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# SUPPLEMENTS

MATHEMATICS
OF NECESSARY KNOWLEDGE
FOR TERMINAL MATHAYOMS
THAI STUDENTS (M. 30201)
AND INTERESTED PERSON
COLLECTED BY
MR. SANONG HUAYRERAI
MATHS TEACHER
RATTANAKOSINSOMPHOT
BOWONNIWET SALAYA SCHOOL
PREFACE
Supplements mathematics is designed for use in a mathe-
matics course for students in terminal mathayom of Thailand
In writing the text, we were guided by two primary objectives
that have crystallized over many years of teaching mathema-
tics and tried to append the proof of properties, theorem and
involved problems. For the student, our objective was to wri-
te in a precise, readable manner and to clearly define and d-
emonstrate the basic concepts of mathematics. For instruct-
or and interested persons, our objective was to design a co-
mprehensive teaching instrument that uses proven pedago-
gical techniques, thus freeing the instructor to make the mo-
st efficient use of classroom time.
Lastly, have to thank all my teachers, professors, workmate
and students that make this text be successful and furtherm-
ore, the goodness of this assign and refer to my father and -
mother which dont lie.
You are what you had been educated and have been
going on by oneself.
Wish well for all
Writer

CONTENTS

1Basic logic
1) Mathematics system 1
2) Propositions 1
3) Connection of propositions pattern 1
4) Finding truth value of propositions pattern 3
5) Making truth table of propositions pattern 4
6) Pattern of propositions that are logically equivalent 4
7) Negation of propositions pattern 5
8) Tautology 8
9) Reasoning 10
10) Open sentence and quantifier 13
11) Quantifier 13
12) Truth value of propositions with one, two quantifier 15
13) Logically equivalent and negation of propositions with quantifier 20
14) Negation of proposition with quantifier 22
15) Logically equivalent and negation of proposition with two quantifier 25
16) Tautology of propositions pattern with one quantifier 26
17) Tautology of propositions pattern with two quantifier 29
2 Real number system
1) Introduction 34
2) Real number system 35
3) Solving polynomial equation with one variable 44
4) Its Application 52
5) Property of inequality 53
6) Interval 56
7) Solving inequality 57
8) Absolute value 63
9) Equation in pattern of absolute value 65
10) Inequality in pattern of absolute value 67
3 Principal theory of numbers
1) Exact Division 75
2) Prime and Composite numbers 76
3) Division Algorithm 78
4) Even and Odd numbers 79
5) The greatest Common Divisor 81
6) Finding G.C.D of integers a and b 82
7) Relatively Prime numbers 85
8) Least Common Multiple 86
9) Finding L.C.M of integers a and b 87
10) Appendix A: Exponential notation and its Application 91
11) Appendix B: The bearing of G.C.D and L.C.M 104

MATHEMATICS 3O2O1
LESSON ONE
BASIC LOGIC
1.1 The mathematics system
Mathematics system consist of undefined term, defined term, postulate, conjecture
and theorem which each step has to create by the process of logic, moreover when we
discover that those conjecture is to be true has to prove by proceeding of logic.
The following is principle knowledge about logic.
1.2 Proposition or statement
Proposition signify the sentences or the expressions that is to be true or false only one,
Where true and false of proposition is called that truth value of each proposition
For example =3 is proposition having truth value is to be true

## <4 is proposition having truth value is to be false

In short =3 is proposition that is to be true and

## <4 is proposition that is to be false

1.3 Connection of proposition
In logic, we can create new proposition by connectives as follows
And (), or (), if...then... (),...if and only if...(), negation () and for convenience
We let letter p, q, r,... instead of propositions that is leaded to connect each other.
The number of all truth value of new proposition
Similar, we let T and F instead of true and false of propositions respectively.
Lemma1 the number of all truth value of new proposition having n sub proposition is

Proof by the fact, each proposition has number of truth value equal to 2=

And according to principle law of counting for multiplication
We have

...

(N-factors)=

1 Connection of proposition by connectives and ()
Definition1 Let p and q are two propositions
Proposition p and q is written by pq, where there exists agreement that pq
Will be true in the case that two propositions have truth value is to be true together.
Truth table of pq can make as follows. (1
st
table)
p q pq
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
2 Connection of proposition by connectives or ()
Definition2 Let p and q are two propositions
Proposition p or q is written by pq, where there exists agreement that pq will be
false in the case that two propositions have truth value is to be false simultaneous. .
Truth table of pq can make as follows. (2
nd
table)
p q pq
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
3 Connection of proposition by connectives if...then... ()
Definition3 Let p and q are two propositions
Proposition if p then q is written by pq, where there exists agreement that pq will
be false in the case that p and q have truth value is to be true and false respectively.
Truth table of pq can make as follows. (3
rd
table)
p q pq
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T

4 Connection of proposition by connectives ...if and only if... ()
Definition4 Let p and q are two propositions
Proposition p if and only if q is written by pq, where there exists agreement that
pq will be true in the cases that p and q have same truth value
Truth table of pq can make as follows. (4
th
table)
p q pq
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F T
5 Negation of all propositions ()
Definition5 Let p is proposition
Negation of p is written by p, where there exists agreement that p has truth value
Opposite to p. Truth table of negation as follows. (5
th
table)
p p
T F
F T
Remark: 1 Propositions p, q, r,... are called atomic proposition
2 Propositions having connectives are called proposition pattern.
1.4 Finding truth value of propositions
When we know truth value of each atomic proposition in proposition pattern, we can find
Truth value of proposition by truth value of each table above
Example1 1 Let p(F), q(T) and r(F) Find truth value of [(pr)(rq)][(pr)(qp)]
2 Let [(pq) r](F), Find truth value of [(qr)(pr)][(pr (qp)]
Solution 1we have [(p(F)r(F))(r(F)q(T))][(p(F)r(F))(q(T)p(F)]
Therefore, [(pr)(rq)] are to be true and [(pr)(qp)] are to be false
That is, [(pr)(rq)][(pr)(qp)] has truth value is to be false.
2 Since [(pq) r](F) so, (pq)(T) and r(F)
And make p(T), q(T), r(T) and then p(T), q(F) and r(T)
We have [(q(T)r(T))(p(T)r(F))][(p(T)r(T)) (q(F)p(T))] implies
that [(qr)(pr)] and [(pr (qp)] are to be true and false respectively.
Therefore, [(qr)(pr)][(pr (qp)] has truth value is to be false.
1.5 Making truth table of propositions
Let A instead of a designated proposition pattern, B is a number of atomic proposition in
A
C is a number of propositions pattern in A will obtain that truth table of A consist of
a number of rows are equal to

## +1 and a number of columns are equal to (B+C)

Example2 Make truth table of [(p r)(qp)][(pq)(rq)]
Solution 1 we are obvious that there are atomic propositions equal to 3
So, there are number of rows equal to

+1=9
2 we are obvious that there are propositions pattern equal to 9
So, there are number of columns equal to 9+3=12
Truth table of [(p r)(qp)][(pq)(rq)], (6
th
table)
1.6 Pattern of propositions that are logically equivalent
Definition6 Let A and B are propositions pattern
A and B are logically equivalent each other if and only if A and B have same truth value
Case by case and when A equivalent with B is written by AB
Remark: A and B are logically equivalent if and only if A and B can be substituted
1.7 Negation of propositions and propositions pattern
The following will say to negation of pq, pq, pq and pq which be written by
(pq), (pq), (pq) and (pq) by truth table as follows. (7
th
table), (8
th
table)
p q r p

q

[(p )
(qp)]
pq rq (pq)
(rq)
[(p r)(qp)]
[(pq)(rq)]
T T T F F F F T T T T T
T T F F T T F F T T T F
T F T F F F F T T F F F
T F F F T T F F T T T F
F T T T F T T T T T T T
F T F T T T T T T T T T
F F T T F T F F F F F T
F F F T T T F F F F F T
p q p q pq pq (pq) (pq) pq pq
T T F F T T F F F F
T F F T T F F T F T
F T T F T F F T F T
F F T T F F T T T T

p q p q pq (pq) pq pq (pq) pq pq
T T F F T F F T F F F
T F F T F T T F T T T
F T T F T F F F T T T
F F T T T F F T F F F
From 7
th
table and 8
th
table we can conclude that
1 pq, (pq) are negation each other while (pq)pq
2 pq, (pq) are negation each other while (pq)pq
3 pq, (pq) are negation each other while (pq)pq
4 pq, (pq) are negation each other while (pq)pq pq
Remark: Double negation of A is (A); A (A), when A is propositions
The logically equivalent pattern that is important; p, q and r are propositions.
1 ppp, pqqp, p(qr)(pq)r 2 ppp, pqqp, (pq)rp(qr)
3 p(qr)(pq)(pr) 4 p(qr)(pq)(pr)
5 pq pq 6 pq q p
7 pq[(pq)(qp)]
Let and are propositions that are to be true and false respectively.
8 p p, pp 9 p
10 p , pp 11 p p
12 p 13 pp
14 p P 15 P
16 p p 17 p p
9
th
, 10
th
, 11
th
table show truth value of p(qr), (pq)(pr), p(qr), (pq)(pr)
pq and (pq)(qp)
(9
th
table)
p q r qr p(qr) pq pr (pq)(pr)
T T T T T T T T
T T F T T T F T
T F T T T F T T
T F F F F F F F
F T T T F F F F
F T F T F F F F
F F T T F F F F
F F F F F F F F
(10
th
and 11
th
table)

p q r qr p(qr) pq pr (pq)(pr)
T T T T T T T T
T T F F T T T T
T F T F T T T T
T F F F T T T T
F T T T T T T T
F T F F F T F F
F F T F F F F F
F F F F F F F F
p q pq pq qp (pq)(qp)
T T T T T T
T F F F T F
F T F T F F
F F T T T T
From 9
th
table will obtain p(qr)(pq)(pr)
From 10
th
table will obtain p(qr)(pq)(pr)
From 11
th
table will obtain pq(pq)(qp)
The following will test that each of pair of propositions pattern are logically equivalent
By propositions pattern that are logical equivalent above.
pq ((pq)): (p)p
(pq): (pq)pq
p(q): (pq)pq
pq , So pq pq
(q)p: pqqp
q p, So pq q p
p(qr)p(qr)p(qr)(pq)r(pq)r(pq)r
(qp)rq(pr)q(pr)
p(qr)p(qr)(pp)(qr)(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)
p(qr)p(qr)(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)
(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)(pq)(pr)p(qr)p(qr)
(pq)r (pq)r(pq)r(pr)(qr)(pr)(qr)
(pq)r (pq)r(pq)(rr)(pr)(qr)(pr)(qr)
p(qr)p[(qr)(rq)]p[(qr)(rq)][p(qr)][p(rq)]
[(pq)r][(pr)q][[(pp)(pq)]r][[(pp)(pr)]q]
[(pq)p]r][(pr)p]q][(pq)(pr)][(pr)(pq)](pq)(pr)
Finally, we can conclude that
1 p(qr)(pq)rq(pr) 2 p(qr)(pq)(pr)
3 p(qr)(pq)(pr) 4 (pq)(pr)p(qr)
5 (pq)r(pr)(qr) 6 (pq)r(pr)(qr)
7 p(qr)(pq)(pr)
1.8 Tautology
Definition7 Tautology signifies propositions pattern with truth value is to be true all
cases.
For example pp, pp
Remark: AB if and only if AB is tautology.
The following will test whether designated propositions are tautology.
1 when designated propositions have main connectives is to be (), we can test by
showing that two sides of () are logically equivalent each other.
Example3 Show that the following propositions pattern are to be tautology.
1 [(pq)(pq)] p 2 [(pq)r][(qr)(pr)] 3 [p(q(pr)][p(qr)]
Solution 1 [(pq)(pq)] p
Consider [(pq)(pq)][(pq)(pq)][(pq)(pq)][(pq)(pq)]
[(pp)(qq)]p p
So, [(pq)(pq)] p
2 [(pq)r][(qr)(pr)]
Consider [(pq)r][(pq)r][(pq)r][(pq)(qr)][(qr)(pq)]
[(qr)(pr)]
So, [(pq)r][(qr)(pr)]
3 [p(q(pr)][p(qr)]
Consider
[p(q(pr)][p(q(pr))][p(q(pr))][p[(qp)(qr)]]
[(p(qp))(p(qr))][((pp)q)(p(qr))]
[( q)( p(qr))] [(p(qr)]p(qr)
So, [p(q(pr)][p(qr)]
2 When designated propositions have main connectives is to be (), we can test by
assumption is to be false then find the contradiction or show that is equivalent with
Example 4 Show that the following propositions pattern are to be tautology.
1 p(pq) 2 (pq)p 3 [(pq)(qr)p]r 4 [(p(qr))q](pr)
5 [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)] 6 [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)]
7 [((pq)r)(qr)](pr) 8 [((pq)(qr))r](pq)
9 [((pq)r)(pq)(pr)]r 10 [p(qq)]p
Solution 1 [p(pq)](F)p(T)(pq)(F)p(F)q(F) arise the contradiction
Or p(pq)p(pq)(pp)q q
Therefore, p(pq) is tautology.
2 (pq)p arise the contradiction (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously.
T-(T)-T-(F)-F
Therefore, (pq)p is tautology.
3 [(pq)(qr)p]R arise the contradiction (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously
F-(T)-F-(T)-F-(T)-F-(T)-T-(F)-F
4 [(p(qr))q](pr) arise the contradiction (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
T-(T)-T-(T)-F-(T)--T---(F)-F-(F)-F
Therefore, [(p(qr))q](pr) is tautology.
5 [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)] arise the contradiction (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
F-(T)-F-(T)-F--(F)--F-(T)-T-(F)-F-(F)-F
6 [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)] arise the contradiction (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
T-(T)-F-(T)-F--(F)-T-(T)-T-(F)-T-(F)-F
Therefore, [p(qr)][(pq)(pr)] is tautology.
7 [((pq)r)(qr)](pr) arise the contradiction (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously.
F-(F)-F-(T)-F-(T)-F-(T)-F-(F)-T-(F)-F
Therefore, [((pq)r)(qr)](pr) is tautology.
8 [((pq)(qr))r](pq), (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
F-(F)-F-(T)-T-(F)-F--(T)-T- (F)-F-(F)--F
Therefore, [((pq)(qr))r](pq) is tautology.
9 [((pq)r)(pq)(pr)]r, (q(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
F-(F)-F-(T)-F-(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-F-(T)-F-(F)-F
Therefore, [((pq)r)(pq)(pr)]r is tautology.
10 [p(qq)]p(p(qq))pp p
Therefore, [p(qq)]p is tautology
The proposition patterns being tautology
1 p , pp 2 ( (
3 p ( 4 (
5 ( ( 6 [( ] [ ( ]
7 [ ( ] [ ( ] 8 [( ( ] (
9 [( ] [( ( ] 10 [( ] [( ( ]
11 [ ( ] [( ( ] 12 [ ( ] [( ( ]
13 ( [( ( ] 14 ( [( ( ]
15 [ ( ]

1.9 Reasoning
Reasoning is the adducing when there is one set of expression is {

} then
can conclude one expression is C, where

## and C are propositions.

We see obviously that the reasoning consist of two parts important are causes
or the given information and result or conclusion, that reasoning may be whether valid
or invalid which we can test by making pattern [

...

]C
If this pattern is tautology mean to be valid and if it isnt tautology mean to be invalid.
Example 5 Consider that the following reasoning are valid or invalid.
1 Cause: 1 p(pq) 2 Cause: 1 pr 3 s 3 Cause: 1 pq 3 ps
2 pq 2 rs 2 pr
Result: q Result: p Result: r
4 Cause: 1 p q 3 q 5 Cause: 1 r p 3 rs 6 Cause: 1 pq 3 pr
2 rp 4 rt 2 q 4 pq 2 (pq)r 4 p
Result: t Result: s Result: p
7 Cause: 1 p(qr) 3 pq 8 Cause: 1 pq 3 q 9 Cause: 1 rq 3 pr
2 s(tu) 4 st 2 r p 2 s q
Result: ru Result: r Result: ps
Solution 1 Cause: 1 p(pq)
2 pq
Result: q
We can make and test as follows. [(p(pq))(pq)]q
T-(T)-F-(F)-T-(T)-F-(T)-F-(F)--F
It arise the contradiction, (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(p(pq))(pq)]q is tautology and then is valid.
2 Cause: 1 pr 3 s
2 rs
Result: p
We can make and test as follows. [(pr)(rs)s]p
T-(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-F-(T)-T-(F)-F
It arise the contradiction, (r(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(pr)(rs)s]p is tautology and then is valid
3 Cause: 1 pq 3 p r
2 pr
Result: r
We can make and test as follows. [(pq)(pr)(p r)]r
F-(T)-F-(T)-F-(T)-F-(T)-T-(T)--T-(F)-F
It arise the contradiction, (p(F),(T)) is simultaneously.
Therefore,[(pq)(pr)(p r)]r is tautology and then is valid.
4 Cause: 1 p q 3 q
2 rp 4 rt
Result: t
From the designated items, we can make pattern and test as follows.
[(p q)(rp)q(rt)]t
T-(T)-T-(T)-F-(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-F-(T)-F-(F)-F
It arise the contradiction, (q(T),(F) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(p q)(rp)q(rt)]t is tautology and then is valid.
5 Cause: 1 r p 3 rs
2 q 4 pq
Result: s
From the designated items, we can make pattern and test as follows.
[(r p) q(rs)(pq)]s
T-(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-F-(T)-F-(T)-F-(T)-T-(F)-F
It arise the contradiction, (q(T),(F) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(r p) q(rs)(pq)]s is tautology and then is valid.
6 Cause: 1 pq 3 (pr)
2 (pq)r 4 p
Result: p
From designated items, we can make pattern and test as follows.
[(pq)((pq)r) (pr)p] p
T-(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-- F-(T)--T-(T)-T-(F)--F
It arise the contradiction, (r(T),(F)) is simultaneously.
Therefore, [(pq)((pq)r) (pr)p] p is tautology and then is valid.
7 Cause: 1 p(qr) 3 pq
2 s(tu) 4 st
Result: ru
From designated items, we have the pattern
[(p(qr))(s(tu))(pq)(st)](ru)
And can test as follows.
[(p(qr))(s(tu))(pq)(st)](ru)
T-(T)-F-(T)-F-(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-T(T)-T-(T)-T-(T)-T-(F)-F-(F)-T
We see obviously that (q(T),(F) is to be true and false are simultaneously.
So, [(p(qr))(s(tu))(pq)(st)](ru) is tautology and then is valid.
8 Cause: 1 pq 3 q
2 r p
Result: r
Consider the following pattern [(pq)(r p)q]r
T-(T)--F-(T)-F-(T)-F-(T)-T-(F)-F
We see obviously that there is not the contradiction
Hence, it is not tautology and then is invalid.
9 Cause: 1 rq 3 pr
2 s q
Result: ps
Consider the following [(rq)( s q)( pr)](ps)
F-(T)-F-(T)--T--(T)--T--(T)---F--(T)-F--(F)-T--(F)-F
We see obviously that there is not the contradiction
Hence, it is not tautology and then is invalid.
1.10 Open sentence and Quantifier
Definition 8 Open sentence is affirmative sentence or Negative sentence having
variables.
And when represent variable with elements in Universal set then obtain a proposition.
Example 6 2x-3<5 is affirmative sentence having x is variable and when x=2 then is
proposition
y- 5 is negative sentence having x is variable and when x=4 then is a
proposition
We conclude that 2x-3<5, y- 5 are propositions having x and y are
variables.
For convenience, we let p(x), q(x), or

## instead of open sentence and p(x), q(x) can

be connected by connectives , , , and can be filled in front of p(x)
Such as let p(x): x<-3, q(x): x>4 and r(x): -3x4
Now, we have (p(x)q(x))r(x): (x-3x4)-3x4
And when x=2 will get (2-324)-324 is a proposition.
And we have q(x)(p(x) r(x)): x>4[x-3(x<-3x>4)]
And when x=5 will get 5>4[5-3(5<-35>4)] is a proposition.
1.11 Quantifier
In mathematics we always find the expressions for all x and for some x
Such as for all x, >0, when universal set is

For some x, -x>

## , when universal set is

Definition 9 For all... and for some... are called that are universal Quantifier and
existential quantifiers and are represented by and respectively.
Remark: 1 Use symbol x: for all x
2 Use symbol x: for some x
3 Use symbol : universal set
4 Use symbol : set of real number
5 Use symbol

## : set of irrational number

6 Use symbol : set of rational number
7 Use symbol or : set of integer
8 Use symbol : set of natural number
9 Use symbol

## : set of positive real number

10 Use symbol -{0}: set of real number that has not zero
Conclusion: When p(x): open sentence
1 The expression for all x, p(x) is written by x[p(x)]
2 The expression for some x, p(x) is written by x[p(x)]
Example 7 Let =, change the following expressions to symbol pattern.
1 For all x, | | 0 is written by x[| | 0], =
2 For some x, 1x1 is written by x[1x1], =
3 For all Integers are real number is written by x[x x ], =
4 There exists some Prime number is even is written by x[PxE], =
5 There exists some real number that is rational number and isnt Integers
Is written by x[x x ], =
6 There exists some Integer number that is the power of 2 is equal 2
Is written by x[x

=2], =
7 For all real number are rational number or irrational number is written
By x[x x

], =
Example 8 Let A and B instead of sets, write symbol substitute the following
Expressions..
1 A is subset of B if and only if all elements of A are an element of B is
denoted by AB x[xAxB]
2 A isnt subset of B if and only if there exists some element of A isnt
an element of B is denoted by AB x[xAxB]
3 A is equal to B if and only if all elements of A are an element of B if and
only if all elements of B is an element of A is denoted by
A=B X[XAxB]
4 Difference of A and B is a set of all element that are in A and arent in B
Is denoted by A-B={|[ ]}
In the case open sentence have two variables, we let p(x, y), q(x, y),... instead of
those open sentences.
Conclusion: When p(x, y): open sentence
1 The expression for all x and for all y, p(x, y) is denoted by xy[p(x, y)]
2 The expression for all x, there exists some y which be p(x, y) is denotes
by xy[p(x,y)]
3 The expression there exists some x which be for all y, p(x, y) is denoted
by xy[p(x,y)]
4 The expression There exists some x and some y which be p(x, y) is denoted
by xy[p(x,y)]
5 Remark: we can use yx[p(x, y)], yx[p(x, y)], yx[p(x, y)] and yx[p(x, y)],
where xy[p(x, y)] yx[p(x, y)] have different meaning.
xy[p(x, y)], yx[p(x, y)] have different meaning.
xy[p(x, y)], yx[p(x, y)] have same meaning.
xy[p(x, y)] and xy[p(x, y)] have same meaning.
Example 9 Write the expression replaces the following symbol sentences, =
1 xy[

-xy+

## 0] is written by for all x and for all y,

-xy+

0
2 xy[x-y=x] is written by for all x, there exists some y which be x-y=x
3 xy[x-y=0] is written by there exists some x which be for all y, x-y=0
4 xy[+=] is written by There exists some x and some y which be
+=
5 yx[

-xy+

## 0] is written by for all y and for all x,

-xy+

0
6 yx[x-y=x] is written by for all y, there exists some x which be x-y=x
7 yx[x-y=0] is written by there exists some y which be for all x, x-y=0
8 yx[+=] is written by There exists some y and some x which be
+=
1.12 Truth value of propositions with one quantifier
Definition10 Let x[p(x)], x[p(x) are propositions and is Universal set will obtain that
1 x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true if and only if p(a) is to be true
For all elements a in
2 x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there exists some element
b in such that P(b) is to be false.
3 x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists some element
a in such that P(a) is to be true.
4 x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there dont exists element
b in such that p(b) is to be true
Example10 Find truth value of each of the following propositions
1 x[

## +1=1-x], ={-1, 0, 1} 2 x[(

=x+1], ={-1, 0, 1}
3 x[

-x

], = 4 x[||<x], =
5 x[

0x+11] = 6 x[

0] x[x+11] =
7 x[(

=1

=1], = 8 x[(

=1] x[

=1], =
Solution 1 x[

## +1=1-x], ={-1, 0, 1}, Let p(x):

+1=1-x
We find that p(1):

+1=1-1 is to be false
So, x[

2 x[(

## =x+1], ={-1, 0, 1}, Let p(x): (

=x+1
We see that p(0): (

=0+1 is to be true.
So, x[(

## =x+1], ={-1, 0, 1} has truth value to be true.

3 x[

-x-

], =, Let p(x):

-x-

Rearrange term

-x=(

We see that p(a):

-a-

Hence, x[

-x-

## ], = has truth value is to be true.

4 x[||<x], =, Let p(x): ||<x
When a<0, ||=-a<a is to be false
When a=0, ||=0<0 is to be false.
When a>o, ||=a<a is to be false.
So, p(a): ||<a is to be false all elements a in
That is x[||<x], = has truth value is to be false.
5 x[

0x+11
Since,

0x+11x+1=1

=0
And x=0, 0+1=1

Hence, p(a):

That is x[

6 x[

## 0] x[x+11] =, Let p(x):

0, q(x): x+11
We see that p(0):

So, x[

7 x[(

=1

## =1], =, Let p(x): (

=1

=1
Since, solution of (

=1 is 0, 2 and solution of

=1 is 1
We see that p(a): (

=1

Therefore, x[(

=1

8 x[(

=1] x[

## =1], =, Let p(x): (

=1, q(x):

=1
We see that p(0): (

=1 is to be true., q(1):

=1 is to be true.
Finally we have x[(

=1] x[

## =1], = has truth value is to

be true.
Two Quantifiers
Definitioin11 Let xy[p(x,y)] is a proposition with two quantifiers and is universal
set will obtain that
1 xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if p(a,b) are to be true
For all elements a and b in and
2 xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there exists a and b in
at the least one pair such that p(a,b) is to be false.
Example11 Test that whether the following propositions are to be true or false.
1 xy[x+yy], ={0, 1, 2} 2 xy[x+y>xy], =(0,2)
3 xy[(

## >x+y], ={-1, 0, 1} 4 xy[||=|| x=y],=

Solution 1 xy[x+yy], ={0, 1, 2}, Let p(x, y): x+yy will get that
p(0, 0): 0+00 p(0, 1): 0+11 p(0, 2): 0+22
p(1, 0): 1+00 p(1, 1): 1+11 p(1, 2): 1+22
p(2, 0): 2+00 p(2, 1): 2+11 p(2, 2): 2+22
We see obviously to be true all cases
Therefore, xy[x+yy], ={0, 1, 2} has truth value is to be true.
2 xy[x+y>xy], =(0,2), Let p(x, y): x+y>xy
Since, 0<a<2 and 0<b<2
So, 0<ab<2b and 0<ab<2a
Now, we have 0<2ab<2(a+b)
Finally, will obtain ab<a+b
Therefore, p(a, b) are to be true all elements a, b in
We conclude that xy[x+y>xy], =(0,2) is to be true.
3 xy[(

>x+y considering
p(-1, -1): ( (

## >-1+(-1) p(-1, 0): (

>-1+0
p(-1, 1): (

>-1+1 p(0,-1): ( (

>0+(-1)
p(0, 0): (

>0+1
p(1, -1): ( (

## >1+(-1) p(1, 0): (

>1+0
p(1, 1): (

>1+1
We find that p(0, 0), p(0, 1), p(1, 0) and p(1, 1) are to be false
Therefore, xy[(

## >x+y], ={-1, 0, 1} has truth value is to be false.

4 xy[||=|| x=y],=, Let P(x, y): ||=|| x=y
When a<0, b>0 or a>0, b<0 will get ||=|| a=-b or a=b
So, p(a, b) are to be false while a<0, b>0 or a>0, b<0
That is xy[||=|| x=y],= has truth value to be false.
Definition12 Let xy[p(x,y)] is a proposition with two Quantifiers and is universal
set will obtain that
1 xy[p(x, y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists elements
a and b in such that p(a, b) is to be true.
2 xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there doesnt exist
elements a and b in such that p(a,b) is to be true.
Example12 Demonstrate that the following propositions are to be true or false.
1 xy[x+y=1

## >2], ={-2, -1, 0, 1, 2}

2 xy[(x+y)(x-y) are perfect square] =
3 xy[x+y=xy], ={-1, 0, 1}
4 xy[

=(

], =-{0}
Solution 1 xy[x+y=1

## >2], ={-2, -1, 0, 1, 2}, Let p(x, y): x+y=1

>2
We find that p(-1, 2) and p(2, -1): -1+2=2+(-1)=1 (

+(

>2
are to be true
So, xy[x+y=1

## >2], ={-2, -1, 0, 1, 2} has truth value is to be true.

2 xy[(x+y)(x-y) are perfect square] =, Let p(x, y): (x+y)(x-y) are perfect square
We choose a=n+1 and b=n; where 2n+1 is perfect square
We see that n+1-n=1 is perfect square
So, a+b and a-b are perfect square, such as 9, 25, 49,...,(

,n
Hence, there exists a, b such that p(a, b) is to be true.
Therefore, xy[(x+y)(x-y) are perfect square] = has truth value is to be true.
3 xy[x+y=xy], ={-1, 0, 1}, Let p(x, y): x+y=xy will get that
p(-1, -1): -1+(-1)=(-1)(-1) p(-1, 0): -1+0=(-1)(0) p(-1, 1): -1+1=(-1)(1)
p(0, -1): 0+(-1)=(0)(-1) p(0, 0): 0+0=(0)(0) p(0, 1): 0+1=(0)(1)
p(1, -1): 1+(-1)=(1)(-1) p(1, 0): 1+0=(1)(0) p(1, 1): 1+1=(1)(1)
We see that there exists a=0 and b=0 such that p(a, b) is to be true.
Therefore xy[x+y=xy], ={-1, 0, 1} has truth value is to be true
4 xy[

=(

## ], =-{0}, Let p(x, y):

=(

Since,

=(

+2xy
So, 2xy=0xy=0x=0y=0, but 0
Hence, there doesnt exist a, b in such that p(a, b) is to be true.
Therefore, xy[

=(

## ], =-{0} has truth value is to be true.

Definition13 Let xy[p(x,y)] is a proposition with two Quantifiers and is universal
set will obtain that
1 xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if y[p(a,y)] has truth
value is to be true for all elements a in
2 xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there exists an
element b in such that y[p(b,y)] has truth value is to be false.
Example13 Demonstrate that the following propositions are to be true or false.
1 xy[x+1=| |], ={-1, 0, 1} 2 xy[||+1=| |], =
3 xy[

-x=

## -y], ={-1, 0, 1} 4 xy[

>1], =
Solution 1 xy[x+1=| |, ={-1, 0, 1}, Let p(x, y): x+1=| | will get that
p(-1, 1): -1+1=| | p(0, 1): 0+1=| | p(1, 0): 1+0=| |
We see that y[p(a,y)] is to be true for all elements a in
Thence, xy[x+1=| |], ={-1, 0, 1} has truth value is to be true.
2 xy[||+1=| |], =, Let p(x, y): ||+1=| |
Since, | |=||+1=| | and then x+1=x-y or x+1=-(x-y)=-x+y
Now, we have y=-1 or y=2x+1 when x-1 or x<-1 respectively.
We see that y[p(a,y)] is to be true for all elements a in
Thence, xy[||+1=| |], = has truth value is to be true.
3 xy[

-x=

-x=

p(-1, 0):

-(-1)=(

-0 p(0, -1): (

-0=

## -(-1) p(1, 1):

-1=

-1
We see that y[p(a, y)] is to be true for all elements a in
Thence, xy[

-x=

4 xy[

## >1], =, Let p(x, y):

>1
If we choose x=0 will get

>1 is to be false
So, y[

Therefore, xy[

## >1], = has truth value is to be false

Definition14 Let xy[p(x,y)] is a proposition with two Quantifiers and is universal
set will obtain that
1 xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists some
element a in such that y[p(a,y)] has truth value is to be true.
2 xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there doesnt exist an
element b in such that y[p(b,y)] has truth value is to be true.
Example14 Investigate that the following propositions are to be true or false.
1 xy[x-

## +y], ={-1, 0, 1} 2 xy[

=0], =
3 xy[(x+y=y)(xy=y)], = 4 xy[| |=||-||], =
Solution 1xy[x-

p(-1, -1): -1-(

=(

=(

=(

+1
p(0, -1): 0-(

+0 p(0, 1): 0-

+1
p(1, -1): 1-(

## +(-1) p(1, 0): 1-

+0 p(1, 1): 1-

+1
We find that there doesnt exist some b such that y[b-

is to be true.
Thence, xy[x-

2 xy[

## =0], =, Let p(x, y):

=0
If we choose x=1 will obtain p(1, y):

=0, y0 is to be true.
So, y[

That is xy[

## =0], = has truth value is to be false.

3 xy[(x+y=y)(xy=y)], =, Let p(x, y): (x+y=y)(xy=y) will get that
If we choose x=0 or 1 then p(0, y): (0+y=y)(0y=y), p(1, y): (1+y=y)(1y=y)
are to be true for all elements y in
Therefore, xy[(x+y=y)(xy=y)], = has truth value is to be true.
4 xy[| |=||-||], =, Let p(x, y): | |=||-||
If we choose x=0 then p(0, y): | |=||-|| are to be true for all elements y in
Therefore, xy[| |=||-||], = has truth value is to be true.
1.13 Logical equivalent and negation of propositions with the quantifier
1 Fill in open sentences pattern that are logical equivalent each other.
Let p(x), q(x) and r(x) are open sentences and is universal set
By definition of the open sentence will obtain that p(a), q(b) and r(c) are propositions
When a, b, c , we could knew that
p(a)q(b)q(b)p(a) p(a)q(b)q(b)p(a)
p(a)(q(b)r(c))(p(a)q(b))(p(a)r(c)) p(a)(q(b)r(c))(p(a)q(b))(p(a)r(c))
(p(a)q(b))p(a)q(b) (p(a)q(b))p(a)q(b)
(p(a)q(b))p(a)q(b) (p(a)q(b)) p(a)q(b)p(a) q(b)
p(a)q(b) q(b) p(a) p(a)q(b) p(a)q(b)(p(a)q(b))(q(b)p(a))
We can conclude that x[p(x)q(x)] x[q(x)p(x)] x[p(x)q(x)] x[q(x)p(x)]
x[p(x)(q(x)r(x))] x[(p(x)q(x))(p(x)r(x))]
x[p(x)(q(x)r(x))] x[(p(x)q(x))(p(x)r(x))]
x[(p(x)q(x))] x[p(x)q(x)] x[(p(x)q())] x[p(x)q(x)]
x[(p(x)q(x))] x[p(a)q(b)] x[(p(x)q(x))] x[ p(x)q(x)]
x[p(x)q(x)] x[q(x) p(x)] x[p(x)q(x)]
x[p(x)q(x)] x[(p(x)q(x))(q(x)p(x))]
2 Represent propositions p, q, r, s in propositions pattern that are logical equivalent with
x[p(x)], x[p(x)], x[q(x)], x[q(x)], x[r(x)], x[r(x)], x[s(x)], x[s(x)],... can make new
propositions pattern that are logical equivalent each others as follows.
x[p(x)] x[q(x)] x[q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)] x[r(x)] x[r(x)] x[q(x)]
x[p(x)](x[r(x)] x[q(x)])(x[p(x)] x[r(x)])(x[p(x)] x[q(x)])
x[r(x)](x[s(x)] x[p(x)])(x[r(x)] x[s(x)])(x[r(x)] x[p(x)]))
(x[s(x)] x[q(x)]) x[s(x)] x[q(x)]) (x[p(x)] x[r(x)]) x[p(x)] x[r(x)]
(x[q(x)] x[s(x)]) x[q(x)] x[s(x)]) (x[r(x)] x[s(x)]) x[r(x)] x[s(x)]
x[p(x)] x[q(x)] x[q(x)] x[p(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)]
x[q(x)]x[s(x)](x[q(x)] x[s(x)])(x[s(x)] x[q(x)])
Example15 Test that whether expressions A and B are equivalent each other
1 A: For all x if x is real N. then x is irrational N. or x is rational N.
B: For all x, x isnt real N. or x is rational N. or x is irrational N.
2 A: There is some number x which isnt to be true if x is real N. then x is rational N.
or x is irrational N.
B: There is some number x which x is real N. but x isnt rational N. and x isnt
irrational N.
Solution For convenience we let p(x): x is real N. q(x): rational N. r(x): x is irrational N.
1 The expressions A and B are written by the following symbol
A: x[p(x)(r(x)q(x))], B: x[p(x)q(x)r(x)]
Since, p(x)(r(x)q(x))p(x)(r(x)q(x))
p(x)(q(x)r(x))
p(x) q(x)r(x)
So, x[p(x)(r(x)q(x))] x[p(x)q(x)r(x)]
2 The expressions A and B are written by the following symbol
A: x[(p(x)(q(x)r(x))] B: x[p(x)q(x)r(x)]
Since, (p(x)(q(x)r(x))] p(x)(q(x)r(x))
p(x)q(x)r(x)
So, x[(p(x)(q(x)r(x))] x[p(x)q(x)r(x)]
1.14 Negation of proposition with the quantifier
Since negation of p is p, when p is a proposition
So, we have negation of x[p(x)] is x[p(x)] negation of x[p(x)] is x[p(x)]
Negation of x[p(x)q(x)] is x[p(x)q(x)]
Negation of x[p(x)] x[q(x)] is x[p(x)] x[q(x)]
Negation of x[p(x)] x[p(x)] is x[p(x)] x[p(x)]
Negation of x[r(x)] x[p(x)] is x[r(x)] x[p(x)]
Negation of x[p(x)]x[s(x)] is x[p(x)] x[s(x)] x[p(x)] x[s(x)]
The equivalence of each of the following propositions has to consider by using
definition of equivalent and negation of propositions as follows.
Two propositions will be equivalent each other if and only if there are same truth value
all cases
And two propositions will be negation each other if and only if there are truth value
opposite case by case
1
st
Pattern x[p(x)] x[p(x)]
That is to say, negation of x[p(x)] is x[p(x)]
Proof (1) suppose that x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true
From definition of negation of proposition will get that x[p(x)] has truth value is to
be false.
From definition of the truth value of x[p(x)] will get that
There exists a such that p(a) is to be false.
From definition of negation of proposition will get that p(a) is to be true
From definition of x[p(x)] will get that x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
(2) Suppose that x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false.
From definition of negation of proposition will get that
x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
From definition of truth value of x[p(x)] will get that
P(a) is to be true for all elements a in
From definition of negation of proposition will get that p(a) is to be false
From definition of truth value of x[p(x)] will get that
x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false.
From (1) and (2) we can conclude that x[p(x)] x[p(x)]
And negation of x[p(x)] is x[p(x)]
2
nd
Pattern x[p(x)] x[p(x)]
Proof from 1
st
pattern x[p(x)] x[p(x)] signify x[p(x)] x[p(x)] is tautology
And x[p(x)]x[p(x)] (( x[p(x)]x[p(x)]))
( x[p(x)]) x[p(x)]
x[p(x)]) x[p(x)]
Finally, we have x[p(x)]) x[p(x)] signify x[p(x)]) x[p(x)]
3
rd
Pattern x[p(x)] x[p(x)]
Proof from 1
st
pattern, we define x[q(x)] x[q(x)], x
Since, q(x) is all open sentences. So we let p(x) instead of q(x)
And, then we have x[p(x)] x[(p(x))] x[p(x)], x
Therefore, we can conclude that x[p(x)] x[p(x)], x
4
th
Pattern x[p(x)] x[p(x)]
Proof from 2
nd
Pattern we define x[q(x)] x[q(x)], x
Since, q(x) is all open sentences. So we let p(x) instead of q(x)
And, then we have x[p(x)] x[(p(x))] x[p(x)], x
Therefore, we can conclude that x[p(x)] x[p(x)]
Example16 1 x[x<10<

<1] x[(x<1(0<

<1))]
x[(x<1)(0<

<1)]
x[(x<1)((0<

)(

<1))]
x[(x1

0)(x1

1)]
2 x[|| 1

=0] x[||<1

0]
x[(-1<xx<1)(x>0x<0)]
x[((-1<xx>0)(x<1x>0))x<0]
x[((-1<xx>0x<0)(x<1x>0x<0)]
x[(x-1(x>0x<0))(x1(x>0x<0))]
x[(x=0-1<x)(x=0x<1)]
Example17 1 Negation of x[x0

>0] is x[x0

>0]
x[(x>0x<0)

0)]
x[(x>0

o)(x<0

0)]
2 Negation of x[|| x || -x] is x[|| x || -x]
x[||<x ||<-x]
x[|| x ||<-x]
x[|| -x ||<x]
3 Negation of x[

<1] x[

## =2x[-2, 2]] is (x[

<1] x[

=2x[-2, 2]])
x[

1] x[

=2x[-2, 2]]
4 Negation of x[>0] x[x ] is (x[>0] x[x ])
x[ 0] x[x ]...........(1)
(x[ 0] x[x ])(x[x ] x[ 0])
x[>0]x[x ]).............(2)
(x[>0] x[x ])(x[x ] x[>0])
Example18 Let p(x): x is rational N. q(x):

=2
Which propositions will be equivalent with the following expression?
There isnt rational N. which is the power of two equal to 2
1 x[q(x) p(x)] 2 x[p(x) q(x)]
Solution There is rational N. which is the power of two equal to 2
is written by x[p(x)q(x)]
So, there isnt rational N. which is the power of two equal to 2 is written by
x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)q(x)] x[q(x) p(x)] x[p(x) q(x)]
The answer is 1 and 2
1.15The logically equivalent and negation of propositions pattern with two quantifiers
Conclusion: Let p(x,y) is open sentence with two variables, where
1 xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)]) 2 xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[(p(x,y)])
3 xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)]) 4 xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
1
st
Pattern xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
That is to say, xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Show xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
x(y[p(x,y)])
xy[p(x,y)]
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
That is to say, xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Show xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
x(y[p(x,y)])
xy[p(x,y)
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
3
rd
Pattern xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
That is to say, xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Show xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
x([( ]
xy[p(x,y)]
Therefore xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
4
th
Pattern xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
That is to say, xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Show xy[p(x,y)] signify x(y[p(x,y)])
x(y[p(x,y)])
xy[p(x,y)]
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)] is negation of xy[p(x,y)]
Or show by truth value of xy[p(x,y)], xy[p(x,y)], xy[p(x,y)] and xy[p(x,y)]
1
st
Pattern xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Suppose that xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
So, xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if p(a,b) is to be false for
some elements a and b in if and only if p(a,b) is to be true for some elements
a and b in if and only if xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true
And if xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false will get that
xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if p(a,b) is to be true for all elements
a and b in if and only if p(a, b) is to be false for all elements a and b in if and
only if xy[p(x, y)] has truth value is to be false.
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Conclusion: For points 2,3 and 4 are left as an exercise.
Example19 1 xy[x+y=0xy=0] xy[x+y0xy0]
2 xy[x>y

-2xy+

>0] xy[x>y

-2xy+

0]
3 xy[x+y>xy0<x<20<y<2] x[x+y>xy(x0x2)(y0y2)]
4 xy[x<yx+y0] xy[xyx+y=0]
5 xy[xy

>

] xy[(xy

>

)(

x=y)]
6 xx[x>

(>yxy>0] xy[x>

( yxy<0)]
1.16 Tautology of propositions with the Quantifier
1
st
Type: it lies in propositions pattern that are tautology.
Let p(x), q(x) ad r(x) are open sentences and is universal set.
1 x[p(x)] x[p(x)]: pp
2 x[p(x)]( x[p(x)] x[q(x)]): p(pq)
3 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) x[p(x)]: (pq)p
4 ((x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) x[p(x)]) x[q(x)]: ((pq)p)q
5 ((x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [(]) x[q(x)]: ((pq)p)q
6 ((x[p(x)]) x[q(x)])(x[q(x)] x[r(x)])) x[p(x)] x[r(x)]: ((pq)(qr))pr
7 (x[p(x)]) x[q(x)]) (x[q(x)] [(]): (pq)(qp)
8 ((x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) x[r(x)])(x[p(x)] x[r(x)])(x[q(x)] x[r(x)])
((pq)r)((pr)(qr))
9 ( x[p(x)](x[q(x)] x[q(x)])) x[p(x)]: (p(qq))p
2
nd
Type: by considering according to truth value of Connectives and quantifiers
1 x[p(x)]p(k), k 2 p(k) x[p(x)], k
3 x[p(x)] x[p(x)] 4 x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)]
5 x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) 6 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)]
7 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] 8 (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(])
Proof 1 x[p(x)]p(k), k
Assume that x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
So, p(a) is to be true all elements a in
And since, k will obtain that p(k) is to be true.
Now, we get x[p(x)]p(k), k has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false.
We knew that x[p(x)]p(k), k has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, x[p(x)]p(k), k is tautology.
2 p(k) x[p(x)], k
Assume that p(k) is to be true.
By definition of x[p(x)] will find that x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
So, p(k) x[p(x)], k has truth value is to be true.
And if p(k) is to be false
We knew from truth value of that p(k) x[p(x)], k has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, p(k) x[p(x)], k is tautology.
3 x[p(x)] x[p(x)]
Since, ((pq)(qr))(pr) is tautology.
From 1 and 2 we can conclude that x[p(x)] x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, x[p(x)] x[p(x)] is tautology.
4 x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)]
Assume that x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
So, there exists k such that p(k)q(k) is to be true
And it make p(k) is to be true and q(k) is to be true.
Implies that x[p(x)] and x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
That is x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
Be obvious that x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, x[p(x)q(x)] x[p(x)] x[q(x)] is tautology.
5 x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)])
Assume that x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
So, there exists k such that p(k)q(k) is to be true.
We can write p(k) is to be true or q(k) is to be true.
Implies that x[p(x)] or x[q(x)] have truth value is to be true.
That is x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
We see that p(k)q(k) is to be false for all k
And we can write p(k) is to be false or q(k) is to be false for all k
Now, we have x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false or x[q(x)] has truth value is to
be false.
Finally, x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
Therefore, x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) has truth value is to be true.
We can conclude that x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) is tautology.
6 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)]
Assume that x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
In this case, x[p(x)] and x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Require to write p(k) and q(k) are to be true for all k
Afterwards, p(k)q(k) is to be true for all k
That is [( q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
If we let x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false.
So, there exists k such that p(k) is to be false
And we have p(k)q(k) is to be false
That is [( q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
And if x[q(x)] has truth value is to be false. We can show similarly
Therefore, (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
We can conclude that (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] is tautology.
7 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)]
Assume that x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true, where
x[p(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Thus will get p(k) is to be true for all k
Implies that p(k)q(k) is to be true for all k
And then we have [( q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
For a case x[q(x)] has truth value is to be true can show similarly.
And when x[p(x)] x[q(x)] has truth value is to be false
Be sure, (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
Finally, we can conclude that (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)] is tautology.
8 (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(])
Assume that x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be true.
We see that p(x)q(x) has truth value is to be true for all elements in .
Implies that p(k)q(k) are to be true for all k
In a case p(k) and q(k) are to be true for all k
Be sure, x[p(x)] and [(] has truth value is to be true.
It make x[p(x)] [(] has truth value is to be true.
Hence, (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(]) has truth value is to be true.
And in a case p(k) is to be false for some k
We find that x[p(x)] has truth value is to be false.
And then x[p(x)] [(] has truth value is to be true.
So, (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(]) has truth value is to be true.
And if x[p(x)q(x)] has truth value is to be false.
We see that (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(]) has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, we can conclude that (x[p(x)q(x)])(x[p(x)] [(]) is tautology.
1.17 Tautology of propositions pattern having two quantifiers
Let p(x,y): open sentence and : universal set
1 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] 2 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
3 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] 4 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
5 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 6 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
7 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 8 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Remark: The converse of 3-8 isnt tautology, that is to say.
1 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 2 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
3 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 4 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
5 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 6 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Proof 1 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
Consider xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if
p(a,b) is to be true for all elements a and b in if and only if p(a,b) is to be true
all elements b and a in if and only if yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
And xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there exists elements
a and b in such that p(a,b) is to be false if and only if there exists elements b
and a such that p(a,b)is to be false if and only if yx[p(x,y)] has truth value
is to be false
Thence, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology.
2 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
Consider xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists
Elements a and b in such that p(a,b) is to be true if and only if there exists
Elements b and a in such that p(a,b) is to be true if and only if yx[p(x,y)]
Has truth value is to be true.
And xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false if and only if there doesnt exist
Elements a and b in such that p(a,b) is to be false if and only if there doesnt
Elements b and a in such that p(a,b) is to be false if and only if yx[p(x,y)]
has truth value is to be false.
Hence, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology.
3 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
Let G(y) instead of x[p(x,y)]
So, yx[p(x,y)] and yx[p(x,y)] are represented by y[G(y)] and y[G(y)]
respectively.
And since y[G(y)] y[G(y)] is tautology.
Now, we have yx[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology.
But xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology
Thus, xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
Finally will get xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)] is tautology.
4 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Consider yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists some
Element b in such that x[p(x,b)] has truth value is to be true.
And x[p(x,b)] has truth value is to be true if and only if p(a,b) is to be true for all
elements a in
And if p(a,b) is to be true for all elements a in then y[p(a,y)] has truth value is
to be true for all elements a in if and only if xy[p(x,y)] has truth value
is to be true.
So, yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
And if yx[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false.
We see that yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] is tautology.
5 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
Consider xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if for all elements
a in
y[p(a,y)] has truth value is to be true if and only if there exists some element
b in such that p(a,b) is to be true.
And if p(a,b) is to be true for some element b in then it make x[p(x,b)] has truth
value is to be true for some element b in then it make yx[p(x,b)] has truth
value Is to be true.
So, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
And if xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be false then will obtain that
xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] has truth value is to be true.
Therefore, xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] is tautology.
(OR) Let y[p(x,y)] is substituted by G(x)
So, xy[p(x,y)]and xy[p(x,y)] are substituted by x[G(x)] and x[G(x)]
respectively.
And since x[G(x)] x[G(x)] is tautology.
Therefore, xy[p(x,)] xy[p(x,y)] is tautology.
Conclusion: For points 6, 7 and 8 are left as an exercise.
Exercise one
1 Let p, q, r and s are propositions, Make truth table of each of the following.
1 [p(p q)](pq) 2 [(p(qr)](qp)
3 [(pq)(qr)](qp) 4 (pq)(rs)
5 [(p(qr)](sq) 6 (qp)(r(s q))
7 [(p(q(rs)](s q) 8 [((pq)(qs))][(p(qs)]
2 Let p(T), q(F), r(T) and s(F), Find truth value of each of the following.
1 (pq)(rq) 2 [p(q(r q))](qr)
3 (p(qr))(s q) 4 [(pq)(rs)](ps)
5 [(pq)(rs)][r (pq)] 6 [(p(rq)][s((qr)(qs))]
7 [(qr)((sp)q)][p(sr)] 8 [p(q(sr))][(q r)(sr)]
3 Test that whether each of the following are equivalent.
1 [(pq)(pr)], [p(qr)] 2 [(pq)(rq)], [p(rq)]
3 [p(qr)], [(pq)(rq)] 4 [pq)(qr)], [r(pq)]
5 [p((qr)q)], [(pr)q] 6 [(qr)((pq)r)], [(pq)(qr)]
7 [(pq)(qr)], [(pq)(pr)] 8 [(pq)(rq)], [(pq)(qr)]
9 [p(qr)], [(pq)(pr)] 10 [(pq)(qr)], (pqr)
4 Write a symbol pattern instead of each of the following expressions.
1 For all x,

>x
2 There exists some integer which x is divided exactly by 5
3 There exists some real number x isnt an integer.
4 For each integer are rational numbers.
5 there exists some integer which if is prime then is even.
6 All integers are rational numbers.
7 For each number x if x is positive integer then

=x.
8 For all x and for all y,

-xy+

>0.
9 there exists some x and there exists some y, x-y=y-x.
10 For all x there exists some y which x+y=x
11 There exists some x which for all y if x+y is odd then y is even.
12 There exists some x which for all y,

=1
13 For each number x there exists some number y which xy=1
14 There exists some x and exists some y which x>y and

<

15 For all x will have some y which if

then xy
16 There exists some x which for each y, xy<x+y
17 For each x and for each y if x is rational N. and y is irrational N. then x+y
is irrational N.
18 For each x will have some y which if xy is rational N.
19 There exists some x which for all y if x-y=2 then

=1
20 For each x there exists some y which

y=

x
5 Find truth value of each of the following.
1 x[

-2

## -x+2=0], ={-1, 1, 2} 2 x[(

=x+1], =
3 x[

+11-

], =

4 x[(x+1=5)(x+2=4)], =
5 x[x-1<x+1

<1], = 6 x[-1<x<1

>

], =
7 x[(x+10)(

1)], = 8 x[

-1=(

], =
9 x[1-

## x+1]; ={-1, 0, 1} 10 x[x-1>4)(x-2<3)], =

11 x[

=-xx-10], = 12 x[

=-x] x[x-10], =
13 xy[ ] 14 xy[x+y=0], ={-1, 0, 1}
15 xy[

-y

## -x], ={-1, 0, 1} 16 xy[x+y=xy], ={0, 1, 2}

17 xy[x+y>y], = 18 xy[y<x], =
19 xy[| |=||+||], = 20 xy[||>|| | | 0], =
21 xy[

=(

], = 22 xy[(-1<x<1 -1<y<1)

], =
6 Find negation of symbol pattern in item five above and write couple of symbol
pattern that are equivalent each other.
7 Prove that the following arent tautology by counter example.
1 p(a) x[p(x)], when a 2 p(a) x[p(x)], when a
3 x[p(x)] ) x[p(x)] 4 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) [( q(x)]
5 x[p(x)q(x)](x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) 6 (x[p(x)] x[q(x)]) x[p(x)q(x)]
7 yx[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 8 xy[p(x,y)] yx[p(x,y)]
9 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 10 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)]
11 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)] 12 xy[p(x,y)] xy[p(x,y)
Lesson Two
Real numbers system
2.1 Introduction
Nowadays, in mathematics the numbers are rearranged in pattern of set having
elements are numbers which there are same property.
Beginning from set of natural number, counting number or positive integer which
are discovered firstly. But afterward the natural numbers couldnt solve the problem
of human so the human made new number consecutive for solving those problem by
the natural numbers were bases and operation +, - and as follows.
1 Counting number or natural number
={1, 2, 3, 4, 5,...}
2 Zero number

={0}
3 Negative integers

## ={-1, -2, -3, -4, -5,...}

4 Integers
or ={...,-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,...}
5 Rational numbers
={|

}
We see distinct that all integers are the rational numbers as a=

, a
6 Irrational numbers

={|

}
7 Real numbers
=

={ }
2.2 Real numbers system consist of set relation equality, inequality operation +, -,
and
1) Equality in real numbers system
Let a, b, c

: Reflexive property
If a then a=a

: Symmetric property
If a=b then b=a

: Transitive property
If a=b and b=c then a=c

## : Property of addition by same number

If a=b then a+c=b+c

## : Property of multiplication by same number

If a=b the ac=bc
2) The addition in real number system
Definition1 1) in real number system call x be identity element of addition if and only if
a+x=x+a=a, a
And 2) in real number system call y be the inverse element of addition if and
only if a+y=y+a=x, a
Property of addition of real numbers
Let a, b, c are real numbers.
1

: Closure property
If a and b then a+b
2

: Commutative property
if a and b then a+b=b+a
3

: Associative property
If a , b and c then a+b+c=(a+b)+c=a+(b+c)
4

## : The Existence of identity property

There exists 0 such that 0+a=a+0, a
5

## : The Existence of inverse property

There exists -a such that a+(-a)=(-a)+a=0, a
3) Multiplication in real numbers system
Definition 2 1) In real numbers system call m to be identity of multiplication of a
if and only if am=ma=a,a and
2) In real numbers system call n to be inverse of multiplication of a
if and only if an=na=m
6

: Closure property
If If a and b then ab
7

: commutative property
If a and b then ab=ba, a
8

: Associative property
If a , b and c then abc=(ab)c=a(bc),
9

## : The Existence of identity property

There exists 1 such that 1a=a1=a, a
10

## : The Existence of inverse of multiplication property

There exists

such that

a=a

=1, a , a0
11 property that concern addition and multiplication
Distributive property
If a , and c then a(b+c)=ab+ac and (a+b)c=ac+bc
Example1 Let a, b and operation
Defined by ab=

Test that 1 Set and satisfy whether closure property.
2 Set and satisfy whether communicative property.
3 Set and satisfy whether associative property.
4 Set and satisfy whether the existence of identity.
5 Set and satisfy whether the existence of inverse.
Solution 1 Since, a , so a+b and then

That is, set and satisfy closure property.
2 Since, a+b=b+a so

## and then ab= ba

That is, set and satisfy communicative property.
3 Since, (ab)b=
(

b=
(

and
a(bc)=a
(

So, (ab)b a(bc)
That is, set and doesnt satisfy associative property.
4 Let e is identity for all a
Now, we have ea=

=a
We see obviously e=a
That is, set and satisfy the existence of identity.
5 Let

## is the inverse of a for all a

Now, we have

a=

=a
We see obviously

=a
That is, set and satisfy the existence of inverse.
Property of positive real numbers
12 Trichotomy property
If a then the following items will be true only one item.
1 a

or 2 -a

or 3 a=0
Remark: 1 When a

2 When -a

## , we call a is negative real numbers:

That is -a

13 Closure property of addition on

If a

and b

then a+b

14 Closure property of multiplication on

If a

and b

then ab

The following theorem arise from definition and properties above which can prove by
basic logic direct substitution and concerned knowledge.
The following theorem we let a, b, c, d are real numbers
Theorem1 (Cancellation for addition)
1 If a+c=b+c then a=b 2 If a+b=a+c then b=c
Proof 1 Consider a=a+0
=a+(c+(-c))
=(a+c)+(-c)
=(b+c)+(-c)
=b+(c+(-c))
=b+0
=b
Therefore, a=b (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 2 1 If a+b=a then b=0 2 If b+a=a then b=0
Proof 1 Consider b=((-a)+a)+b
=(-a)+(a+b)
=(-a)+a
=0
Therefore, b=0 (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 3 If a+b=0 then 1 a=-b 2 a=b
Proof 1 Consider a=a+(b+(-b))
=(a+b)+(-b)
=0+(-b)
=-b
Therefore, a=-b (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 4 -(-a)=a
Proof a=a+0=a+((-a)+(-(-a)))
=(a+(-a))+(-(-a))
=0+(-(-a))
=-(-a)
Therefore, a=-(-a)
Theorem 5 (Cancellation for multiplication)
1 If ac=bc then a=b 2 If ab=ac then b=c
Proof 1 Consider a=a(c

)
=(ac)

=(bc)

=b(c

)
=b
Therefore, a=b (2 is left the proof as an exercise)
Theorem 6 1 a0=0 2 0a=0
Proof 1 Consider 0+a0=a(0+0)
=a0+a0
Therefore, 0=a0 (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 7 1 (-1)a=-a 2 a(-1)=-a
Proof 1 Consider (-1)a=(-1)a+(a+(-a))
=((-1)a+1a)+(-a)
=(-1+1)a+(-a)
=0a+(-a)
=0+(-a)
=-a
Therefore, (-1)a=-a (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 8 1 If ab=a then b=1, a0 2 If ba=a then a=1, a0
Proof 1 Consider b=1b=(

a)b
=

(ab)
=

a
=1
Therefore, b=1 (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 9 If ab=1 then 1 a=

2 b=

Proof 1 Consider a=a1
=a(b

)
=(ab)

=1

Therefore, a=

## (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)

Theorem 10 If ab=0 then a=0 or b=0
Proof Assume a0 will get that
b=1b
=(

a)b
=

(ab)
=

0
=0
Therefore, b=0 (b0 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 11 If a0 and b0 then (

Proof Consider (

=(

1.1
=(

(a

)(b

)
=(

a(

b)

=(

a(b

=(

(ab)(

)
=1(

)
=

Therefore, (

Theorem 12 If a0 then

0
Proof Assume that

## =a0=0 arise the contradiction

Since,

=1
Therefore,

0
Theorem 13 If a0 then (

=a
Proof Consider (

=a
Theorem 14 1 (-a)b=-ab 2 a(-b)=-ab 3 (-a)(-b)=ab
Proof 1 (-a)b=((-1)a)b
=(-1)(ab)
=-(ab)
=-ab
Therefore, (-a)b=-ab (2, 3 are left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 15 1 If a=b then -a=-b 2 If -a=-b then a=b
Proof 1 Consider a=(-1)a
=(-1)b
=-b
Therefore, -a=-b (2, 3 are left the proof as an exercise.)
4) Subtraction and Division of real numbers
Definition 3 Let a, b , a-b=a+(-b)
And a+(-b)+b+(-a)=0, a+(-b) and b+(-a) are the inverse each other.
Theorem 16 1 a(b-c)=ab-ac 2 (a-b)c=ac-bc
Proof 1 a(b-c)=a(b+(-c))
=ab+a(-c)
=ab-ac
Therefore, a(b-c)=ab-ac (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Theorem 17 1If a-b=a-c then b=c 2 a-b=c-b then a=c
Proof 1 Consider b=(b-a)+a
=-(a-b)+a
=-(a-c)+a
=(c-a)+a
=c
Therefore, b=c (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)
Definition 4 Let a, b where b0
ab=

=a

Theorem 18 1

, where b, c0 2
(

, where b, c0
Proof Consider

=a

=(a

)(

c)
=a(

)c
=a(

c
=

, where b, c0
Therefore,

## (The remaining are left the proof as an exercise.)

Theorem 19 1 c(

)=

, where b0 2 -

, where b0
Proof Consider c(

)=c(a

)
=(ca)

Therefore, c(

)=

## (2 is left the proof as an exercise.)

Theorem 20

, where b, c0 2 (

, where a, b0
Proof 1

=(

(ad)+(

(bc)
=(

((ad+bc)
=

And (2) is left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 21 1 (

) (

)=

, where b, d0 2

)
=

, where b, c0 3
(

)
(

)
=

where b, c, d0
Proof 1 (

) (

)=(a

)(

c)
=a(

)c
=a(

c
=

Therefore, (

) (

)=

## (2, 3 are left the proof as an exercise.)

Example 2 Prove that 1 If a

and b

then (a+b)

2 If a

and b

then (ab)

3 If a

and b

then (ab)

4 If a

and b

then (ab)

Proof 1 As a

-a

and b

-b

((-a)+(-b))

((-1)a+(-1)b)

(-1)(a+b)

(a+b)

Therefore, If a

and b

then (a+b)

2 As a

-a

and b

-b

((-a)(-b))

ab

Therefore, If a

and b

then (ab)

3 As a

and b

-b

a(-b)

-ab

ab

Therefore, If a

and b

then (ab)

4 As a

-a

and b

(-a)b

-ab

ab

Therefore, If a

and b

then (ab)

2.3 Solving polynomial equations with one variable
Polynomials in variable x are written in from

+...+

x+

When n and

,...,

Where if

## 0 will call the polynomial of degree n

For convenience, we use a symbol p(x), q(x), r(x) instead of the polynomial lying above.
That is, p(x)=

+...+

x+

And p(t)=

+...+

t+

## , where p(t) is a variable of p(x) obtaining from

replacing x in this p(x) by t such as p(x)=3

-(-1)+4=2
And if define

+...+

x+

## =0, we call an equation above is the polynomial

equation having one variable.
The objectives of this section want to introduce how to find a solution or a solution set
of polynomial equations which are obtained from factorization by the theorem that call
The remainder theorem
Revise simply solving equations
1 Factorization of

2 Similar, A

## +Bx+C=(ax+b)(cx+d), where ac=A, bd=C and that is important ad+bc=B

3 Quadratic formula x=

, a

+bx+c=0
4 The difference of the square

=(x-y)(x+y)
5 Perfect the square (

2xy+

6 The sum of a cube

=(x+y)(

-xy+

)
7 The difference of a cube

=(x-y)(

+xy+

),

=(x-y)(

y+

)
Example 3 Find the solution set of the following equations.
1

+4x+3=0 2

-x-1=0 3

-5

-16x+80=0
Solution 1

+4x+3=(x+1)(x+3)=0
So, (x+1)=0 or (x+3)=0: theorem10
That is, x=-1 or x=-3
Therefore, the solution is {-3, -1}
2

## -x-1=0, a=1, b=-1, c=-1

X=

=
((

Therefore, the solution is {

}
3

-5

-16x+80=(

-5

)-(16x-80)
=

(x-5)-16(x-5)
=(x-5)(

-16)
=(x-5)(x-4)(x+4)=0
So, x-5=0, x-4=0, x+4=0
That is, x=-4, x=4, x=5
Therefore, the solution is {-4, 4, 5}
From the bygone example we find that the solving equation has to use the factorization
and the theorem having so helpful in this section is the remainder theorem.
Solving the polynomial equations by the remainder theorem
The remainder theorem makes to be capable finding a remainder from dividing
The designated polynomial by the polynomial with degree is to be 1 as follows.
Consider the following long division

+4x-6 3

-3x-9
x-3

-18x+18 x+1 3

-12x+15

-3

+3

+4

-18x -3

-12x
4

-12x -3

-3x
-6x+18 -9x+15
-6x+18 -9x - 9
0 + 0 +24
We say that

## -18x+18 is divisible by x-3 we say that 3

-12x+15 is no divisible
by x+1
And

-18x+18=(x-3)(

+4x-6) and 3

-12x+15=(x+1)( 3

-3x-9)+24
3 Division algorithm
We will lead its result use in the remainder theorem
Theorem 22 If p(x) and q(x) are polynomials, where q(x)0 then there exists polynomial
s(x) and r(x) only one pair such that p(x)=q(x)s(x)+r(x),where degree of r(x) is less than
q(x)
Proof by well ordering principle and exact division (See on theory of number)
Theorem 23 (The remainder theorem)
If divide p(x) by x-c, where c then the remainder from division will be equal to p(c)
Proof let q(x)=x-c, from theorem22 there exists s(x) and r(x) such that
P(x)=s(x)(x-c)+r(x)..............(1)
When r(x)=0 or r(x) is a polynomial with degree be less than x-c
So, r(x)=0 or there is degree to be zero
That is, r(x) is constant d, d
Thence, from (1) implies that p(x)=s(x)(x-c)+d............(2)
Since, an equation (2) is to be true x
Hence, if let x=c will get p(c)=s(c)(c-c)+d=d
Therefore, the remainder from division is d=p(c)
Remark: we can find the remainder from the division by using
1 The long division and 2 The remainder theorem
Example 4 Work out the remainder from the division 2

-3

+5 by x+1
Solution consider x+1=x-(-1)=x-c so implies that c=-1
And p(-1)=2(

-3(

+5
=2-3+5
=4
Therefore, the remainder is equal to 4
Definition 5 the polynomial q(x) is one factor of p(x) if and only if there exists s(x)
Such that p(x)=q(x)s(x)
Example 5 Let p(x)=

+2

## -5x-6 will obtain that

1 x+1 is one factor of p(x) as p(x)=(x+1)(

+x-6)
2 x-2 is one factor of p(x) as p(x)=(x-2)(

+4x+3)
3 x+3 is one factor of p(x) as p(x)=(x+3)(

-x-2)
From definition 5 we see obviously p(-1)=0, p(2)=0 and p(-3)=0 which the following
theorem will state us that (x-c) is one factor of p(x) or not has to see at p(c)
Theorem 24 (Factors theorem)
Let p(x) and c will obtain that x-c is a factor of p(x) if and only if p(c)=0
Proof () let x-c is a factor of p(x)
So, from definition5, there exists s(x) such that p(x)=(x-c)s(x)
And implies that p(c)=(c-c)s(c)=0
Therefore, p(c)=0
() let p(c)=0 and divide p(x) by x-c
So, from division algorithm there exists s(x) and d such that p(x)=x-c)s(x)+d
Finally will obtain p(c)=(c-c)s(c)+d
=d
But p(c)=0 and then d=p(c)=0
That is, p(x)=(x-c)s(x)
Therefore, x-c is a factor of p(x)
From () and () conclude that x-c is a factor of p(x) if and only if p(c)=0
Example 6 1 Let p(x)=2

-3

2 Let q(x)=6

+11

-7

## -8x+4, show that x+1 and x+2 are factors of q(x)

3 Find the solution set of q(x)=0
Solution 1 Since, p(x)=2

-3

+x-1
And p(2)=2(

-3(

+2-1
=32-12+2-1
=21
By the factor theorem to conclude x-2 isnt a factor of p(x)
2 Since, q(x)=6

+11

-7

-8x+4
And q(-1)=6(

+11(

-7(

-8(-1)+4
=6-11-7+8+4
=0
And q(-2)=6(

+11(

-7(

-8(-2)+4
=96-88-28+16+4
=0
So, x+1 and x+2 are factors of q(x) which make (x+1)(x+2)=

+3x+2 is to be same.
Consider long division as follows.
6

-7x+2

+3x+2 6

+11

- 7

-8x+4
6

+18

+12

- 7

- 19

-8x
-7

- 21

-14x
+2

+6x+4
+2

+6x+4
0 + 0 + 0
Thence, p(x)=(x+1)(x+)(6

-7x+2)
=(x+1)(x+2)(3x-2)(2x-1)=0
And will get x+1=0, x+2=0, 3x-2=0, 2x-1=0
And implies that x=-1, x=-2, x=

, x=

Therefore, the solution set is {-2, -1,

}
From example 6 If each answer is rational number in fraction form then rehearsing to
choose a rational number

that make x-

## is a factor of p(x) are disorganized.

The following will study to only polynomials with coefficients are rational numbers.
In practically, there are problems in selecting c, the following theorem can designate
the set with c is its element or make we can define a set which consist of all
elements that may be all possible.
Theorem 25 (The rational factors theorem)
Let p(x)=

+...+

x+

, where

, ...,

, n and

0
If (x-

## ) is a factor of p(x), when k, m and (k, m)=1 then

and

Proof By the factor theorem will get that p(

)=0, that is

+...+

=0
Next, use index property

+...+

=0
Next, use multiplication property

+...+

=0.......... (1)
Next, use addition property

+...+

=-

Next, use distributive property k(

+...+

)=-

Next, use closure property kw=-

, k=

+...+

Next, use (k, m)=1

Next, use addition property in (1)

+...+

=-

Next, use distributive property m(

+...+

)=-

Next, use closure property mz=

, z=

+...+

Next, use (k, m)=1

Therefore,

and

Remark: 1The theorem25 merely state that if x-

## is a factor of p(x) then

is divisible by m and

is divisible by k
2 If

is divisible by m and

## is divisible by k couldnt conclude that x-

is a factor of p(x) and
3 The polynomial p(x) maynt has a factor in from x-

which

is divisible by m and

## is divisible by k such as p(x)=

+2
Ordering of the factorization of p(x) in this case can conclude as follows.
1 Make a set with all elements in form

## according to theorem above.

2 Select an element

## and test that p(

)=0 or not, if p(

## )=0 will acquire that x-

is
one factor of p(x). In the case that has not

that make p(

## )=0 mean that p(x) hasnt

a factor being polynomial degree 1 in a pattern x-

3 Bring x-

that p(

## )=0 to divide p(x), the quotient will be a polynomial of degree

is less than a degree of p(x) is to be 1
4 If a quotient in point 3 has degree is higher than 2 and can factorize also operating
to factorize of that quotient according to order in 1, 2, 3 and for degree 2 will use
the method of factorization that used to learn.
The following is order of a rational in pattern

and test
1 Finding set A={|

( }
2 Rehearse to choose

A and find p(

) and then
2.1 If p(

)=0 mean x-

is a factor of p(x)
2.2 If p(

)0 mean x-

3 If p(

## )s(x), where degree of s(x) is less than p(x) is to be 1

4 Doing again until acquire s(x) which cant factorize of a coefficient is an rational N.
Remark: In the case has no number in from

## mean p(x) has no factor in from x-

That is, p(x)=0 has no solution being rational number.
Example 7 Find the solution set of 24

-14

-11x+6=0
Solution by The rational factors theorem, we have

=6k{1, 2, 3, 6}
And

{1, 2, 3, 6,

}
Let p(x)=24

-14

## -11x+6 see obviously 1, 2, 3, 6 dont satisfy

Thence, rehearsing to choose

and p(

)= 24(

-14(

-11(

)+6=0
So, x-

is a factor of p(x)
Mean that there exists q(x) such that p(x)=(x-

)q(x)
Consider long division as follows

24

-2x-12
x-

24

-14

-11x+6
24

-12

-2

-11x
-2

+ x
-12x+6
-12x+6
0 + 0
Hence, p(x)=(x-

)(24

-2x-12)=(x-

)(6x+4)(4x-3)=0
Now, we have x-

## =0, 6x+4=0 or 4x-3=0

And then x=

, -

Therefore, the answer is {-

}
Example 8 Solve an equation 3

-8

+8x-4 = 0
Solution Let p(x) = 3

-8

+8x-4
From the theorem 25 we have k{-4, -2, -1, 1, 2, 4}, m{-3, -1, 1, 3} and

{-4, -2, -

, -1, -

, -

, 1,

, 2, 4}
It ought to select

1 If

-8(

+(

+8(-1)-4=0 and
If

## =1 will acquire p(1) = 3(

-8(

+(

+8(1)-4=0
Now, we have x+1 and x-1 are factors of p(x)
2 Consider the following long division of p(x) by x+1 and x-1
3

-11

+12x-4 3

-8x+4
x+1 3

-8

+8x-4 x-1 3

-11

+12x-4
3

+3

-3

-11

-8

+12x
-11

-11

-8

+ 8x
+12

+8x +4x-4
+12

+12x +4x-4
-4x-4 0
-4x-4
0
3 From the definition 5 we have 3

-8

+8x-4= (x+1)(x-1)(3

-8x+4)
=(x+1)(x-1)(3x-2)(x-2)
But p(x)=0,so (x+1)(x-1)(3x-2)(x-2)=0
That is, x+1=0, x-1=0, 3x-2=0, x-2=0: (ab=0)[(a=0)(b=0)]
Hence, x=-1,

, 1, 2
Therefore, the solution set is {-1,

, 1, 2 }
From theorem 25, if let

## =1will obtain p(x)=

+...+

x+

which can
factorize of p(x) from the following theorem

Theorem 26 Let p(x)=

+...+

x+

, where

, ...,

, n
If (x-c) is a factor of p(x), where c is rational n. then c must be
An integer and

is divisible by c.
Proof Hint: to prove by the rational factor theorem.
2.4 Application
We can utilize from the rational factor theorem in the proof about any irrational numbers
Example 9 Show that

and

## are irrational numbers

Solution 1 let x=

-2

-2

## -1=0: rearrange term

We see obviously that its all answers being rational number have to lie in { -1, 1}
But

## dont lie in { -1, 1} so

is an irrational number.
2 let x=

## is the answer of infinite equations.

x=(

)(

): conjugate surd
x=3-2
x-3=-2: rearrange term.

## -6x+1=0: rearrange term.

We see obviously that its all answers being rational number have to lie in { -1, 1}
But

## dont lie in { -1, 1} so

is an irrational number.
2.5 Property of Inequality
According to 12
th
property of real N. (Trichotomy property)
We can write definition as follows.
Definition 6 Let k
1 Called k is to be zero real N. if and only if k=0
2 Called k is to be positive real N. if and only if k

3 Called k is to be negative real N. if ad only if -k

And since (a-b) , a, b so from trichotomy property we have
1 a-b=0 2 (a-b)

or 3 -(a-b)

## only one case

And we can write the following yet.
Definition 7 Let a, b
1 Called a is equal to b if and only if a-b=0 and written by a=b
2 Called a greater than b if and only if (a-b)

## and written by a>b

3 Called a less than b if and only if (a-b)

## and written by a<b

That is, 1 a=ba-b=0 2 a>b(a-b)

3 a<b-(a-b)=(b-a)

And since (a-b) we can write trichotomy property about relation =, <, > as follows.
Definition 8 If a, b then the following points are accurate only one point.
1 a=b 2 a>b 3 a<b
Definition 9 Let a, b, c , where a<c
1 ab signify (a<b)(a=b)
2 ab signify (a>b)(a=b)
3 a<b<c signify (a<b)(b<c)
4 a<bc signify (a<b)(bc)
5 ab<c signify (ab)(b<c)
6 abc signify (ab)(bc)
The following theorems are all property of inequality of real N.
Theorem 27 (Positive and negative real N. compare to zero)
Let a, b
1 a

a>0 2 a

## a<0 3 a>b(a-b)>0 4 a<b(a-b)<0

Proof 1 a

(a-0)

a>0
4 a<b-(a-b)

(a-b)

a-b<0
The remaining points are left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 28 Let a, b
1 If a>0 and b>0 then ab>0 2 If a>0 and b<0 then ab<0
3 If a<0 and b>0 then ab<0 4 If a<0 and b<0 then ab>0
Proof Its left the proof as an exercise. Hint: See on an example2
Theorem 29 L et a, b
1 If ab>0 then (a>0 and b>0) or (a<0 and b<0)
2 If ab<0 then (a<0 and b>0) or (a>0 and b<0)
Proof 1 Since ab0[(a0)(b0)] is to be true.
So, [If ab>0 then (a>0 and b>0)] or [If ab>0 then (a<0 and b<0)] is to be true.
But [(pq)(pr)]p(qr)
That is, If ab>0 then (a>0 and b>0) or (a<0 and b<0) is to be true.
We mean when a>0 then b>0 or a<0 then b<0 only one case.
Point 2 can prove similar.
Theorem 30 Let a, b
1 If a>0 then

<0
Proof 1 Since a

## >0 theorem28 [(a0)(b0)]

2 Similar
Theorem 31 (Transitive property) Let a, b, c
If a>b and b>c then a>c
Proof It is left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 32 (Addition and Subtraction by same Number) Let a, b, c
1 If a>b then a+c>b+c 2 If a>b then a-c>b-c
Proof 1 a>b(a-b)

[(a-b)+0]

[(a-b)+(c-c)]

[(a+c)-(b+c)]

Therefore, a+c>b+c
Appoint 2 is left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 33 (Cancellation for addition and Subtraction) Let a, b, c
1 If a+c>b+c then a>b 2 If a-c>b-c then a>b
Proof Assigned to be exercises
Theorem 34 (Multiplication by non-zero) Let a, b, c
1 If a>b and c>0 then ac>bc 2 If a>b and c<0 then ac<bc
Proof Assigned to be exercises.
Theorem 35 (Cancellation for Multiplication) Let a, b, c , c0
1 If ac>bc and c>0 then a>c 2 If ac>bc and c<0 then a<c
Proof Assigned to be exercises.
Theorem 36 (Addition and Subtraction of inequality) Let a, b, c, d
1 If a<b and c<d then a+c<b+d 2 If a<b and c<d then a-c<b-d
Proof 1 Since a<b and c<d so, a+c<b+c and b+c<b+d: theorem31
And then a+c<b+d: theorem30
The remaining is left as an exercise.
Theorem 37 (Multiplication of inequality) Let a, b, c, d
1 If a<b and c<d then ac<bd, where a, b, c, d

2 If a<b and c<d then ac>bd, where a, b, c, d

Proof Assigned to be exercises.
Theorem 38 (Inequality of the inverse)
If ab>0 and a<b then

>

Proof Since ab>0 and a<b so, ab

and (b-a)

Then implies that (b-a)ab)

Hence, (a

b)

## and will get a

>

b)
Therefore,

>

: divide by (

both sides.
That is,

>

: a

=1

Theorem 39 (Division of inequality)
1 If a<b and c<d then

<

, where a, b, c, d

2 If a<b and c<d then

>

, where a, b, c, d

Proof Assigned to be exercises.
Theorem 40 Let a, b, c
If a<b then there exists c such that a<c<b
Proof Assigned to be an exercise.
Theorem 41 Let a, b and c
If a<b then there exists c such that a<c<b
Proof Assigned to be an exercise.
Example 10 Let a, b , where ab prove that

-ab+

>0
Proof Consider

-ab+

=(

-2

)+

=(

0
And since ab so (

>0 and

0
Therefore, (

>0
That is,

-ab+

>0
Example11 prove that If

=1 and

=1 then ab+cd1
Proof since (

-2ab+

0 and (

-2cd+

0
So,

2ab and

2cd
But

=1 and

## =1 will get 2ab+2cd2

And then ab+cd1
Example12 prove that If a>0, b>0 and ab then

>

b+

a
Proof Consider (

)-(

b+

a)=(a+b)(

-ab+

)-(a+b)ab
=(a+b)(

-2ab+

)
=(a+b)(

But a>0, b>0 and ab so (a+b)>0 and (

>0
Therefore, (a+b)(

>0
That is,

>

b+

a
Example13 Let a>0, a1 prove that

+1>

+a
Proof Consider (

+1)-(

+a)=(

)-(a-1)=

(a-1)-(a-1)=(a-1)(

-1)=(

(a+1)
Since a>0, a1 and then (

>0 and(a+1)>0
Therefore, (

(a+1)>0
That is,

+1>

+a
2.6 Interval
Finite interval
Definition10 Let a, b , where a<b
1 Open interval (a, b) signify { | }
2 Closed interval [a, b] signify { | }
3 Half open interval (a, b] signify { | }
4 Half closed interval [a, b) signify { | }

a
b
a b
a b
Infinite interval
Definition11 Let a
5 infinite interval (a, ) signify { | }
6 Infinite interval [a, ) signify { | }
7 Infinite interval (-, a) signify { | }
8 Infinite interval (-, a] signify { | }
9 Infinite interval (-, ) signify {| }
As interval above are sets so we can use several operator concerning set which will
show in the example as follows.
Example14 Let A={ | }, B={ | } and C={ | }
Find AB, AB, AC, AC, BC, BC, A-B, B-A, A-C, C-A, B-C, C-B,

and

Solution For convenience we give A=[-1, 4), B=[2,7) and C=(-, 3)(3, )
The following are the answer of them
AB=[-1, 4)[2,7)=[-1, 7) AB=[-1, 4)[2,7)=[2, 4)
AC=[-1, 4)((-, 3)(3, ))=[-1,3)(3, 4) A-B=[-1, 4)-[2,7)=[-1, 2)
AC=[-1, 4)((-, 3)(3, ))= BC=[2,7)((-, 3)(3, ))=
BC=[2,7)((-, 3)(3, ))=[2, 3)(3, 7) B-A=[2,7)-[-1, 4)=[4, 7)
A-C=[-1, 4)-((-, 3)(3, ))={3}

=[

=(-, -1)[4, )
C-A=((-, 3)(3, ))-[-1, 4)=(-, -1)[4, )

=[

=(-, 2)[7, )

=((( (

## ={3} B-C=[2,7)-((-, 3)(3, ))={3}

C-B=((-, 3)(3, ))-[2,7)=(-, 2)[7, )
2.7 Solving inequality
Definition12 1 Inequality in x signify open sentences with variable x that say to inequality
2 Let = and p(x) substitute inequality in x
a is the answer of p(x) if and only if x is substituted by a, p(a) is to be true
3 Let = and p(x) substitute inequality in x
The solution set of p(x) signify the set having all the answers of p(x) are
elements only. That is the solution set is { |( }
4 Solving inequality is the finding the solution set of p(x) by property of
inequality.
Remark: The following are properties which often be used in the solving inequality in x
a
a
a
a
1 Add to both sides of inequality in x by a
2 Multiply to both sides of inequality in x by b , b0
3 Factorize by the following formula
3.1 Factorization of

3.2 Similar, A

## +Bx+C=(ax+b)(cx+d), where ac=A, bd=C and that is important

ad+bc=B
3.3 The quadratic formula x=

, a

+bx+c=0
3.4 The difference of the square

=(x-y)(x+y)
3.5 The complete square (

2xy+

3.6 The sum of a cube

=(x+y)(

-xy+

)
3.7 The difference of a cube

=(x-y)(

+xy+

)
4 Find the solution set by theorem10, 27 and 28
1 solving linear inequalities
Example15 Find the answer of each of the following.
1 4x-3>7-10x 2 3<4x-37 3 9-2x4x-3<6x+5
Solution 1 4x-3>7-10x 2 3<4x-37
4x+10x-3>7-10x+10x 3+3<4x-3+37+3
14x-3>7 6<4x10
14x-3+3>7+3

(6)<

(4x)

(10)
14x>10

<x

(14x)>

]
x>

## , therefore the answer is (

, )
3 9-2x4x-3<6x+59-2x4x-3 and 4x-3<6x+5
9-2x+2x4x+2x-3 and 4x+(-4x)-3<6x+(-4x)+5
96x-3 and -3<2x+5
9+32x-3+3 and -3+(-5)<2x+5+(-5)
126x and -8<2x

(12)

(6x) and

(-8)<

(2x)
2x and -4<x
The answer is (-, 2](-, -4)= (-, -4)
2 Solving inequalities that enable to lie in the following patterns
(x-a)(x-b)<0, (x-a)(x-b)>0, (x-a)(x-b)0, (x-a)(x-b)0, where ab
Remark: (ax-b)(cx-d)<0 substitute by (x-

)(x-

)<0, where

and a,c

1 We will consider (x-a)(x-b)<0 and (x-a)(x-b)>0 as follows.
1) (x-a)(x-b)<0, when ab we can separate to be 3 cases as follows.
1.1) If x>b then x-a>0 and x-b>0 and then (x-a)(x-b)>0 arise a contradiction.
1.2) If a<x<b then x-a>0 and x-b<0 and then (x-a)(x-b)<0 is to be true.
1.3) If x<a then x-a<0 and x-b<0 and then (x-a)(x-b)>0 arise a contradiction.
Therefore, the answer of (x-a)(x-b)<0 is { | }or (a, b)
2) (x-a)(x-b)>0, similar we can separate to be 3 cases as follows.
2.1) If x>b then x-a>0 and x-b>0 and then (x-a)(x-b)>0 is to be true.
2.2) If a<x<b then x-a>0 and x-b<0 and then (x-a)(x-b)<0 arise a contradiction.
2.3) If x<a then x-a<0 and x-b<0 and then (x-a)(x-b)>0 is to be true.
Therefore, the answer of (x-a)(x-b)>0 is{ | } (-, a)(b, )
2 We can consider similarly (x-a)(x-b)0 and (x-a)(x-b)0
As x-a xa and x-b xb so, we have
(x-a)(x-b)0axbx[a,b] and (x-a)(x-b)0xa or xbx(-,a][b,)
Example16 find the answer of the following inequalities.
1

-3x-10<0 2

+5x+60 3 4

-7x-20 4 6

+5x-60
5 -4

+x+5<0 6 10

-31x+15<0
Solution 1

-3x-10<0
Consider

-7x-10=(x+3)(x-5)=(x-(-3))(x-5)<0
Therefore, the answer is (-3, 5)
2

+5x+60
Consider

+5x+6=(x+2)(x+3)0
Therefore, the answer is (-, 2)(3, )
3 4

-7x-20
Consider 4

-7x-2=(4x+1)(x-2)0(x+

)(x-2)0
Therefore, the answer is (-, -

][2, )
4 6

+5x-60
Consider 6

+5x-6=(2x+3)(3x-2)0(x+

)(x-

)0
Therefore, the answer is (-, -

)(

, )
5 -4

+x+5<0
Consider -4

+x+5<04

-x-5>0(x+1)(x-

)>0
Therefore, the answer is (-, -1)(

, )
6 10

-31x+15<0
Consider 10

-31x+15<0(5x-3)(2x-5)<0(x-

)(x-

)<0
Therefore, the answer is (

)
3 Solving inequalities that lie in pattern of (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)...{

, where a<b<c<...
By considering each interval from (-, a) to (c, )... according to condition in
inequality.
Example17 Find the solution set of each of the following.
1

x 2

Solution 1

x
Consider

-x0, x1

(

0
x(x-1)(x-3)0: Multiply by (

to both sides.
We will consider each interval as follows.
1 x3x-30, x-10, x0 x(x-1)(x-3)0 is to be true.
2 1<x3-2<x-30, 0<x-12, 1<x3x(x-1)(x-3)0 is to be false.
3 0x<1-3x-3<-2, -1x-1<0, 0x<1x(x-1)(x-3)0 is to be true.
4 x0x-3-3, x-1-1, x0x(x-1)(x-3)0 is to be false.
Therefore, the answer is [3, )[0, 1)
2

Consider

0, where x0, 1

((
(
0

(
0
(

+1)x(x-1)0
Since,

## +10, x so we consider only x(x-1)0

Therefore, (-, 0)(1, )
3

Consider

0, where x-

, 2

((
((
0

((
0

((
0

(())(()
((

))(
0: completing the square
(x-(-

))(x-(2-)(x-2)(x-(2+))0
We will consider each interval as follows.
1) x2+ (x-(-

))(x-(2-)(x-2)(x-(2+))0 is to be true.
2) 2<x2+ (x-(-

))(x-(2-)(x-2)(x-(2+))0 is to be false.
3) 2- x<2(x-(-

))(x-(2-)(x-2)(x-(2+))0 is to be true.
4) -

x2- (x-(-

))(x-(2-)(x-2)(x-(2+))0 is to be false.
5) x-

(x-(-

))(x-(2-)(x-2)(x-(2+))0 is to be true.
Therefore, the answer is (-, -

)[ 2-, 2)[2+, )
Point 4 is left the showing as an exercise.
In general cases assume that we have the following inequalities.
1 (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)(x-d)(x-e)(x-f)(x-g) will acquire that the answer is
x(-,a)(b,c)(d,e)(f,g)
2 (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)(x-d)(x-e)(x-f)(x-g) will acquire that the answer is
x(a,b)(c,d)(e,f)(g,)
3 for symbol and can be considered similarly
From all above can write the following theorem.
Theorem 42 let a, b, c, d, e , where a<b<c<d<e then will acquire that
1 (x-a)(x-b)<0x(a, b) 2 (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)<0x(-, a)(b, c)
3 (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)(x-d)<0x(a, b)(c, d)
4 (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)(x-d)(x-e)<0x(-, a)(b, c)(d, e)
5 (x-a)(x-a)>0x(-, a)(b, ) 6 (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)>0x(a, b)(c, )
7 (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)(x-d)>0x(-, a)(b, c)(d, )
8 (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)(x-d)(x-e)>0x(a, b)(c, d)(e, )
And if

<

<

<

<...<

## , and these are real numbers then will acquire that

9 (x-

)(x-

)(x-

)(x-

)...(x-

)<0x(

)(

)...(

), n is even.
10 (x-

)(x-

)(x-

)(x-

)...(x-

)<0x(-,

)(

)...(

), n is odd.
11 (x-

)(x-

)(x-

)(x-

)...(x-

)>0x(-,

)(

)...(

, ), n is even.
12 (x-

)(x-

)(x-

)(x-

)...(x-

)>0x(

)(

)...(

, ), n is odd.
Proof 1() as a<b implies (x<a<b) or (a<x<b) or (a<b<x), x
And, since (x-a)(x-b)<0 so will obtain a<x<b
Therefore, x(a, b)
( ) x(a, b) implies a<x<b implies (a<x) and (x<b)
And make x-a>0, x-b<0 so, (x-a)(x-b)<0
For the all remaining are left the proof as exercises.
4 Solving inequalities that lie in pattern (

{

, m, n and ab
By considering even and odd of m and n respectively as follows
1 (

2 (

3 (

4 (

5 (

6 (

## <0, when m and n are even is no solution.

7 (

0 (

<0 or (

=0
8 (

0 (

>0 or (

=0
From 8 expressions above see obviously that can solve easy inequalities.
Example18 Find the solution set of each of the following
1 (

0 2 (

0
Solution 1 (

0 (

>0 or (

=0
[x-10 and x-3>0] or [x-1=0 or x-3=0]
x>3 or x=3x3[3, ) is a solution set
2 (

0 (

<0 or (

=0
(x-2)(x-5)<0 or [x-2=0 or x-5=0]
2<x<5 or [x=2 or x=5]2x5[2, 5] is a solution set
2.8 Absolute Value
Consider the distance from zero to a and -a on a figure below.

We find that it is equal to a and -(-a)=a respectively as the distance always has value
is to be positive.
Definition13 Absolute value of a signify the distance from zero to a and be written by
||={

Its properties that is important.
1 || 0 2 ||=|| 3 || a and || -a
4 | |=| | 5 ||=|||| 6 |

|=
||
||
, b0
7 |

|=||

8 | | ||+|| 9 ||-|| | |
10 ||| ||| | | 11

=||
Proof 1 || 0
It is to be true along definition13
2 ||=||
When a0, ||=a=-(-a)=|| and a<0, ||=-a=||
Thence, ||=||
3 || a and || -a
-a a
When a0, ||=aa and ||=a-a and a<0, ||=-aa and ||=-a-a
Thence, || a and || -a
4 | |=| |
It is to be true along points 2
5 ||=||||
When a0, b0, ||=ab=|||| and a<0, b<0 ||=ab=(-a)(-b)=||||
When a<0, b0, ||=-ab=(-a)b=|||| and a0, b<0 is same
When a=0 or b=0 it is to be true sure. It is sufficient that will conclude that
||=||||
6 |

|=
||
||
, b0
Consider |

|=|

|=|| |

|=||

||
=
||
||
, b0
Thence, |

|=
||
||
, b0
7 |

|=||

Consider |

|=| |=||||=||

Thence, |

|=||

8 | | ||+||
Since, a || and -a ||, b || and -b ||
So, a+b ||+|| and -(a+b) ||+||
But, | |=(a+b) or -(a+b)
Hence, | | ||+||
9 ||-|| | |
Consider ||=|( | | |+|| and then ||-|| | |
Thence, ||-|| | |
10 ||| ||| | |
Consider ||=|( | | |+|| and then ||-|| | |=| |
Therefore, ||-|| | | and ||-|| | |
But ||| |||=||-|| or ||-||
Thence, ||| ||| | |
11

=||
When a0,

## =a=|| and a<0-a>0,

=(

=-a=||
Thence,

=||
Example19 Prove that if ab>0 then | |=||+|| and if ab<0 then | |<||+||
Proof 1 ab>0a>0, b>0 or a<0, b<0
1.1 a>0, b>0 will obtain a+b>0, | |=a+b=||+||
1.2 a<0, b<0 will obtain (a+b)>0, | |=-(a+b)=-a+(-b)=||+||
Therefore, if ab>0 then | |=||+||
2 ab<0a>0, b<0 or a<0, b>0
2.1 a>0, b<0 will obtain ||+||=a+(-b) which will consider three cases as
follows.
2.1.1 a+b=0 will obtain | |=a+b<a+(-b)=||+||
2.1.2 a+b>0 will obtain | |=a+b<a+(-b)=||+||
2.1.3 a+b<0 will obtain | |=-(a+b)=-a+(-b)<a+(-b)=||+||
2.2 prove similarly 2.1
Therefore, if ab<0 then | |<||+||
Example 20 Let a[-4, 2] and b[-2, 5], show that | | 22
Show Since a[-4, 2] and b[-2, 5] will get 3a[-12, 6] and 2b[-4, 10]
And then || 12 and || 10
Finally, we have | | ||+|| 12+10=22
2.9 Equations in pattern of Absolute value
The following are added properties which have to select use appropriately in solving
each equation having sign of absolute value.
Theorem 43 Let a0 and x will obtain that
||=ax=a or x=-a
Proof () x0 will obtain ||=x=a and x<0 will obtain ||=-x=a, x=-a
() x=a or x=-a-x=a will get ||=a
Therefore, ||=ax=a or x=-a
Theorem 44 Let a, b will obtain that
||=|| a=b or a=-b
Proof () a=b or a=-b ||=|| or ||=||=||
()||=|| will get a=b, a=-b, -a=b or -a=-b
So, a=b or a=-b
Therefore, ||=|| a=b or a=-b
Theorem 45 Let a, b will obtain that
||=|| (a-b)(a+b)=0
Proof ()||=|| ||

=||

=0
(a-b)(a+b)=0
Therefore, ||=|| (a-b)(a+b)=0
Theorem 46 Let a, b will obtain that
||=b b0 and

Proof ()||=b will obtain ||

, where b0
That is

, where b0
()

## , where b0 will obtain ||=||, where b0, ||=b

That is ||=b
Therefore, ||=bb0 and

Theorem 47 Let a, b will obtain that
||=b b0 and (a-b)(a+b)=0
Proof assigned as an exercise.
Example 21 Find the answer of each of the following.
1 | |=

||
2
||
||
=2 3 | |=| |
4 | |=3x+7 5 | |=x-1
Solution 1 | |=

||
will get | |||=|

|=2, where x0
From theorem 41,

+x=2 or -2
And then

+x=2 or

+x=-2
Hence,

+x-2=0 or

+x+2=0
Now, afterward (x-1(x+2)=0 and ((
Finally, the answer is {-2, 1}
2
||
||
=2 will obtain | |=2| |, where x-3
From theorem42 3x-2=2x+6 or 3x-2= -2x-6, where x-3
That is x=8 or x=-

## are its solution and written by {-

, 8}
3 | |=| | will obtain (2x+1)(5x-2)=0: Theorem 43
Hence, x=-

## are its solution and written by {-

}
4 | |=3x+7 will get (

=(

, where 3x+70
Afterward will get

-6x+9=9

## +42x+49, where 3x+70

Now, we have (x+1)(x+5)=0, where x-

Finally, its answer is -1 and written by {-1}
5 | |=x-1 will get ((2x-3)-(x-1))((2x-3)+(x-1))=0, where x-10
So, (x-2)(3x-4)=0, where x1
Finally, we have the answer is {

, 2}
In the following example will use definition and | |=||+|| ab0
Example 22 Solve the following equations
1 | |=||+3 2 | |=||+2 3 | |+| |=2
Solution 1 | |=||+3 will get | |=||+|| 2x(3)0
Therefore, the answer is [0, )
2 | |=||+2 will get | (|=||+|| 3x(-2)06x0
Therefore, the answer is (-, 0]
3 | |+| |=2
Consider | |={

| |={

There are intervals that have to consider respectively as follows.
(-, 3], [3, 5] and [5, )
1 (-, 3] will get 3-x+5-x=26-2x=0x=3(-, 3]
2 [3, 5] will get x-3+5-x=22=2x[3, 5][3, 5]
3 [5, ) will get x-3+x-5=22x=10x=5[5, )
Therefore, the answer is [3, 5]
2.10 Inequality in pattern of Absolute value
Solving these inequalities have to use properties of added absolute value and that
Is important has to select cleverly.
Theorem 48 Let a, b will obtain that
1 ||<b-b<a<b and 2 || b-bab
3 ||>ba>b or a<-b and 2 || bab or a-b
Proof 1 ()||<b will get a<||<b and -a<||<b which make -b<a<b
() -b<a<b will get -a<b and a<b but ||=a or -a, so ||<b
2 Assigned as an exercise.
3 ()||>b will get a>b or -a>b that is a>b or a<-b
() a>b or a<-b will get a<b or a>b but || =a or -a, so ||>b
4 Assigned as an exercise.
Theorem 49 Let a, b will obtain that
1 ||<||

<

2 || ||

Proof Assigned as an exercises.
Example 23 Solve the following inequalities
1 | |<x+1 2 | | 2x-1 3 | |>-x+2 4 | | 3x+2
5 x<| | x+1 6

||

7 |

|>2 8 | | +| |>3
9
||

<-x 10
||
||
5 11
||
||
0 12
||
||
6
Solution 1 | |<x+1 will get -x-1<2x-3<x+1 which make -x-1<2x-3 and 2x-3<x+1,
x>1 we see that

## <x<4 and x-1

Therefore, the answer is (

, 4)
2 | | 2x-1 will get 1-2x3x+12x-1 which make 1-2x3x+1 and
3x+12x+1 we see that (x0 and x-2) and x

Therefore, the answer is
3 | |>-x+2 will get 2x-3>-x+2 or 2x-3<x-2 which make x>

or x<1
Therefore, the answer is (-, 1)(

, )
4 | | 3x+2 will get 2-x3x+2 or 2-x-3x-2 which make x0 or x-2
Therefore, the answer is (-, 0]
5 x<| | x+1 will get x<| | and | | x+1
Consider x<| | 3x-2>x or 3x-2<-xx>1 or x<

And | | x+1-x-13x-2x+1-x-13x-2 and 3x-2x+1x

and x

Therefore, the answer is [

]((-,

)(1, ))=[

)(1,

]
6

||

## 3(2x+1) | | -6x-33x+66x+3 where x-2

-6x-33x+6 and 3x+66x+3x-1 and x1, where x-2
Therefore, the answer is [1, )
7 |

|>2| |>| | (

>(

, where x-1

-2x+1>4

+8x+43

+10x+3<0(3x+1)(x+3)<0-3<x<-

Therefore, the answer is (-3, -1)(-1, -

)
8 | | +| |>3 have to consider | | and | | along its
Definition | |={

and | |={

So there are intervals that have to consider to be (-,

], [

, 1] and [1, )
When x(-,

(-, -

) is to be true.
When x[

## , 1] will get 1-x+2x-1>3x>3(3, ) is to be false.

When x[1, ) will get x-1+2x-1>3x>

[1, ) is to be true.
Therefore, the answer is (-, -

)[1, )
9
||

## <-x have to consider | |=| | along its definition.

| |={

, x1
So, there are intervals that have to consider to be (-, 1), (1, )
When x(-, 1) will get
(

<-x-3<-xx<3(-, 1) is to be true.
When x(1, ) will get
(

<-x3<-xx<-3 is to be false. ()
Therefore, the answer is (-, 1) =(-, 1)
10
||
||
5 have to consider | | and | | along its definition.
| |={

and | |={

, x-2, 0
So there are intervals that have to consider to be (-, -1], [-1,

], [

, )
When x(-, -1] will get

-50(x+6)(x+2)0,
x-2[-6, -2) is to be true as ((-6, -2)(-, -1])
When x[-1,

] will get

-50

0(8x-2)x0, x0
(0,

] is to be true as ((0,

][-1,

]
When x[

, ) will get

-50

0(2x+2)x0, x0
[-1, 0) is to be false as ([

, )[-1, 0)=)
Therefore, the answer is [-6, -2)(0,

] =[-6, -2)(0,

]
11
||
||
0 have to consider || and | | along its definition.
||={

and | |={

, x-3, 1
So there are intervals that have to consider to be (-, -1], [-1, 0], [0, )
When x(-, -1] will get

0(x+1)(x+3)0-3<x-1,
x-3(-3, -1] is to be true as ((-3, -1](-, -1])
When x[-1, 0] will get

0(x+1)(x-1)0x>1 or x-1,
x1(1, )(-, -1] is to be false as ([-1, 0]((1, )(-, -1])=)
When x[0, ) will get

=10, x1 is to be false. ()
Therefore, the answer is (-3, -1] =(-3, -1]
12
||
||
6 have to consider | | and | | along its definition.
| |={

and | |={

, x-1
So there are intervals that have to consider to be (-, -1], [-1, 2], [2, )
When x(-, -1] will get

-60(5x+13)(x+1)0-

x<-1
[-

## , -1) is to be true as (-, -1][-

, -1)=[-

, -1)
When x[-1, 2] will get

-60(7x-1)(x+1)0-1<x

(-1,

] is to be true as (-1,

] [-1, 2]
When x[2, ) will get

-60(5x+3)(x+1)0-1<x-

(-1, -

] is to be false as (-1, -

][2, )=
Therefore, the answer is (-1,

](-1,

] =(-1,

](-1,

]
Exercise two
1 Let a, b and ab=1-ab, test that the operator possess whether closure
communicative associative identity inverse and distributive properties.
2 Prove that the sum of rational number and irrational number is irrational number.
3 Prove that the product of irrational number and non-zero rational number is
Irrational N.
4 Let a, b, c, d , where b, d0 Prove that

ad=bc
5 Prove that a -{}

6 Let p(x)=

+b

7 Let q(x)=

-9

+a

## -3x+2 is a factor of q(x)

8 Find a value of k that makes x-3 divide

## -kx-4 and there is a remainder is 17

9 If nN, a0, find a value of n that make
1 x+a is a factor of

2 x-a is a factor of

3 x+a is a factor of

4 x-a is a factor of

10 Solve the following equations.
1

-2

+x+4=0 2 2

-3

-7x-6=0
3 3

-16

+25x-12=0 4

-16

+86

-176x+105=0
5

-2

-12x-8=0 6 36

+96

-215

-75

+74x+24=0
11 Show that each of the following numbers is irrational numbers.
1

2 -

12 Prove that if a.0 b>0 and ab then

>2
13 If a<b<c and x<y<z, prove that 1 x+a<b+y<c+z and 2 a-z<b-y<c-x
14 Let a, b, c, x, y and z

## , where a<b<c and x<y<z, prove that

1 ax<by<cz and 2

<

<

15 Prove that if a

then a+

2
16 Let a, b , a<b, prove that a<

## <b and 2 a<

<b
17 Each rational N. has to lie between two integers in order that always continue.
18 Let a, b , where a<b, prove that there exists c that make a<c<b
19 Let a, b , where a<b, prove that there exists c

20 Let a and b

21 Let a, b

22 Let a, b

## that make a<c<b

23 Let a, b , prove that 1 If a<b then there exists c

## that make b=a+c

2 If there exists c

## that make b=a+c then a<b

24 Show that if a, b and a2b then

+4

>4ab
25 Show that if a

then a+

2
26 Let A={ | }, B={ | } and C={ | }
Find AB, AC, B-A, B-C, (

, (

, A-(AC), ( (

, ( (

27 Let

=(

],

=(

] and

=(

, n] Find

), (

)-(

-(

, (

)(

),

-(

-(

))))
28 Solve the following inequalities.
1

-4x+40 2

0
3

5 -1<

3 6 (x-1)(

<0
7
((

(
0 8
((

((

0
9 3 10 >x-4
29 Let a<0, b<0 and a<x<b show that

||
<

||
<

||

30 Let a , n show that |

|=||

31 Solve the following equations having absolute value.
1 | |=3x+1 2 |

|=||
3 |

|=| | 4 | |=4-3x
5 | |=-2x-3 6 |

|=|

|+5
7 | |=

||
8 | |+| |=3
9 | |+||+| |=7 10
||
||
=2
32 Solve the following inequalities having absolute value.
1 x<| | 2 2

||
2
3
||
||
0 4 | |+| |>3
5 ||<| | || 6 ||+| |+| |=5
7

||
0 8
||||
||
0
9 |

|<|

|+6 10 |

|<|

|+4x
33 The given a<xb, a

and b

## , write solution graph of

34 The given | |<5 and | | 7, find an interval that satisfies it.
35 The given | | 3 and | | 8, find intervals that satisfy it.
36 The given 7<x<12 and -7<y<-3, write solution graph of

37 Prove all theorems that are left the proof

Lesson Three
Principal theory of numbers
The following will say to some special property of integers are division which consist of
exact division and non- division. Exact division leads to involved theorem Greatest
Common divisor, Least Common multiple and its application.
Non-division leads to division Algorithm
its partition or residue class and its application.
3.1 Exact Division
Definition1 Let a, b , where a0
b is divided exactly by a or b is divisible by a or a is a factor of b if and only if
there exists c such that b=ac, a0 called a is a divisor of b, called c is a
quotient of b by a and called b the multiple of a which is written by
Remark:1 b is non-divisible by a if and only if there doesnt exist c such that b=ac
And is written by b
2 when a0 will obtain that , , , and a=1
Its properties
Theorem 1 Let a, b, c and a, b0 will obtain that
If and then
Proof Since and at last b=ax and c=by, x, y
Afterward, c=by=(ax)y=a(xy)=ak, k=xy
Therefore,
Theorem 2 Let a, b , b>0 will obtain that
If then ab
Proof Since will obtain b=ax, x
1
st
a<0-a>0, x<0-x>0-x1
Consider -x1(-a)(-x)=ax-a>aab
2
nd
a>0a1, x>0x1
Consider x1axaab
Theorem 3 Let a, b , where a0, b0 will obtain that
and a=b
Proof () and at last b=ax and a=by, x, y
Consider b=ax=(by)x=b(xy)xy=1x=1 and y=1 or x=-1 and y=-1
Therefore, a=b or a=-b
() we see obviously is to be true.
Theorem 4 Let a, b and b0 will get that
If then || ||
Proof It is left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 5 Let a, b and a0 will get that
If and ||>|| then b=0
Proof will acquire b=ax, x at last ||=||=||||
But since ||>|| will acquire ||||>||||
So that ||>|||| at last 1>||
Now, we have x=0
Finally, we conclude b=a(0)=0
Theorem 6 Let a, b, c , where a0 will acquire that
If and then (
Proof It is left the proof as an exercise.
Theorem 7 Let a, b, c , where a0 will acquire that
If ( and then
Proof It is left the proof as an exercise.
3.2 Prime and Composite numbers
Aristotle and Euclid separated the natural numbers that are greater than 1 are two
partitions
Include with prime numbers and composite numbers.
Definition 2 The integer p is called prime number if and only if p 1 and if a, b
And p=ab then a=1 or b=1
={2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37,...}
Definition 3 The integer c is called composite number if and only if there exist a, b
Which 1<ab<n such that c=ab
={4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25...}
Theorem 8 n , where n>1
There is prime number p such that
Proof To see on text of theory of number
Theorem 9 (The fundamental theorem of Arithmetic)
For all elements of natural numbers that are greater than one can write in
Type of multiplication of prime numbers only type except commutative of
multiplier or be multiplication by 1
Let n , n>1 will get that n can write in this type
n=

...

, where

i{1, 2, 3, 4,...,k}
and

, ...,

## are prime numbers which

<

<

<...<

and can
write only one type.
Proof To see on text of theory of number
Lemma1 Let n , n>1 and n=

...

, where

i{1, 2, 3, 4,...,k}
Will acquire that the number of all factors of n are (

+1)(

+1)...(

+1)
Proof it is assigned as an exercise.
Theorem 10 If n then there exists p which p
Proof To see on text of theory of number
Theorem 11 There are prime numbers are to be infinite.
Proof To see on text of theory of number
Example 1 1 Prove that if ( and ( then
2 Prove that if ( and ab then ac
3 If n {0}, Prove that if and only if the sum of digits of n is divided
exactly by 3
Proof 1 ( will obtain ( but (
So that (( ( at last
2 Assume that will get c=ay,y but (
So that will get b+c=ax, x
Consider b+c=b+ay=ax at last b=a(x-y)=ak, x-y
Therefore, () arise a contradiction
3 Let n=

, where
n=

+...+

=(999...9+1)

+(999...9+1)

+...+(99+1)

+(9+1)

=(999...9

+999...9

+999...9

+...+99

+9

)+(

+...+

)
And since and (

+999...9

+999...9

+...+99

+9

)
So that (

+...+

)
3.3 Division Algorithm
Since the consequence arise from addition multiplication subtraction and division
Have to be unique so we have to define remainder that arises from division as follows.
Consider the following expressions.

=4+

14=(4.3)+2

=-4+

14=(-4)(-3)+2

=-5+

-14=(-5)(-3)+1

=5+

-14=5(-3)+1

=5+

15=5.3

=-5+

15=(-5)(-3)

=5+

-15=5(-3)
We see obviously that the remainder arise from division has to be greater than or
Equal to be zero and be less than absolute value of divisor.
Theorem 12 (Division Algorithm)
If a, b , where b0 then there exists q, r only one pair such that
a=bq+r, 0r ||
Called q is to be quotient, r is to be remainder
Proof To see on text of theory of numbers
From division algorithm above we find that for all x when is divided by b , where
b>0 will have a remainder r is unique which r{0, 1, 2, 3,..., (b-1)}
Afterward we can conclude that the integers are partitioned to be b-1 sets as follows.

={ |

={ |

={ |

={ |

={ |

},...,

={ |

( }
For convenience we substitute

## by , , , ,...,[b-1]

respectively and are called residue class.
Finally, we have =

We can lead property above for proving theorem and problem involving integers.
3.4 Even and Odd numbers
The integers are partitioned is to be two sets are set of even and set of odd
Definition 4 Let k will acquire that
1 k is even number if and only if k=2i, I
2 k is odd number if and only if k=2j+1, j
Therefore, ={ | } and ={ | }, where =
Example 2 Show that 1 if k is odd number then

and
2
(

## are positive integers for all k

Solution 1) Let k are varied odd numbers and 4 from division algorithm will have q
Which make k=4q, k=4q+1, k=4q+2 or k=4q+3
And k=4q+1=2(2q)+1 and k=4q+3=2(2q+1)+1 are odd numbers
Consider when k=4q+1 then

-1=(

-1=16

+8q=4(4

+2q)
And when k=4k+3 then

-1=(

-1=16

+24q+8=4(4

+6q+2)
Therefore,

## for all odd numbers k

2 Let k are varied positive integers and 3 from division algorithm will have q
Which make k=3q, k=3q+2 or k=3q+2
Consider when k=3q then
(

=
(

=(

When k=3q+1 then
(

=
((

=
((

=(3q+1)(3

+2q+1)
When k=3q+2 then
(

=
((

=
((

=(3q+1)(3

+4q+2)
Therefore,
(

## are positive integers for all k

Example 3 Find all integers lying between 1 and 200 which be divided by 6 and 14
Have remainders are 2 and 10 respectively.
Solution Let x is wanted integer
So that x=6i+2, I and x=14j+10, j
And can observe that x+4=6i+6=6(i+1)=14j+14=14(j+1)
Consider 6(i+1)==6.7=42=14.3=14(j+1)
Now, we have i=6 and j=2
Therefore, x=6i+2=6.6+2=36+2=38=14.2+10=14j+10
But x lie between 1 and 200 so x{38, 76, 114, 152,190}
Unless division algorithm is leaded yet to use for writing positive integer in pattern
Of numeral of base b, when b , b>1
For example 123=(1.

)+(1.

)+(1.

)+(1.

)+(1.2)+1
234=(1.

)+(4.

)+(1.5)+4
In general can write positive integer n in distributive pattern by the theorem below.
Theorem 13 Let b ,b>1 and n will acquire that n can write in distributive pattern
Of base b, where n=

+...+

b+

When k and

## are non-negative integer and less than b, where

0
Proof by means of division algorithm when dividing n by b will obtain quotient and
remainder is

and

## respectively which can write in pattern

n=b

, 0

<b............................. (1)
Next divide

by b will obtain

=b

, 0

<b........................... (2)
It do like this to go on until obtain quotient is to be zero.

=b

, 0

<b

=b

, 0

<b
.
.

=b

, 0

<b

=b.0+

, 0

<b...................... (3)
And since n>

>

>

>

## >...0 are a sequence of non-negative integer

Having value de crease so division algorithm above has to end, where
Quotient is to be true. And when substitute back value from (1) will obtain
From (1) n=b

=b(b

)+

b+

(b

)+

b+

b+

.
.
=

+...+

b+

+...+

b+

And from (3)

So that n=

+...+

b+

For convenience write (

replace

+...+

b+

Example 4 Write 142 and 259 in distributive pattern of base 5, 9 respectively.
Solution by theorem above we have
142=(5.28)+2 when substitute back will acquire 142=(5.28)+2
28=(5.5)+3 =5((5.5)+3)+2
5=(5.1)+0 =(

5)+(3.5)+2
1=(5.0)+1 =

(5.1+0)+(3.5)+2
=(

.1)+(

.0)+ (3.5)
Therefore, 142=(

.1)+(

.0)+ (3.5)+2=(

259=(9.28)+7 when substitute back will acquire 259=(9.28)+7
28=(9.3)+1 =9((9.3)+1)+7
3=(9.0)+3 =(3

)+(1.9)+7
Therefore, 259=(3

)+(1.9)+7=(

When a, b will be possible the following two cases are ab or ba
Definition 5 Given a, b will acquire that
1 Maximum of a and b is written by Max{a, b}, and
Max{a, b}=C, where C=a, when ab or C=b, when b a
2 Minimum of a and b is written by Min{a, b}, and
Min{a, b}=d, where d=a, when ab or d=b, when ba
3.5 The Greatest Common Divisor
Definition 6 Provide a and b is integers, call an integer c>0 with can divide exactly
Both a and b is to be common divisor of a and b
Or when a, b, c , where c>0
c is common divisor of a, b if and only if and
Definition 7 Let a and b is integers, where a and b isnt simultaneous zero.
The positive integer d is called the greatest common divisor of a and b
If and only if d is common divisor that is greatest.
And written by (a, b)=d (G.C.D)
That is, 1 and and
2 if and the cd
Remark: From definition we can show that
1 2 (a, 0)=a 3 if then (a, b)=a
4 (a, b, c)=((a, b), c) 5 (a, b, c)(a, b) 6 (a, b)= (a, a+b)
3.6 Finding G. C. D of integers a and b
1 Prime Factorization by The fundamental theorem of Arithmetic
When a>0, b>0 we can write and when a<0 or b<0 we use || or ||
Consider a=

and b=

Where each integer

which

0 and

## 0, where arent simultaneous zero

Will acquire (a, b)=

## when for all i,

=Min{

}
Interpret:

, when

and

, when

Example 5 Find G.C.D of 10,500 and 4,900 by the fundamental theorem of Arithmetic
Solution Since 10,500=

and 4,900=

So that (10,500, 4,900)=

=700
2 Euclidean Algorithms
Euclid used process of division algorithm for finding G.C.D of non-zero integers a, b
which has to use the following lemma.
Lemma 2 Let a, b , where a0, b0 and a=bq+r, 0<r<|| will acquire that
(a, b)=(b, r)
Proof Let d=(a, b) and k=(b, r)
() d=(a, b) and ( , k=(b, r)
() k=(b, r) and , d=(a, b)
From () and () can conclude (a, b)=(b, r) as d>0 and k>0
Theorem 14 (Euclidean Algorithm)
Let a, b , where a>0 will acquire that there are

,...,

,...

## that make b=a

, 0<

<a
a=

, 0<

<

, 0<

<

.
.
.

, 0<

<

, 0<

<

+0
And (a, b)=

Proof 1 If b=ac+0, c
From lemma above will obtain that (a, b)=(a, 0)=a
2 If ab by division algorithm will obtain that there exist

such that
b=a

, 0<

<a
According to reality that there exist positive integers that are less than a are to be finite.
And use repeatedly to doing of division algorithm will acquire that there exist

,...,

,...

that make
a=

, 0<

<

, 0<

<

.
.
.

, 0<

<

, 0<

<

+0
By using lemma above will obtain that (a, b)=(b,

)=...=(

)=(

, 0)=

From the Euclidean Algorithm will acquire that (a, b)=dd=ax+by, x, y
For finding x and y can do by elimination remainder

,...,

from equations
Above which there is a method as follows.
Beginning from

)
=

(1+

)+

(-

).................(1)
It will see that equation (1) show to writing

## in pattern of the sum of

and

Next step it do repeatedly like this to go on which will eliminate remainders

,...,

Respectively at last will obtain the equation that show to writing

in the pattern of
The sum of a and b but

is G.C.D of a and b
That is, this method make we know value of x and y that make (a, b)=ax+by
Example 6 Find G.C.D of 321, 123 and x, y that make (321, 123)=321x+123y
Solution by Euclidean algorithm we have
321=(2.123)+75 and 3=21-(6.3)
123=(1.75)+48 =21-(27-21.1)3=21-27.3+21.3
75=(1.48)+27 =(48-27.1)-27.3+(48-27.1)3
48=(1.27)+21 =48-27.1-27.3+48.3-27.3=48.4-27.7
27=(1.21)+6 =48.4-(75-48.1)7=48.4-75.7+48.7=48.11-75.7
21=(3.6)+3 =(123-75.1)11-75.7=123.11-75.11-75.7=123.11-75.18
6=(2.3)+0 =123.11-(321-123.2)18=123.11-321.18+123.36
Therefore, (321, 123)=3 =123.47+321(-18)
And x=-18, y=47
Definition 8 Let

,...,

## are integers that arent simultaneous zero.

Call the integer D that is greatest which

## , i {1, 2,..., k} is to be G.C.D

Of

,...,

and written by (

,...,

)=D
Or 1

, i {1, 2,..., k}
And 2 If

## i {1, 2,..., k} then CD

Remark: (

,...,

)=((

),

,...,

)=((

),...,

)
Example 7 Find G.C.D of 30, 42, 60 and 84
Solution (30, 42, 60, 84)=((30, 42), (60, 84))
=(6, 12)=6
Example 8 Find the greatest positive integer that divide 373, 472 and 783 and then
There is remainder is to be 9, 10 and 13 respectively.
Solution Let x is that greatest positive integer.
From the given information we have
373=xa+9373-9=364=ax
472=xb+10472-10=462=xb
783=xc+13783-13=770=xc
From 3 equations above we find that x has to be G.C.D of 364, 462 and 770
That is x=(364, 462, 770)=((364, 462), 770)
=((28.13, 28.16), 770)=(28, 770)
=(14.2, 14.55)=14
Therefore, the greatest positive integer is 14
Example 9 Prove that if then (a, b)(a, c), a, b, c , where a0, b0
Proof Since c=bk, k so (a, c)=(a, bk)
Let (a, b)=d and (a, bk)=t we have to show that
As (a, b)=d and and k
And (a, bk)=t and
Conclude that , where d>0, t>0
From theorem2 will acquire dt
That is (a, b)(a, c)
3.7 Relatively Prime Numbers
Naturally when a and b are prime numbers will acquire that (a, b)=1
Next although integer a will not be prime number can find integer b that make (a, b)=1
And say that a and b are relatively prime numbers
Definition 9 The given a and b are integers
a and b are relatively primes if and only if (a, b)=1
Example 10 Show that 3x+1, 4x+1 and 4x-1, -7x+2 are relatively prime numbers
Showing Since (3x+1, 4x+1)=d ( and (
From theorem6 will get (( (( )
Now, we have but d>0 so d=1
Therefore, 3x+1, 4x+1 is relatively prime numbers
For 4x-1, -7x+2 can show similarly.
Theorem 15 The integers a and b are relatively prime numbers if and only if
There exist integers x and y such that 1=ax+by
Proof () Let (a, b)=1 from Euclidean algorithm there exist integers x and y
That make 1=ax+by
() Let (a, b)=d and ( , x, y
But 1=ax+by so
And since d>0 so d=1
That is, (a, b)=d=1
Therefore, integers a and b are relatively prime numbers
Theorem 16 The given a, b and p will acquire that
If then or
Proof Assume that pa(p, a)=11=px+ay, x, y
b=(bp)x+(ba)y
And, since, ( and (
Therefore,
Theorem 17 The given a, b, c, m will acquire that
1 If (a, m)=(b, m)=1 then (ab, m)=1
2 If (a, m)=1 and then (b, m)=1
3 If and (a, b)=1 then
4 If and , where (a, b)=1 then
Proof All are left the proof as exercises.
3.8 Least Common Multiple
A common multiple of integers from two numbers are the integer with is divided exactly
by those integers. From the expression above, we find that when the given integers
from two numbers then there exists obviously its common multiple at the least
one is the product of them.
Definition10 The given a, b , where a0, b0
1 Integers h>0 are called that are to be common multiple of a, b
If and only if h is divided exactly by a and b
2 the integer m is called that is to be least common multiple of a, b if and only
if m is the least positive integer with is divided exactly by a and b
And written by [a, b], (L.C.M)
That is the positive integer m is L.C.M of a and b if and only if
1 and and
2 If and then h
3.9 Finding L.C.M of integers a and b
1 Prime Factorization by The fundamental theorem of Arithmetic
When a>0, b>0 we can write and when a<0 or b<0 we use || or ||
Consider a=

and b=

Where each integer

which

0 and

## 0, where arent simultaneous zero

Will acquire [a, b]=

## when for all i,

=Max{

}
Interpret:

, when

and

, when

Example 11 Find G.C.D of 10,500 and 4,900 by the fundamental theorem of Arithmetic
Solution Since 10,500=

and 4,900=

So that [10,500, 4,900]=

=147,000
Theorem 18 The given a, b , where a0, b0 will acquire that
If and , where c , c>0 then [ ]
Proof It is left the proof as an exercise.
Definition11 Let

,...,

## are integers that all are non-zero.

Call the integer M that is greatest which

## , i {1, 2,..., k} is to be L.C.M

Of

,...,

and written by [

,...,

]=M
Or 1

, i {1, 2,..., k}
And 2 If

## i {1, 2,..., k} then MC

Remark: [

,...,

]=[[

],

,...,

]=[[

],...,

]
Example 12 Find G.C.D of 30, 42, 60 and 84
Solution [30, 42, 60, 84]=[[30, 42], [60, 84]]
=[210, 420]=420
Theorem 19 The given a, b , where a0, b0 will acquire that
[a, b](a, b)=ab
Proof since [a, b]=[||,||] and (a, b)=(||, ||)
So it is sufficiency that will show only a>0 and b>0
Let [ ] m and m

## , we will show that d is G.C.D of a and b

Consider m [ ] and m ax, m by x,y
SO m ax

dx b
m by

dy a
Let c Where, , ci, b ,we will show that
SO dy

yj xi
But ( so
And since cj b and m ax it will get cj b

dx
Hence cxk dx ck d that is d (
Therefore m

md ab [ ]( ab
Or since when a>0, b>0 we can write and when a<0 or b<0 we use || or ||
Consider a=

and b=

Where each integer

which

0 and

## 0, where arent simultaneous zero

Will acquire (a, b)=

## when for all i,

=Min{

}
And will acquire [a, b]=

## when for all i,

=Max{

}
We see obviously (a, b)[a, b]=

= (

)(

)
=ab
Example 13 1 Find the least positive integer with is divided by 5, 7, 9 and 12 will have
The remainders are to be 3, 4, 1 and 7 respectively
2 Prove that if ab>0 then [a, b]ab
Solution 1 Let x is the least positive integer
So, x=5m+3, m
=7n+4, n
=9p+1, p
=12q+7, q
And x+2=5m+5(x+2)+15=(5m+5)+15=5(m+4)
=7n+6(x+2)+15=(7n+6)+15=7(n+3)
=9p+3(x+2)+15=(9p+3)+15=9(p+2)
=12q+9(x+2)+15=12q+9)+15=12(q+2)
From 4 equations above will obtain that x+17 is common multiple of 5, 7, 9 and 12
And since x is the least positive integer with is divided by 5, 7, 9 and 12 will have
The remainders are to be 3, 4, 1 and 7 respectively.
So, x+17 is the least common multiple of 5, 7, 9 and 12 which is 1260
Now, we have x+17=1260x=1243
Therefore, the least positive integer that requires to be 1243
2 Since ab>0(a, b)[a, b]=ab
And ab>0a0b0(a, b)1
[a, b](a, b)[a, b]
Therefore, [a, b]ab
Exercise
1 Prove theorem 4 2 Prove theorem 6
3 Prove theorem 7 4 Prove lemma1
5 Prove theorem 17 6 Prove theorem18
7 Show that (

and (

8 Show that (

, (

-a)
9 The given N=

...

## is positive integer. Prove that

1)

2)

3)

=0 or 5 4) and
5) (

...

-2

)
6) (

) 7) (

...+

)
8)

=0 9) (

+(

)
10) And
10 Write all factors of 450
11 Find all the numbers being divisors of (

12 Show that the square of all integers can write in from of 3k or 3k+1
13 Change (

## is to be the numbers in bases 9, 8, 6 and 5 by means of

Theorem 13
14 Find integers q and r that satisfy theorem12 when the given
1 a=37, b=12 2 a=59, b=-8 3 a=-78, b=32 4 a=-97, b=-23
From 1 to 4 if change from a is to be a, find a quotient and a remaining
15 Let a, b, q and r are integers, where a, b0 and a=bq+r, 0r<||
Find its quotient and remaining when replacing a by -a
15 Let x, y are least integers, where x, y are divided by 6, 9, there are remainder is to
be 4, 5 respectively, find the remainder from division 3x+2y by 18
16 The given N=1+2+3+4+...+k, k is even. Show that
1 There is non-integer x, x{

} which make
2 (
17 Find all numbers lying between 1-300 when are divided by 6, 8 and 9, there are
Remainders are to be 3, 3 and 6 respectively.
18 Find integers x, y the make (453, 651)=453x+651y by means of theorem14,
19 Find 10 of prime numbers that can be written in form of 5k+4, k>0
20 Prove that if p is prime number and

then

21 Show that xy[(x, y) is relatively primes], =
22 Prove that when d=(a, b) and c is a factor of a and b
23 Show that 1(a, b)a or b
24 Prove that if (a, b)=1 then (a,

)=1, (

, b)=1
25The given a0, b0 and k prove that (am, bm)=m(a, b)
26 Prove that if a, b and (a, b)=d then (

)=1
27 Prove that (a, b, c)=((a, b), c), (a, b)=(a, a+b), (a, b, c)(a, b), (a, c), (b, c)
28 Prove that if a is even and b is odd then (a, b)=(

, b)
29 Prove that if (a, b)=1 then (a-b, a+b)=1 or 2
30 Prove that if (a, b)=(a, c)=1 then (a, bc)=1
31 Show that (8x+3, 3x+1)=1, (2x-1, 3x+1)=1
32 Find the greatest positive integer that divide 291, 395, 551 and 655, there is
There is remainder is to be equal.
33 Show that 1[a, b]ab, ab>0
34 Prove that if a, b then [a, b]=ab(a, b)=1
35 Prove that if a, b then [a, b]=(a, b)a=b
36 Prove that if then [a, b][a, c]
37 Prove that (a, b)[a, b]
38 Prove that [a, b], [a, c], [b, c][a, b, c] and [a, b, c]=[[a, b], c]
39 Show that if a is divided by b, there is q and r is quotient and remainder respectively
then
(-a) is divided by b, there is (q+1) and (b-r) is quotient and remainder respectively.

Appendix A
Exponential notation and its application
Exponential notation is the symbol writing to substitute repeated multiple of
designated numbers.
Definition 1 Let a and
a to the power of n is written by

and defined by

= (n-terms)

## is called an exponential notation

a and n are called the base and the exponent respectively.
For example

=3333 (

=(-3)(-3)(-3)(-3)(-3)
Its properties when a, b and m, n
1

=
(
2

=(

3 (

4 (

={

Proof 5) case 1 when m=n will obtain that

=1
Case 2 when m>n will obtain that

Case 3 when n>m will obtain that

(
=

1), 2), 3), 4) can be proved by its definition
Exponential numbers with the exponent is to be negative integer
Definition 2 Let a, b and a, b0 will obtain that
1

=1 and 2

, when
Its properties when a, b -{} and
1

=
(
2

=(

3 (

4 (

Proof to prove the same five points above providing that if m or n is negative
Integers then let m=-p and n=-q
Each of the following point is the important identities of exponential notation.
1 The sum and difference of exponential notation
1)

0 2)

(-(+) 3)

(+)(

-+

)
4)

(-)(

++

) 5)

(-)(+)(

)=(-)(

)
6)

( +)(

)
7)

(-)(

)
8)

)(

), when n is to be even.
9)

(-)(

+...+

), n is to be odd.
10)

(+)(

+...-

)
Notice: what we can see to be that 2
nd
terms of

and

while n is to be odd
Are greater than or equal to zero
2 The exponential numbers having its base are the sum or difference of two real N.
Considering

=(

, when x=a+b, n
And

=(

, when y=a+b, n
1) (

++

2) (

- +

3) (

4) (

5) (

6) (

7) (

8) (

9) (

+(

+(

+...+(

+(

+(

10) (

-(

+(

-...+(

-(

+(

11) (

-(

+(

-...-(

+(

-(

Remark: 1For ended term of (

## possess operation (-) if n is to be odd

And (+) if n is to be even.
2 Sign (

## ), and { } is the combination

of k things from all n things.
Lemma 1For all will obtain that
1

++

- +

10

11

+
(

-
(

+...-

+...+

(

-

12

+
(

+
(

+...+

+...+

(

+

13

+...+

+...-

14

+...+

+...+

Remark: what we can notice to be that if highest power is to be - will has midterm
is

## which dont know that is to be negative, zero or positive.

And if highest power is to be will has midterm is to be

always.
Proof

++

+(

=(

Use completing the square to a perfect square.
3

=(

)+

- (

): regrouping term
=

(- ) +

=(- )(

## ): extracting common factor

=(- )(- )(

++

): identity of exponential N.
=(

++

## ) : its definition and point 1

5

=(

)+(

) - (

)
=

( - )+

- +

) -

( - )
=( - )(

) +

- +

)
=(

)+

- +

)
8

=(

)+(

)+

+(

)+(

)
=

(+)+

(+)+

(+)+

(+)
=(+)(

)+

=(+)(

)+

))+

=(+)(

)(

)+

=(+)(+)(

)(

)+

=(

)(

)+

=(

)+(

)+(

)-(

)-(

)
=

(-)+

(-)+

-+

)-

(-)-

(-)
=(-)(

)+

-+

)
=(-)((

)-(

))+

-+

)
=(-)((

)-

)) +

-+

)
=(-) (-)(

)(

)+

-+

)
=(

)(

)+

-+

)
For the proof from 11 to 14 have to use the following theorem and method of proof.
1 Theorem 1 (2
nd
Principle of mathematical induction)
Let P( replace the expression involving positive integer n, if
1 P( is to be true.
And 2 If P( is to be true for all positive integer k that
Then P( is to be true
It will acquire that P( is to be true for all positive integer n.
2 Method of method be called proof by case, as [(pr)(qr)][(pq)r] is to be
Tautology which those are left the proof as an exercise
The following theorems result from its definition and identities above.
Theorem 2 let , and , it will obtain that
1

And 3 if ,

Proof 1() suppose that

-
( )(

+...+

++)
And as,

+...+

++>0
>

Therefore,

is to be true.
() suppose that
And as,

+...+

++>0
( )(

+...+

++)

- 1>0

Therefore,

is to be true.
3 () suppose that ( )( )
Case 1 if ( )(

+...+

++)

Case 2 if ,

And as,

## : There is the contradiction.

Therefore,

is to be true.
() suppose that

is to be true.
From () and () conclude that

is to be true.
For (2) to be left by you
Theorem 3 let will obtain that
1

, is to be odd
2

, is to be even.
3

, is to be even.
Proof 3 () suppose that is to be true

Consider

## from the following cases

Case 1 where is to be prime.
Considering

)(

)
( )(

)(

)
As,
Therefore,

Case 2 , where and are to be primes, is to be composite N.
Considering

)(

)
((

)(

)
(

)( (

+(

+...+

+(

)(

)
( )(

+...+

)( (

+(

+...+
+

+(

)(

)

Therefore,

Case 3 , where p, x and y are to be primes, q is to be composite N.
Considering

((

)((

+(

)
(

)((

+(

+...+(

) )((

+(

)
((

)((

+(

+...+(

) )((

+(

)
(

)((

+(

+...+(

)
((

+(

+...+(

) )((

+(

)
( )(

+...+

) )((

+(

+...+(

)
((

+(

+...+(

) )((

+(

)

Therefore,

Case 4

## , where k is to be positive integer.

Considering

)(

)
(

)(

)(

)
(

)(

)(

)(

)
...............................................................................................
...............................................................................................
...............................................................................................
( )(+)(

)... (

)(

)(

)(

)

Therefore,

From cases 1, 2, 3 if there are 2 to be a factor of is greater than one can perform
According to case 4
From case 2 if there is factors of being composites can factorize to perform
According to case 2
Therefore, it can conclude that

, is to be even.
For 1 and 3, please think about how to prove and perform to succeed by you.
Application
1 using to solve some problem with exponential number
Please study the following example.
Example 1 if

implies ,
Solution

( )(

+...+

)
And since, (

+...+

)

Therefore, if

then , is to be true
Example 2 show that (

where is to be even
Solution considering

)
(+)(

...+)
And since,
Therefore, ( (

That is, (

The problem 1 show that if

## is to be prime then is to be prime

Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 2 let and , show that

+ is to be composite.
Please show to be an exercise.
Example 3 find such that

## is to be perfect the square

Solution as

+(

We obviously see that

Therefore, and there exists only one.
The problem 3 let , Show that

+ is to be composite N.
Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 4 find least positive integer such that

Is greater than
Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 5 find such that

Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 6 given that a, b and c are integers that are greater than or equal to 2
Show that if ( implies (

Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 7 given that a, x and y are integers that are greater than or equal to 2
Show that if implies (

Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 8 given that n , n2 show that (

(
(
)
Please show to be an exercise.
The problem 9 given that p , a show that (

Please show to be an exercise.
2 Using to test the designated polynomial function and rational function are to be
Increasing function or decreasing function.
Example 4 let ()

, ()

, ()

, ()

()

and ()

Find subsets of its domain that make are increasing
Function or decreasing function on them.
Solution 1 ()

## [ and critical point is ( )

And make its domain is divided to be two subsets are ( ) and [ )
By theorem 3 points 2 and 3, we have the following
1) Let

[ ), where

) (

)
2) Let

(- ), where

) (

)
From 1) and 2) can conclude that is increasing function on [ )
And decreasing function on ( )
2 ()

)+(

From defining will obtain that

## and critical point is (

)
And make its domain is divided to be two subsets are (

) and [

)
By theorem 3 points 2 and 3, we have the following
1) Let

), where

) (

)
2) Let

(-

), where

) (

)
From 1) and 2) can conclude that is increasing function on [

)
And decreasing function on (

)
3 ()

## and be no critical point.

And make its domain isnt divided to be various subsets
By theorem 3 points 1, we have the following.
Let

, where

) (

)
Therefore, is increasing function on its entire domain.
4 ()

From define will obtain that its graph is same to be a graph of
Which arise from shift of axis from point () to (

)
By theorem 3 points 1, we have the following.
Let

, where

) (

)
Therefore, is increasing function on its entire domain.
5 ()

-{},

## ( and its graph

Lie above the X-axis which is separated to be two parts by X-axis
Is separate line, moreover yet there are X-axis and Y-axis to be
Vertical asymptote and horizontal asymptote respectively
By theorem 3 points 2 and 3, we have the following
1) Let

( ), where

j(

>j(

2) Let

( ), where

j(

< j(

From 1, 2 can conclude that is decreasing function on ( )
And increasing function on ( )
6 ()

## from defining will obtain that

{ },

( ](0,)
From its domain and range find that have equations are
Its vertical asymptote and an equation is its horizontal asymptote
Such that its graph is separated to be three branches as follows.
1)Two rectangular hyperbola form lying above Y- axis at right side of
And left side of
2) Downward parabola form being between equations and
A vertex is at (
By theorem 3 points 2 and 3, we have the following
1) Let

( ), where

>(

>0
2) Let

( ), where

<(

3.1) Let

[ ), where

) (

)
3.2) Let

( ), where

Therefore conclude that is increasing function on ( ), ( ) and is
Decreasing function on ( ), [ )
From example above at functions j and k which are rational function, we see
obviously that testing to show so difficult. Each of the following is successful pattern
that is made for using to test some rational function that is increasing function
or decreasing function on subset of its domain and for convenience, let a and b
instead of

and

respectively.
Lemma 2 Let a, b, j and k are real numbers, where j, k

## will obtain that

1 if then

and if then

2 if then

and if then

3 if then

and if then

4 if then

and

, when ,

, when
If then

and

, when ,

, when
5 if then

and if then

6 if then

and if then

7 if then

and

, when ,

, when
If then

and

, when ,

, when
8 if then

and if then

8 if then

if then

if then

if then

9 if then

if then

if then

if then

10 if then

, when
if then

, when
if then

, when
if then

, when
11 if then

, when
if then

, when
if then

, when
if then

, when
12 if then

if then

if then

if then

13 if then

, when

if then

, when

if then

, when

if then

, when

14 if then

, when

if then

, when

if then

, when

if then

, when

15 if then

if then

16 if then

if then

17 if then

, when
And

, when
if then

, when
And

, when
18 if then

and if then

19 if then

if then

20 if then

if then

21 if then

, when

and

, when

if then

, when

and

, when

22 if then

if then

23 if then

if then

24 if then

if then

25 if then

if then

26 if then

, when

and

, when

if then

, when

and

, when

Proof all are left the proof as exercises.
Caution: a and b have to be simultaneously greater than or equal to zero or
simultaneously less than zero.
The problem 10 let (=

, (

, (

, (

1 find its domain and range and
2 find subsets of its domain and shows how to test that
are increasing function or decreasing function.

Appendix B
The bearing of G. C. D and L. C. M
To prove easily by the maximum and minimum
Maximum and minimum
Definition1 Let and are any real numbers.
Maximum of and are written by Max{ }, Denoted by Max{ } {

Minimum of and are written by Min{ }, Denoted by Min{ } {

REMARK: 1. Max{ }
2. Min{ }
3. Max{ }
4. Min{ }
Theorem1 Let ,
1. Max{ } Min{ } 2. Min{ } Max{ }
3. Max{ } Min{ }
Remark: 1. Max{ } Max{ } 2. Min{ } Min{ }
Proof It is left as exercises.
Theorem 2 the following expressions are to be true.
1. Max{{ } } Max{ }
2. Min{{ } } Min{ }
3. Max{{ } } Min{{ } { }}
4. Min{{ } } Max{{ } { }}
Proof we prove only point 4 and leave the remaining as an exercises.
Case 1 | o s s , we have the following
| | | o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
| | o | o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min | o | o =
Case 2 o | s s , we have the following
o o | o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
o | o | o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min | o | o =
Case 3 o | s s , we have the following
o | o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
| | o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min | o | o =
Case 4 o | s s , we have the following
| o | o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
| | | o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min | o | o =
Case 5 | o s s , we have the following
| | o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
| o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min | o | o =
Case 6 | o s s , we have the following
| | o = = } , min{ } }, , {max{ min
o | o = = } , max{ }} , min{ }, , max{min{
Therefore, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min | o | o =
That is, }} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min | o | o = is to be true all cases
Similar, {{{ } }} {{ } { }}
Theorem 3 (The fundamental theorem of arithmetic)
Let a , a>1 will acquire that
k
k
p p p p a
o o o o
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
o k i , , 2 , 1 K =
Where,

<

<

<...<

, and can write only one type which is called the canonical form
Proof Hint: Utilize properties of Composite numbers, Prime numbers and exact division.
Definition 2 Let a, b , a, b>1, where

k
k
p p p p a
o o o o
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
o k i , , 2 , 1 K =
And
k
k
p p p p b
| | | |
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
| k i , , 2 , 1 K =
The greatest common divisor of b a, is written by( ) b a, and defined by
( )
} , min{ } , min{
3
} , min{
2
} , min{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
,
k k
k
p p p p b a
| o | o | o | o
A =
And the least common multiple of b a, is written by | | b a, and defined by

} , max{ } , max{
3
} , max{
2
} , max{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
] , [
k k
k
p p p p b a
| o | o | o | o
A =
For instance find (15435,2100) [15435,2100]
3 1 2 0
7 5 3 2 15435 =
1 2 1 2
7 5 3 2 2100 =
( ) 105 7 5 3 2 7 5 3 2 2100 , 15435
1 1 1 0 } 1 , 3 min{ } 2 , 1 min{ } 1 , 2 min( } 2 , 0 min{
= = =
308700 7 5 3 2 7 5 3 2 ] 2100 , 15435 [
3 2 2 2 } 1 , 3 max{ } 2 , 1 max{ } 1 , 2 max( } 2 , 0 max{
= = =
To bring a result of the theorem2 for using to prove theorem below by showing
that the powers of primes of each couple are equal.
Theorem 4 Let a, b, c and is not zero, acquire that
[(, ), ]=([, ],[, ]) and )] , ( ), , [( ) ], , ([ c b c a c b a =

Proof Let

k
k
p p p p a
o o o o
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
o k i , , 2 , 1 K =

k
k
p p p p b
| | | |
A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
| k i , , 2 , 1 K =

k
k
p p p p c

A
3 2 1
3 2 1
= K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ; =
i
k i , , 2 , 1 K =
Hence,
} , max{ } , max{
3
} , max{
2
} , max{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
] , [
k k
k
p p p p b a
| o | o | o | o
A =

} }, , min{max{ } }, , min{max{
3
} }, , min{max{
2
} }, , min{max{
1
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
) ], , ([
k k k
k
p p p p c b a
| o | o | o | o
A =
And ( )
} , min{ } , min{
3
} , min{
2
} , min{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
,
k k
k
p p p p c a
o o o o
A =

( )
} , min{ } , min{
3
} , min{
2
} , min{
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
,
k k
k
p p p p c b
| | | |
A =
Hence, ( ) )] , ( , , [ c b c a
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
2
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
1
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
| o | o
p p =
A
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
3
3 3 3 3
| o
p
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
k k k k
k
p
| o

By considering powers of each prime according to the theorem2 will acquire that
}} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , {max{ min
i i i i i i i
| o | o = k i , , 2 , 1 K =
Mean that the powers of prime of each couple are equal.
Therefore,
}} , min{ }, , max{min{ } }, , min{max{
i i i i i i i
i i
p p
| o | o
= k i , , 2 , 1 K =
That is,
} }, , min{max{ } }, , min{max{
3
} }, , min{max{
2
} }, , min{max{
1
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 k k k
k
p p p p
| o | o | o | o
A
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
2
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
1
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
| o | o
p p = A
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
3
3 3 3 3
| o
p
}} , min{ }, , max{min{
k k k k
k
p
| o

Therefore, ([a, b],c)=[(a, c),(b, c)]
For [(a, b),c]=([a, c],[b, c]) is left the proof as an exercise.