MATHEMATICS
OF NECESSARY KNOWLEDGE
FOR TERMINAL MATHAYOMS
THAI STUDENTS (M. 30201)
AND INTERESTED PERSON
COLLECTED BY
MR. SANONG HUAYRERAI
MATHS TEACHER
RATTANAKOSINSOMPHOT
BOWONNIWET SALAYA SCHOOL
PREFACE
Supplements mathematics is designed for use in a mathe
matics course for students in terminal mathayom of Thailand
In writing the text, we were guided by two primary objectives
that have crystallized over many years of teaching mathema
tics and tried to append the proof of properties, theorem and
involved problems. For the student, our objective was to wri
te in a precise, readable manner and to clearly define and d
emonstrate the basic concepts of mathematics. For instruct
or and interested persons, our objective was to design a co
mprehensive teaching instrument that uses proven pedago
gical techniques, thus freeing the instructor to make the mo
st efficient use of classroom time.
Lastly, have to thank all my teachers, professors, workmate
and students that make this text be successful and furtherm
ore, the goodness of this assign and refer to my father and 
mother which dont lie.
You are what you had been educated and have been
going on by oneself.
Wish well for all
Writer
CONTENTS
1Basic logic
1) Mathematics system 1
2) Propositions 1
3) Connection of propositions pattern 1
4) Finding truth value of propositions pattern 3
5) Making truth table of propositions pattern 4
6) Pattern of propositions that are logically equivalent 4
7) Negation of propositions pattern 5
8) Tautology 8
9) Reasoning 10
10) Open sentence and quantifier 13
11) Quantifier 13
12) Truth value of propositions with one, two quantifier 15
13) Logically equivalent and negation of propositions with quantifier 20
14) Negation of proposition with quantifier 22
15) Logically equivalent and negation of proposition with two quantifier 25
16) Tautology of propositions pattern with one quantifier 26
17) Tautology of propositions pattern with two quantifier 29
2 Real number system
1) Introduction 34
2) Real number system 35
3) Solving polynomial equation with one variable 44
4) Its Application 52
5) Property of inequality 53
6) Interval 56
7) Solving inequality 57
8) Absolute value 63
9) Equation in pattern of absolute value 65
10) Inequality in pattern of absolute value 67
3 Principal theory of numbers
1) Exact Division 75
2) Prime and Composite numbers 76
3) Division Algorithm 78
4) Even and Odd numbers 79
5) The greatest Common Divisor 81
6) Finding G.C.D of integers a and b 82
7) Relatively Prime numbers 85
8) Least Common Multiple 86
9) Finding L.C.M of integers a and b 87
10) Appendix A: Exponential notation and its Application 91
11) Appendix B: The bearing of G.C.D and L.C.M 104
MATHEMATICS 3O2O1
LESSON ONE
BASIC LOGIC
1.1 The mathematics system
Mathematics system consist of undefined term, defined term, postulate, conjecture
and theorem which each step has to create by the process of logic, moreover when we
discover that those conjecture is to be true has to prove by proceeding of logic.
The following is principle knowledge about logic.
1.2 Proposition or statement
Proposition signify the sentences or the expressions that is to be true or false only one,
Where true and false of proposition is called that truth value of each proposition
For example =3 is proposition having truth value is to be true
Proof by the fact, each proposition has number of truth value equal to 2=
And according to principle law of counting for multiplication
We have
...
(Nfactors)=
1 Connection of proposition by connectives and ()
Definition1 Let p and q are two propositions
Proposition p and q is written by pq, where there exists agreement that pq
Will be true in the case that two propositions have truth value is to be true together.
Truth table of pq can make as follows. (1
st
table)
p q pq
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
2 Connection of proposition by connectives or ()
Definition2 Let p and q are two propositions
Proposition p or q is written by pq, where there exists agreement that pq will be
false in the case that two propositions have truth value is to be false simultaneous. .
Truth table of pq can make as follows. (2
nd
table)
p q pq
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
3 Connection of proposition by connectives if...then... ()
Definition3 Let p and q are two propositions
Proposition if p then q is written by pq, where there exists agreement that pq will
be false in the case that p and q have truth value is to be true and false respectively.
Truth table of pq can make as follows. (3
rd
table)
p q pq
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T
4 Connection of proposition by connectives ...if and only if... ()
Definition4 Let p and q are two propositions
Proposition p if and only if q is written by pq, where there exists agreement that
pq will be true in the cases that p and q have same truth value
Truth table of pq can make as follows. (4
th
table)
p q pq
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F T
5 Negation of all propositions ()
Definition5 Let p is proposition
Negation of p is written by p, where there exists agreement that p has truth value
Opposite to p. Truth table of negation as follows. (5
th
table)
p p
T F
F T
Remark: 1 Propositions p, q, r,... are called atomic proposition
2 Propositions having connectives are called proposition pattern.
1.4 Finding truth value of propositions
When we know truth value of each atomic proposition in proposition pattern, we can find
Truth value of proposition by truth value of each table above
Example1 1 Let p(F), q(T) and r(F) Find truth value of [(pr)(rq)][(pr)(qp)]
2 Let [(pq) r](F), Find truth value of [(qr)(pr)][(pr (qp)]
Solution 1we have [(p(F)r(F))(r(F)q(T))][(p(F)r(F))(q(T)p(F)]
Therefore, [(pr)(rq)] are to be true and [(pr)(qp)] are to be false
That is, [(pr)(rq)][(pr)(qp)] has truth value is to be false.
2 Since [(pq) r](F) so, (pq)(T) and r(F)
And make p(T), q(T), r(T) and then p(T), q(F) and r(T)
We have [(q(T)r(T))(p(T)r(F))][(p(T)r(T)) (q(F)p(T))] implies
that [(qr)(pr)] and [(pr (qp)] are to be true and false respectively.
Therefore, [(qr)(pr)][(pr (qp)] has truth value is to be false.
1.5 Making truth table of propositions
Let A instead of a designated proposition pattern, B is a number of atomic proposition in
A
C is a number of propositions pattern in A will obtain that truth table of A consist of
a number of rows are equal to
+1=9
2 we are obvious that there are propositions pattern equal to 9
So, there are number of columns equal to 9+3=12
Truth table of [(p r)(qp)][(pq)(rq)], (6
th
table)
1.6 Pattern of propositions that are logically equivalent
Definition6 Let A and B are propositions pattern
A and B are logically equivalent each other if and only if A and B have same truth value
Case by case and when A equivalent with B is written by AB
Remark: A and B are logically equivalent if and only if A and B can be substituted
1.7 Negation of propositions and propositions pattern
The following will say to negation of pq, pq, pq and pq which be written by
(pq), (pq), (pq) and (pq) by truth table as follows. (7
th
table), (8
th
table)
p q r p
q
[(p )
(qp)]
pq rq (pq)
(rq)
[(p r)(qp)]
[(pq)(rq)]
T T T F F F F T T T T T
T T F F T T F F T T T F
T F T F F F F T T F F F
T F F F T T F F T T T F
F T T T F T T T T T T T
F T F T T T T T T T T T
F F T T F T F F F F F T
F F F T T T F F F F F T
p q p q pq pq (pq) (pq) pq pq
T T F F T T F F F F
T F F T T F F T F T
F T T F T F F T F T
F F T T F F T T T T
p q p q pq (pq) pq pq (pq) pq pq
T T F F T F F T F F F
T F F T F T T F T T T
F T T F T F F F T T T
F F T T T F F T F F F
From 7
th
table and 8
th
table we can conclude that
1 pq, (pq) are negation each other while (pq)pq
2 pq, (pq) are negation each other while (pq)pq
3 pq, (pq) are negation each other while (pq)pq
4 pq, (pq) are negation each other while (pq)pq pq
Remark: Double negation of A is (A); A (A), when A is propositions
The logically equivalent pattern that is important; p, q and r are propositions.
1 ppp, pqqp, p(qr)(pq)r 2 ppp, pqqp, (pq)rp(qr)
3 p(qr)(pq)(pr) 4 p(qr)(pq)(pr)
5 pq pq 6 pq q p
7 pq[(pq)(qp)]
Let and are propositions that are to be true and false respectively.
8 p p, pp 9 p
10 p , pp 11 p p
12 p 13 pp
14 p P 15 P
16 p p 17 p p
9
th
, 10
th
, 11
th
table show truth value of p(qr), (pq)(pr), p(qr), (pq)(pr)
pq and (pq)(qp)
(9
th
table)
p q r qr p(qr) pq pr (pq)(pr)
T T T T T T T T
T T F T T T F T
T F T T T F T T
T F F F F F F F
F T T T F F F F
F T F T F F F F
F F T T F F F F
F F F F F F F F
(10
th
and 11
th
table)
p q r qr p(qr) pq pr (pq)(pr)
T T T T T T T T
T T F F T T T T
T F T F T T T T
T F F F T T T T
F T T T T T T T
F T F F F T F F
F F T F F F F F
F F F F F F F F
p q pq pq qp (pq)(qp)
T T T T T T
T F F F T F
F T F T F F
F F T T T T
From 9
th
table will obtain p(qr)(pq)(pr)
From 10
th
table will obtain p(qr)(pq)(pr)
From 11
th
table will obtain pq(pq)(qp)
The following will test that each of pair of propositions pattern are logically equivalent
By propositions pattern that are logical equivalent above.
pq ((pq)): (p)p
(pq): (pq)pq
p(q): (pq)pq
pq , So pq pq
(q)p: pqqp
q p, So pq q p
p(qr)p(qr)p(qr)(pq)r(pq)r(pq)r
(qp)rq(pr)q(pr)
p(qr)p(qr)(pp)(qr)(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)
p(qr)p(qr)(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)
(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)p(qr)p(qr)
(pq)r (pq)r(pq)r(pr)(qr)(pr)(qr)
(pq)r (pq)r(pq)(rr)(pr)(qr)(pr)(qr)
p(qr)p[(qr)(rq)]p[(qr)(rq)][p(qr)][p(rq)]
[(pq)r][(pr)q][[(pp)(pq)]r][[(pp)(pr)]q]
[(pq)p]r][(pr)p]q][(pq)(pr)][(pr)(pq)](pq)(pr)
Finally, we can conclude that
1 p(qr)(pq)rq(pr) 2 p(qr)(pq)(pr)
3 p(qr)(pq)(pr) 4 (pq)(pr)p(qr)
5 (pq)r(pr)(qr) 6 (pq)r(pr)(qr)
7 p(qr)(pq)(pr)
1.8 Tautology
Definition7 Tautology signifies propositions pattern with truth value is to be true all
cases.
For example pp, pp
Remark: AB if and only if AB is tautology.
The following will test whether designated propositions are tautology.
1 when designated propositions have main connectives is to be (), we can test by
showing that two sides of () are logically equivalent each other.
Example3 Show that the following propositions pattern are to be tautology.
1 [(pq)(pq)] p 2 [(pq)r][(qr)(pr)] 3 [p(q(pr)][p(qr)]
Solution 1 [(pq)(pq)] p
Consider [(pq)(pq)][(pq)(pq)][(pq)(pq)][(pq)(pq)]
[(pp)(qq)]p p
So, [(pq)(pq)] p
2 [(pq)r][(qr)(pr)]
Consider [(pq)r][(pq)r][(pq)r][(pq)(qr)][(qr)(pq)]
[(qr)(pr)]
So, [(pq)r][(qr)(pr)]
3 [p(q(pr)][p(qr)]
Consider
[p(q(pr)][p(q(pr))][p(q(pr))][p[(qp)(qr)]]
[(p(qp))(p(qr))][((pp)q)(p(qr))]
[( q)( p(qr))] [(p(qr)]p(qr)
So, [p(q(pr)][p(qr)]
2 When designated propositions have main connectives is to be (), we can test by
assumption is to be false then find the contradiction or show that is equivalent with
Example 4 Show that the following propositions pattern are to be tautology.
1 p(pq) 2 (pq)p 3 [(pq)(qr)p]r 4 [(p(qr))q](pr)
5 [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)] 6 [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)]
7 [((pq)r)(qr)](pr) 8 [((pq)(qr))r](pq)
9 [((pq)r)(pq)(pr)]r 10 [p(qq)]p
Solution 1 [p(pq)](F)p(T)(pq)(F)p(F)q(F) arise the contradiction
Or p(pq)p(pq)(pp)q q
Therefore, p(pq) is tautology.
2 (pq)p arise the contradiction (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously.
T(T)T(F)F
Therefore, (pq)p is tautology.
3 [(pq)(qr)p]R arise the contradiction (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously
F(T)F(T)F(T)F(T)T(F)F
4 [(p(qr))q](pr) arise the contradiction (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
T(T)T(T)F(T)T(F)F(F)F
Therefore, [(p(qr))q](pr) is tautology.
5 [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)] arise the contradiction (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
F(T)F(T)F(F)F(T)T(F)F(F)F
6 [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)] arise the contradiction (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
T(T)F(T)F(F)T(T)T(F)T(F)F
Therefore, [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)] is tautology.
7 [((pq)r)(qr)](pr) arise the contradiction (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously.
F(F)F(T)F(T)F(T)F(F)T(F)F
Therefore, [((pq)r)(qr)](pr) is tautology.
8 [((pq)(qr))r](pq), (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
F(F)F(T)T(F)F(T)T (F)F(F)F
Therefore, [((pq)(qr))r](pq) is tautology.
9 [((pq)r)(pq)(pr)]r, (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
F(F)F(T)F(T)T(T)T(T)F(T)F(F)F
Therefore, [((pq)r)(pq)(pr)]r is tautology.
10 [p(qq)]p(p(qq))pp p
Therefore, [p(qq)]p is tautology
The proposition patterns being tautology
1 p , pp 2 ( (
3 p ( 4 (
5 ( ( 6 [( ] [ ( ]
7 [ ( ] [ ( ] 8 [( ( ] (
9 [( ] [( ( ] 10 [( ] [( ( ]
11 [ ( ] [( ( ] 12 [ ( ] [( ( ]
13 ( [( ( ] 14 ( [( ( ]
15 [ ( ]
1.9 Reasoning
Reasoning is the adducing when there is one set of expression is {
} then
can conclude one expression is C, where
...
]C
If this pattern is tautology mean to be valid and if it isnt tautology mean to be invalid.
Example 5 Consider that the following reasoning are valid or invalid.
1 Cause: 1 p(pq) 2 Cause: 1 pr 3 s 3 Cause: 1 pq 3 ps
2 pq 2 rs 2 pr
Result: q Result: p Result: r
4 Cause: 1 p q 3 q 5 Cause: 1 r p 3 rs 6 Cause: 1 pq 3 pr
2 rp 4 rt 2 q 4 pq 2 (pq)r 4 p
Result: t Result: s Result: p
7 Cause: 1 p(qr) 3 pq 8 Cause: 1 pq 3 q 9 Cause: 1 rq 3 pr
2 s(tu) 4 st 2 r p 2 s q
Result: ru Result: r Result: ps
Solution 1 Cause: 1 p(pq)
2 pq
Result: q
We can make and test as follows. [(p(pq))(pq)]q
T(T)F(F)T(T)F(T)F(F)F
It arise the contradiction, (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(p(pq))(pq)]q is tautology and then is valid.
2 Cause: 1 pr 3 s
2 rs
Result: p
We can make and test as follows. [(pr)(rs)s]p
T(T)T(T)T(T)F(T)T(F)F
It arise the contradiction, (r(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(pr)(rs)s]p is tautology and then is valid
3 Cause: 1 pq 3 p r
2 pr
Result: r
We can make and test as follows. [(pq)(pr)(p r)]r
F(T)F(T)F(T)F(T)T(T)T(F)F
It arise the contradiction, (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously.
Therefore,[(pq)(pr)(p r)]r is tautology and then is valid.
4 Cause: 1 p q 3 q
2 rp 4 rt
Result: t
From the designated items, we can make pattern and test as follows.
[(p q)(rp)q(rt)]t
T(T)T(T)F(T)T(T)T(T)F(T)F(F)F
It arise the contradiction, (q(T),(F) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(p q)(rp)q(rt)]t is tautology and then is valid.
5 Cause: 1 r p 3 rs
2 q 4 pq
Result: s
From the designated items, we can make pattern and test as follows.
[(r p) q(rs)(pq)]s
T(T)T(T)T(T)F(T)F(T)F(T)T(F)F
It arise the contradiction, (q(T),(F) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(r p) q(rs)(pq)]s is tautology and then is valid.
6 Cause: 1 pq 3 (pr)
2 (pq)r 4 p
Result: p
From designated items, we can make pattern and test as follows.
[(pq)((pq)r) (pr)p] p
T(T)T(T)T(T)T(T)T(T) F(T)T(T)T(F)F
It arise the contradiction, (r(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(pq)((pq)r) (pr)p] p is tautology and then is valid.
7 Cause: 1 p(qr) 3 pq
2 s(tu) 4 st
Result: ru
From designated items, we have the pattern
[(p(qr))(s(tu))(pq)(st)](ru)
And can test as follows.
[(p(qr))(s(tu))(pq)(st)](ru)
T(T)F(T)F(T)T(T)T(T)T(T)T(T)T(T)T(T)T(F)F(F)T
We see obviously that (q(T),(F) is to be true and false are simultaneously.
So, [(p(qr))(s(tu))(pq)(st)](ru) is tautology and then is valid.
8 Cause: 1 pq 3 q
2 r p
Result: r
Consider the following pattern [(pq)(r p)q]r
T(T)F(T)F(T)F(T)T(F)F
We see obviously that there is not the contradiction
Hence, it is not tautology and then is invalid.
9 Cause: 1 rq 3 pr
2 s q
Result: ps
Consider the following [(rq)( s q)( pr)](ps)
F(T)F(T)T(T)T(T)F(T)F(F)T(F)F
We see obviously that there is not the contradiction
Hence, it is not tautology and then is invalid.
1.10 Open sentence and Quantifier
Definition 8 Open sentence is affirmative sentence or Negative sentence having
variables.
And when represent variable with elements in Universal set then obtain a proposition.
Example 6 2x3<5 is affirmative sentence having x is variable and when x=2 then is
proposition
y 5 is negative sentence having x is variable and when x=4 then is a
proposition
We conclude that 2x3<5, y 5 are propositions having x and y are
variables.
For convenience, we let p(x), q(x), or
For some x, x>
=2], =
7 For all real number are rational number or irrational number is written
By x[x x
], =
Example 8 Let A and B instead of sets, write symbol substitute the following
Expressions..
1 A is subset of B if and only if all elements of A are an element of B is
denoted by AB x[xAxB]
2 A isnt subset of B if and only if there exists some element of A isnt
an element of B is denoted by AB x[xAxB]
3 A is equal to B if and only if all elements of A are an element of B if and
only if all elements of B is an element of A is denoted by
A=B X[XAxB]
4 Difference of A and B is a set of all element that are in A and arent in B
Is denoted by AB={[ ]}
In the case open sentence have two variables, we let p(x, y), q(x, y),... instead of
those open sentences.
Conclusion: When p(x, y): open sentence
1 The expression for all x and for all y, p(x, y) is denoted by xy[p(x, y)]
2 The expression for all x, there exists some y which be p(x, y) is denotes
by xy[p(x,y)]
3 The expression there exists some x which be for all y, p(x, y) is denoted
by xy[p(x,y)]
4 The expression There exists some x and some y which be p(x, y) is denoted
by xy[p(x,y)]
5 Remark: we can use yx[p(x, y)], yx[p(x, y)], yx[p(x, y)] and yx[p(x, y)],
where xy[p(x, y)] yx[p(x, y)] have different meaning.
xy[p(x, y)], yx[p(x, y)] have different meaning.
xy[p(x, y)], yx[p(x, y)] have same meaning.
xy[p(x, y)] and xy[p(x, y)] have same meaning.
Example 9 Write the expression replaces the following symbol sentences, =
1 xy[
xy+
xy+
0
2 xy[xy=x] is written by for all x, there exists some y which be xy=x
3 xy[xy=0] is written by there exists some x which be for all y, xy=0
4 xy[+=] is written by There exists some x and some y which be
+=
5 yx[
xy+
xy+
0
6 yx[xy=x] is written by for all y, there exists some x which be xy=x
7 yx[xy=0] is written by there exists some y which be for all x, xy=0
8 yx[+=] is written by There exists some y and some x which be
+=
1.12 Truth value of propositions with one quantifier
Definition10 Let x[p(x)], x[p(x) are propositions and is Universal set will obtain that
1 x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true if and only if p(a) is to be true
For all elements a in
2 x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there exists some element
b in such that P(b) is to be false.
3 x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists some element
a in such that P(a) is to be true.
4 x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there dont exists element
b in such that p(b) is to be true
Example10 Find truth value of each of the following propositions
1 x[
=x+1], ={1, 0, 1}
3 x[
x
], = 4 x[<x], =
5 x[
0x+11] = 6 x[
0] x[x+11] =
7 x[(
=1
=1], = 8 x[(
=1] x[
=1], =
Solution 1 x[
+1=1x
We find that p(1):
+1=11 is to be false
So, x[
=x+1
We see that p(0): (
=0+1 is to be true.
So, x[(
x
], =, Let p(x):
x
Rearrange term
x=(
We see that p(a):
a
x
0x+11
Since,
0x+11x+1=1
=0
And x=0, 0+1=1
0, q(x): x+11
We see that p(0):
=1
=1
=1
Since, solution of (
=1 is 0, 2 and solution of
=1 is 1
We see that p(a): (
=1
=1
=1] x[
=1, q(x):
=1
We see that p(0): (
=1 is to be true., q(1):
=1 is to be true.
Finally we have x[(
=1] x[
>x+y considering
p(1, 1): ( (
>1+0
p(1, 1): (
>1+1 p(0,1): ( (
>0+(1)
p(0, 0): (
>0+1
p(1, 1): ( (
>1+0
p(1, 1): (
>1+1
We find that p(0, 0), p(0, 1), p(1, 0) and p(1, 1) are to be false
Therefore, xy[(
=(
], ={0}
Solution 1 xy[x+y=1
>2
We find that p(1, 2) and p(2, 1): 1+2=2+(1)=1 (
+(
>2
are to be true
So, xy[x+y=1
,n
Hence, there exists a, b such that p(a, b) is to be true.
Therefore, xy[(x+y)(xy) are perfect square] = has truth value is to be true.
3 xy[x+y=xy], ={1, 0, 1}, Let p(x, y): x+y=xy will get that
p(1, 1): 1+(1)=(1)(1) p(1, 0): 1+0=(1)(0) p(1, 1): 1+1=(1)(1)
p(0, 1): 0+(1)=(0)(1) p(0, 0): 0+0=(0)(0) p(0, 1): 0+1=(0)(1)
p(1, 1): 1+(1)=(1)(1) p(1, 0): 1+0=(1)(0) p(1, 1): 1+1=(1)(1)
We see that there exists a=0 and b=0 such that p(a, b) is to be true.
Therefore xy[x+y=xy], ={1, 0, 1} has truth value is to be true
4 xy[
=(
=(
Since,
=(
+2xy
So, 2xy=0xy=0x=0y=0, but 0
Hence, there doesnt exist a, b in such that p(a, b) is to be true.
Therefore, xy[
=(
x=
>1], =
Solution 1 xy[x+1= , ={1, 0, 1}, Let p(x, y): x+1=  will get that
p(1, 1): 1+1=  p(0, 1): 0+1=  p(1, 0): 1+0= 
We see that y[p(a,y)] is to be true for all elements a in
Thence, xy[x+1= ], ={1, 0, 1} has truth value is to be true.
2 xy[+1= ], =, Let p(x, y): +1= 
Since,  =+1=  and then x+1=xy or x+1=(xy)=x+y
Now, we have y=1 or y=2x+1 when x1 or x<1 respectively.
We see that y[p(a,y)] is to be true for all elements a in
Thence, xy[+1= ], = has truth value is to be true.
3 xy[
x=
x=
(1)=(
0 p(0, 1): (
0=
1=
1
We see that y[p(a, y)] is to be true for all elements a in
Thence, xy[
x=
>1
If we choose x=0 will get
>1 is to be false
So, y[
=0], =
3 xy[(x+y=y)(xy=y)], = 4 xy[ =], =
Solution 1xy[x
=(
=(
=(
+1
p(0, 1): 0(
+0 p(0, 1): 0
+1
p(1, 1): 1(
+0 p(1, 1): 1
+1
We find that there doesnt exist some b such that y[b
=0
If we choose x=1 will obtain p(1, y):
=0, y0 is to be true.
So, y[
<1] x[(x<1(0<
<1))]
x[(x<1)(0<
<1)]
x[(x<1)((0<
)(
<1))]
x[(x1
0)(x1
1)]
2 x[ 1
=0] x[<1
0]
x[(1<xx<1)(x>0x<0)]
x[((1<xx>0)(x<1x>0))x<0]
x[((1<xx>0x<0)(x<1x>0x<0)]
x[(x1(x>0x<0))(x1(x>0x<0))]
x[(x=01<x)(x=0x<1)]
Example17 1 Negation of x[x0
>0] is x[x0
>0]
x[(x>0x<0)
0)]
x[(x>0
o)(x<0
0)]
2 Negation of x[ x  x] is x[ x  x]
x[<x <x]
x[ x <x]
x[ x <x]
3 Negation of x[
<1] x[
<1] x[
=2x[2, 2]])
x[
1] x[
=2x[2, 2]]
4 Negation of x[>0] x[x ] is (x[>0] x[x ])
x[ 0] x[x ]...........(1)
(x[ 0] x[x ])(x[x ] x[ 0])
x[>0]x[x ]).............(2)
(x[>0] x[x ])(x[x ] x[>0])
Example18 Let p(x): x is rational N. q(x):
=2
Which propositions will be equivalent with the following expression?
There isnt rational N. which is the power of two equal to 2
1 x[q(x) p(x)] 2 x[p(x) q(x)]
Solution There is rational N. which is the power of two equal to 2
is written by x[p(x)q(x)]
So, there isnt rational N. which is the power of two equal to 2 is written by
x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)q(x)] x[q(x) p(x)] x[p(x) q(x)]
The answer is 1 and 2
1.15The logically equivalent and negation of propositions pattern with two quantifiers
Conclusion: Let p(x,y) is open sentence with two variables, where
1 xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)]) 2 xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[(p(x,y)])
3 xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)]) 4 xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
1
st
Pattern xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
That is to say, xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Show xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
x(y[p(x,y)])
xy[p(x,y)]
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
That is to say, xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Show xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
x(y[p(x,y)])
xy[p(x,y)
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
3
rd
Pattern xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
That is to say, xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Show xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
x([( ]
xy[p(x,y)]
Therefore xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
4
th
Pattern xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
That is to say, xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Show xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
x(y[p(x,y)])
xy[p(x,y)]
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Or show by truth value of xy[p(x,y)], xy[p(x,y)], xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)]
1
st
Pattern xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Suppose that xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
So, xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if p(a,b) is to be false for
some elements a and b in if and only if p(a,b) is to be true for some elements
a and b in if and only if xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true
And if xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false will get that
xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if p(a,b) is to be true for all elements
a and b in if and only if p(a, b) is to be false for all elements a and b in if and
only if xy[p(x, y)] has truth value is to be false.
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Conclusion: For points 2,3 and 4 are left as an exercise.
Example19 1 xy[x+y=0xy=0] xy[x+y0xy0]
2 xy[x>y
2xy+
>0] xy[x>y
2xy+
0]
3 xy[x+y>xy0<x<20<y<2] x[x+y>xy(x0x2)(y0y2)]
4 xy[x<yx+y0] xy[xyx+y=0]
5 xy[xy
>
] xy[(xy
>
)(
x=y)]
6 xx[x>
(>yxy>0] xy[x>
( yxy<0)]
1.16 Tautology of propositions with the Quantifier
1
st
Type: it lies in propositions pattern that are tautology.
Let p(x), q(x) ad r(x) are open sentences and is universal set.
1 x[p(x)] x[p(x)]: pp
2 x[p(x)]( x[p(x)] x[q(x)]): p(pq)
3 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) x[p(x)]: (pq)p
4 ((x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) x[p(x)]) x[q(x)]: ((pq)p)q
5 ((x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [(]) x[q(x)]: ((pq)p)q
6 ((x[p(x)]) x[q(x)])(x[q(x)] x[r(x)])) x[p(x)] x[r(x)]: ((pq)(qr))pr
7 (x[p(x)]) x[q(x)]) (x[q(x)] [(]): (pq)(qp)
8 ((x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) x[r(x)])(x[p(x)] x[r(x)])(x[q(x)] x[r(x)])
((pq)r)((pr)(qr))
9 ( x[p(x)](x[q(x)] x[q(x)])) x[p(x)]: (p(qq))p
2
nd
Type: by considering according to truth value of Connectives and quantifiers
1 x[p(x)]p(k), k 2 p(k) x[p(x)], k
3 x[p(x)] x[p(x)] 4 x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)]
5 x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) 6 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)]
7 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] 8 (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(])
Proof 1 x[p(x)]p(k), k
Assume that x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
So, p(a) is to be true all elements a in
And since, k will obtain that p(k) is to be true.
Now, we get x[p(x)]p(k), k has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false.
We knew that x[p(x)]p(k), k has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, x[p(x)]p(k), k is tautology.
2 p(k) x[p(x)], k
Assume that p(k) is to be true.
By definition of x[p(x)] will find that x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
So, p(k) x[p(x)], k has truth value is to be true.
And if p(k) is to be false
We knew from truth value of that p(k) x[p(x)], k has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, p(k) x[p(x)], k is tautology.
3 x[p(x)] x[p(x)]
Since, ((pq)(qr))(pr) is tautology.
From 1 and 2 we can conclude that x[p(x)] x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, x[p(x)] x[p(x)] is tautology.
4 x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)]
Assume that x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
So, there exists k such that p(k)q(k) is to be true
And it make p(k) is to be true and q(k) is to be true.
Implies that x[p(x)] and x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
That is x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
Be obvious that x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)] is tautology.
5 x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)])
Assume that x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
So, there exists k such that p(k)q(k) is to be true.
We can write p(k) is to be true or q(k) is to be true.
Implies that x[p(x)] or x[q(x)] have truth value is to be true.
That is x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
We see that p(k)q(k) is to be false for all k
And we can write p(k) is to be false or q(k) is to be false for all k
Now, we have x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false or x[q(x)] has truth value is to
be false.
Finally, x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
Therefore, x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) has truth value is to be true.
We can conclude that x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) is tautology.
6 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)]
Assume that x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
In this case, x[p(x)] and x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Require to write p(k) and q(k) are to be true for all k
Afterwards, p(k)q(k) is to be true for all k
That is [( q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
If we let x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false.
So, there exists k such that p(k) is to be false
And we have p(k)q(k) is to be false
That is [( q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
And if x[q(x)] has truth value is to be false. We can show similarly
Therefore, (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
We can conclude that (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] is tautology.
7 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)]
Assume that x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true, where
x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Thus will get p(k) is to be true for all k
Implies that p(k)q(k) is to be true for all k
And then we have [( q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
For a case x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true can show similarly.
And when x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be false
Be sure, (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Finally, we can conclude that (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] is tautology.
8 (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(])
Assume that x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
We see that p(x)q(x) has truth value is to be true for all elements in .
Implies that p(k)q(k) are to be true for all k
In a case p(k) and q(k) are to be true for all k
Be sure, x[p(x)] and [(] has truth value is to be true.
It make x[p(x)] [(] has truth value is to be true.
Hence, (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(]) has truth value is to be true.
And in a case p(k) is to be false for some k
We find that x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false.
And then x[p(x)] [(] has truth value is to be true.
So, (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(]) has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
We see that (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(]) has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, we can conclude that (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(]) is tautology.
1.17 Tautology of propositions pattern having two quantifiers
Let p(x,y): open sentence and : universal set
1 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] 2 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
3 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] 4 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
5 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 6 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
7 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 8 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Remark: The converse of 38 isnt tautology, that is to say.
1 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 2 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
3 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 4 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
5 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 6 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Proof 1 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
Consider xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if
p(a,b) is to be true for all elements a and b in if and only if p(a,b) is to be true
all elements b and a in if and only if yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
And xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there exists elements
a and b in such that p(a,b) is to be false if and only if there exists elements b
and a such that p(a,b)is to be false if and only if yx[p(x,y)] has truth value
is to be false
Thence, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology.
2 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
Consider xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists
Elements a and b in such that p(a,b) is to be true if and only if there exists
Elements b and a in such that p(a,b) is to be true if and only if yx[p(x,y)]
Has truth value is to be true.
And xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there doesnt exist
Elements a and b in such that p(a,b) is to be false if and only if there doesnt
Elements b and a in such that p(a,b) is to be false if and only if yx[p(x,y)]
has truth value is to be false.
Hence, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology.
3 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
Let G(y) instead of x[p(x,y)]
So, yx[p(x,y)] and yx[p(x,y)] are represented by y[G(y)] and y[G(y)]
respectively.
And since y[G(y)] y[G(y)] is tautology.
Now, we have yx[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology.
But xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology
Thus, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
Finally will get xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology.
4 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Consider yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists some
Element b in such that x[p(x,b)] has truth value is to be true.
And x[p(x,b)] has truth value is to be true if and only if p(a,b) is to be true for all
elements a in
And if p(a,b) is to be true for all elements a in then y[p(a,y)] has truth value is
to be true for all elements a in if and only if xy[p(x,y)] has truth value
is to be true.
So, yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
And if yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false.
We see that yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] is tautology.
5 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Consider xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if for all elements
a in
y[p(a,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists some element
b in such that p(a,b) is to be true.
And if p(a,b) is to be true for some element b in then it make x[p(x,b)] has truth
value is to be true for some element b in then it make yx[p(x,b)] has truth
value Is to be true.
So, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
And if xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false then will obtain that
xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] is tautology.
(OR) Let y[p(x,y)] is substituted by G(x)
So, xy[p(x,y)]and xy[p(x,y)] are substituted by x[G(x)] and x[G(x)]
respectively.
And since x[G(x)] x[G(x)] is tautology.
Therefore, xy[p(x,)] xy[p(x,y)] is tautology.
Conclusion: For points 6, 7 and 8 are left as an exercise.
Exercise one
1 Let p, q, r and s are propositions, Make truth table of each of the following.
1 [p(p q)](pq) 2 [(p(qr)](qp)
3 [(pq)(qr)](qp) 4 (pq)(rs)
5 [(p(qr)](sq) 6 (qp)(r(s q))
7 [(p(q(rs)](s q) 8 [((pq)(qs))][(p(qs)]
2 Let p(T), q(F), r(T) and s(F), Find truth value of each of the following.
1 (pq)(rq) 2 [p(q(r q))](qr)
3 (p(qr))(s q) 4 [(pq)(rs)](ps)
5 [(pq)(rs)][r (pq)] 6 [(p(rq)][s((qr)(qs))]
7 [(qr)((sp)q)][p(sr)] 8 [p(q(sr))][(q r)(sr)]
3 Test that whether each of the following are equivalent.
1 [(pq)(pr)], [p(qr)] 2 [(pq)(rq)], [p(rq)]
3 [p(qr)], [(pq)(rq)] 4 [pq)(qr)], [r(pq)]
5 [p((qr)q)], [(pr)q] 6 [(qr)((pq)r)], [(pq)(qr)]
7 [(pq)(qr)], [(pq)(pr)] 8 [(pq)(rq)], [(pq)(qr)]
9 [p(qr)], [(pq)(pr)] 10 [(pq)(qr)], (pqr)
4 Write a symbol pattern instead of each of the following expressions.
1 For all x,
>x
2 There exists some integer which x is divided exactly by 5
3 There exists some real number x isnt an integer.
4 For each integer are rational numbers.
5 there exists some integer which if is prime then is even.
6 All integers are rational numbers.
7 For each number x if x is positive integer then
=x.
8 For all x and for all y,
xy+
>0.
9 there exists some x and there exists some y, xy=yx.
10 For all x there exists some y which x+y=x
11 There exists some x which for all y if x+y is odd then y is even.
12 There exists some x which for all y,
=1
13 For each number x there exists some number y which xy=1
14 There exists some x and exists some y which x>y and
<
15 For all x will have some y which if
then xy
16 There exists some x which for each y, xy<x+y
17 For each x and for each y if x is rational N. and y is irrational N. then x+y
is irrational N.
18 For each x will have some y which if xy is rational N.
19 There exists some x which for all y if xy=2 then
=1
20 For each x there exists some y which
y=
x
5 Find truth value of each of the following.
1 x[
2
=x+1], =
3 x[
+11
], =
4 x[(x+1=5)(x+2=4)], =
5 x[x1<x+1
<1], = 6 x[1<x<1
>
], =
7 x[(x+10)(
1)], = 8 x[
1=(
], =
9 x[1
=xx10], = 12 x[
=x] x[x10], =
13 xy[ ] 14 xy[x+y=0], ={1, 0, 1}
15 xy[
y
=(
], = 22 xy[(1<x<1 1<y<1)
], =
6 Find negation of symbol pattern in item five above and write couple of symbol
pattern that are equivalent each other.
7 Prove that the following arent tautology by counter example.
1 p(a) x[p(x)], when a 2 p(a) x[p(x)], when a
3 x[p(x)] ) x[p(x)] 4 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)]
5 x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) 6 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) x[p(x)q(x)]
7 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 8 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
9 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 10 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
11 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 12 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)
Lesson Two
Real numbers system
2.1 Introduction
Nowadays, in mathematics the numbers are rearranged in pattern of set having
elements are numbers which there are same property.
Beginning from set of natural number, counting number or positive integer which
are discovered firstly. But afterward the natural numbers couldnt solve the problem
of human so the human made new number consecutive for solving those problem by
the natural numbers were bases and operation +,  and as follows.
1 Counting number or natural number
={1, 2, 3, 4, 5,...}
2 Zero number
={0}
3 Negative integers
}
We see distinct that all integers are the rational numbers as a=
, a
6 Irrational numbers
={
}
7 Real numbers
=
={ }
2.2 Real numbers system consist of set relation equality, inequality operation +, ,
and
1) Equality in real numbers system
Let a, b, c
: Reflexive property
If a then a=a
: Symmetric property
If a=b then b=a
: Transitive property
If a=b and b=c then a=c
: Closure property
If a and b then a+b
2
: Commutative property
if a and b then a+b=b+a
3
: Associative property
If a , b and c then a+b+c=(a+b)+c=a+(b+c)
4
: Closure property
If If a and b then ab
7
: commutative property
If a and b then ab=ba, a
8
: Associative property
If a , b and c then abc=(ab)c=a(bc),
9
such that
a=a
=1, a , a0
11 property that concern addition and multiplication
Distributive property
If a , and c then a(b+c)=ab+ac and (a+b)c=ac+bc
Example1 Let a, b and operation
Defined by ab=
Test that 1 Set and satisfy whether closure property.
2 Set and satisfy whether communicative property.
3 Set and satisfy whether associative property.
4 Set and satisfy whether the existence of identity.
5 Set and satisfy whether the existence of inverse.
Solution 1 Since, a , so a+b and then
That is, set and satisfy closure property.
2 Since, a+b=b+a so
b=
(
and
a(bc)=a
(
So, (ab)b a(bc)
That is, set and doesnt satisfy associative property.
4 Let e is identity for all a
Now, we have ea=
=a
We see obviously e=a
That is, set and satisfy the existence of identity.
5 Let
a=
=a
We see obviously
=a
That is, set and satisfy the existence of inverse.
Property of positive real numbers
12 Trichotomy property
If a then the following items will be true only one item.
1 a
or 2 a
or 3 a=0
Remark: 1 When a
2 When a
That is a
13 Closure property of addition on
If a
and b
then a+b
14 Closure property of multiplication on
If a
and b
then ab
The following theorem arise from definition and properties above which can prove by
basic logic direct substitution and concerned knowledge.
The following theorem we let a, b, c, d are real numbers
Theorem1 (Cancellation for addition)
1 If a+c=b+c then a=b 2 If a+b=a+c then b=c
Proof 1 Consider a=a+0
=a+(c+(c))
=(a+c)+(c)
=(b+c)+(c)
=b+(c+(c))
=b+0
=b
Therefore, a=b (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 2 1 If a+b=a then b=0 2 If b+a=a then b=0
Proof 1 Consider b=((a)+a)+b
=(a)+(a+b)
=(a)+a
=0
Therefore, b=0 (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 3 If a+b=0 then 1 a=b 2 a=b
Proof 1 Consider a=a+(b+(b))
=(a+b)+(b)
=0+(b)
=b
Therefore, a=b (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 4 (a)=a
Proof a=a+0=a+((a)+((a)))
=(a+(a))+((a))
=0+((a))
=(a)
Therefore, a=(a)
Theorem 5 (Cancellation for multiplication)
1 If ac=bc then a=b 2 If ab=ac then b=c
Proof 1 Consider a=a(c
)
=(ac)
=(bc)
=b(c
)
=b
Therefore, a=b (2 is left the proof as an exercise)
Theorem 6 1 a0=0 2 0a=0
Proof 1 Consider 0+a0=a(0+0)
=a0+a0
Therefore, 0=a0 (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 7 1 (1)a=a 2 a(1)=a
Proof 1 Consider (1)a=(1)a+(a+(a))
=((1)a+1a)+(a)
=(1+1)a+(a)
=0a+(a)
=0+(a)
=a
Therefore, (1)a=a (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 8 1 If ab=a then b=1, a0 2 If ba=a then a=1, a0
Proof 1 Consider b=1b=(
a)b
=
(ab)
=
a
=1
Therefore, b=1 (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 9 If ab=1 then 1 a=
2 b=
Proof 1 Consider a=a1
=a(b
)
=(ab)
=1
Therefore, a=
a)b
=
(ab)
=
0
=0
Therefore, b=0 (b0 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 11 If a0 and b0 then (
Proof Consider (
=(
1.1
=(
(a
)(b
)
=(
a(
b)
=(
a(b
=(
(ab)(
)
=1(
)
=
Therefore, (
Theorem 12 If a0 then
0
Proof Assume that
=1
Therefore,
0
Theorem 13 If a0 then (
=a
Proof Consider (
=a
Theorem 14 1 (a)b=ab 2 a(b)=ab 3 (a)(b)=ab
Proof 1 (a)b=((1)a)b
=(1)(ab)
=(ab)
=ab
Therefore, (a)b=ab (2, 3 are left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 15 1 If a=b then a=b 2 If a=b then a=b
Proof 1 Consider a=(1)a
=(1)b
=b
Therefore, a=b (2, 3 are left the proof as an exercise.)
4) Subtraction and Division of real numbers
Definition 3 Let a, b , ab=a+(b)
And a+(b)+b+(a)=0, a+(b) and b+(a) are the inverse each other.
Theorem 16 1 a(bc)=abac 2 (ab)c=acbc
Proof 1 a(bc)=a(b+(c))
=ab+a(c)
=abac
Therefore, a(bc)=abac (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 17 1If ab=ac then b=c 2 ab=cb then a=c
Proof 1 Consider b=(ba)+a
=(ab)+a
=(ac)+a
=(ca)+a
=c
Therefore, b=c (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Definition 4 Let a, b where b0
ab=
=a
Theorem 18 1
, where b, c0 2
(
, where b, c0
Proof Consider
=a
=(a
)(
c)
=a(
)c
=a(
c
=
, where b, c0
Therefore,
)=
, where b0 2 
, where b0
Proof Consider c(
)=c(a
)
=(ca)
Therefore, c(
)=
, where b, c0 2 (
, where a, b0
Proof 1
=(
(ad)+(
(bc)
=(
((ad+bc)
=
And (2) is left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 21 1 (
) (
)=
, where b, d0 2
)
=
, where b, c0 3
(
)
(
)
=
where b, c, d0
Proof 1 (
) (
)=(a
)(
c)
=a(
)c
=a(
c
=
Therefore, (
) (
)=
and b
then (a+b)
2 If a
and b
then (ab)
3 If a
and b
then (ab)
4 If a
and b
then (ab)
Proof 1 As a
a
and b
b
((a)+(b))
((1)a+(1)b)
(1)(a+b)
(a+b)
Therefore, If a
and b
then (a+b)
2 As a
a
and b
b
((a)(b))
ab
Therefore, If a
and b
then (ab)
3 As a
and b
b
a(b)
ab
ab
Therefore, If a
and b
then (ab)
4 As a
a
and b
(a)b
ab
ab
Therefore, If a
and b
then (ab)
2.3 Solving polynomial equations with one variable
Polynomials in variable x are written in from
+...+
x+
When n and
,...,
+...+
x+
And p(t)=
+...+
t+
(1)+4=2
And if define
+...+
x+
, a
+bx+c=0
4 The difference of the square
=(xy)(x+y)
5 Perfect the square (
2xy+
6 The sum of a cube
=(x+y)(
xy+
)
7 The difference of a cube
=(xy)(
+xy+
),
=(xy)(
y+
)
Example 3 Find the solution set of the following equations.
1
+4x+3=0 2
x1=0 3
5
16x+80=0
Solution 1
+4x+3=(x+1)(x+3)=0
So, (x+1)=0 or (x+3)=0: theorem10
That is, x=1 or x=3
Therefore, the solution is {3, 1}
2
=
((
Therefore, the solution is {
}
3
5
16x+80=(
5
)(16x80)
=
(x5)16(x5)
=(x5)(
16)
=(x5)(x4)(x+4)=0
So, x5=0, x4=0, x+4=0
That is, x=4, x=4, x=5
Therefore, the solution is {4, 4, 5}
From the bygone example we find that the solving equation has to use the factorization
and the theorem having so helpful in this section is the remainder theorem.
Solving the polynomial equations by the remainder theorem
The remainder theorem makes to be capable finding a remainder from dividing
The designated polynomial by the polynomial with degree is to be 1 as follows.
Consider the following long division
+4x6 3
3x9
x3
18x+18 x+1 3
12x+15
3
+3
+4
18x 3
12x
4
12x 3
3x
6x+18 9x+15
6x+18 9x  9
0 + 0 +24
We say that
12x+15 is no divisible
by x+1
And
18x+18=(x3)(
+4x6) and 3
12x+15=(x+1)( 3
3x9)+24
3 Division algorithm
We will lead its result use in the remainder theorem
Theorem 22 If p(x) and q(x) are polynomials, where q(x)0 then there exists polynomial
s(x) and r(x) only one pair such that p(x)=q(x)s(x)+r(x),where degree of r(x) is less than
q(x)
Proof by well ordering principle and exact division (See on theory of number)
Theorem 23 (The remainder theorem)
If divide p(x) by xc, where c then the remainder from division will be equal to p(c)
Proof let q(x)=xc, from theorem22 there exists s(x) and r(x) such that
P(x)=s(x)(xc)+r(x)..............(1)
When r(x)=0 or r(x) is a polynomial with degree be less than xc
So, r(x)=0 or there is degree to be zero
That is, r(x) is constant d, d
Thence, from (1) implies that p(x)=s(x)(xc)+d............(2)
Since, an equation (2) is to be true x
Hence, if let x=c will get p(c)=s(c)(cc)+d=d
Therefore, the remainder from division is d=p(c)
Remark: we can find the remainder from the division by using
1 The long division and 2 The remainder theorem
Example 4 Work out the remainder from the division 2
3
+5 by x+1
Solution consider x+1=x(1)=xc so implies that c=1
And p(1)=2(
3(
+5
=23+5
=4
Therefore, the remainder is equal to 4
Definition 5 the polynomial q(x) is one factor of p(x) if and only if there exists s(x)
Such that p(x)=q(x)s(x)
Example 5 Let p(x)=
+2
+x6)
2 x2 is one factor of p(x) as p(x)=(x2)(
+4x+3)
3 x+3 is one factor of p(x) as p(x)=(x+3)(
x2)
From definition 5 we see obviously p(1)=0, p(2)=0 and p(3)=0 which the following
theorem will state us that (xc) is one factor of p(x) or not has to see at p(c)
Theorem 24 (Factors theorem)
Let p(x) and c will obtain that xc is a factor of p(x) if and only if p(c)=0
Proof () let xc is a factor of p(x)
So, from definition5, there exists s(x) such that p(x)=(xc)s(x)
And implies that p(c)=(cc)s(c)=0
Therefore, p(c)=0
() let p(c)=0 and divide p(x) by xc
So, from division algorithm there exists s(x) and d such that p(x)=xc)s(x)+d
Finally will obtain p(c)=(cc)s(c)+d
=d
But p(c)=0 and then d=p(c)=0
That is, p(x)=(xc)s(x)
Therefore, xc is a factor of p(x)
From () and () conclude that xc is a factor of p(x) if and only if p(c)=0
Example 6 1 Let p(x)=2
3
+11
7
3
+x1
And p(2)=2(
3(
+21
=3212+21
=21
By the factor theorem to conclude x2 isnt a factor of p(x)
2 Since, q(x)=6
+11
7
8x+4
And q(1)=6(
+11(
7(
8(1)+4
=6117+8+4
=0
And q(2)=6(
+11(
7(
8(2)+4
=968828+16+4
=0
So, x+1 and x+2 are factors of q(x) which make (x+1)(x+2)=
+3x+2 is to be same.
Consider long division as follows.
6
7x+2
+3x+2 6
+11
 7
8x+4
6
+18
+12
 7
 19
8x
7
 21
14x
+2
+6x+4
+2
+6x+4
0 + 0 + 0
Thence, p(x)=(x+1)(x+)(6
7x+2)
=(x+1)(x+2)(3x2)(2x1)=0
And will get x+1=0, x+2=0, 3x2=0, 2x1=0
And implies that x=1, x=2, x=
, x=
Therefore, the solution set is {2, 1,
}
From example 6 If each answer is rational number in fraction form then rehearsing to
choose a rational number
that make x
+...+
x+
, where
, ...,
, n and
0
If (x
and
Proof By the factor theorem will get that p(
)=0, that is
+...+
=0
Next, use index property
+...+
=0
Next, use multiplication property
+...+
=0.......... (1)
Next, use addition property
+...+
=
Next, use distributive property k(
+...+
)=
Next, use closure property kw=
, k=
+...+
Next, use (k, m)=1
Next, use addition property in (1)
+...+
=
Next, use distributive property m(
+...+
)=
Next, use closure property mz=
, z=
+...+
Next, use (k, m)=1
Therefore,
and
Remark: 1The theorem25 merely state that if x
is divisible by m and
is divisible by k
2 If
is divisible by m and
is a factor of p(x) and
3 The polynomial p(x) maynt has a factor in from x
which
is divisible by m and
+2
Ordering of the factorization of p(x) in this case can conclude as follows.
1 Make a set with all elements in form
)=0 or not, if p(
is
one factor of p(x). In the case that has not
that make p(
3 Bring x
that p(
and test
1 Finding set A={
( }
2 Rehearse to choose
A and find p(
) and then
2.1 If p(
)=0 mean x
is a factor of p(x)
2.2 If p(
)0 mean x
That is, p(x)=0 has no solution being rational number.
Example 7 Find the solution set of 24
14
11x+6=0
Solution by The rational factors theorem, we have
=6k{1, 2, 3, 6}
And
{1, 2, 3, 6,
}
Let p(x)=24
14
and p(
)= 24(
14(
11(
)+6=0
So, x
is a factor of p(x)
Mean that there exists q(x) such that p(x)=(x
)q(x)
Consider long division as follows
24
2x12
x
24
14
11x+6
24
12
2
11x
2
+ x
12x+6
12x+6
0 + 0
Hence, p(x)=(x
)(24
2x12)=(x
)(6x+4)(4x3)=0
Now, we have x
, 
Therefore, the answer is {
}
Example 8 Solve an equation 3
8
+8x4 = 0
Solution Let p(x) = 3
8
+8x4
From the theorem 25 we have k{4, 2, 1, 1, 2, 4}, m{3, 1, 1, 3} and
{4, 2, 
, 1, 
, 
, 1,
, 2, 4}
It ought to select
8(
+(
+8(1)4=0 and
If
8(
+(
+8(1)4=0
Now, we have x+1 and x1 are factors of p(x)
2 Consider the following long division of p(x) by x+1 and x1
3
11
+12x4 3
8x+4
x+1 3
8
+8x4 x1 3
11
+12x4
3
+3
3
11
8
+12x
11
11
8
+ 8x
+12
+8x +4x4
+12
+12x +4x4
4x4 0
4x4
0
3 From the definition 5 we have 3
8
+8x4= (x+1)(x1)(3
8x+4)
=(x+1)(x1)(3x2)(x2)
But p(x)=0,so (x+1)(x1)(3x2)(x2)=0
That is, x+1=0, x1=0, 3x2=0, x2=0: (ab=0)[(a=0)(b=0)]
Hence, x=1,
, 1, 2
Therefore, the solution set is {1,
, 1, 2 }
From theorem 25, if let
+...+
x+
which can
factorize of p(x) from the following theorem
Theorem 26 Let p(x)=
+...+
x+
, where
, ...,
, n
If (xc) is a factor of p(x), where c is rational n. then c must be
An integer and
is divisible by c.
Proof Hint: to prove by the rational factor theorem.
2.4 Application
We can utilize from the rational factor theorem in the proof about any irrational numbers
Example 9 Show that
and
2
2
is an irrational number.
2 let x=
)(
): conjugate surd
x=32
x3=2: rearrange term.
is an irrational number.
2.5 Property of Inequality
According to 12
th
property of real N. (Trichotomy property)
We can write definition as follows.
Definition 6 Let k
1 Called k is to be zero real N. if and only if k=0
2 Called k is to be positive real N. if and only if k
3 Called k is to be negative real N. if ad only if k
And since (ab) , a, b so from trichotomy property we have
1 ab=0 2 (ab)
or 3 (ab)
3 a<b(ab)=(ba)
And since (ab) we can write trichotomy property about relation =, <, > as follows.
Definition 8 If a, b then the following points are accurate only one point.
1 a=b 2 a>b 3 a<b
Definition 9 Let a, b, c , where a<c
1 ab signify (a<b)(a=b)
2 ab signify (a>b)(a=b)
3 a<b<c signify (a<b)(b<c)
4 a<bc signify (a<b)(bc)
5 ab<c signify (ab)(b<c)
6 abc signify (ab)(bc)
The following theorems are all property of inequality of real N.
Theorem 27 (Positive and negative real N. compare to zero)
Let a, b
1 a
a>0 2 a
(a0)
a>0
4 a<b(ab)
(ab)
ab<0
The remaining points are left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 28 Let a, b
1 If a>0 and b>0 then ab>0 2 If a>0 and b<0 then ab<0
3 If a<0 and b>0 then ab<0 4 If a<0 and b<0 then ab>0
Proof Its left the proof as an exercise. Hint: See on an example2
Theorem 29 L et a, b
1 If ab>0 then (a>0 and b>0) or (a<0 and b<0)
2 If ab<0 then (a<0 and b>0) or (a>0 and b<0)
Proof 1 Since ab0[(a0)(b0)] is to be true.
So, [If ab>0 then (a>0 and b>0)] or [If ab>0 then (a<0 and b<0)] is to be true.
But [(pq)(pr)]p(qr)
That is, If ab>0 then (a>0 and b>0) or (a<0 and b<0) is to be true.
We mean when a>0 then b>0 or a<0 then b<0 only one case.
Point 2 can prove similar.
Theorem 30 Let a, b
1 If a>0 then
<0
Proof 1 Since a
[(ab)+0]
[(ab)+(cc)]
[(a+c)(b+c)]
Therefore, a+c>b+c
Appoint 2 is left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 33 (Cancellation for addition and Subtraction) Let a, b, c
1 If a+c>b+c then a>b 2 If ac>bc then a>b
Proof Assigned to be exercises
Theorem 34 (Multiplication by nonzero) Let a, b, c
1 If a>b and c>0 then ac>bc 2 If a>b and c<0 then ac<bc
Proof Assigned to be exercises.
Theorem 35 (Cancellation for Multiplication) Let a, b, c , c0
1 If ac>bc and c>0 then a>c 2 If ac>bc and c<0 then a<c
Proof Assigned to be exercises.
Theorem 36 (Addition and Subtraction of inequality) Let a, b, c, d
1 If a<b and c<d then a+c<b+d 2 If a<b and c<d then ac<bd
Proof 1 Since a<b and c<d so, a+c<b+c and b+c<b+d: theorem31
And then a+c<b+d: theorem30
The remaining is left as an exercise.
Theorem 37 (Multiplication of inequality) Let a, b, c, d
1 If a<b and c<d then ac<bd, where a, b, c, d
2 If a<b and c<d then ac>bd, where a, b, c, d
Proof Assigned to be exercises.
Theorem 38 (Inequality of the inverse)
If ab>0 and a<b then
>
Proof Since ab>0 and a<b so, ab
and (ba)
Then implies that (ba)ab)
Hence, (a
b)
>
b)
Therefore,
>
: divide by (
both sides.
That is,
>
: a
=1
Theorem 39 (Division of inequality)
1 If a<b and c<d then
<
, where a, b, c, d
2 If a<b and c<d then
>
, where a, b, c, d
Proof Assigned to be exercises.
Theorem 40 Let a, b, c
If a<b then there exists c such that a<c<b
Proof Assigned to be an exercise.
Theorem 41 Let a, b and c
If a<b then there exists c such that a<c<b
Proof Assigned to be an exercise.
Example 10 Let a, b , where ab prove that
ab+
>0
Proof Consider
ab+
=(
2
)+
=(
0
And since ab so (
>0 and
0
Therefore, (
>0
That is,
ab+
>0
Example11 prove that If
=1 and
=1 then ab+cd1
Proof since (
2ab+
0 and (
2cd+
0
So,
2ab and
2cd
But
=1 and
>
b+
a
Proof Consider (
)(
b+
a)=(a+b)(
ab+
)(a+b)ab
=(a+b)(
2ab+
)
=(a+b)(
But a>0, b>0 and ab so (a+b)>0 and (
>0
Therefore, (a+b)(
>0
That is,
>
b+
a
Example13 Let a>0, a1 prove that
+1>
+a
Proof Consider (
+1)(
+a)=(
)(a1)=
(a1)(a1)=(a1)(
1)=(
(a+1)
Since a>0, a1 and then (
>0 and(a+1)>0
Therefore, (
(a+1)>0
That is,
+1>
+a
2.6 Interval
Finite interval
Definition10 Let a, b , where a<b
1 Open interval (a, b) signify {  }
2 Closed interval [a, b] signify {  }
3 Half open interval (a, b] signify {  }
4 Half closed interval [a, b) signify {  }
a
b
a b
a b
Infinite interval
Definition11 Let a
5 infinite interval (a, ) signify {  }
6 Infinite interval [a, ) signify {  }
7 Infinite interval (, a) signify {  }
8 Infinite interval (, a] signify {  }
9 Infinite interval (, ) signify { }
As interval above are sets so we can use several operator concerning set which will
show in the example as follows.
Example14 Let A={  }, B={  } and C={  }
Find AB, AB, AC, AC, BC, BC, AB, BA, AC, CA, BC, CB,
and
Solution For convenience we give A=[1, 4), B=[2,7) and C=(, 3)(3, )
The following are the answer of them
AB=[1, 4)[2,7)=[1, 7) AB=[1, 4)[2,7)=[2, 4)
AC=[1, 4)((, 3)(3, ))=[1,3)(3, 4) AB=[1, 4)[2,7)=[1, 2)
AC=[1, 4)((, 3)(3, ))= BC=[2,7)((, 3)(3, ))=
BC=[2,7)((, 3)(3, ))=[2, 3)(3, 7) BA=[2,7)[1, 4)=[4, 7)
AC=[1, 4)((, 3)(3, ))={3}
=[
=(, 1)[4, )
CA=((, 3)(3, ))[1, 4)=(, 1)[4, )
=[
=(, 2)[7, )
=((( (
, a
+bx+c=0
3.4 The difference of the square
=(xy)(x+y)
3.5 The complete square (
2xy+
3.6 The sum of a cube
=(x+y)(
xy+
)
3.7 The difference of a cube
=(xy)(
+xy+
)
4 Find the solution set by theorem10, 27 and 28
1 solving linear inequalities
Example15 Find the answer of each of the following.
1 4x3>710x 2 3<4x37 3 92x4x3<6x+5
Solution 1 4x3>710x 2 3<4x37
4x+10x3>710x+10x 3+3<4x3+37+3
14x3>7 6<4x10
14x3+3>7+3
(6)<
(4x)
(10)
14x>10
<x
(14x)>
]
x>
, )
3 92x4x3<6x+592x4x3 and 4x3<6x+5
92x+2x4x+2x3 and 4x+(4x)3<6x+(4x)+5
96x3 and 3<2x+5
9+32x3+3 and 3+(5)<2x+5+(5)
126x and 8<2x
(12)
(6x) and
(8)<
(2x)
2x and 4<x
The answer is (, 2](, 4)= (, 4)
2 Solving inequalities that enable to lie in the following patterns
(xa)(xb)<0, (xa)(xb)>0, (xa)(xb)0, (xa)(xb)0, where ab
Remark: (axb)(cxd)<0 substitute by (x
)(x
)<0, where
and a,c
1 We will consider (xa)(xb)<0 and (xa)(xb)>0 as follows.
1) (xa)(xb)<0, when ab we can separate to be 3 cases as follows.
1.1) If x>b then xa>0 and xb>0 and then (xa)(xb)>0 arise a contradiction.
1.2) If a<x<b then xa>0 and xb<0 and then (xa)(xb)<0 is to be true.
1.3) If x<a then xa<0 and xb<0 and then (xa)(xb)>0 arise a contradiction.
Therefore, the answer of (xa)(xb)<0 is {  }or (a, b)
2) (xa)(xb)>0, similar we can separate to be 3 cases as follows.
2.1) If x>b then xa>0 and xb>0 and then (xa)(xb)>0 is to be true.
2.2) If a<x<b then xa>0 and xb<0 and then (xa)(xb)<0 arise a contradiction.
2.3) If x<a then xa<0 and xb<0 and then (xa)(xb)>0 is to be true.
Therefore, the answer of (xa)(xb)>0 is{  } (, a)(b, )
2 We can consider similarly (xa)(xb)0 and (xa)(xb)0
As xa xa and xb xb so, we have
(xa)(xb)0axbx[a,b] and (xa)(xb)0xa or xbx(,a][b,)
Example16 find the answer of the following inequalities.
1
3x10<0 2
+5x+60 3 4
7x20 4 6
+5x60
5 4
+x+5<0 6 10
31x+15<0
Solution 1
3x10<0
Consider
7x10=(x+3)(x5)=(x(3))(x5)<0
Therefore, the answer is (3, 5)
2
+5x+60
Consider
+5x+6=(x+2)(x+3)0
Therefore, the answer is (, 2)(3, )
3 4
7x20
Consider 4
7x2=(4x+1)(x2)0(x+
)(x2)0
Therefore, the answer is (, 
][2, )
4 6
+5x60
Consider 6
+5x6=(2x+3)(3x2)0(x+
)(x
)0
Therefore, the answer is (, 
)(
, )
5 4
+x+5<0
Consider 4
+x+5<04
x5>0(x+1)(x
)>0
Therefore, the answer is (, 1)(
, )
6 10
31x+15<0
Consider 10
31x+15<0(5x3)(2x5)<0(x
)(x
)<0
Therefore, the answer is (
)
3 Solving inequalities that lie in pattern of (xa)(xb)(xc)...{
, where a<b<c<...
By considering each interval from (, a) to (c, )... according to condition in
inequality.
Example17 Find the solution set of each of the following.
1
x 2
Solution 1
x
Consider
x0, x1
(
0
x(x1)(x3)0: Multiply by (
to both sides.
We will consider each interval as follows.
1 x3x30, x10, x0 x(x1)(x3)0 is to be true.
2 1<x32<x30, 0<x12, 1<x3x(x1)(x3)0 is to be false.
3 0x<13x3<2, 1x1<0, 0x<1x(x1)(x3)0 is to be true.
4 x0x33, x11, x0x(x1)(x3)0 is to be false.
Therefore, the answer is [3, )[0, 1)
2
Consider
0, where x0, 1
((
(
0
(
0
(
+1)x(x1)0
Since,
Consider
0, where x
, 2
((
((
0
((
0
((
0
(())(()
((
))(
0: completing the square
(x(
))(x(2)(x2)(x(2+))0
We will consider each interval as follows.
1) x2+ (x(
))(x(2)(x2)(x(2+))0 is to be true.
2) 2<x2+ (x(
))(x(2)(x2)(x(2+))0 is to be false.
3) 2 x<2(x(
))(x(2)(x2)(x(2+))0 is to be true.
4) 
x2 (x(
))(x(2)(x2)(x(2+))0 is to be false.
5) x
(x(
))(x(2)(x2)(x(2+))0 is to be true.
Therefore, the answer is (, 
)[ 2, 2)[2+, )
Point 4 is left the showing as an exercise.
In general cases assume that we have the following inequalities.
1 (xa)(xb)(xc)(xd)(xe)(xf)(xg) will acquire that the answer is
x(,a)(b,c)(d,e)(f,g)
2 (xa)(xb)(xc)(xd)(xe)(xf)(xg) will acquire that the answer is
x(a,b)(c,d)(e,f)(g,)
3 for symbol and can be considered similarly
From all above can write the following theorem.
Theorem 42 let a, b, c, d, e , where a<b<c<d<e then will acquire that
1 (xa)(xb)<0x(a, b) 2 (xa)(xb)(xc)<0x(, a)(b, c)
3 (xa)(xb)(xc)(xd)<0x(a, b)(c, d)
4 (xa)(xb)(xc)(xd)(xe)<0x(, a)(b, c)(d, e)
5 (xa)(xa)>0x(, a)(b, ) 6 (xa)(xb)(xc)>0x(a, b)(c, )
7 (xa)(xb)(xc)(xd)>0x(, a)(b, c)(d, )
8 (xa)(xb)(xc)(xd)(xe)>0x(a, b)(c, d)(e, )
And if
<
<
<
<...<
)(x
)(x
)(x
)...(x
)<0x(
)(
)...(
), n is even.
10 (x
)(x
)(x
)(x
)...(x
)<0x(,
)(
)...(
), n is odd.
11 (x
)(x
)(x
)(x
)...(x
)>0x(,
)(
)...(
, ), n is even.
12 (x
)(x
)(x
)(x
)...(x
)>0x(
)(
)...(
, ), n is odd.
Proof 1() as a<b implies (x<a<b) or (a<x<b) or (a<b<x), x
And, since (xa)(xb)<0 so will obtain a<x<b
Therefore, x(a, b)
( ) x(a, b) implies a<x<b implies (a<x) and (x<b)
And make xa>0, xb<0 so, (xa)(xb)<0
For the all remaining are left the proof as exercises.
4 Solving inequalities that lie in pattern (
{
, m, n and ab
By considering even and odd of m and n respectively as follows
1 (
0 (
<0 or (
=0
8 (
0 (
>0 or (
=0
From 8 expressions above see obviously that can solve easy inequalities.
Example18 Find the solution set of each of the following
1 (
0 2 (
0
Solution 1 (
0 (
>0 or (
=0
[x10 and x3>0] or [x1=0 or x3=0]
x>3 or x=3x3[3, ) is a solution set
2 (
0 (
<0 or (
=0
(x2)(x5)<0 or [x2=0 or x5=0]
2<x<5 or [x=2 or x=5]2x5[2, 5] is a solution set
2.8 Absolute Value
Consider the distance from zero to a and a on a figure below.
We find that it is equal to a and (a)=a respectively as the distance always has value
is to be positive.
Definition13 Absolute value of a signify the distance from zero to a and be written by
={
Its properties that is important.
1  0 2 = 3  a and  a
4  =  5 = 6 
=


, b0
7 
=
8   + 9   
10     11
=
Proof 1  0
It is to be true along definition13
2 =
When a0, =a=(a)= and a<0, =a=
Thence, =
3  a and  a
a a
When a0, =aa and =aa and a<0, =aa and =aa
Thence,  a and  a
4  = 
It is to be true along points 2
5 =
When a0, b0, =ab= and a<0, b<0 =ab=(a)(b)=
When a<0, b0, =ab=(a)b= and a0, b<0 is same
When a=0 or b=0 it is to be true sure. It is sufficient that will conclude that
=
6 
=


, b0
Consider 
=
= 
=

=


, b0
Thence, 
=


, b0
7 
=
Consider 
= ==
Thence, 
=
8   +
Since, a  and a , b  and b 
So, a+b + and (a+b) +
But,  =(a+b) or (a+b)
Hence,   +
9   
Consider =(   + and then   
Thence,   
10    
Consider =(   + and then   = 
Therefore,    and   
But  = or 
Thence,    
11
=
When a0,
=(
=a=
Thence,
=
Example19 Prove that if ab>0 then  =+ and if ab<0 then  <+
Proof 1 ab>0a>0, b>0 or a<0, b<0
1.1 a>0, b>0 will obtain a+b>0,  =a+b=+
1.2 a<0, b<0 will obtain (a+b)>0,  =(a+b)=a+(b)=+
Therefore, if ab>0 then  =+
2 ab<0a>0, b<0 or a<0, b>0
2.1 a>0, b<0 will obtain +=a+(b) which will consider three cases as
follows.
2.1.1 a+b=0 will obtain  =a+b<a+(b)=+
2.1.2 a+b>0 will obtain  =a+b<a+(b)=+
2.1.3 a+b<0 will obtain  =(a+b)=a+(b)<a+(b)=+
2.2 prove similarly 2.1
Therefore, if ab<0 then  <+
Example 20 Let a[4, 2] and b[2, 5], show that   22
Show Since a[4, 2] and b[2, 5] will get 3a[12, 6] and 2b[4, 10]
And then  12 and  10
Finally, we have   + 12+10=22
2.9 Equations in pattern of Absolute value
The following are added properties which have to select use appropriately in solving
each equation having sign of absolute value.
Theorem 43 Let a0 and x will obtain that
=ax=a or x=a
Proof () x0 will obtain =x=a and x<0 will obtain =x=a, x=a
() x=a or x=ax=a will get =a
Therefore, =ax=a or x=a
Theorem 44 Let a, b will obtain that
= a=b or a=b
Proof () a=b or a=b = or ==
()= will get a=b, a=b, a=b or a=b
So, a=b or a=b
Therefore, = a=b or a=b
Theorem 45 Let a, b will obtain that
= (ab)(a+b)=0
Proof ()= 
=
=0
(ab)(a+b)=0
Therefore, = (ab)(a+b)=0
Theorem 46 Let a, b will obtain that
=b b0 and
Proof ()=b will obtain 
, where b0
That is
, where b0
()
Theorem 47 Let a, b will obtain that
=b b0 and (ab)(a+b)=0
Proof assigned as an exercise.
Example 21 Find the answer of each of the following.
1  =

2


=2 3  = 
4  =3x+7 5  =x1
Solution 1  =

will get  =
=2, where x0
From theorem 41,
+x=2 or 2
And then
+x=2 or
+x=2
Hence,
+x2=0 or
+x+2=0
Now, afterward (x1(x+2)=0 and ((
Finally, the answer is {2, 1}
2


=2 will obtain  =2 , where x3
From theorem42 3x2=2x+6 or 3x2= 2x6, where x3
That is x=8 or x=
, 8}
3  =  will obtain (2x+1)(5x2)=0: Theorem 43
Hence, x=
}
4  =3x+7 will get (
=(
, where 3x+70
Afterward will get
6x+9=9
Finally, its answer is 1 and written by {1}
5  =x1 will get ((2x3)(x1))((2x3)+(x1))=0, where x10
So, (x2)(3x4)=0, where x1
Finally, we have the answer is {
, 2}
In the following example will use definition and  =+ ab0
Example 22 Solve the following equations
1  =+3 2  =+2 3  + =2
Solution 1  =+3 will get  =+ 2x(3)0
Therefore, the answer is [0, )
2  =+2 will get  (=+ 3x(2)06x0
Therefore, the answer is (, 0]
3  + =2
Consider  ={
 ={
There are intervals that have to consider respectively as follows.
(, 3], [3, 5] and [5, )
1 (, 3] will get 3x+5x=262x=0x=3(, 3]
2 [3, 5] will get x3+5x=22=2x[3, 5][3, 5]
3 [5, ) will get x3+x5=22x=10x=5[5, )
Therefore, the answer is [3, 5]
2.10 Inequality in pattern of Absolute value
Solving these inequalities have to use properties of added absolute value and that
Is important has to select cleverly.
Theorem 48 Let a, b will obtain that
1 <bb<a<b and 2  bbab
3 >ba>b or a<b and 2  bab or ab
Proof 1 ()<b will get a<<b and a<<b which make b<a<b
() b<a<b will get a<b and a<b but =a or a, so <b
2 Assigned as an exercise.
3 ()>b will get a>b or a>b that is a>b or a<b
() a>b or a<b will get a<b or a>b but  =a or a, so >b
4 Assigned as an exercise.
Theorem 49 Let a, b will obtain that
1 <
<
2  
Proof Assigned as an exercises.
Example 23 Solve the following inequalities
1  <x+1 2   2x1 3  >x+2 4   3x+2
5 x<  x+1 6

7 
>2 8   + >3
9

<x 10


5 11


0 12


6
Solution 1  <x+1 will get x1<2x3<x+1 which make x1<2x3 and 2x3<x+1,
x>1 we see that
, 4)
2   2x1 will get 12x3x+12x1 which make 12x3x+1 and
3x+12x+1 we see that (x0 and x2) and x
Therefore, the answer is
3  >x+2 will get 2x3>x+2 or 2x3<x2 which make x>
or x<1
Therefore, the answer is (, 1)(
, )
4   3x+2 will get 2x3x+2 or 2x3x2 which make x0 or x2
Therefore, the answer is (, 0]
5 x<  x+1 will get x<  and   x+1
Consider x<  3x2>x or 3x2<xx>1 or x<
And   x+1x13x2x+1x13x2 and 3x2x+1x
and x
Therefore, the answer is [
]((,
)(1, ))=[
)(1,
]
6

>2 >  (
>(
, where x1
2x+1>4
+8x+43
+10x+3<0(3x+1)(x+3)<03<x<
Therefore, the answer is (3, 1)(1, 
)
8   + >3 have to consider   and   along its
Definition  ={
and  ={
So there are intervals that have to consider to be (,
], [
, 1] and [1, )
When x(,
(, 
) is to be true.
When x[
[1, ) is to be true.
Therefore, the answer is (, 
)[1, )
9

<x3<xx<3(, 1) is to be true.
When x(1, ) will get
(
<x3<xx<3 is to be false. ()
Therefore, the answer is (, 1) =(, 1)
10


5 have to consider   and   along its definition.
 ={
and  ={
, x2, 0
So there are intervals that have to consider to be (, 1], [1,
], [
, )
When x(, 1] will get
50(x+6)(x+2)0,
x2[6, 2) is to be true as ((6, 2)(, 1])
When x[1,
] will get
50
0(8x2)x0, x0
(0,
] is to be true as ((0,
][1,
]
When x[
, ) will get
50
0(2x+2)x0, x0
[1, 0) is to be false as ([
, )[1, 0)=)
Therefore, the answer is [6, 2)(0,
] =[6, 2)(0,
]
11


0 have to consider  and   along its definition.
={
and  ={
, x3, 1
So there are intervals that have to consider to be (, 1], [1, 0], [0, )
When x(, 1] will get
0(x+1)(x+3)03<x1,
x3(3, 1] is to be true as ((3, 1](, 1])
When x[1, 0] will get
0(x+1)(x1)0x>1 or x1,
x1(1, )(, 1] is to be false as ([1, 0]((1, )(, 1])=)
When x[0, ) will get
=10, x1 is to be false. ()
Therefore, the answer is (3, 1] =(3, 1]
12


6 have to consider   and   along its definition.
 ={
and  ={
, x1
So there are intervals that have to consider to be (, 1], [1, 2], [2, )
When x(, 1] will get
60(5x+13)(x+1)0
x<1
[
, 1)=[
, 1)
When x[1, 2] will get
60(7x1)(x+1)01<x
(1,
] is to be true as (1,
] [1, 2]
When x[2, ) will get
60(5x+3)(x+1)01<x
(1, 
] is to be false as (1, 
][2, )=
Therefore, the answer is (1,
](1,
] =(1,
](1,
]
Exercise two
1 Let a, b and ab=1ab, test that the operator possess whether closure
communicative associative identity inverse and distributive properties.
2 Prove that the sum of rational number and irrational number is irrational number.
3 Prove that the product of irrational number and nonzero rational number is
Irrational N.
4 Let a, b, c, d , where b, d0 Prove that
ad=bc
5 Prove that a {}
6 Let p(x)=
+b
9
+a
2 xa is a factor of
3 x+a is a factor of
4 xa is a factor of
10 Solve the following equations.
1
2
+x+4=0 2 2
3
7x6=0
3 3
16
+25x12=0 4
16
+86
176x+105=0
5
2
12x8=0 6 36
+96
215
75
+74x+24=0
11 Show that each of the following numbers is irrational numbers.
1
2 
12 Prove that if a.0 b>0 and ab then
>2
13 If a<b<c and x<y<z, prove that 1 x+a<b+y<c+z and 2 az<by<cx
14 Let a, b, c, x, y and z
<
<
15 Prove that if a
then a+
2
16 Let a, b , a<b, prove that a<
<b
17 Each rational N. has to lie between two integers in order that always continue.
18 Let a, b , where a<b, prove that there exists c that make a<c<b
19 Let a, b , where a<b, prove that there exists c
+4
>4ab
25 Show that if a
then a+
2
26 Let A={  }, B={  } and C={  }
Find AB, AC, BA, BC, (
, (
, A(AC), ( (
, ( (
27 Let
=(
],
=(
] and
=(
, n] Find
), (
)(
(
, (
)(
),
(
(
))))
28 Solve the following inequalities.
1
4x+40 2
0
3
5 1<
3 6 (x1)(
<0
7
((
(
0 8
((
((
0
9 3 10 >x4
29 Let a<0, b<0 and a<x<b show that

<

<

30 Let a , n show that 
=
31 Solve the following equations having absolute value.
1  =3x+1 2 
=
3 
=  4  =43x
5  =2x3 6 
=
+5
7  =

8  + =3
9  ++ =7 10


=2
32 Solve the following inequalities having absolute value.
1 x<  2 2

2
3


0 4  + >3
5 <   6 + + =5
7

0 8


0
9 
<
+6 10 
<
+4x
33 The given a<xb, a
and b
34 The given  <5 and   7, find an interval that satisfies it.
35 The given   3 and   8, find intervals that satisfy it.
36 The given 7<x<12 and 7<y<3, write solution graph of
37 Prove all theorems that are left the proof
Lesson Three
Principal theory of numbers
The following will say to some special property of integers are division which consist of
exact division and non division. Exact division leads to involved theorem Greatest
Common divisor, Least Common multiple and its application.
Nondivision leads to division Algorithm
its partition or residue class and its application.
3.1 Exact Division
Definition1 Let a, b , where a0
b is divided exactly by a or b is divisible by a or a is a factor of b if and only if
there exists c such that b=ac, a0 called a is a divisor of b, called c is a
quotient of b by a and called b the multiple of a which is written by
Remark:1 b is nondivisible by a if and only if there doesnt exist c such that b=ac
And is written by b
2 when a0 will obtain that , , , and a=1
Its properties
Theorem 1 Let a, b, c and a, b0 will obtain that
If and then
Proof Since and at last b=ax and c=by, x, y
Afterward, c=by=(ax)y=a(xy)=ak, k=xy
Therefore,
Theorem 2 Let a, b , b>0 will obtain that
If then ab
Proof Since will obtain b=ax, x
1
st
a<0a>0, x<0x>0x1
Consider x1(a)(x)=axa>aab
2
nd
a>0a1, x>0x1
Consider x1axaab
Theorem 3 Let a, b , where a0, b0 will obtain that
and a=b
Proof () and at last b=ax and a=by, x, y
Consider b=ax=(by)x=b(xy)xy=1x=1 and y=1 or x=1 and y=1
Therefore, a=b or a=b
() we see obviously is to be true.
Theorem 4 Let a, b and b0 will get that
If then  
Proof It is left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 5 Let a, b and a0 will get that
If and > then b=0
Proof will acquire b=ax, x at last ==
But since > will acquire >
So that > at last 1>
Now, we have x=0
Finally, we conclude b=a(0)=0
Theorem 6 Let a, b, c , where a0 will acquire that
If and then (
Proof It is left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 7 Let a, b, c , where a0 will acquire that
If ( and then
Proof It is left the proof as an exercise.
3.2 Prime and Composite numbers
Aristotle and Euclid separated the natural numbers that are greater than 1 are two
partitions
Include with prime numbers and composite numbers.
Definition 2 The integer p is called prime number if and only if p 1 and if a, b
And p=ab then a=1 or b=1
={2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37,...}
Definition 3 The integer c is called composite number if and only if there exist a, b
Which 1<ab<n such that c=ab
={4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25...}
Theorem 8 n , where n>1
There is prime number p such that
Proof To see on text of theory of number
Theorem 9 (The fundamental theorem of Arithmetic)
For all elements of natural numbers that are greater than one can write in
Type of multiplication of prime numbers only type except commutative of
multiplier or be multiplication by 1
Let n , n>1 will get that n can write in this type
n=
...
, where
i{1, 2, 3, 4,...,k}
and
, ...,
<
<
<...<
and can
write only one type.
Proof To see on text of theory of number
Lemma1 Let n , n>1 and n=
...
, where
i{1, 2, 3, 4,...,k}
Will acquire that the number of all factors of n are (
+1)(
+1)...(
+1)
Proof it is assigned as an exercise.
Theorem 10 If n then there exists p which p
Proof To see on text of theory of number
Theorem 11 There are prime numbers are to be infinite.
Proof To see on text of theory of number
Example 1 1 Prove that if ( and ( then
2 Prove that if ( and ab then ac
3 If n {0}, Prove that if and only if the sum of digits of n is divided
exactly by 3
Proof 1 ( will obtain ( but (
So that (( ( at last
2 Assume that will get c=ay,y but (
So that will get b+c=ax, x
Consider b+c=b+ay=ax at last b=a(xy)=ak, xy
Therefore, () arise a contradiction
3 Let n=
, where
n=
+...+
=(999...9+1)
+(999...9+1)
+...+(99+1)
+(9+1)
=(999...9
+999...9
+999...9
+...+99
+9
)+(
+...+
)
And since and (
+999...9
+999...9
+...+99
+9
)
So that (
+...+
)
3.3 Division Algorithm
Since the consequence arise from addition multiplication subtraction and division
Have to be unique so we have to define remainder that arises from division as follows.
Consider the following expressions.
=4+
14=(4.3)+2
=4+
14=(4)(3)+2
=5+
14=(5)(3)+1
=5+
14=5(3)+1
=5+
15=5.3
=5+
15=(5)(3)
=5+
15=5(3)
We see obviously that the remainder arise from division has to be greater than or
Equal to be zero and be less than absolute value of divisor.
Theorem 12 (Division Algorithm)
If a, b , where b0 then there exists q, r only one pair such that
a=bq+r, 0r 
Called q is to be quotient, r is to be remainder
Proof To see on text of theory of numbers
From division algorithm above we find that for all x when is divided by b , where
b>0 will have a remainder r is unique which r{0, 1, 2, 3,..., (b1)}
Afterward we can conclude that the integers are partitioned to be b1 sets as follows.
={ 
={ 
={ 
={ 
={ 
},...,
={ 
( }
For convenience we substitute
We can lead property above for proving theorem and problem involving integers.
3.4 Even and Odd numbers
The integers are partitioned is to be two sets are set of even and set of odd
Definition 4 Let k will acquire that
1 k is even number if and only if k=2i, I
2 k is odd number if and only if k=2j+1, j
Therefore, ={  } and ={  }, where =
Example 2 Show that 1 if k is odd number then
and
2
(
1=(
1=16
+8q=4(4
+2q)
And when k=4k+3 then
1=(
1=16
+24q+8=4(4
+6q+2)
Therefore,
=
(
=(
When k=3q+1 then
(
=
((
=
((
=(3q+1)(3
+2q+1)
When k=3q+2 then
(
=
((
=
((
=(3q+1)(3
+4q+2)
Therefore,
(
)+(1.
)+(1.
)+(1.
)+(1.2)+1
234=(1.
)+(4.
)+(1.5)+4
In general can write positive integer n in distributive pattern by the theorem below.
Theorem 13 Let b ,b>1 and n will acquire that n can write in distributive pattern
Of base b, where n=
+...+
b+
When k and
0
Proof by means of division algorithm when dividing n by b will obtain quotient and
remainder is
and
, 0
<b............................. (1)
Next divide
by b will obtain
=b
, 0
<b........................... (2)
It do like this to go on until obtain quotient is to be zero.
=b
, 0
<b
=b
, 0
<b
.
.
=b
, 0
<b
=b.0+
, 0
<b...................... (3)
And since n>
>
>
>
=b(b
)+
b+
(b
)+
b+
b+
.
.
=
+...+
b+
+...+
b+
And from (3)
So that n=
+...+
b+
For convenience write (
replace
+...+
b+
Example 4 Write 142 and 259 in distributive pattern of base 5, 9 respectively.
Solution by theorem above we have
142=(5.28)+2 when substitute back will acquire 142=(5.28)+2
28=(5.5)+3 =5((5.5)+3)+2
5=(5.1)+0 =(
5)+(3.5)+2
1=(5.0)+1 =
(5.1+0)+(3.5)+2
=(
.1)+(
.0)+ (3.5)
Therefore, 142=(
.1)+(
.0)+ (3.5)+2=(
259=(9.28)+7 when substitute back will acquire 259=(9.28)+7
28=(9.3)+1 =9((9.3)+1)+7
3=(9.0)+3 =(3
)+(1.9)+7
Therefore, 259=(3
)+(1.9)+7=(
When a, b will be possible the following two cases are ab or ba
Definition 5 Given a, b will acquire that
1 Maximum of a and b is written by Max{a, b}, and
Max{a, b}=C, where C=a, when ab or C=b, when b a
2 Minimum of a and b is written by Min{a, b}, and
Min{a, b}=d, where d=a, when ab or d=b, when ba
3.5 The Greatest Common Divisor
Definition 6 Provide a and b is integers, call an integer c>0 with can divide exactly
Both a and b is to be common divisor of a and b
Or when a, b, c , where c>0
c is common divisor of a, b if and only if and
Definition 7 Let a and b is integers, where a and b isnt simultaneous zero.
The positive integer d is called the greatest common divisor of a and b
If and only if d is common divisor that is greatest.
And written by (a, b)=d (G.C.D)
That is, 1 and and
2 if and the cd
Remark: From definition we can show that
1 2 (a, 0)=a 3 if then (a, b)=a
4 (a, b, c)=((a, b), c) 5 (a, b, c)(a, b) 6 (a, b)= (a, a+b)
3.6 Finding G. C. D of integers a and b
1 Prime Factorization by The fundamental theorem of Arithmetic
When a>0, b>0 we can write and when a<0 or b<0 we use  or 
Consider a=
and b=
Where each integer
which
0 and
=Min{
}
Interpret:
, when
and
, when
Example 5 Find G.C.D of 10,500 and 4,900 by the fundamental theorem of Arithmetic
Solution Since 10,500=
and 4,900=
So that (10,500, 4,900)=
=700
2 Euclidean Algorithms
Euclid used process of division algorithm for finding G.C.D of nonzero integers a, b
which has to use the following lemma.
Lemma 2 Let a, b , where a0, b0 and a=bq+r, 0<r< will acquire that
(a, b)=(b, r)
Proof Let d=(a, b) and k=(b, r)
() d=(a, b) and ( , k=(b, r)
() k=(b, r) and , d=(a, b)
From () and () can conclude (a, b)=(b, r) as d>0 and k>0
Theorem 14 (Euclidean Algorithm)
Let a, b , where a>0 will acquire that there are
,...,
,...
, 0<
<a
a=
, 0<
<
, 0<
<
.
.
.
, 0<
<
, 0<
<
+0
And (a, b)=
Proof 1 If b=ac+0, c
From lemma above will obtain that (a, b)=(a, 0)=a
2 If ab by division algorithm will obtain that there exist
such that
b=a
, 0<
<a
According to reality that there exist positive integers that are less than a are to be finite.
And use repeatedly to doing of division algorithm will acquire that there exist
,...,
,...
that make
a=
, 0<
<
, 0<
<
.
.
.
, 0<
<
, 0<
<
+0
By using lemma above will obtain that (a, b)=(b,
)=...=(
)=(
, 0)=
From the Euclidean Algorithm will acquire that (a, b)=dd=ax+by, x, y
For finding x and y can do by elimination remainder
,...,
from equations
Above which there is a method as follows.
Beginning from
)
=
(1+
)+
(
).................(1)
It will see that equation (1) show to writing
and
Next step it do repeatedly like this to go on which will eliminate remainders
,...,
Respectively at last will obtain the equation that show to writing
in the pattern of
The sum of a and b but
is G.C.D of a and b
That is, this method make we know value of x and y that make (a, b)=ax+by
Example 6 Find G.C.D of 321, 123 and x, y that make (321, 123)=321x+123y
Solution by Euclidean algorithm we have
321=(2.123)+75 and 3=21(6.3)
123=(1.75)+48 =21(2721.1)3=2127.3+21.3
75=(1.48)+27 =(4827.1)27.3+(4827.1)3
48=(1.27)+21 =4827.127.3+48.327.3=48.427.7
27=(1.21)+6 =48.4(7548.1)7=48.475.7+48.7=48.1175.7
21=(3.6)+3 =(12375.1)1175.7=123.1175.1175.7=123.1175.18
6=(2.3)+0 =123.11(321123.2)18=123.11321.18+123.36
Therefore, (321, 123)=3 =123.47+321(18)
And x=18, y=47
Definition 8 Let
,...,
,...,
and written by (
,...,
)=D
Or 1
, i {1, 2,..., k}
And 2 If
,...,
)=((
),
,...,
)=((
),...,
)
Example 7 Find G.C.D of 30, 42, 60 and 84
Solution (30, 42, 60, 84)=((30, 42), (60, 84))
=(6, 12)=6
Example 8 Find the greatest positive integer that divide 373, 472 and 783 and then
There is remainder is to be 9, 10 and 13 respectively.
Solution Let x is that greatest positive integer.
From the given information we have
373=xa+93739=364=ax
472=xb+1047210=462=xb
783=xc+1378313=770=xc
From 3 equations above we find that x has to be G.C.D of 364, 462 and 770
That is x=(364, 462, 770)=((364, 462), 770)
=((28.13, 28.16), 770)=(28, 770)
=(14.2, 14.55)=14
Therefore, the greatest positive integer is 14
Example 9 Prove that if then (a, b)(a, c), a, b, c , where a0, b0
Proof Since c=bk, k so (a, c)=(a, bk)
Let (a, b)=d and (a, bk)=t we have to show that
As (a, b)=d and and k
And (a, bk)=t and
Conclude that , where d>0, t>0
From theorem2 will acquire dt
That is (a, b)(a, c)
3.7 Relatively Prime Numbers
Naturally when a and b are prime numbers will acquire that (a, b)=1
Next although integer a will not be prime number can find integer b that make (a, b)=1
And say that a and b are relatively prime numbers
Definition 9 The given a and b are integers
a and b are relatively primes if and only if (a, b)=1
Example 10 Show that 3x+1, 4x+1 and 4x1, 7x+2 are relatively prime numbers
Showing Since (3x+1, 4x+1)=d ( and (
From theorem6 will get (( (( )
Now, we have but d>0 so d=1
Therefore, 3x+1, 4x+1 is relatively prime numbers
For 4x1, 7x+2 can show similarly.
Theorem 15 The integers a and b are relatively prime numbers if and only if
There exist integers x and y such that 1=ax+by
Proof () Let (a, b)=1 from Euclidean algorithm there exist integers x and y
That make 1=ax+by
() Let (a, b)=d and ( , x, y
But 1=ax+by so
And since d>0 so d=1
That is, (a, b)=d=1
Therefore, integers a and b are relatively prime numbers
Theorem 16 The given a, b and p will acquire that
If then or
Proof Assume that pa(p, a)=11=px+ay, x, y
b=(bp)x+(ba)y
And, since, ( and (
Therefore,
Theorem 17 The given a, b, c, m will acquire that
1 If (a, m)=(b, m)=1 then (ab, m)=1
2 If (a, m)=1 and then (b, m)=1
3 If and (a, b)=1 then
4 If and , where (a, b)=1 then
Proof All are left the proof as exercises.
3.8 Least Common Multiple
A common multiple of integers from two numbers are the integer with is divided exactly
by those integers. From the expression above, we find that when the given integers
from two numbers then there exists obviously its common multiple at the least
one is the product of them.
Definition10 The given a, b , where a0, b0
1 Integers h>0 are called that are to be common multiple of a, b
If and only if h is divided exactly by a and b
2 the integer m is called that is to be least common multiple of a, b if and only
if m is the least positive integer with is divided exactly by a and b
And written by [a, b], (L.C.M)
That is the positive integer m is L.C.M of a and b if and only if
1 and and
2 If and then h
3.9 Finding L.C.M of integers a and b
1 Prime Factorization by The fundamental theorem of Arithmetic
When a>0, b>0 we can write and when a<0 or b<0 we use  or 
Consider a=
and b=
Where each integer
which
0 and
=Max{
}
Interpret:
, when
and
, when
Example 11 Find G.C.D of 10,500 and 4,900 by the fundamental theorem of Arithmetic
Solution Since 10,500=
and 4,900=
So that [10,500, 4,900]=
=147,000
Theorem 18 The given a, b , where a0, b0 will acquire that
If and , where c , c>0 then [ ]
Proof It is left the proof as an exercise.
Definition11 Let
,...,
,...,
and written by [
,...,
]=M
Or 1
, i {1, 2,..., k}
And 2 If
,...,
]=[[
],
,...,
]=[[
],...,
]
Example 12 Find G.C.D of 30, 42, 60 and 84
Solution [30, 42, 60, 84]=[[30, 42], [60, 84]]
=[210, 420]=420
Theorem 19 The given a, b , where a0, b0 will acquire that
[a, b](a, b)=ab
Proof since [a, b]=[,] and (a, b)=(, )
So it is sufficiency that will show only a>0 and b>0
Let [ ] m and m
dx b
m by
dy a
Let c Where, , ci, b ,we will show that
SO dy
yj xi
But ( so
And since cj b and m ax it will get cj b
dx
Hence cxk dx ck d that is d (
Therefore m
md ab [ ]( ab
Or since when a>0, b>0 we can write and when a<0 or b<0 we use  or 
Consider a=
and b=
Where each integer
which
0 and
=Min{
}
And will acquire [a, b]=
=Max{
}
We see obviously (a, b)[a, b]=
= (
)(
)
=ab
Example 13 1 Find the least positive integer with is divided by 5, 7, 9 and 12 will have
The remainders are to be 3, 4, 1 and 7 respectively
2 Prove that if ab>0 then [a, b]ab
Solution 1 Let x is the least positive integer
So, x=5m+3, m
=7n+4, n
=9p+1, p
=12q+7, q
And x+2=5m+5(x+2)+15=(5m+5)+15=5(m+4)
=7n+6(x+2)+15=(7n+6)+15=7(n+3)
=9p+3(x+2)+15=(9p+3)+15=9(p+2)
=12q+9(x+2)+15=12q+9)+15=12(q+2)
From 4 equations above will obtain that x+17 is common multiple of 5, 7, 9 and 12
And since x is the least positive integer with is divided by 5, 7, 9 and 12 will have
The remainders are to be 3, 4, 1 and 7 respectively.
So, x+17 is the least common multiple of 5, 7, 9 and 12 which is 1260
Now, we have x+17=1260x=1243
Therefore, the least positive integer that requires to be 1243
2 Since ab>0(a, b)[a, b]=ab
And ab>0a0b0(a, b)1
[a, b](a, b)[a, b]
Therefore, [a, b]ab
Exercise
1 Prove theorem 4 2 Prove theorem 6
3 Prove theorem 7 4 Prove lemma1
5 Prove theorem 17 6 Prove theorem18
7 Show that (
and (
8 Show that (
, (
a)
9 The given N=
...
2)
3)
=0 or 5 4) and
5) (
...
2
)
6) (
) 7) (
...+
)
8)
=0 9) (
+(
)
10) And
10 Write all factors of 450
11 Find all the numbers being divisors of (
12 Show that the square of all integers can write in from of 3k or 3k+1
13 Change (
} which make
2 (
17 Find all numbers lying between 1300 when are divided by 6, 8 and 9, there are
Remainders are to be 3, 3 and 6 respectively.
18 Find integers x, y the make (453, 651)=453x+651y by means of theorem14,
19 Find 10 of prime numbers that can be written in form of 5k+4, k>0
20 Prove that if p is prime number and
then
21 Show that xy[(x, y) is relatively primes], =
22 Prove that when d=(a, b) and c is a factor of a and b
23 Show that 1(a, b)a or b
24 Prove that if (a, b)=1 then (a,
)=1, (
, b)=1
25The given a0, b0 and k prove that (am, bm)=m(a, b)
26 Prove that if a, b and (a, b)=d then (
)=1
27 Prove that (a, b, c)=((a, b), c), (a, b)=(a, a+b), (a, b, c)(a, b), (a, c), (b, c)
28 Prove that if a is even and b is odd then (a, b)=(
, b)
29 Prove that if (a, b)=1 then (ab, a+b)=1 or 2
30 Prove that if (a, b)=(a, c)=1 then (a, bc)=1
31 Show that (8x+3, 3x+1)=1, (2x1, 3x+1)=1
32 Find the greatest positive integer that divide 291, 395, 551 and 655, there is
There is remainder is to be equal.
33 Show that 1[a, b]ab, ab>0
34 Prove that if a, b then [a, b]=ab(a, b)=1
35 Prove that if a, b then [a, b]=(a, b)a=b
36 Prove that if then [a, b][a, c]
37 Prove that (a, b)[a, b]
38 Prove that [a, b], [a, c], [b, c][a, b, c] and [a, b, c]=[[a, b], c]
39 Show that if a is divided by b, there is q and r is quotient and remainder respectively
then
(a) is divided by b, there is (q+1) and (br) is quotient and remainder respectively.
Appendix A
Exponential notation and its application
Exponential notation is the symbol writing to substitute repeated multiple of
designated numbers.
Definition 1 Let a and
a to the power of n is written by
and defined by
= (nterms)
=3333 (
=(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)
Its properties when a, b and m, n
1
=
(
2
=(
3 (
4 (
={
Proof 5) case 1 when m=n will obtain that
=1
Case 2 when m>n will obtain that
Case 3 when n>m will obtain that
(
=
1), 2), 3), 4) can be proved by its definition
Exponential numbers with the exponent is to be negative integer
Definition 2 Let a, b and a, b0 will obtain that
1
=1 and 2
, when
Its properties when a, b {} and
1
=
(
2
=(
3 (
4 (
Proof to prove the same five points above providing that if m or n is negative
Integers then let m=p and n=q
Each of the following point is the important identities of exponential notation.
1 The sum and difference of exponential notation
1)
0 2)
((+) 3)
(+)(
+
)
4)
()(
++
) 5)
()(+)(
)=()(
)
6)
( +)(
)
7)
()(
)
8)
)(
), when n is to be even.
9)
()(
+...+
), n is to be odd.
10)
(+)(
+...
)
Notice: what we can see to be that 2
nd
terms of
and
while n is to be odd
Are greater than or equal to zero
2 The exponential numbers having its base are the sum or difference of two real N.
Considering
=(
, when x=a+b, n
And
=(
, when y=a+b, n
1) (
++
2) (
 +
3) (
4) (
5) (
6) (
7) (
8) (
9) (
+(
+(
+...+(
+(
+(
10) (
(
+(
...+(
(
+(
11) (
(
+(
...(
+(
(
Remark: 1For ended term of (
++
 +
10
11
+
(

(
+...
+...+
(

12
+
(
+
(
+...+
+...+
(
+
13
+...+
+...
14
+...+
+...+
Remark: what we can notice to be that if highest power is to be  will has midterm
is
always.
Proof
++
+(
=(
Use completing the square to a perfect square.
3
=(
)+
 (
): regrouping term
=
( ) +
++
): identity of exponential N.
=(
++
=(
)+(
)  (
)
=
(  )+
 +
) 
(  )
=(  )(
) +
 +
)
=(
)+
 +
)
8
=(
)+(
)+
+(
)+(
)
=
(+)+
(+)+
(+)+
(+)
=(+)(
)+
=(+)(
)+
))+
=(+)(
)(
)+
=(+)(+)(
)(
)+
=(
)(
)+
=(
)+(
)+(
)(
)(
)
=
()+
()+
+
)
()
()
=()(
)+
+
)
=()((
)(
))+
+
)
=()((
)
)) +
+
)
=() ()(
)(
)+
+
)
=(
)(
)+
+
)
For the proof from 11 to 14 have to use the following theorem and method of proof.
1 Theorem 1 (2
nd
Principle of mathematical induction)
Let P( replace the expression involving positive integer n, if
1 P( is to be true.
And 2 If P( is to be true for all positive integer k that
Then P( is to be true
It will acquire that P( is to be true for all positive integer n.
2 Method of method be called proof by case, as [(pr)(qr)][(pq)r] is to be
Tautology which those are left the proof as an exercise
The following theorems result from its definition and identities above.
Theorem 2 let , and , it will obtain that
1
And 3 if ,
Proof 1() suppose that

( )(
+...+
++)
And as,
+...+
++>0
>
Therefore,
is to be true.
() suppose that
And as,
+...+
++>0
( )(
+...+
++)
 1>0
Therefore,
is to be true.
3 () suppose that ( )( )
Case 1 if ( )(
+...+
++)
And as,
is to be true.
() suppose that
is to be true.
From () and () conclude that
is to be true.
For (2) to be left by you
Theorem 3 let will obtain that
1
, is to be odd
2
, is to be even.
3
, is to be even.
Proof 3 () suppose that is to be true
Consider
)(
)
( )(
)(
)
As,
Therefore,
Case 2 , where and are to be primes, is to be composite N.
Considering
)(
)
((
)(
)
(
)( (
+(
+...+
+(
)(
)
( )(
+...+
)( (
+(
+...+
+
+(
)(
)
Therefore,
Case 3 , where p, x and y are to be primes, q is to be composite N.
Considering
((
)((
+(
)
(
)((
+(
+...+(
) )((
+(
)
((
)((
+(
+...+(
) )((
+(
)
(
)((
+(
+...+(
)
((
+(
+...+(
) )((
+(
)
( )(
+...+
) )((
+(
+...+(
)
((
+(
+...+(
) )((
+(
)
Therefore,
Case 4
)(
)
(
)(
)(
)
(
)(
)(
)(
)
...............................................................................................
...............................................................................................
...............................................................................................
( )(+)(
)... (
)(
)(
)(
)
Therefore,
From cases 1, 2, 3 if there are 2 to be a factor of is greater than one can perform
According to case 4
From case 2 if there is factors of being composites can factorize to perform
According to case 2
Therefore, it can conclude that
, is to be even.
For 1 and 3, please think about how to prove and perform to succeed by you.
Application
1 using to solve some problem with exponential number
Please study the following example.
Example 1 if
implies ,
Solution
( )(
+...+
)
And since, (
+...+
)
Therefore, if
then , is to be true
Example 2 show that (
where is to be even
Solution considering
)
(+)(
...+)
And since,
Therefore, ( (
That is, (
The problem 1 show that if
+ is to be composite.
Please show to be an exercise.
Example 3 find such that
+(
We obviously see that
Therefore, and there exists only one.
The problem 3 let , Show that
+ is to be composite N.
Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 4 find least positive integer such that
Is greater than
Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 5 find such that
Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 6 given that a, b and c are integers that are greater than or equal to 2
Show that if ( implies (
Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 7 given that a, x and y are integers that are greater than or equal to 2
Show that if implies (
Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 8 given that n , n2 show that (
(
(
)
Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 9 given that p , a show that (
Please show to be an exercise.
2 Using to test the designated polynomial function and rational function are to be
Increasing function or decreasing function.
Example 4 let ()
, ()
, ()
, ()
()
and ()
Find subsets of its domain that make are increasing
Function or decreasing function on them.
Solution 1 ()
[ ), where
) (
)
2) Let
( ), where
) (
)
From 1) and 2) can conclude that is increasing function on [ )
And decreasing function on ( )
2 ()
)+(
From defining will obtain that
)
And make its domain is divided to be two subsets are (
) and [
)
By theorem 3 points 2 and 3, we have the following
1) Let
), where
) (
)
2) Let
(
), where
) (
)
From 1) and 2) can conclude that is increasing function on [
)
And decreasing function on (
)
3 ()
, where
) (
)
Therefore, is increasing function on its entire domain.
4 ()
From define will obtain that its graph is same to be a graph of
Which arise from shift of axis from point () to (
)
By theorem 3 points 1, we have the following.
Let
, where
) (
)
Therefore, is increasing function on its entire domain.
5 ()
{},
( ), where
j(
>j(
2) Let
( ), where
j(
< j(
From 1, 2 can conclude that is decreasing function on ( )
And increasing function on ( )
6 ()
{ },
( ](0,)
From its domain and range find that have equations are
Its vertical asymptote and an equation is its horizontal asymptote
Such that its graph is separated to be three branches as follows.
1)Two rectangular hyperbola form lying above Y axis at right side of
And left side of
2) Downward parabola form being between equations and
A vertex is at (
By theorem 3 points 2 and 3, we have the following
1) Let
( ), where
>(
>0
2) Let
( ), where
<(
3.1) Let
[ ), where
) (
)
3.2) Let
( ), where
Therefore conclude that is increasing function on ( ), ( ) and is
Decreasing function on ( ), [ )
From example above at functions j and k which are rational function, we see
obviously that testing to show so difficult. Each of the following is successful pattern
that is made for using to test some rational function that is increasing function
or decreasing function on subset of its domain and for convenience, let a and b
instead of
and
respectively.
Lemma 2 Let a, b, j and k are real numbers, where j, k
and if then
2 if then
and if then
3 if then
and if then
4 if then
and
, when ,
, when
If then
and
, when ,
, when
5 if then
and if then
6 if then
and if then
7 if then
and
, when ,
, when
If then
and
, when ,
, when
8 if then
and if then
8 if then
if then
if then
if then
9 if then
if then
if then
if then
10 if then
, when
if then
, when
if then
, when
if then
, when
11 if then
, when
if then
, when
if then
, when
if then
, when
12 if then
if then
if then
if then
13 if then
, when
if then
, when
if then
, when
if then
, when
14 if then
, when
if then
, when
if then
, when
if then
, when
15 if then
if then
16 if then
if then
17 if then
, when
And
, when
if then
, when
And
, when
18 if then
and if then
19 if then
if then
20 if then
if then
21 if then
, when
and
, when
if then
, when
and
, when
22 if then
if then
23 if then
if then
24 if then
if then
25 if then
if then
26 if then
, when
and
, when
if then
, when
and
, when
Proof all are left the proof as exercises.
Caution: a and b have to be simultaneously greater than or equal to zero or
simultaneously less than zero.
The problem 10 let (=
, (
, (
, (
1 find its domain and range and
2 find subsets of its domain and shows how to test that
are increasing function or decreasing function.
Appendix B
The bearing of G. C. D and L. C. M
To prove easily by the maximum and minimum
Maximum and minimum
Definition1 Let and are any real numbers.
Maximum of and are written by Max{ }, Denoted by Max{ } {
Minimum of and are written by Min{ }, Denoted by Min{ } {
REMARK: 1. Max{ }
2. Min{ }
3. Max{ }
4. Min{ }
Theorem1 Let ,
1. Max{ } Min{ } 2. Min{ } Max{ }
3. Max{ } Min{ }
Remark: 1. Max{ } Max{ } 2. Min{ } Min{ }
Proof It is left as exercises.
Theorem 2 the following expressions are to be true.
1. Max{{ } } Max{ }
2. Min{{ } } Min{ }
3. Max{{ } } Min{{ } { }}
4. Min{{ } } Max{{ } { }}
Proof we prove only point 4 and leave the remaining as an exercises.
Case 1  o s s , we have the following
   o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
  o  o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min  o  o =
Case 2 o  s s , we have the following
o o  o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
o  o  o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min  o  o =
Case 3 o  s s , we have the following
o  o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
  o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min  o  o =
Case 4 o  s s , we have the following
 o  o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
   o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min  o  o =
Case 5  o s s , we have the following
  o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
 o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min  o  o =
Case 6  o s s , we have the following
  o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
o  o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min  o  o =
That is, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min  o  o = is to be true all cases
Similar, {{{ } }} {{ } { }}
Theorem 3 (The fundamental theorem of arithmetic)
Let a , a>1 will acquire that
k
k
p p p p a
o o o o
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
o k i , , 2 , 1 K =
Where,
<
<
<...<
, and can write only one type which is called the canonical form
Proof Hint: Utilize properties of Composite numbers, Prime numbers and exact division.
Definition 2 Let a, b , a, b>1, where
k
k
p p p p a
o o o o
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
o k i , , 2 , 1 K =
And
k
k
p p p p b
   
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
 k i , , 2 , 1 K =
The greatest common divisor of b a, is written by( ) b a, and defined by
( )
} , min{ } , min{
3
} , min{
2
} , min{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
,
k k
k
p p p p b a
 o  o  o  o
A =
And the least common multiple of b a, is written by   b a, and defined by
} , max{ } , max{
3
} , max{
2
} , max{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
] , [
k k
k
p p p p b a
 o  o  o  o
A =
For instance find (15435,2100) [15435,2100]
3 1 2 0
7 5 3 2 15435 =
1 2 1 2
7 5 3 2 2100 =
( ) 105 7 5 3 2 7 5 3 2 2100 , 15435
1 1 1 0 } 1 , 3 min{ } 2 , 1 min{ } 1 , 2 min( } 2 , 0 min{
= = =
308700 7 5 3 2 7 5 3 2 ] 2100 , 15435 [
3 2 2 2 } 1 , 3 max{ } 2 , 1 max{ } 1 , 2 max( } 2 , 0 max{
= = =
To bring a result of the theorem2 for using to prove theorem below by showing
that the powers of primes of each couple are equal.
Theorem 4 Let a, b, c and is not zero, acquire that
[(, ), ]=([, ],[, ]) and )] , ( ), , [( ) ], , ([ c b c a c b a =
Proof Let
k
k
p p p p a
o o o o
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
o k i , , 2 , 1 K =
k
k
p p p p b
   
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
 k i , , 2 , 1 K =
k
k
p p p p c
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
k i , , 2 , 1 K =
Hence,
} , max{ } , max{
3
} , max{
2
} , max{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
] , [
k k
k
p p p p b a
 o  o  o  o
A =
} }, , min{max{ } }, , min{max{
3
} }, , min{max{
2
} }, , min{max{
1
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
) ], , ([
k k k
k
p p p p c b a
 o  o  o  o
A =
And ( )
} , min{ } , min{
3
} , min{
2
} , min{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
,
k k
k
p p p p c a
o o o o
A =
( )
} , min{ } , min{
3
} , min{
2
} , min{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
,
k k
k
p p p p c b
   
A =
Hence, ( ) )] , ( , , [ c b c a
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
2
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
1
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
 o  o
p p =
A
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
3
3 3 3 3
 o
p
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
k k k k
k
p
 o
By considering powers of each prime according to the theorem2 will acquire that
}} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min
i i i i i i i
 o  o = k i , , 2 , 1 K =
Mean that the powers of prime of each couple are equal.
Therefore,
}} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , min{max{
i i i i i i i
i i
p p
 o  o
= k i , , 2 , 1 K =
That is,
} }, , min{max{ } }, , min{max{
3
} }, , min{max{
2
} }, , min{max{
1
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 k k k
k
p p p p
 o  o  o  o
A
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
2
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
1
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
 o  o
p p = A
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
3
3 3 3 3
 o
p
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
k k k k
k
p
 o
Therefore, ([a, b],c)=[(a, c),(b, c)]
For [(a, b),c]=([a, c],[b, c]) is left the proof as an exercise.