Integrated Water /Waste Water System

Water and wastewater
Climate Adaptation National Research Flagship

Grace Tjandraatmadja 19 April 2009

Background to CSIRO research

Integration at household
Rainwater Roof Runoff

Washing machine, shower and bathroom consume 32% of water used in the home. Toilets consume 27%. Gardens typically 33%. Other uses 8%

Greywater
Bathroom

Garden

Laundry

Technology Centralised & decentralised service integration and implications

Supply, reuse and treatment

Kitchen

Septic Tank
Toilet

Leachfield

overflow Sewer

Infrastructure

Modelling

Stormwater

Sustainable use
• Use less water:
• Water efficient appliances • Low water use fittings

Greywater & Stormwater technologies
• Greywater
Greywater diverter Pontos treatment

• Stormwater

• Reuse:
• Greywater (bathroom and laundry wastewater, not toilet) can be untreated used for irrigation in the garden • Only store untreated for maximum of 24h. • If treated can be used for toilet flushing/washing machine • Reduce impact on environment
• use low phosphorus and low sodium detergents in laundry. (http://www.lanfaxlabs.com.au/laundry-detergents-brochure-2009.pdf)
Natural systems

• Treat wastewater before disposal

Aerated treatment

sandfilter

Wastewater Technologies
• Wastewater
• On site management
• Water use reduction and/or on-site treatment

Considerations household level

Infrastructure Climate Topography Retrofit vs new built (consider current /future retrofit, e.g. if
diverting greywater from bathroom)

• Off-site management
• Small package plants

• Additional challenges
• Pathogen concentrations • Sludge removal or treatment

Storage Site restrictions (roof area, lot size, occupancy) Maintenance: your involvement

• Cluster collection and treatment
• Gravity, vacuum, low pressure • Large range of technologies

• Recycling – effluent quality
• Environment • Dispersion • Crop

Reliability of Existing Water Supply System
Rainwater Tank Performance
100%

Township Scale Considerations
Climate

90%

Topography Site restrictions (lot size, occupancy, density)
Indoor Only Indoor & Garden

Volumetric Reliability (%)

80%

Maintenance Legislation Environmental impact/benefits (protection, reuse) Security of supply Upgrade potential Storage Public Health

70%

60%

50%

40%

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Tank Volume (kL)

Occupancy: 2.5 people

Av. failure days= 49

The Currumbin Ecovillage
• Summary
• 110 ha, 144 residential allotments and Village Centre • Wastewater - A combination of centralised and on-site systems • Rainwater - household tank: 22.5 to 44-45kL tanks (incl. 5kL firefighting). • Other features : body corporate, rainwater tanks, solar water system, 3A or 4A rated appliances and the use of recycled water

Kinglake
54 ha 66 properties 189 people 159 litres per capita per day
• Performance monitoring systems for each household mandated by the body corporate • An education centre has been built to provide continuing education in sustainable practices • Landscaping: 80% of the site as open-space • List of potential suppliers of technologies and services supplied to all householders

• Other tools

Establishing options

25 20 tonnes N 15 10 5 0

Nitrate (STP) Nitrate (stormwater)

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Options, vary in cost, footprint, performance and complexity.

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Factors to consider when looking at integration
• Include economic, environmental and social factors
• • • • • Occupancy and water use Climate Topography, soil Land use, lot size and density Other inter-relationships

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Many options, solution unique for each community

•Trade-offs in design choices

Thank you
Phone: +61 3 9252 6564 Email: grace.tjandra@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au/org/ClimateAdaptationFlagship

Contact Us Phone: 1300 363 400 or +61 3 9545 2176 Email: Enquiries@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au