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Azeem Iqbal 091420018 Abdus Sami 091420021 Kumail Rizvi 091420147 Omais Zafar 091420339 Adeel Abbas 091420058

Isaac Newton was the greatest English mathematician of his generation. Gottfried Leibniz was a German mathematician who developed the present day notation for the differential and integral calculus though he never thought of the derivative as a limit. . He laid the foundation for differential and integral calculus. His philosophy is also important and he invented an early calculating machine. His work on optics and gravitation make him one of the greatest scientists the world has known.

"Algebra" is derived from al-jabr. Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī (c. 780. Khwārizm– c. Berbers. astronomer and geographer. mathematics in medieval Islam. Zoroastrian and irreligious). Jewish. but at its greatest extent stretched from North Africa and Spain in the west to India in the east. and in parts of France and the Indian subcontinent in the 8th century. Arabic was the dominant language—much like Latin in Medieval Europe. Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi. Sabian. His contributions had a great impact on language. the Iberian Peninsula. Central Asia. is the mathematics developed in the Islamic world between 622 and 1600. one of the two operations he used to solve quadratic equations.Muslim Scientist Contribution In the history of mathematics. Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate (also known as the Islamic Empire established across the Middle East. a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. The main centres of mathematical activity were in Iraq. Moors. during what is known as the Islamic Golden Age. many of the best known contributors were Persians as well as Arabs. While most scientists in this period were Muslims and wrote in Arabic. the Latin form of his . North Africa. Turks. Sicily. Persia and Egypt. 850) was a Persian mathematician. Arabic was the written lingua franca of most scholars throughout the Islamic world. and sometimes non-Muslims (Christian.

Certainly many of the ideas which were previously thought to have been brilliant new conceptions due to European mathematicians of the 16th. In many respects. 17th. This was how the creation of polynomial algebra. the mathematics studied today is far closer in style to that of Islamic mathematics than to that of Greek mathematics. Its importance can be known by the following quotes . and the geometric construction of equations arose. Robertson wrote in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive: "Recent research paints a new picture of the debt that we owe to Islamic mathematics. algebra to arithmetic. algebra to the Euclidean theory of numbers. and 18th centuries are now known to have been developed by Arabic/Islamic mathematicians around four centuries earlier. both to trigonometry. O'Conner and E. and numerical analysis. His name is the origin of (Spanish) guarismo and of (Portuguese) algarismo. combinatorial analysis.name. . the new elementary theory of numbers. and geometry to algebra. Rashed wrote in The development of Arabic mathematics: between arithmetic and algebra: "Al-Khwarizmi's successors undertook a systematic application of arithmetic to algebra. J." These extracts prove that Muslim contribution in the field of mathematics has brought revolutionary changes in its development and progress. the numerical solution of equations. F. algebra to geometry. both meaning digit." R.

They were both working on problems of motion towards the end of the 17th century.Introduction Calculus is concerned with comparing quantities which vary in a non-linear way. acceleration. . This is called integration (or antidifferentiation). Sir Isaac Newton. It is used extensively in science and engineering since many of the things we are studying (like velocity. If quantities are continually changing. we may know the velocity of an object at a particular time. we need to use the process which is opposite to differentiation. linear fashion. To find this direct relationship. and by the German. but we may want to know the position of the object at that time. For example. Calculus has two main branches Differentiation (or derivatives) and Integration (anti-derivatives). Calculus was developed independently by the Englishman. we need calculus to study what is going on. Integration (ant-derivative) Differentiation is the rate of change of two variables but we may need to know the direct relationship between the two variables. Calculus is used to improve the efficiency of hard drives and other computer components. Gottfried Leibniz. current in a circuit) do not behave in a simple.

Road Safety Research In the 1950s. using integration. Normal braking in a street car: 10 ms-2 (or about 1 g). cars were efficient killing machines. the deceleration can be either abrupt (as in a crash): or more gentle. Ralph Nader pressured car manufacturers in the 1960s and 1970s to produce safer cars . as in normal braking: . anti-lock breaking.and it worked. This section is about how we analyze crash test data and how it relates to the average value of a function. There were no such things as airbags. This is due to aerodynamic styling and large tyres with special rubber. When we stop in a car. crumple zones or plastic knobs. Normal braking in a racing car: 50 ms-2 (or about 5 g). safety belts.

since the velocity we must lose is the same. The Head Injury Criterion is very high for this scenario which means that the heads of the people will be injured severely. Crash Test Data from Mercedes Benz The A-3 ms value in these graphs refers to the maximum deceleration that lasts for 3 ms. Cars which do not have airbags cause a lot of damage to the head if are faced by an accident. it will expand and reduce the deceleration forces. (Any shorter duration has little effect on the brain. Our head is like a pendulum and thus is prone to injury. Notice that the peak forces (in g) are much lower for the airbag case.) If an airbag is present. the area under the curve is the same.Either way. .

The airbag deploys in 25 ms. . you are far more likely to survive the crash. With an airbag. when the maximum force is exerted for a long duration.The blue rectangles in these deceleration graphs indicate the most critical part of the deceleration.

The index 2. this was modified (based on experimental data) as follows: . The average value of the acceleration a(t) over the time interval t1 to t2 is given by For the HIC. T is the duration of the deceleration during the crash and a(t) is the deceleration at time t. The Head Injury Criterion (HIC) was developed and it is based on the average value of the acceleration over the most critical part of the deceleration. It was calculated using Where. But this method was not much accurate in determining certain injuries in crashes.The Head Injury Criterion (HIC) We aim to describe the risk of head injury in a crash by a number. So. The first model used was the Severity Index (SI).5 was chosen for the head and other indices were used for other parts of the body.

The formula means: The HIC is the maximum value over the critical time period t1 to t2 for the expression in {}. we can get curves very close to the Mercedes experimental data. Our approach is to model the deceleration curve with a function. based on experiments.) Model for the Acceleration By modifying the function above. We recognize that the shape of the crash data graph is basically like the curve: (This similar to the 'bell-shaped curve' in statistics. The index 2.5 is chosen for the head. .

so we need to simplify things a bit. We can simplify that part of the HIC formula in {} for different values of d = t2 − t1. centred at 68 ms and 93 ms.. .[This model was obtained by observing 2 peaks in the deceleration graph. By adding the 2 bell-like curves. We define a family of curves: We then vary the value of d. The value of the highest peak of the family of curves obtained gives us the HIC.] The computer time to calculate the HIC expression is high.. we get a model very close to the required graph.

but not all. as the deceleration is smoother and is almost bell-shaped. of course. Some modeling achieves the following expression for the acceleration: . We see that the highest peak occurs when d = 50 and reading from the graph we see that the HIC is approximately 725.) The model is simpler for the airbag case. (Other values for d are shown. This is reasonably close to the Mercedes Benz data. The value d = 50 did in fact give the highest curve.HIC without Airbag We now use the model for a(t) from above and maximize the value of H for different values of d.

If the curve is low and flat. . hence the HIC.The graph is as follows (drawn with the same vertical scale as the non-airbag case): Now. to apply the formula for H. d = 50 gives us the maximum value. injury to the head is reduced. Our main aim here is to reduce the effects of rapid deceleration. close to the Mercedes Benz data. We get a family of curves and once again. The HIC for the airbag case is around 310.

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