texts with known originals. in: Varia 1976.B. Prods Oktor Skjavl/J.l. Festschrlftfi1r Bertold Spuler zum siebzigsten Geburtstag. Bmmerick. 87.be it said parenthetically -led him to follow the traces of this treatise even in Arabic literature. pp. Emmerick. Brill 1971 (Acta lranica 12).self.

Emmerick. was directed chiefly towards the Khotanese version. The SidtJluuilra ofRaviguptll.frican .13.0-68 and 75-90). he 'had comple1ed a preliminaIy 1IaDSlation of the Khotanese version. R. 1 I The progress made by him towinIs the understanding of the Sanskrit text corresponding to the extant parts of the Khotanese version was presented by him in 1971 in a detailed article that he published in anticipation of the complete edition of the text and 'in view of possible delays due to the discovery ofuseful ancillary inateriaI' .53-57. ten chapters are entirely extantandftvechapters are preserved in part (1. see p. it was evident that 'the key to a proper understanding of the Khotanese version lies in large part in the con:ect intetpit:tation of the Sanskrit original and of its Tibetan rendering. 5-14 (§§ 1. 'The Sanskrit Text oftbc SiddhasIra'.65 folios forming a Dunhuang manuscript of the British Library (Cb ii 002.12 In the same year Emmerick also published an article on the second chapter of the Siddhas6ra dealing with the groups of dmgs. 3. which exemplified how the understanding of one iyurvedic text can be improved by a comparative approach that takes into account the other Indian medical texts. which dated from the time of his grammatical studies. Of the original tbirty-one chapters. 13 12 R. the year ofhis appointment at Hamburg University.10 Thus. '00 Ravigupta'sg~t. both of which were used by the Khotanese translator' .12.27-51.14. 18. 19.22. Though Emmerick's interest in the Siddhoslira.1 and 15-23.24. Emmerick.4.Bulletin of the School ojOrlenllJl and.0-26.E. and a transcription of the whole of the Sanskrit text on the basis of the two incomplete manuscripts A and B' knoWn at that time.26. FI'8DZ II Ibid.25.25-2.E.32) is pr0vided by another Dunhuang manuscript that is kept in the Bibliotheque Nationale de France (P 2892). 100 contains a different medical text). VIl. Narthang. SupplCIDCDtband 23.21.15. Wiesbadcn: Steiner VcrIag 1980 (Verzeichnis dcr orientaliscben Handscbriften in Deutschland.1). f. Volume 1: The Sanskrit Text. 23.13 10 R. 93. work on the Siddhosil:ra opened up for Emmerick a new research subject: Indian and Tibetan medicine. and Peking editions. 2. p. A variant of if. By 1971.E.20. Emmenck. a transcription of the complete Tibetan version on the basis of the Derge. Bulletin ojthe School ojOrienllJ1 and A[riCQII Studies 34 (1971): 91-112.

'Ravigupta's Siddhas6ra: New Light from the Sinhala Version'.E. Emmcrick. some twenty years later. 'New Light on the Siddhas5ra'. 579-586.O. Liyanarable. Emmerick. Proceedings of the 4th World Sanskrit Conference of the Intonational Association of Sanskrit Studies. that the corresponding Sanskrit passage is in need of emendation. May 13-30. see p. R. 14 IS See R.cit. in: Wolfgang Morgenroth (cd.2 was published by Emmerick in the same year. a short article dealing with § 21. Transactions of the Philological Society 1970 [1971]: 115-120.As for the Khotanese Siddhas6ra.16 On the three new Sanskrit manuscripts (C. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1986 (Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients 18)." and that the emendation was eventually confirmed by the discovery. 'Some Emendations to the Text ofRavigupta's SiddJuu6ra'. of three further Nepalese manuscripts of the SiddhasiJra as a result of the activities of the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project lent some support to his suggested emendation of the Sanskrit passage. cf. 1. also Emmerick. pp.does not mean 'to contract' .E.E. It demonstrates. et: Emmerick in R. 25-27. Journal o/the European Ayruvedic Society 1 (1990): 69-84. 75. Studies in the Vocabulary ofKlwtanese. pp.E. Bulletin o/the School of Oriental and African Studies 37 (1974): 628-654. Sanskrit tuU1 World Culture. D and E) Emmerick wrote a preliminary report in 1974. in 1973. Sigave. of two manuscripts of a Sinhalese commentary on the Sanskrit text of the Siddhasiira by Jinadasa Liyanaratne. 'Tetanus'. R. 1979. that the supposed Khotanese word agane is in reality a ghostword due to wrong division of words (aga 'limbs' and ne 'not'). Studies 34 (1971): 363-375. It may be mentioned that the subsequent discovery by Emmerick.). Weimar. Transactions of the Philological Society 1974: 93-97. Wicn: Verlag dcr Ostemichiscbcn Akademie der Wissenschaftcn 1982 (Vcr61fcnt1ichungcn dcr iranischcn Kommission 12). op. on the basis of a careful consideration of the Sanskrit manuscript tradition and of the Tibetan and Khotanese translations. and that the Khotanese verb ahalj. but 'to control' .17 The discovery of those manuscripts caused postponement of the edition of the Sanskrit Siddhasara. of which B is a direct copy. 'Agane No More'. and Ronald E.14 This masterful article evidenced the progress that was made possible by the joint study of the three versions of the text. Emmerick. in note 9. 17 16 Jinadasa . Emmerick. Emmerick and P.

.ciL 20 21 in note 10. Studie7l zur Indolo~ ulld Irani3ti1c IS (1989): 119-127. op.. The Slddhasllra ofRJZvigupta. op. Wiesbadcn: Franz Steiner Verlag 1982 (Verzeicbnis dcr oricntalischcn Handschriftcn in Deutscbland. Studien zur Indologie und Iralli3ti1c IS (1989): 147-149.ciL in note 10. 'Some Emendations .E.ciL in note 13). Supplcmcntband 23. ' (op.20 The identification of a further Sanskrit manuscript (F) in Kyoto in 1983 bad no consequences on the established text. op. see pp.but. Ronald E.11 Emmerick's edition of the Sanskrit text could also make use of a manuscript from South India (M) that he received when the 'edition based on the five Nepalese MSS had been submitted for publication. as well as for indexes enabling quick comparison of lyurvedic texts. with note 22.. Etmncrick. since it is a copy of the Nepalese manuscript 8 a1readyused for the edition. 123f..22 In an article that appeared only in 1986 but was written before the publication of the critical edition of the Sanskrit text.2). p. Emmerick. 22 See LiyaDaratne. and for reliable text editions prepared according to the canons of textual criticism. 19 Emmerick. Wujastyk. R. at last. cf. 5. 580.19 The two volumes were most aptly descnDed by Dominik Wujastyk as 'one of the most exciting recent developments in the study of Indian medicine'. 23He underlined the need to have recourse to the manuscripts. 'A Note on the Kyoto Siddhasira Manuscript'. op. p. 23 ~erick.21 whereas independent evidence concerning the textual tradition was eventually provided by the aforementioned discovery of the Sinhalese commentary.. Emmerick enWlciated the principles that should ideally inspire research on Indian medical literature that he regarded as 'the reflection of a coherent tradition of medical lore so that no one text should be studied in isolation from the rest of the tradition'. He did not state such principles \I Emmerick.rltmoll. Volume II: The TibetaIl Version with Facing ElIgli3h Tran. 75. p.ciL in note 16.ciL in note 9. Jinadasa Liyauaratne. 'The Literary Heritage of Sri Lanka (A Case for the Preservation of Palm-lcaf Manuscripts)' . the publication of the critical edition of the Sanskrit text in 1980 and of the critical edition and translation of the Tibetan text in 1982 as supplementary volumes of the series Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland crowned his wmk on the Sanskrit original and on the Tibetan version.

cation he had begun with the article 'On Ravigupta's gar. Groningcn: Egbert Forsten 1998 (Oro- . and.. 'Some Remarks on the History Of Leprosy in India' . Emmerick. from.the SuaTUtostl1!'hita. Acta du colloque de Paris. 'A propos Sanskrit malakanda'. Wtbzburg: Dcutschcs Aussitzigcn-Hilfswcrk 1986. reverse word indexes.uzs' .). Strasbourg: Universit6 Louis Pasteur 1981. Aussatz. Thus.E. June Isf-5th. Indologica Taunnensia 12 (. in: Jam Henning Wolf (ed. 'Die Lcprain Indico'.hitil.as well as to Ravigupta's Siddhas6ra.Jrita. pp. as a result of a research project funded from 1982 to 1992 by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and carried out with the assistance ofRahul Peter Das (and other researchers). Emmcrick. which provides a cumulative line index to the three main ayurvedic authorities . a cumulative word index and a cumulative reverse word index'.). a consolidated database was produced. R. these again individual word indexes.27 In 1998. but listed succinctly and neatly three operations that summarised the large amount of work to be done: 'I. Emmerick. the romanised text ofa preliminary edition of 24 /bid. Hansen-Krtmlr:heit. 2S See RE. Mazars (eel. 1982)(1984): 93-105. From this 'it is possible to prepare individual line indexes for each of the texts. Emmcrick. The romanised text accompanied by line and word indexes. Les mblecines tradltioneUes de I 'Asie. Ronald E. he then discussed passages of the SiddhlIsara where the text could be definitely established with the help of corresponding passages of the main ayurvedic authorities. in: G. 3. 2. pp. and Vigbhata 's AIfDilgahfdayasQ1!Jhita and Allii1igasmigraha . Vilgbha{a's ~(6iagahrdayas"". 185-199. collection and cataloguing of all extant Sanskrit medical MSS. 26 27 Rabul Peter Das and Ronald Eric Emmcrick. and reconstituted texts. 'Arsenic and Sida'. Lepra.26 but also put into practice on a grand scale. continuing the exemplifi. RoualdE.vaguely. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1974: 42f. the Cara1«lsa".Proceedings of the Scandinavian Confenmce-Seminar of Indological Studies (Stockholm. editions of individual texts prepared with the help of the tools provided by the first two operations'. Em Menschheitsproblem 1m WandeL Tell 0: Auftatze. 93-99. 24 In that article. indexation of all texts based on preliminary editions. finally. 11-12 juin 1979. These principles he applied not only to the identification of items of the Indian materia medica25 or to the discussion of single themes.

pp. 'Mi-chos'. Wien: Arbeitslaeis fUrTibetologie und Buddhistiscbe Studien 1983 (Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie unci Buddbismuskundc 10). the need for historical information on Khotan prompted Emmerick's research on the available Tibetan chronicles dealing with the history of Khotan.1). resulted in a Tibetoiogical work being the first published book.E. Leiden. AUgust 23-29. it is not surprising that Ernmerick was not satisfied with devoting a couple of articles to problem words occurring in the Tibetan Siddhasiira. 31 RoE. 1: Contributions on Tibetan Language. 883-885. paradoxically enough. Tibetan Texts Concerning Khotan. 207-210. 1135-1142. in: Louis Ligeti (eel. 'Tibetan Lexical Notes'. 'Some Lexical Items from the SiddhaslJra' . Kern Institute. pp. Olctober 1975 in Frelburg in Breisgau. in: Wolfgang Voigt (ed.). London: Oxford University Press 1967 (London Oriental Series 19). XIX. 29 In the light of this beginning and ofhis subsequent research.2). Emmerick.Emmerick. Emmerick. pp. RoE.ciL in note 27. Vortrtige. Panels of the YIIth World Sanskrit Conference. in: G.). 13-19 September 1981. Supplement 3. 61-68. Lucknow: Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad 1981.). AII8trlIJ. he translated some excerpts32 and three whole chapters from the Rgyud bzhi. 1987. has Vlgbhata's ~1Qrigahrdayasil1{lhitii among its sources. 28 Op. R. VoL vm.E. 29 R. Budapest: Akadimiai KiadO 1984 (Bibliotheca Oricntalis Hungarica 29. RoE. p. SrI Lanhz 32 . Deutscher OrientalistenttJg vom 28.). and one of the first publications altogether. History tmd Culture. 'Sources of the Rgyud-bZi'. Emmcrick. Emmcrick. pp. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag 1977 (Zeitscbrift der Dcutschen MorgenIindischen GeseUschaft. Emmerick.33 and Dingen Oriental Studies 13). 30 RoE. as Emmerick has shown. 'Some Remarks on Tibetan Sphygmology'.Y"Je1I1UJ. in: Ernst Steinkellner and Helmut Tauscher (ed.Vigbhata's ~1angahrdayasil1{lhitii accompanied by line and word indexes was published in book form by Das and Emmerick. Vol. TIbetan and Buddhist Studies Commemorating the 200th Anniversary o/the Birth of Alextmtler Csoma de K6iis.3Obut invested some solid worlcin the study and interpretation of the Rgyud bzhi ('The Four Tantras'). MediJ:aI Literature from India. of the then young scholar of Iranian. in: Ludwilc Sternbach Felicitation Volume.31 Thus.28 In the sixti~. YoL 1. the classical handbook of Tibetan medicine that. lan Meulenbcld (ed. Proceedings o/the Csoma de KtirOs Symposium held at Velm. ix. September bis 4. a work which.

pp. in: G.E. 34 as well as an article on some Tibetan medical tankas dlat illustrate it. Bulletin of the . 35 RoE. Emmerick did not confine himself to the Siddhasfira but paid attention also to the other largely extant Late Khotanese medical text. Jan Mculcnbcld and Dominik Wujastyk (cds.frican Studies SI (1988): S37-539.). Emmcrick.: EJ. Groningcn: Egbert Forsten 1987 (Groningco Oriental Studies 2). in other Indian medical texts.wrote two further lexicological articles on words occurring in the work. Series Continua 2). RE. Emmerick. Emmcrick. Bulletin of the School ofOrlenttll and A. and is said to be the teaching of the Buddha to the physician Jivaka.fifteen of which are taken from the Siddhasara -. This is preserved in one Dunhuang manuscript of the British Library (Ch ii 003) presumably dating from the tenth century. Emmcrick. The text is bilingual and alternates Sanskrit and Khotanese sentence by sentence in the first chapter. Bulletin ofTibet%gy (with 12 platcs). 'Some Tibetan Medical Tankas'.2 (1975): 141-162. Pr0ceedings of the Csoma de K6iis Memorial Symposium held at MIltra}iired.B. 2-4 September 1985. in: Louis Ligcti (cd. Emmcrick.35 In the case ofKhotanese medical texts too. the so-called Jivalcapusta1ca. HlUlgary. Studies on Indian Medical KlStory. Emmerick succeeded in identifying. RE. Indo-Tibetan Studies. in: Tadcusz Skorupski (cd. Papen presented at the International JlYorlr:3hop on the Study of Indian Medicine held at the Wellcome Instltutefor the History of Medicine. pp. Leiden etc. The work is an otherwise unknown collection of prescriptions taken from various texts and organised by type of preparations in four complementary chapters introduced by the Sanskrit auspicious formula siddham 'success'. 'Epilepsy according to the Rgyud-bii'. Budapest: AkadmUai Kiad6 1978.89-99. 'Tibetan nor-ra-re'. RE. 'Some Lcxicalltems from the Rgyud-bii'. Snellgrove:S Contribution to Indo-Tlbetlm Studies. 66-72. 'Contributions to the Study of the J1valra-pustalal'. and in determining the relative value of measures occurring in it. 33 34 RoE.). R. Brill 1991. Asia Major 19. pp.). 101-108. 315 1993: 56-78 R. and paragraph by paragraph in the three other chapters. 'A Chapter from the Rgyud-bZi'. Emmcrick. 'Rgas-pa gso-ba'.Emmcrick. 63-90. 24-30 September 1976. Tring: Institute of Buddhist Studies 1990 (Buddhica Britannica. twenty-nine of the ninety-three prescriptions the text contains . Papers in Ho1lOU1' and Appreciation of Professor David L. pp. 36 He also rediscovered the work already done by August and Tibet.

in: J. Wiesbaden: Harrusowitz Verlag 1994 (Veroffentlichungen der Societas Uralo-Altaica 39).iad6 1979.ugust 1986. Rudo1fHoemle. see pp.E. Jou11Ul1of the European Ayurvedic Society 2 (1992): 60-81.41 Further ftagScllool of Oriental aruJAfrican Studies 42 (1979): 235-243. 'Hoemle and the JilHlka-Pustalca'. In three articles.E. Budapest: Akad6miai K. Hoernle's manuscript (Eur D 723) of a study on the . Gabai1J. Emmerick.Friedrich RudolfHoemle on the . 'The Historical Importance ofKhotanese Manuscripts'. Over a period of many years. R. Emmerick reinterpreted and provided a reconstruction of the corrupt Sanskrit of the first c~ and of the prescription for the Mahasauvarcaliidi gh~ that had already been studied by Hoerole. 415-432. 25th-30th A. 'The Mahisauvan:alldi Ghee'. Emmerick. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 1992 (Zcitschrift 41 . R. Washington.rzvalcapustaka he had intended to publish as the second volume of his Manuscript Remains of Buddhist Literature found in Eastern Turkestan (Oxford 1916). 167-177. Emmerick had made repeated enquiries concerning the whereabouts of a collection of manuscripts from Khotan deposited by Oscar Terry Crosby in the Library of Congress. 39 Ronald E. cf.lfvakapustalaJ ••.37 as well as locating. pp. Jou11Ul1of the European Ayurvedic Society 5 (1997): 76-81. digging out a forgotten article of his ftom an Indian Festschrift of 1917. Emmaick. in: KIaus Rohrbom and Wolfgang Veenker (eels.E. 37 31 Ronald E. Hamburg. A. Harma1ta (ed. 'The Mabisauvan:alid ghfta in Hoemle's unpublished edition of the •• .F. Ronald Eric Emmerick. Emmerick.). 'The Crosby Collection'.). 29-42. 40 R.4O When the Crosby collection finally turned up in 1984 and a microfilm was sent to Emmerick in 1985. Proceedings of the XXXlJ IlJler1ultiolUllCongress for Asian and North A.hvakapustaka. Prolegome1Ul to the Sources on the Irutory of Pre-Islamic Central Asia. in: CommDnorattve Essays Presented to Sir RamlcrishlUl Gopa/ BIuuu:ltuIcar. MDnoriae mrmusculum: GedDlldxmdfiir A1J1Jemariev. 'An Ancient Medical Manuscript fiom Eastmu TurkCstan'. in: Albrecht Wezler and Ernst Hammerschmidt (cds. pp..frictl1l Studies. 175-177. Emmerick. Some other Khotanese medical ftagments have an even more chequered history. Poona: BhandarkarOriental Research Institute 1917. 'The Svastika Antidote'.). RuUeti1Jof the School of Oriental aNi A. pp.frictm Studies 45 (1982): 343. he immediately recognised four Khotanese fragments as belonging to a single medical text and referring to needles and cauterisation. in the Oriental and India Office Collections of the British Library.

673). London: School of Oriental and African Studies 1993 (Corpus InscripIionum Innicarurn 2: Inscriptions of the Seleucid and Parthian Periods and ofEastem Inm and Central Asia S: Saka). 402b-403b (see p.E. 403a). Emmcrick.1-3 and SI P 102b4-IS: see Ronald E. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters 1993 (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analec::ta48). 42 Fngments SI P 45. Emmerick and Margarita I. an Iranianist and a comparative philologist by education. 36£ and 134£ 43 Ronald E. Ronald E. Petersburg Collections. S9). 'Indo-Iranian Concepts of Disease and Cure'. Vorob'eva-Desjatovskaja.44 It may also be mentioned here that dcr Deulschen MorgenJinctischen Gescllschaft. would have investigated the concepts of disease and cure and the way they were expressed in Indo-Iranian. 672-674 (see p. he reviewed exclusively works on medicine. Volume VI. Emmcrick. Geneve: Librairie Droz 44 . the latter published in 200 I under the new journal title Traditional South Asian Medicine. pp. pp. In the case ofiyurvedic medicine. Text volume OJ. pp.42 It was only to be expected that Emmerick. Emmcrick. from 1990 onwards. 'Notes on the Crosby Collection'. and his keen interest in this subject is evident from the fact that. Supplement 9). and tr. Ronald E. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers 1993. Petersburg CoUections. pp.). Matirima pour I 'etude de I'hippologie et de I'hippilltrle tibetaines (a partir des manuscrits de Touen-houang).ments of Khotanese medical texts were dealt with by him in his and Margarita Iosipovna Vorob1eva-Desjatovskaja's edition of the St. pp. SaIallJocuments YO. 23-2S and 105. in: Wojciech Skalmowski and Alois van Tongerloo (eds. KIIIDIlIIIOlo et aI. the Journal of the European Ayurvedic Society. this resulted in the launch. Reviews of: Anne-Marie Blondcau (cd. Vorob'av&-Desjatovsbja. Encyclopaedia lranica. The $I. Petersburg collections. London: School of Oriental and Afiican Studies 1995 (Corpus Inscriptionum IranicanJm 2: Inscriptions of the Seleucid and Parthian Periods and ofEastem Iran and Central Asia S: Saka). Emmcrick and Margarita I.). in: Ehsan Yarshater (cd. together with Rahul Peter Das. TIle St. He also reviewed a number of books on Indian and Tibetan medicine. Journal of the European Ayurvedjc Society 3 (= Studies in H01lOU1' o/Gerrlt Jan Meulenbeld presented by friends and colleagues on the occasion o/his 65th birthday on 28 May 1993) (1993): 72-93. With contributions by H.43 But Emmerick:'s activity was also devoted to the promotion of research. in 1990 of a new journal. SaIal Documents. 'Cr0sby. 0IK:ar Terry'. R. MedioiranictL Proceedings o/the Intentati01llJ1Colloquium Organized by the Katholieiz Universiteit Leuvenfrom the 21st to the 23rd 0/May 1990. 57-64 (see p. This he did in a detailed article he published in the festschrift for Genit Ian Meulenbeld.). that he co-edited from the first to the sixth volume.

Encyclopaedia Iranlca. Chapters 1-10. Already in the sixties. 134). Emmerick switched to them and began writing for himself the programmes he needed. P. New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy 1980 (Bulletin of the School ofOriental and African Studies 45 (1982): 377f. Gyurme Dorje and Fernand Meyer (eds.]. he initiated a project in Cambridge for a concordance of the Khotanese texts. Tibetan Medical Paintings: Illustrations to the Blue Beryl Treatise ofSangye Gyamt80 (1653-1705). Thus.frican Studies 58 (1995): 403-4(6). Jinadasa Liyanaratne (ed. 127-145.). ·Caraka'.texte mMlcal sans/rrlt. and tr. Proceedings of the I"tematiolUJl Symposium Organized by the Katholieke Universileil Leuven from lhe 17th to the 20t1tof May 1982.B. J. La HllrilJJ-stllfIhit6.5 (1969): 300 (cf. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters 1984 (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 16). Wang Lei (translator and compiler of the origiDal edition) and Cai JiDgf'eng(English translator and annotator). Lhasa: People's Publishing House of Tibet 1988 (Joumal of the EuropetJ1lAyurvedic Society 1 (990): 179£). Ponc:licbay: IDstitut F~ d'Indologie 1974 (BuJletin o/the School o/Oriental and African Studies 38 (1975): 65 If. Chapten 1-18. p. he wrote the now well-known pro- 1972 (Bulktin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36 (1973): 698-7(0). The Mlldhavanid6na and its Chief Commentary. H.Emmerick wrote the entry 'Caraka' for the Encyclopaedia Iranica.). Oxford: The Pali Text Society 1996 (Traditional South Asian Medicine 6 (2001): 184-189).).L 260 A concordance of Khotanese' in Computers and the Hunranities 3. Gupta and M. personal computers became affordable and powerful enough. pp. Selectionsfrom Sanskrit Medical Writings. It is a well-known fact that Ronald Emmerick mastered computers perfectly. R.46 When. Roy. G. 'Rcsearchon Khotanese: A Survey (1979-1982)'. Bhaqjjamailjfisil. 2 vols. Bmmerick. Dominik Wujastyk. London: Serindia Publications 1992 (Bulletin of the School ofOrlental and A. Brill 1974 (Bulletin a/the School a/Oriental and African Studies 38 (1975): 649£).). London: Routledge and Kegan Paull990. Ray. Middle Irania" Studies. Yorl Parfionovitch.5 for which he was consulting editor for philology. Meulenbeld (tr..). New Delhi: Penguin Books India 1998 (Traditional South Asian Medicine 6 (2001): 158-163). 792b. Alix Raison (ed. Srdruta Smtrhit6 (A Scientific Synopsis).). The Roots of Ayurveda. Bmmerick. 45 Ronald B. in the eighties. Leidcn: B. 46 . in: Bhsan Yarshater (ed.). Listed as ·. Byams-pa 'Pbrin-las. Vol- ume IJ'. and on the advisory committee of which he sat from the eighth volume onwards after having been consulting editor for linguistics for the first seven volumes. p. in: Wojcicch Skalmowski and Alois van Tongerloo (eels. avec un inde%de nomenclature ciyrlm:?dique. nbetan Medlcal17rtmgka of the Four Medical Tantras.

Strasbourg: UDiversite Louis Pasteur 1979 (Seientia Orientalis. in a series of seven lexicological articles. RE. Narita-shi: Naritasan Shinshoji 1992 (Monograph Series ofNaritasan Institute for Buddhist Studies. In 2000 he also began developing a database programme for a dictionary of Khotanese that we were planning together. in: Klaus R61ubom and Wolfgang Veenker (cds. Groningen: Institute of Indian Studies 1984 (Publikaties van bet Instituut voor Indische Talco en Culturen 4). 3-8. In this field. Trbettm Studies. has discussed . only few results ofbis efforts on the Khotanese version have been published when compared with the huge wmk he has done on it He has dealt with the metrical introduction to the Khotanese Siddhasllra in an article on the translation techniques of the Khotanese. Narlta 1989.7 RoDald E. ProceeJings of the 5th SemiNJr of the International Assodation for Tibetan Studies.'ne Indexation of Sanskrit Medical Texts: Progress and Prospects'. he has done much more than he bas published: t\W articles on Sanskrit computing and one on Tibetan computing.exe for Sanskrit databank management that were used for the aforementioned consolidated iyurvedic database and the indexes in the ~filiagahfdayasm"hitiivolume. 439-443. Emmerick. Proceedings of the IntematioNJI Workshop on Prioritia in the Study oflnditm Medicine held at the State UIIiveniJy ofGromngen. in: G. '00 the Indexation of Sanskrit Medical Verses and PR:scriptioDs'. pp.). which provided the first impulse to Emmerick's wide-ranging research activity on the history ofliyurvedic literature over a period of almost forty years. 48 .). Unfortunately. Emmerick. Occasional Papers 2). 147-154. RoDaId E. Wiesbaden: Otto Hamssowitz 1983 (VcrMfendichungen der Societas Uralo-Altaica 16). Ju/i 1981. in: IbaIa Sh6ren and Yamaguchi ZUihfi (cds.grammes Bhela. Yortriige des Hamburger SymposiOIlS yom 2. Emmerick.exe and Caraka. 23-27 October 1983. as well as programmes for Tibetan and Khotanese databank management and a BlOber of ancillary programmes. HUlory and Culture. 'Tibetan Databank Management with Personal Computers'. pp. Emmerick. Juli bu 5.48 and. His expertise he made generously available to other colleagues by collaborating with several institutions and research projects to comply with their computing needs. 'Some RcmaIb on Translation Techniques of the Khotanese'. Jan Meuleobeld (eeL). Sprachen des Buddhumus in Zentralasien. pp. II: Language. Cabiers do Seminaire sur les sciences et lea tccbniques co Asie 16). in: Etudes sur la medicine indienne. 17-26. Ronald E.47 But it is time now to return to the Khotanese Siddhasllra. pp.

Wien: Verlag dcr Osterreichischen Akademie der WisseDschaften 1982 (1). Studien ZUT /ruJologie WId /ranistilc 7 (1981): 71-75. As for the glossary. Emmcrick./ndologiCtJI and Buddhist Studies. in note 18: Vlfi. 137-147. he has left a virtually finished edition and translation of the whole text. Papers in Honor ofProjessor Ehsan YanhaJer. he had to leave it unfinished: only the vowels and the letter Ira are virtually complete. Bailey.50 These three volumes contain many further entries by Emmerick on the vocabulary of the SiddhasiJra. w. Canevascini et a1. 52 Cf. pp. Duche. Thus. Studies in the VocabulaTy ofKhotanese. pp. 'Kbotaoese byiIiiQ'. Die Spraclre 29. RE.a number of problem words and clarified the passages where they occur. Hercus et aL (eds.).1 (1983): 43-49. 27). 1997 (llI (eel. 1987 (11).cit. R. including an appendix that contains the variants that are found in the Jivakapustaka.me-Gulllemin Emerito Oblata.W.}) (Ver6ffentlichUDgeD der Kommission fi1r Iranistilt 12. 52 Emmerick attached the utmost importance to the Khotanese SiddhasiIra and continued working on it until the last days. BriIll990 (Acta Iranica 30). Cambridge: cambridge University Press 1979.E. Brill 1984 (Acta Iranica 23). laying aside several other works he had already brought to an advanced stage of preparation. Zeitschrift fiir vergleiclletrM Sprachjorschung 94. 'Khotanese ham8iiuna-'. . Emmericlc and P. Leiden: EJ. RE. Emmcrick. though he was able to do all the preliminary work and to prepare a complete concordance. 'e/ai . 'Two more Khotanesc Ghostwords'. because Emmerick did not want to load his edition with a heavy commentary correcting the many misinteIpretatioDS of Siddhasiira passages.49 The reinterpretations of these words were subsequently 1akenup in the three volumes of Studies in the Vocabulary ofKhotanese that he published with Prods Oldor Sijavs.1-2 (1980): 282-288. Volume in Honour of Professor J. Canberra: Australian NatioDal University Press 1982. RE. pp. ~. Emmerick. RE. the fact that many passages from the SiddhosiIra are quoted with incorrect intelpretations in Bailey's Dictio1lll1'J"1 resulted in postponement of the publication of the Khotanese Siddhasiira. 'Some more Loanwon:ls in Khotanese'. 17. Skja:rvs.O. Emmerick. however. in: OrlentIZ/iQ J. 'KhotaneseIDlV6la'. in: LA. comnDutcd by G. 'Khotanese vr Itir. op. 49 50 RE. 80-82. RE. Dictionary ofKhotan Salaz. Emmcrick. Emmerick. in: /rtlIIia:l Varia.: de Jong on his 60th Birthday. Unfortunately.Miindrener StudlenZUT Sprochwissenschaft 40 (1981): 27-33. Leideo: EJ. RE. RoDaId E. 151-155. Emmcrick. 51 H. Emmerick.

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