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1. REASONS WHY SCIENCE TEACHING MUST INCLUDE HISTORY OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES IN THE CURRICULUM
History is the interpretation of what are considered to be significant human activities in the past and the process by which these activities are selected, investigated and analysed. History is not the story of the past but rather our attempt to reconstruct and interpret elements of the past which are of interest to us in the present times and in benchmarking for future directions. History gives learner a knowledge of past human experiences at family, local, national and international levels. Learners in Science Education may develop an understanding, appropriate to their age, of time and chronology, change and continuity, cause and effect. They acquire skills appropriate to their developmental stages so that they may interpret evidence in a critical and scientific way. The following are nature of history as indicators that Science Teaching and Education must integrate the history of scientific activities in the science curriculum. 1. The nature of history is a way of scientific learner’s - centered curriculum A broad and balanced understanding of history is essential if a learner is to become a confident, informed, critical and responsible adult member of society. A rounded historical education reflects the nature of history itself: firstly, it is concerned with knowledge and interpretations of the lives of people in the past, and secondly, it enables children to experience something of the way in which historians go about their work. Therefore, in this way of integrating history of scientific activities, the process integrates the impact of history in its scientific process. Exploring the past in this way, learner can acquire knowledge and concepts while simultaneously developing important skills and attitudes appropriate to their individual stages of development. 2. The nature of history is a way of scientific learner’s – connectivity of learning History is concerned with our interpretations of the actions of people in the past and the ways in which men, women and children responded to, and lived through, these events. Exploring the lives of people in the past, and especially the causes and effects of their actions, contributes to the learner’s awareness of human character, motivation, belief and emotion. More immediately, it can help the learner to understand more fully the world in which he/she lives—how events and personalities have shaped the home, locality and wider environments in which he/she exists. 3. The nature of history is a way of scientific learner’s – explorative learning The particular people and events which are thought to be historically significant will vary from historian to historian, from society to society and from time to time. However, learners in science education may understand the actions of people in the immediate past more readily than those of people in distant ages, and historical inquiry will acquire a greater relevance for the

However. History in the science education should engage the learner’s in finding. the science curriculum provides for the development of a growing range of historical skills and concepts as learner study the lives of people in the past. The nature of history is a way of scientific learner’s – remarkable linkage from a significant evidence The science of hisotory rests on evidence. For these reasons. The scientific understanding of history uses skills and concepts which are associated with time. and it makes a valuable contribution to the development of mutual respect and tolerance. The nature of history is a way of scientific learner’s – inquiry engagement Engaging in the process of historical inquiry is an essential element of history. learners would come to appreciate that historical judgements are always provisional and may have to change in the light of new evidence. This linkage may impart important contributions to the development of the learner’s wider personal. 5. the history in science curriculum places a very strong emphasis on the study of personal and local history in all classes in the science education. and they convey their accounts and interpretations to others. social and intellectual skills. and helps to develop. so that they will begin to understand and use concepts of time and chronology. Historians do not simply study the past: they use the evidence they have found to reconstruct the past. they can become aware of differences between life in the present and the past. The nature of history is a way of scientific learner’s – havioral adoptation A study of the past relies on. science curriculum provides for the exploration of various aspects of history through which the learner’s to become aware of the individuals. groups. recognize instances of change and continuity. and so begin to develop a sense of time.2 learners if it fulfils their need to explore and understand their immediate environment. . Synthesizing an account from a number of pieces of evidence in science education in order to create an imaginative reconstruction of the past and its communication to others are fundamental aspects of history. Thus. beliefs and values which have affected the lives of people in the past and shaped contemporary society and community 4. and develop gradually a sense of perspective in time. selecting and analyzing a wide range of sources which can tell us about the past. Science learner’s sense of the past will become somewhat more sophisticated as they grow older. 6. By realizing that the evidence of the past may be interpreted in a number of ways. Furthermore. science learners have a very imperfect understanding of the concepts of time which use to mark periods in the past. A sense of empathy is essential if the learner is to become critically aware of his/her own attitudes and those of others. cultures. a sense of empathy: the ability to view situations from another person’s perspective. values and motivations of others as well as the historical contexts in which they lived. events. This involves learning to appreciate and understand the attitudes. sequence and chronology.

history can help the learner to begin to explore how people’s interpretations of the past can exert a powerful influence on their attitudes. All three contribute to the wider social and environmental education of the child and their complementary roles will be reflected in the organization of learning. History should allow the learner to explore how the actions and experiences of people in the past have influenced subsequent generations. Objectively. • • Objectively.3 7. appropriate to the developmental stages. In a nutshell. time and chronology. men and children in the past and how people and events have had an impact upon each other to develop an understanding of the concepts of change and continuity to provide for the acquisition of concepts and skills associated with sequence. national and global contexts. Historical education complements the growth of the learner’s geographical and scientific learning. beliefs and actions today. The nature of history is a way of scientific learner’s – agent for influence History is also concerned with the influence of the past on the present. the following are the extrinsic reasons : • • • • • • • • • to develop an interest in and curiosity about the past to make the learners aware of the lives of women. Perhaps most important of all. The exploration of the immediate environment will reveal many instances in which people in the past have shaped elements of our present surroundings. The embedding effect that science teaching must include history of scientific activities in the educational curriculum underscore the following worthy reasons :. to allow the child to encounter and use a range of historical evidence systematically and critically to provide opportunities for the learner to communicate historical findings and interpretations in a variety of ways to foster sensitivity to the impact of conservation and change within local and wider environments to help the learner recognize and examine the influences of the past on the attitudes and behaviour of people today to foster a willingness to explore personal attitudes and values and to promote an openness to the possibility of changing one’s own point of view to encourage the learner to recognize how past and present actions. the following are the intrinsic reasons : . History can also reveal how learner’s sense of identity has been shaped by the cultural and social experiences of many different peoples in the past. the understanding of the scientific history makes an important and distinctive contribution to the development of the learner. events and materials may become historically significant to enable the child to acquire a balanced appreciation of cultural and historical inheritances from local.

events and topics studied in a broad historical sequence acquire some understanding of change and continuity. issues and cultural experiences which have helped to shape the local community and the environment develop an understanding of chronology. and a willingness to participate in. questioning attitudes to the beliefs. local. critical and responsible attitudes. to learn and practice a wide range of skills. This would . and come to appreciate that events may have a number of causes and outcomes examine and use a range of historical evidence systematically and critically. European and wider identities through studying the history and cultural inheritance of local and other communities develop a sense of responsibility for. environmental and scientific issues to reinforce and stimulate curiosity and imagination about local and wider environments to enable the child to play a responsible role as an individual. • Therefore there is a need of integrating history in the Science Curriculum in order to vitally provide opportunities for the learners to explore. events. regional. the preservation of heritage. all living things and the earth on which they live to foster in the learner a sense of responsibility for the long-term care of the environment and a commitment to promote the sustainable use of the earth’s resources through his/her personal life-style and participation in collective environmental decision-making to cultivate humane and responsible attitudes and an appreciation of the world in accordance with beliefs and values. environmental and scientific education are • • • • • to enable the learner to acquire knowledge. as a family member and as a member of local. cultural. and concern for. religious and social groups to the evolution of modern Ireland develop a sense of personal. the interdependence of all humans. national and global communities to foster an understanding of. values and motivations of others develop tolerance towards minorities in society and appreciate the contribution of various ethnic. local. and to acquire open. and appreciate the fact that evidence can be interpreted in different ways use imagination and evidence to reconstruct elements of the past communicate historical understanding in a variety of ways. national.4 • • • • to study a range of people and events in the past in order to develop a balanced understanding of family. • • • • • • • • • Viewing the aims of social. social and cultural dimensions of local and wider environments. in order to place people. including an awareness of factors which may have caused or prevented change. using appropriate language and other techniques or media develop an appreciation of the perspectives and motives of people in the past and accept that individuals and events should be understood in their historical context be aware that the attitudes and behaviour of people may be influenced by their understanding of the past and by their past experiences respect and value a range of opinions and acquire open. human. investigate and develop an understanding of the natural. national and world history to learn about the people. skills and attitudes so as to develop an informed and critical understanding of social.

If students work with reconstructions of historical experiments they will be engaged with authentic problems. To strengthen the cooperation and establish sustainable networking of all involved stakeholders in the field of scientific literacy and public understanding of science Specifically the inclusion of historical approach in science teaching provides : 1.It must guide students’ own scientific problem solving activities as students reconstruct historical problems on their own. knowledge acquisition is not restricted to a cognitive activity. which share their knowledge and skills or demarcate themselves from those of other student-communities. problems and their solutions of contemporary scientist often appear to complex for students./History/History_Curriculum Jenkins. 2. Promotion of a better comprehension of scientific concepts. 3.This recognizes that scientific concepts can be formulated more intelligibly in their historical context of discovery than in a schematic and systematised way of modern interpretations. "History of science education". In this way. E.5 probably lead the science learner to live as an informed and caring member of local and wider communities . 2. build small scientific communities.htm www. Advancement of problem solving skill .. In discovery contexts scientific concepts do not yet belong to an accepted and settled inventory of knowledge.org/rise/backg3a. PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHING IS MOST CONVENIENT IN THE INCLUSION OF THE HISTORICAL APPROACH IN SCIENCE TEACHING. students develop their own analytical skills as they learn from problem solving activities of historical scientists. (1985). Postlethwaite. 4.html?issueID=10427 www.N.edu. this also aim to : To improve strategies for the development and implementation of domainrelevant materials. ENDNOTES REFERENCES : www. Reconstruction of historical experiments . T.nationalacademies.au/leader/abstracts. teaching and learning strategies into science educational practice. In contrast. .curriculumonline.com/play/play?id=24443 www. It helps to keep the knowledge one has ever learned as students are involved with their minds as well as with their bodies and senses. In Husén. Inquiry learning encourages students to develop their own strategies of problem solving. T.livebinders. develop solutions and compare them with those of “real” scientists in the past. Thus.. Inquiry learning within historical setting .ie/.. International encyclopedia of education.curriculum. Furthermore. SUPPORT YOUR ANSWER The inclusion of historical approach in science teaching is a way towards providing benefits for purposive for scientific literacy. but the problems have to be cognitively inspiring. Oxford: Pergamon Press.58.Inquiry learning fosters the learning of scientific concepts.

tentative and variable helps students to reflect on and change their own pre-conceptions on the way towards a more sophisticated scientific understanding. history supports the process of conceptual growth on the learners’ side. Historical case studies exemplify this relation in depth. Seroglou et al. Supporting conceptual growth . 1991. The approach to teach science based on case studies about history and philosophy of science must be esteemed as a successfully piloted approach for teaching about the nature of science. Benseghir 1996. Moreover. 2003..Research and case studies of teaching practice have shown the effectiveness of history-oriented teaching in order to learn about the nature of science (Barth. Therefore. Galili et al. learning about the history of science strengthens the transnational connections and helps to develop a selfconception of culture as a part of a society which is strongly influenced by developments in science and technology.Experts of science education. the objectives and motivations to do science.Science appears less abstract and gets the character of a human endeavour. 1999. Solbes et al. History as a tool for teaching about the nature of science . Höttecke 2001. 1999. Therefore.. students have to learn more about the relation of science.Research has shown that even inquiryoriented teaching does not necessarily lead to a better comprehension of the nature of science. History and philosophy of science offer many opportunities to ask questions about the “hows” and “whys” of science. Explicit reflection on the nature of science . 10. technology and society on the one hand. 2001. Science as a human endeavour . 9. Learning about the nature of science . 1998. .6 5. Wandersee 1986). Heering. science. On the other hand knowledge about how evidence is developed in science is a necessary prerequisite for an adequate estimation of scientific expertise in decision-making processes about socio-scientific issues.The nature-of-science promotes the view that active citizenship in democratic decision-making processes requires knowledge about what science means as political decision-making increasingly depends on scientific expertise. 8. Höttecke. Therefore. This dimension implies knowledge about the particularities of science and their differences from other forms of knowledge and knowledge generation. History allows students to situate and assess their own understanding of scientific concepts on the background of historical concepts and ideas. This view is one of the reasons for a decline of interest of many students in science. This touches the problem of public recognition of science as systematic and inhuman. scientific methods. and sociology of science to generally agree that learning about the nature of science belongs to the central objectives of science education.Research indicates that the study of historical concepts can help students to develop their own concepts towards a scientific comprehension (Bar et al. 2000. Solomon et al. 6. Sequeira et al. its empirical basis.. history. Irwin. Lin et al. 2005.. Seker et al. 7. Showing science as background of cultural heritage . 11. To experience that scientific concepts are changeable. 2002. scientific concepts and their use. 2003. social and cultural aspects are as important as philosophical foundations of science.Students become aware of the different national contributions to science. philosophy.. 1992). 2000. Developing citizenship in a science and knowledge society .

2000) indicates that especially science students benefit from the changing character of science as an open inquiry and from the appearance of scientific knowledge as progressive and changeable. trust-worthy [conditionalized] knowledge. hands-on. Neuroscience now supports this form of active learning as the way people naturally learn Active learning conditionalizes knowledge through experiential learning. collaborate. Smith writes that John Dewey believed education must engage with and expand experience. Constructs are the different types of filters we choose to place over our realities to change our reality from chaos to order. Maria Montessori’s key points contribute to Constructivism emphasizes the value of experiential learning to conditionalize knowledge: Montessori’s beliefs are consistent with the Constructivists in that she advocates a learning process which allows a student to experience an environment firsthand. giving the student reliable. Kolb’s beliefs are consistent with the Constructivists in that he includes Concrete Experience as part of the learning process and requires a student to . that democracy should be upheld in the educational process. 13.. psychology. and that interaction with the environment is necessary for learning. It has its roots in cognitive psychology and biology and an approach to education that lays emphasis on the ways knowledge is created in order to adapt to the world. experiential. taskedbased are a number of applications that base teaching and learning on constructivism. According to Kliebard John Dewey created an active intellectual learning environment in his laboratory school during the early 20th century. and cybernetics”. emphasizes the importance of conditionalized knowledge through experiential learning. Promoting ’ attitudes towards science . The Philosophy of Constructivism is a theory to explain how knowledge is constructed in the human being when information comes into contact with existing knowledge that had been developed by experiences. and reflection. On historical root.7 12.[1] Constructivism has implications for the theory of instruction. David Kolb.The inclusion of historical case studies in science teaching provides realistic images of science as process and images of scientists themselves. thereby. which is consistent with the Constructivists. 2. those methods used to educate must provide for exploration. Supporting authentic images of science and scientists . project-based.Research (Heering. Von Glasersfeld describes constructivism as “a theory of knowledge with roots in philosophy. in his books Learning Style Inventory Technical Manual and Experiential Learning. Dewey advocates the learning process of experiential learning through real life experience to construct and conditionalize knowledge. 14. Discovery learning. also. The following supports the philosophy of constructivism in the inclusion of historical approached in science teaching : 1. Building standards towards science – Understanding the competence of language and history of science as an integral part of scientific literacy. thinking. “Benchmarks of Science” focuses on the multiethnic dimensions of science and suggests the study of its history as a means of understanding science as a social enterprise.

North Carolina State University). and agents who actively generate and transform the patterns through which they construct the realities that fit them. This study also found that inquiry-based teaching methods greatly reduced the achievement gap for African-American students. In their initial test of student performance immediately following the . Reich observed that “constructivists do not look for copies or mirrorings of an outer reality in the human mind”. metacognitive knowledge. Jong Suk Kim found that using constructivist teaching methods for 6th graders resulted in better student achievement than traditional teaching methods. and an approach with strategies instruction and constructivist motivation techniques including student choices. creativity. (2004) compared three instructional methods for thirdgrade reading: a traditional approach. The following are Researches and evidence supporting constructivism in the light of integrating historical approach in science teaching : 1. receptive role. The constructivist approach. Social constructivism thus emphasizes the importance of the learner being actively involved in the learning process. trust-worthy conditionalized knowledge. The improvement was 14% for the first cohort of students and 13% for the second cohort. participants. the nature of the learner is self-directed. 2. S. ( Lombardi. Kolb’s work closely parallels recent work in the field of neuroscience. and innovative. Guthrie et al. Kim did not find any difference in student self-concept or learning strategies between those taught by constructivist or traditional methods 4. constructivist methods. The educator’s role is to mentor the learner during heuristic problem solving of ill-defined problems by enabling quested learning that may modify existing knowledge and allow for creation of new knowledge. The learning goal is the highest order of learning: heuristic problem solving. creative." 4. and hands-on activities. exemplified in the writings of James Zull 3. conceptualizations. cognitive strategies. This study also found that students preferred constructivist methods over traditional ones. Glasersfed. However. called CORI (Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction). resulted in better student reading comprehension. This study also cite a large study by Geier on the effectiveness of inquiry-based science for middle school students. as demonstrated by their performance on high-stakes standardized tests. Hmelo-Silver.M. Duncan. and synthesis of prior experience to create new knowledge. In constructivism . and motivation 3. but instead they rather see humans as “observers. collaboration. (2011).8 test knowledge by acting upon the environment. underscored that the responsibility of learning should reside increasingly with the learner. a strategies instruction only approach. Internet Activities for a Preschool Technology Education Program Guided by Caregivers (Doctoral dissertation. and originality. The purpose in education is to become creative and innovative through analysis. thereby. giving the student reliable. & Chinn ( 2005 ) cited several studies supporting the success of the constructivist problem-based and inquiry learning methods. Doğru and Kalender compared science classrooms using traditional teacher-centered approaches to those using student-centered. unlike previous educational viewpoints where the responsibility rested with the instructor to teach and where the learner played a passive.

the two strands of the constructivist perspective. are different in emphasis. Jonassen's (1994) description of the general characteristics of constructivist learning environments is a succinct summary of the constructivist perspective. Constructivist learning environments encourage thoughtful reflection on experience. in the follow-up assessment 15 days later. 5. 2.and contentdependent knowledge construction.. Education for a New World. . Montessori. M. John. However. Simon. Constructivist learning environment’s enable context. India: Kalakshetra Publications. (1976). 7.” Fordham American philosophy. Jonassen (1994) proposed that there are eight characteristics that differentiate constructivist learning environments: 1. Applications and misapplications of cognitive psychology to mathematics education. D. MA: McBer. 4. Constructivist learning environments support "collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation. and Herbert A. they found no significant difference between traditional and constructivist methods. Constructivist learning environments emphasize knowledge construction instead of knowledge reproduction. Constructivist learning environments emphasize authentic tasks in a meaningful context rather than abstract instruction out of context. (1976). “John Dewey between pragmatism and constructivism. Constructivist learning environments provide learning environments such as real-world settings or case-based learning instead of predetermined sequences of instruction. 6. Kolb. These two strands. Boston. Anderson. Constructivist learning environments provide multiple representations of reality. but they also share many common perspectives about science teaching and learning." 8. cognitive constructivism and social constructivism. John R. Reder. 3.9 lessons. Fordham University Press. Supporting further.(2009). Multiple representations avoid oversimplification and represent the complexity of the real world. Texas Educational Review 6 (2000)." ENDNOTES REFERENCES : Dewey. Learning Style Inventory Technical Manual . students who learned through constructivist methods showed better retention of knowledge than those who learned through traditional methods. not competition among learners for recognition. Madras. Lynne M.

it is essential that educators know how to learn about student preconceptions and make this a regular part of their planning.. and space sciences. ISBN 978-08232-3018-1. or adults within the general public.10 Hickman. transforming. John Dewey between pragmatism and constructivism.. John D. and some teaching pedagogy. college students. The field of science education comprises science content. p. Science education research aims to define or characterize what constitutes learning in science and how it is brought about. Guthrie. et al. et al. IN SCIENCE WE ARE MORE CONCERNED ABOUT “ WHAT WE KNOW “ RATHER THAN “ HOW WE KNOW “ WHAT DOES THIS STATEMENT MEAN TO YOU AS A SCIENCE TEACHER "Let knowledge grow from more to more. S. Journal of Educational Psychology 3. L. cognitive science. The standards for science education provide expectations for the development of understanding for students through the entire course traditional subjects included in the standards are physical. (2009). life. cognitive psychology and anthropology. and so be human life enriched " this motto of University of Chicago embodies the concept of thinking.A. (2004). summarized massive research into student thinking as having three key findings: 1. some social science. K. Research in science education relies on a wide variety of methodologies. Neubert. eds. "Increasing Reading Comprehension and Engagement Through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction". The target individuals may be children... 40. Reich. earth. and thriving in pursuing science education Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community. Bransford. 2. borrowed from many branches of science and engineering such as computer science. The practice of science education has been increasingly informed by research into science teaching and learning. Fordham University Press. Knowledge Organization . Preconceptions Prior ideas about how things work are remarkably tenacious and an educator must explicitly address a students' specific misconceptions if the student is to reconfigure his misconception in favour of another explanation. Therefore.

A knowing What person is a person that wins his object rather than how one loses ENDNOTES REFERENCES : www. Metacognition Students will benefit from thinking about their thinking and their learning.11 In order to become truly literate in an area of science.ac.plymouth.teacherleaders.teachersdiary. Bespeak with “ WHAT WE KNOW “ RATHER THAN “ HOW WE KNOW “ .cimt. 6. Scholars calculate the true value of what rather than how we know. Seeing through the what and why’ rather than just ‘seeing how is a way of win to win learning 3.com/showthread.physicsforums. What is more sounding to learn is What and coming from behind is how 5. and evaluating their conclusions. (b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework.org/node/3456 www.pdf www.friendsreunited. What we know rather than how we how is a means of baseline inquiry. evaluating their methods of thinking. What & Why. Sensing Intuiting . "(a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge. and (c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.com/Discussion/935166?take=10&page=2 www. this statement mirrors the following insights : 1.uk/journal/samson." 3. students must.we invent.how we know what we know : This pay attention to the details or notice particular trees rather than the whole forest 2. rather than How ! We do what we do if we don’t know what else to do.com/teachers-diary/charter-schools . They must be taught ways of evaluating their knowledge and what they don't know. 4.php?t=53539&page=2 www.

Retrieved 22 February 2008. (April 1969). British Broadcasting Corporation. "The impact of changing scientific knowledge on science education in the United States since 1850". . "'Poor lacking' choice of sciences". Science Education Kim Catcheside (15 February 2008).J. BBC News website. B.12 Del Giorno.

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