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BACLAAN FATIMA JAY PARADERO TOPIC: PROTEINS, ENZYMES & PEPTIDE HORMONES
Gelatin - Metabolism: Hydrolysis of Collagen - Occurs in sheets, shreds, flakes or coarse powder. White or yellowish, has slight characteristic odor & taste. Stable in dry air. - Used in the preparation of capsules, coating of tablets and with glycerin, as a vehicle for suppositories. - Used as a vehicle when slow absorption is desired for drugs - Used to replace loss in blood volume in cases of shock - Administered: IV (to increase clotting of blood) or locally (to treat wounds in hemorrhagic conditions). Gelatin Film - Sterile, non-antigenic, absorbable, water insoluble gelatin film - Available as light yellow transparent brittle sheets (0.076 – 0.0228 mm thick) Gelatin sponge [Gelfoam, Surgifoam] - Sterile, absorbable, water insoluble gelatinbased sponge - Stable to dry heat at 150° for 4 hours - Absorb in 4-6 weeks when used as surgical sponge - Admin: topically (control capillary bleeding) Venoms Cobra venom solution - Injected IM as a non-narcotic analgesic in doses of 1 mL per day Snake venom solution - Used subcutaneously in doses of 0.4 – 1 mL as a hemostatic in recurrent epistaxis and thrombocytopenic purpura & as a prophylactic before tooth extraction & minor surgical procedures Stypven - From Russell Viper - Topically as hemostatic & thromboplastic agent Vein-apis - From Bees
Topically in acute & chronic arthritis, myostitis & neuritis Caerulein From Frog/ red-eyed tree frog, Agalychnis callidryas Used in radiography procedures to contract the gall bladder Sanvagine From Agalychnis callidryas Used as anxiolytic Bombesin From European bellied frog Used as anxiolytic
ENZYMES (proteins that have catalytic property)
Pancreatin [Panteric] - Cream-colored amorphous powder with a faint characteristic odor. - Dissolved slowly but incompletely in water; insoluble in alcohol - Used largely for pre-digestion of food & for the preparation of hydrolysates - Are digested by pepsin and acid in the stomach - Adult Dose: 325mg to 1g Trypsin Crystallized - Proteolytic enzyme - Solubility in water and saline = 500, 000 units per 10mL Pancrelipase [Cotazym] - Digestive aid - Used to help control steatorrhea and in other conditions in which pancreatic insufficiency impairs the digestion of fats in the diet. Chymotrypsin [Chymar] - Proteolytic enzyme - Used in cataract surgery Dormase Alpha [Pulmozyme] - Used in cystic fibrosis because of its ability to liquefy secretions from the lung effectively Hyaluronidase for injection [Alidase, Wydase] - Prepared from mammalian testes - Used to increase the spread and consequent absorption of hypodermoclytic solutions; to diffuse local anesthetics; and increase diffusion & absorption of other injected materials. - Enhances local anesthesia in eye surgery - Practically nontoxic but may cause a local infection to spread - Should never be injected in an infected area - Sensitivity to the drug is rare Imiglucerase Injection [Cerezyme]
The antibiotic penicillin. & neomycin do not inactivate sutilains Streptokinase [Kabikinase.0 pressor units daily) .Used locally in conditions similar to those for which pepsin is used .Indicated for acute myocardial infaction (IV)..Plasminogen the only known substrate of urokinase . . and before angiography (Intracoronary) Urokinase [Abbokinase] .05 to 0.000 units tablets orally Diastase [Taka-Diastase] .Administered: IM (1.widely used with or without amniotomy to induce and stimulate labor .Administered: IV or Intracoronary routes Alteplase [Activase] . for local perfusion of an occluded vessel (Intra-arterial).A light-brownish gray to weekly reddishbrown granules .expiration date = 3 years .Best at a pH between 4 and 7 .Exerts a tropic influence at adrenal cortex .5 to 4.Incompletely soluble in water .A tissue plasminogen activator .used for tis adrenocorticotropic activity Respiratory Corticotropin Injection .Used to dissolve necrotic tissue occurring in 2nd & 3rd degree burns as well as bed sores & ulcerated wounds .Yellow.Used intramuscularly for a more uniform and prolonged maintenance of activity Sterile corticotrophin Zinc Hydroxide Suspension .Allergic reactions occur because of antibody formation in individuals treated with it.1 IU Somatropin (rDNA origin) [Humatrope] .05 to 0. Streptase] .Administered: IM or SC .A direct activator of plasminogen . Acthar] .Freely soluble in water .administered: Injection or Sublingual Vasopressin Injection [Pitressin] .Combined with alkalies as an antacid HORMONES PITUITARY HORMONES Corticotropin Injection [ACTH inj.pH range = 3 – 7 .Dose range: 0.1 IU NEUROHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES Oxytocin Injection . hygroscopic.Antibodies inactivate streptokinase & reduce its ability to prolong thrombin time .A non-antigenic and maybe used when streptokinase use is impossible because of antibody formation .Relatively low anti-diuretic activity and little oxytocic activity .Therapy is continued as long as the patient responds or until the patient reaches mature adult height or until the epiphyses closes .Has been reported to cause allergies in persons who are exposed to it Bromelains [Ananase] .5 to 5.5 . streptomycin. Papain [Papase] .Prepared by synthesis .Each mL possesses a pressor activity equal to 20 posterior pituitary units . almost tasteless powder .Used as diagnostic agent to test for adrenal cortical deficiency .Dose: 40 units (IM) followed by a maintenance dose of 20 untis 2 or 3 times a week Cosyntropin [Cortrosyn] .Contraindications: detergents & antiinfectives .Administered: IM or SC .Expiration date = 3 years Vasopressin Tannate [Pitressin Tannate] .Used in doses of 0. localized inflammation and post-operative tissue reactions .Indicated for the IV management of acute myocardial infarction.Useful for patients who have diabetes insipidus .Used to treat type 1 Gaucher disease Sutilains [Travase] .Dose: (IM or IV) Adult = 250 mg Children (2 yrs below) = 0.Dose range: 0.125 mg GROWTH HORMONE Somatrem (Systemic) [Protropin] ..pH = 2.Activates plasminogen to plasmin .Available in 50.Should never be used intravenously (IV) Felypressin .3 – 1g in the same condition as malt diastase .Used in the treatment of soft-tissue inflammation and edema associated with traumatic injury.Proteolytic enzyme .
it affects the liver cells .Administered by nebulizer . if necessary GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES Pentagastrin [Peptavlon] .Used as a topical hemostatic because it can clot blood.Used for the treatment of osteoporosis in men & post-manopausal in women ANGIOTENSINS Angiotensin Amide .Activates liver lipases & stimulates ketogenesis . hoarseness.Dosage (topical.Used therapeutically as an antihypocalcemic agent for the temporary control of tetany in acute hypoparathyroidism Teriparatide [Forteo] .5 mg inhaled once daily . atrophic gastritis.Drug of choice: treatment of Central Diabetes Insipidus because of its efficacy.Fatty acid synthesis is decreased by glucagon.Available as topical solution. 50 pressor units (185 micrograms / mL) in 5mL containers .Usual Dose: Adult (paranteral) = 500 microgram to 1mg repeated in 20 minutes if necessary Pediatric = 25 microgram per kg of body weight repeated in 20 minutes. tissues of upper infectives Contraindications: Hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy or pentagastrin Used with caution in patients with pancreatic. or gastric carcinoma. sprays.External use: Topically to the wound as a solution containing 100 – 2.Exert hyperglycemic action.ADR: sore throat.Dose (Adult): 2.ADR: Nausea & Vomiting . intranasal): one or more sprays applied to one or both nostrils one or more times a day Desmopressin Acetate [Stimate] . plasma .Regulation of the liver mediated mobilization of stored glucose . especially in obstetrics and gynecology Lypressin [Diapid] . long duration of action. cholesterol formation is also reduced . hepatic or biliary disease.Can be administered IM or IV also . and lack of side effects .Indicted in the management of temporary polydipsia & polyuria associated with trauma to.Administered: Continuous Infusion . hypersecretion on suspected duodenal output Administered: SC Optimal Dose: 6 microgram / kg Onset of action: 10 minutes after admin. PARATHYROID HORMONES Parathyroid injection . the pituitary region PANCRATIC HORMONES Glucagon .Used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis .000 units/mL in NaCl irrigation or sterile water for injection or as dry powder BIOTECHNOLOGY-DERIVED PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS Dornase Alpha .Factor in the pathology of human diabetes .Recommended for the treatment of severe hypoglycemic reaction caused by administration of insulin to diabetic or psychiatric patients . ease of administration (intranasal). facial edema . Peak response: 20-30 minutes Duration of action: 60 – 80 minutes Half-life (plasma): (<10 minutes) Inactivated by liver.May initiate clotting when combined with gelatin sponge or fibrin foam . or surgery in.Functional group: AMIDE - - Indicated as diagnostic agent to elevate gastric acid secretory function & is useful in testing for anacidity in patients with suspected pernicious anemia.Used as an adjunct to various hypotension states.Inhibits the incorporation of amino acids into liver proteins .Causes increase renal blood flow in the cat 5 times more effective as a vasopressin blood flow. and in administration of general anesthetics to control acute hypotension BLOOD PROTEINS Thrombin .Principal consequence of high concentrations of glucagon: Persistent Hyperglycemia . kidney.
Solution store in refrigeration 36 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit Peginterferon Alfa-2a Recombinant .Infused over 1-2 hours . Erythropoietin . Imiglucerase [Cerezyme] .Exhibit antiviral & antiproliferative activity.Indicated by intralesional injection for treatment of genital warts Interferon Beta-1a [Rebif. . Intralesional . Koate HP.Administered: IV infusion.Prevention of exacerbations in patients suffering from relapsing / remitting multiple sclerosis .Used in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia & acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related kaposic Sorzoma . enhance phagocytic activity & augment specific cytotoxicity of lymphocyte for certain cells .Indicated to patients with chronic renal failure & anemia associated with aids .5 to 60 units/kg .Decrease incidence of fibril neutropenea in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies .Dose: 8 million units (SC) every other day . Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B . IM. and death. Recombinant [Betaseron] . - .Admin: IV .) [Alferon N] .Administered: IV.Temporarily prevents bleeding episodes in hemophiliacs and may be used to prevent excessive bleeding during surgical procedures in these patients.Primary indication: myeloid engraftment following autologous bone marrow transplantation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.Deficiency of imiglucerase causes gaucher disease .ADR: flu-like symptoms.Initial dose: 2.Slow progression of multiple sclerosis as well as the rate of relapse of this disease Interferon Beta-1b. SC.Half-life: 2-3 hours (IM or SC) and 8 hours (IV) Interferon Alfa-n3 (inj.ADR: dizziness.Administered: IM or SC .Administered: IV route .Side effects: fever. & renal failure. condyloma accuminata (genital warts).No active form found in urine . anorexia.A glycoprotein found in human plasma and a necessary co factor in the blood-clotting mechanism Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant) [Kogenate.Erythropoietin levels decrease in patines with renal fialure Epoetin Alfa [Epogen.7 hours (IM route) . & dyspnea. seizures. GI bleeding. Helixate] . bone marrow suppression. rash Interferons . Avonex] . Procrit] .Treatment of malignant glioma & malignant melanoma Aldesleukin [Proleukin] Treatment of adult metastatic renal carcinoma .Treatment of hairy cell leukemia. neurotioxic effects. . hemophil M. Monoclate P] .Dose: 10.Half-life: 5. & other GI symptoms & weight loss Interferon Alfa-2a Recombinant [Roferon] . Intrathecal.Metabolized in kidney . nausea. respiratory failure. 000 Units / kg every 8 hours per 12 days . hypotension. headache. AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.Indicted for the treatment of hemophilia A .Produce primarily by the peritubular cells in the cortex of the kidney and up to 15% is produced in the liver .Admin: IV Colony stimulating Fators (Natural glycoproteins produced in lymphocytes and monocytes) Filgrastim [Neupogen] . pulmonary congestion.The dose is usually repeated every 2 weeks .Used within 24 hours Sargamostim [Leukine] .Treatment of hepatitis C Interferon Alfa-2a Recombinant [Intron A] . abdominal discomfort.Indicated for the long-term replacement therapy of Gaucher disease . 000 to 50.Absorbed well after IM or IV admin.Is a lineage-nonspecific hematopoietic factor because it promotes the proliferation and maturation of granulocytes and monocytes . hypocalcemia. Antihemophili factor [Humate-P.
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